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Elegance by Alise Ārgale

Didactic exercise Fall Semester 2010

Interior worlds: “Elegance” Main Editor Gennaro Postiglione Course of Interior Architecture Faculty of Architettura e Società Politecnico di Milano Editor Alise Ārgale

only for pedagogic purpose not for commercial use

INDEX 00_Elegance by Koenraad Van Cleempoel 00_ Glyptothek Museum 01_Interior with a piano and a woman in black 02_George H.Boke house 03_W.E. Martin house 04_Schlennger and Meyer department store 05_Glasgow art school 06_ Morgan Library 07_Casa Batllo 08_Coonley house 09_Robie Residence 10_Pennsylvania station 11_Adziogol lighthouse 12_Hotel Guimard 13_Goetheanum I 14_Glass Pavilion 15_Woman sitting in interior

16_ The J.B. Lee house renovation

39_Turku Cemetery Chapel

17_Lister County Courthouse

40_The G.Dorste House

18_Hallidie Building


19_Einstein Tower

42_The J. Rodriguez House

20_The Aline Barnsdall house

43_Church of St Francis

21_King’s Road House

44_ The dining room of Mr. Lundberg

22_Watts Towers

45_Schindler’s Gold House

23_Masion La Roche et Jeanneret

46_General Motors Technical Center

24_Schroder House 25_Stockholm Library 26_Van Nelle Factory 27_Melnikov House 28_Chrysler Building 29_Barcelona Pavilion 30_Tugendhat house 31_Villa Savoye 32_San Simeon 33_Municipal Museum 35_De La Warr Pavilion 34_Regents Park Zoo 36_Kun’s house 37_Wingspread 38_Museum of Modern Art

47_Farnsworth House 48_Walker Residence 49_Eames House 50_Crown Hall 51_Bavinger house 52_Walker Guest House 53_UNAM Library 54_Price Residence 55_Aalto Studio 56_Air Force Academy Chapel 57_Sydney Opera 58_Berlin Philharmonic Hall 59_Engineering Building 60_Dulles Airport 61_Fawcett House 62_Solar Telescope

63_Beinecke Rare Book Library 64_Olympic Arena 65_Gateway Arch 66_New National Gallery

86_Bank of China 87_L’Institut du Monde Arabe 88_National Gallery of Canada 89_Pyramide du Louvre

67_US Pavilion at Expo ‘67

90_ University of Minnesota Art Museum

68_History Faculty Library

91_Sondica Airport

69_College Life Insurance Co.

92_Allen Lambert Galleria

70_Design Research Headquarters

93_Camerata Music Studio

71_Republic Newspaper Building

94_Kansai Airport Terminal

72_Philips Exter library

95_Gap Inc. Offices

73_A.I.A. Headquaters 74_Church at Bagsvaerd

96_Millenium Bridge 97_ Guggenheim Museum Bilbao

75_Sears Tower

98_Gare do Oriente

76_Azuma House

99_Diamond Ranch High School

77_Sainsbury Centre


78_Federal Reserve Bank of Boston 79_Tampere Main Library “Metso” 80_Musee d’Orsay, Paris 81_National Commercial Bank HQ 82_La Grande Arche 83_High Museum of Art 84_City of Music, La Villette 85_Menil Collection

Elegance by Koenraad Van Cleempoel

Abstract This essay presents the word elegance as essential in any vocabulary of interior architecture. The paper will argue that, despite the valuable momentum to move our discipline closer to academia and to infuse it with research, the creation of elegant interior spaces remains an important competence. The coveted theoretical basis of our discipline can be found in the exploration of central concepts such as elegantia. We will describe its etymological source in Calepino first Latin dictionary (Cornucopiæ, 1502) and argue that it should not exclusively be associated to harmonious prose and correct language (eg. L. Valla’s De elegantiis linguae Latinae, 1471). Indeed, its intrinsic humanist meaning can be linked to Leon Battista Alberti’s concept of concinnitas or beauty, as described in De re ædificatoria of 1452. In book 9 On

Ornament to Private Buildings, he writes: “Beauty is a form of sympathy and consonance of the parts within a body, according to definite number, outline and position, as dictated by concinnitas (…). This is the main object of the art of building, and the source of its dignity, charm, authority, and worth.” It is indeed to the Renaissance period – and its foundation in antiquity such as Vitruvius’ notion of venustas – that the theoretical basis of our discipline can be traced back. The article will further aim to analyze the usage of the concept of elegance in the written discourse of (interior) architects throughout the Western history, with particular emphasis on Andrea Palladio, Frank Lloyd Wright, Adolf Loos, Le Corbusier, Hans Van der Laan, Louis Kahn and Peter Zumthor.

Paper In this contribution I want to argue that since avant garde, elegance and beauty are too often neglected in judgements of interiors. It was a valid criterium up to the 19th century that deserves a revaluation. We will describe two types of elegance: objective – visual, formalistic, harmonious proportions (Leon Battista Alberti, Palladio, Le Corbusier), Platonic and orientated towards an ideal world; subjective – wonder and emotions/ senses, relationship between interior space and happiness: Louis Kahn, Peter Zumthor, Alain de Botton, Gaston Bachelard, orientated towards personal subject. Elegance and beauty are often used to describe interiors, or parts of it that

please, enchant or fascinate its users or visitors. It expresses wonder, respect and admiration. Vitruvius’ concept of venustas, alongsidefirmitas and utilitas, is translated in contemporary English as beautiful, and delight in Sir Henry Wotton’s Elements of Architecture in 1624. We all value its essential character, but sometimes fail to pronounce it in our curricula of interior architecture. When evaluating project work, it is usually not on our list of criteria to qualify the design of a student; it is perhaps even advised to avoid this scheme of considerations in order to be more “objective”. Yet in 19th century vocabulary on interiors there is no hesitation; in Robert Kerr’s description of The Gentleman’s House in 1864, for example: “The character to be always aimed at in a Drawing-room is especial cheerfulness, refinement of

elegance, and what is called lightness as opposed to massiveness.” (1) Indeed, “beauty is not a word readily found in the indexes of recent books on architecture, although it is a topic that seems to fascinate architects.” (2) Do we still suffer from the functionalist paradigm of modernism and are we really failing to catch up with venustas when we left it at the dawn of the avantgarde? Charles Jencks argues in What is Beauty? that “beauty is back. Architects are designing harmonious skyscrapers for London, artists are producing works on the subject, and evolutionary psychologists are presenting evidence that canons of beauty are hard-wired into the nervous system.” (3) Jenks opposes the idea that “beauty is objective” and puts excessive sensual patternapprehension, through one of our five senses as a foundation for the experience of beauty. This contribution will not enter the discussion of defining elegance and beauty, but will rather dwell on its notion and the relation to interior architecture. Despite the valuable momentum to move interior architecture closer to academia and to infuse it with research, an important competence will still be the creation of elegant interior spaces. The coveted theoretical basis of our discipline may partly rest in the exploration of this concept of elegantia. In the humanistic tradition, one was encouraged to use Latin in a correct and “elegant” manner, e.g. in Valla’s De elegantiis Latinae linguae (1471). A similar formalistic interpretation was common to define and interpret venustas. Most famously in this respect is Alberti’s attempt to describe the concept of concinnitas or beauty in book 9 of De

re aedificatoria (1452): “Beauty is a form of sympathy and consonance of the parts within a body, according to definite number, outline and position, as dictated by concinnitas(…) This is the main object of the art of building, and the source of her dignity, charm, authority, and worth”. His emphasis on harmonic scale and proportion clearly inspired Palladio’s concept of beauty, obtained, in his view with a set of seven harmonic proportions for desiging rooms – three of which he links to Pythagoras. (4) In addition to this classical legitimation, so characteristic for humanist argumentation, Palladio also links beauty with nature and its countless examples of embedded proportions and harmony. This is echoed centuries later in 1973 by Louis Kahn in a lecture at Pratt University: When sight came, the first moment of sight was the realization of beauty. I don’t mean beautiful or very beautiful or extremely beautiful – just beauty, which is stronger than any of the adjectives you may put to it(...) It is like meeting your maker, in a way, because nature, the maker, is the maker of all that is made. You cannot design anything without nature helping you. (5) The concept of geometry and proportion as a condition for beautiful architecture, revives also – including its neoplatonic connotation – with Le Corbusier’s modular, stating that “Genius is personal, decided by fate, but it expresses itself by means of system. There is no work of art without system”, or “‘Regulating Lines’ showing by these one of the means by which architecture achieves that tangible form of mathematics which gives us such a grateful perception of order.”

(6) Another, less well known, proportion system of the same epoch is Le nombre plastique by Dom Hans Van der Laan. (7) Different from the Modular and its classical precedents, this system is more akin to the spatial character of interior architecture because of its 3D character. By implementing his model, the monkarchitect generated fascinating, mostly sacred, spaces. In these interiors “the visual beauty refers to the invisible beauty, the odor representing the spiritual enlightenment (…) what are these but natural forms obtaining a spiritual meaning?” (8) These “formalist” approaches – albeit with a metaphorical dimension – suggest that beauty depends on lines, proportions or patterns and that its perception is partly cognitive: one has to “understand” the rational behind a certain design. But can seeing and knowing be separated to experience beauty, opposed to what Ernst Gombrich claimed? Louis Kahn and Peter Zumthor enrich the discussion by introducing, respectively, the concept of wonder and the link between spatial experience and one’s emotional state. They want to argue that there can be strong experiences of beauty without knowledge or hermeneutics. Kahn in the same 1973 Pratt lecture said: “Now from beauty came wonder. Wonder has nothing to do with knowledge.” (9) Zumthor believes that beauty lies in natural, grown things that do not carry any signs or messages, or that beauty manifests itself in vagueness, openness and indeterminacy because it leaves the form open for many different meanings. (10) He invites us to examine his spaces with our senses and our intellect:

We may wonder what it was we liked about this house, what was it that impressed and touched us – and why. What was the room like, what did it really look like, what smell was in the air, what did my footsteps sound like in it and my voice, how did the floor feel under my feet, the door handle in my hand, how did the light strike the facades, what was the shine on the walls like? Was there a feeling of narrowness of width, of intimacy or vastness? (11) The elegant combination of a contemporary addition (1990-94) to an early 18th century Swiss wooden farmhouse, known as Gugalun House, shows well his intention to create a sensuous space to give its users memorable experiences. Indeed, in his phenomenological discourse on materials and perception the Swiss architect opens the architectural experience to all of our senses and he links it with our moods: “spatial situations in which people instinctively feel good.” (12) This is also one of the conclusions in John Armstrong’s The Secret Power of Beauty (2004), when he links the experience of beauty with finding spiritual value, such as happiness, in material settings, such as interior space. The French novelist Marie-Henri Beyle (1783-1842), known as Stendhal, coined it as beauty being the only promise of happiness. This paradigm forms the cornerstone of Alain de Botton’s Architecture of Happiness, (13) who traces the link between beautiful interiors and moral status to early Christian and Islamic theologians who would argue that beautiful surroundings make us good as they reveal us something of the Creator’s intelligence, good taste and sense

of harmony. It is the task of the architect to design spaces that contribute to happiness by incorporating values. As such we are able to communicate via our interiors, which can become projections of our – desired – self. Absent in the Botton’s quest for materialized happiness in spatial language, is a reference to Gaston Bachelard’s Poetics of Space. (14) Yet, in his introduction the French philosopher develops a scheme of thoughts to frame his central concept on the phenomenology of dwelling and poetics. He explicitly refers to the love for felicitous spaces, which he likes to call topophilia: “they seek to determine the human value if the sorts of space that may be grasped, that may be defended against adverse force, the spaces we love. For diverse reasons, and with the differences entailed by poetic shadings, this is eulogized space.” (15) Refering to Carl Jung, Bachelard then develops the notion that the interior of a house can become a tool for analysis of the human soul. It would be worthwhile to explore this further in the context of the Japanese notion of beauty where elements such as imperfection, impermanence (wabi-sabi), asymmetry and patina are essential ingredients, just as the bond between beauty and memory and the imperfection of one personal body. Jun’ichirō Tanizaki’s Praise of Shadows (16) would be a good guide to contextualize the discussion on beauty in western vs eastern tradition and how both blend in the work and discourse of various architects. Elegance and beauty are complex notions without clear definitions, but we have tried to argue that it limits our

schemes of reference if we would exclude them from our criteria to judge interiors. To make it more complex, the historical link between moral values, such as happiness and elegant interiors confronts us with even more subjective aspects of our disciplines. If interiors are expressions, or projections, of ourselves – see Jung supra – they are also becoming images of our desired felicity. But can we still talk of topophofilia in our age and contemporary interiors, especially after poststructuralism? The increased attention in popular magazines – but also from students – for concepts like “Fen Shui”, “cocooning” or “healing spaces”, seems to suggest an affirmative answer.

References Alberti, Leon Battista. 1988. On the Art of Building in Ten Books (1486). Trans. Joseph Rykwert, Neil Leach, and Robert Tavernor. Cambridge Mass.: the MIT Press. Bachelard, Gaston. 1994. The Poetics of Space (1958). Trans. Maria Jolas. Boston: Beacon Press. de Botton, Alain. 2006. Architecture of Happiness. New York: Pantheon Books. Jencks, Charles. 2001. What is beauty? http:////www.prospectmagazine. (May 3, 2010) Latour, Alessandra. 1991. L. I. Kahn: Writings, Lectures, Interviews. New York: Rizzoli International. Joy MoniceMalnar and Frank Vodvarka. 1992. The Interior Dimension: A Theoretical Approach to Enclosed Space. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Miller Lane, Barbara. 2007. Housing and Dwelling: Perspectives on Modern Domestic Architecture. New York: Routledge. Le Corbusier, 1948. Towards a New Architecture (1923). Trans. Frederick Etchells. London: JohnRodker. Johnson, Paul-Alan. 1994. The Theory of Architecture: Concepts, Themes,&Practices. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Van der Laan, Dom Hans. 1960. Le nombre plastique. Leiden: Brill. ------ .1985. Het vormenspel der liturgie, Leiden: Brill. ------. 2005. The Play of Forms (1984). Trans. Richard Padovan. Leiden: Brill.

Zumthor, Peter. 1999. Thinking Architecture. Basel, Boston, Berlin: Birkhäuser. Tanizaki, Jun’ichir. 1977. Praise of Shadows (1933). Trans. Thomas Harper and Edward Seidensticker. New Haven: Leete’s Island Books.


‘00/elegance/ Munich glyptothek

This interior would be something that would deserve to be called subjective beauty. Though it reaches its potential becoming elegant through small details that has natural harmony and proportions.

‘01/elegance/ interior with a piano and a woman in black

Painting astonishes with its naturalism and simplicity. It definitely doesn’t become elegant, because of it proportions or artists dedication to show natures nano proportions. It takes breath away creating mystery and spiritual enlightenment around it.

‘02/elegance/George H.Boke house

George H.Boke house is very clear example where we can see how architect puts an emphasis on material pattern. Letting its beauty to manifest itself. Leaving clear and simple lines in interior . Not making it complicated or spoiling its natural charm.

‘03/elegance/ W.E.Martin house

Obvious example of interior made by geometrical principles. Leaving materials to work the way they express themselves best. Partly keeping their meaning symbolic and their functions simple. Wood shows houses structure, combined with glass that brings light in to the room.

‘04/elegance/ Schlesinger and Meyer Department Store

Schlesinger and Meyer Department Store is wonderful example that expresses humans search for beauty and elegance. Combining two different patterns and materials - bricks and metal, but still letting them keep their identity.

‘05/elegance/ Glasgow School of Art

Charles Mackintosh and his work all is based on natural elegance, as is Art Nuevo. Glasgow Art school is one of his greatest works where we can see the try to reach divinity, beauty and elegance through natural materials and forms.

‘06/elegance/Morgan Library

Morgan library designed in clearly geometrical way, becomes a place that held’s not only great deal of majesty of old times, but also elegance of proportions. As well as a harmony of natural material and human paintings and ornaments.

‘07/elegance/Batllo house

Though at first Gaudi architecture might seem too complicated, it is based on natural proportions. It would be really hard to find someone who would not agree that Casa Batllo elegance really takes the breath away. Bringing us to conclusion that Gaudi has been master on making his architecture to touch thousands of human hearts.

‘08/elegance/ Coonley House

Coonley house seems to bring to live the idea of imagined felicity, creating opened space for thoughts and ideas to fly and place where to be together. It creates utopia and elegance.

‘09/elegance/Robie Residence

Robie residence postulates formal way of creating elegant interior. Everything is the way it is supposed to be. Straight, clean lines opened space and simple material patterns.

‘10/elegance/ Pennsylvania Station

This picture of Pennsylvania train station creates nostalgic idea about old good times- old happyness. Creating inviting space and harmony between two colors- black and white, letting metal -heavy material create light, well lit place without loosing its nature and elegance.

‘11/elegance/ Adziogol lighthouse

Adziogol lighthouse is very clear example of “objective” elegance. Its structure is so simple and we might even use word poor, but at the same time its beauty lies in the fact that it leaves observer very strong impresion about clarity in forms.

‘12/elegance/Hotel Guimard

Hotel Guimard with its lissome interior creates imagine of desired happiness. It becomes simply subjectively elegant with its choice of colors and opened space. Letting people feel free and welcomed.

‘13/elegance/ Goetheanum I

Goetheanum I might not seem as the most perfect sample of elegance, but it postulates search of objective beauty very clearly with its natural forms, proportions and material. Though it doesn’t seem the perfect architecture, it definitely keeps in itself great deal of elegance.

‘14/elegance/ Glass Pavilion

Glass Pavilion creates wonderful interior with small glazed tiles, based on geometry uniting circular form with rectangular staircase. It is beautiful interior that has the Mediterranean culture impact- search of old and new venustas.

‘15/elegance/Woman sitting in an Interior

This painting creates wonderful image of happiness and peacefulness. Position of woman makes it more mysterious and spiritual. idea of looking for God and closeness of nature through created environment.

‘16/elegance/The J. B. Lee House renovation

The J.B. Lee house after renovation gained several features that creates new appearance through old traditional elements. It creates elegant way how to search for something new - new venustas.

‘17/elegance/ Lister County Courthouse

Lister Country house show us the great deal of search for a place of happiness - elegance. It could have been just a regular county house, but it needed to be something more- create space that would bring nature in and let it play, through shadows and harmony of form repeating.

‘18/elegance/Hallidie Building

Hallidie building seems to embody elegance through transparency and material interaction. As well as through small detailed thread-lace recall memories and imaginative felicity.

‘19/elegance/ Einstein Tower

Einstein tower in itself personifies nature laws and its harmonious proportions. Also its openness to outdoors inviting light and creating great deal of lightness creates feeling of elegances ubiquity.

‘20/elegance/The Aline Barnsdall House

In the Aline Barnsdall House we can see clear influence from Frank Lloyd Wright, geometrical forms that fascinates and creates illusion of desired stress free environment. Through its logical appearance it becomes example of objective elegance.

‘21/elegance/Kings Road House

Kings road house find its way to elegance through it openness and links beauty with nature in a most obvious way - through materials and settlement. Also its permeability and connection with outside contributes to it.

‘22/elegance/Watts Towers

Watts towers are made taking simple element - line and creating structure, that at some point might seem random, but is in harmony with materials capacity. It creates wonderland - happiness an elegant adult’s playground.

‘23/elegance/Maision La Roche et Jeanneret

As we can see Le Courbusier is fan of form and color simplicity. In Maision La Roche main role is played by geometry and color contrast. That allows to create space which is elegant and breathtaking.

‘24/elegance/ Schroder House

Schroder house embodies classical combination of three colors: red, white and black combined with strict geometrical rules. It creates interior that is interactive and elegant and definitely is way to find objective beauty.

‘25/elegance/ Stockholm Library

Stockholm’s library keeps a great deal of western understanding of elegance. In this photo we can see objective approach - white, empty wall is in absolute balance with book shelves - creating harmonious space.

‘26/elegance/ Van Nelle Factory

This photo though is a photo of Van Nella factory emanates glamour and elegance. It creates environment at night that fascinates and surprises. Clearly, this is an example of subjective elegance.

‘27/elegance/Melnikov house

Melnikov house stands far from perfection, but so does elegance. This interior creates noticeable harmony between chaos and order. It creates space with identity and place for artistic activities.

‘28/elegance/Chrysler Building

Chrysler building is fabulous example of architects trying to reach the new venustas and amaze spectators. Not only with its height (building was the highest in the world for 11 months), but also with its “jewel-like glass crown”.

‘29/elegance/ Barcelona Pavilion

Barcelona’s pavilion in 1929 imposes with its simplicity at the same time having great deal of details that makes it very elegant. It definitely creates illusion about happiness.

‘30/elegance/Tugendhat house

Tugendhat house is one of examples that are hard to be difanied as “subjective” or “objective” elegance sample. Because it keeps signs of both types. It geometry is really clear and understandable.Creating interior that is inviting, unobtrusive and elegant.

‘31/elegance/Villa Savoye

Huge impact on Le Corbusier work was made by antic architectures proportions- that were based on Golden section. In Villas Savoye stair case we can read this proportion very well and even make parallels with shells inner structure. Coming out as something simply elegant through all times.

‘32/elegance/ San Simeon

San Simeon taking risk of becoming cheesy has become place that revives the old venustas and creates illusion about felicity. This is an undoubted certification of human search for harmony and elegance.

‘33/elegance/ Municipal Museum

Municipal Museum builds an environment - space that is complicated with its details, but looking more closely we can see that it is based on simple geometry and therefore is nice example of objective elegance.

‘34/elegance/Regents Park Zoo

Regents Park Zoo penguin house has funny and elegant solution for slides. Created with two geometrical spirals it creates penguin play ground and illusion of desired penguin habitat.

‘35/elegance/ De La Warr Pavilion

De la Warr Pavilion staircase attracts attention with its unusual choice of colors and lissome lines. It is creating interior which recalls picture from children book that contains great deal of adult elegance.

‘36/elegance/Kun’s House

Kun’s house stairway creates huge space which’s expedience is arguable, but it lets to keep clear forms. That in combination with choice of two colors for interior creates wide and elegant space - example of objective elegance.


Wingspread is example where form takes over without losing functionality. It makes marvelous space and creates familiar utopia- wonderful elegant place where to be.

‘38/elegance/Museum of Modern Art

Museum of Modern Art in New York city absolutely astonishes and takes a breath away. Though it is based on clear geometrical principles it overwhelms people with its design and harmony with its surroundings therefore its objective elegance is taken by subjective.

‘39/elegance/ Turku Cemetery Chapel

Turku Cemetery Chapel is clean symbiosis between white color and form. It creates interior that clearly states elegance with its search of spiritual enlightenment through geometry and light.

‘40/elegance/The G.Droste House

The G. Droste house has formalist approach on the search of elegance and beauty. Geometrical forms, strict lines and natural colors make this interior a good example of objective elegance.

‘42/elegance/The G.Rodriguez House

The G.Rodriguez House creates cozy idle and illusion of long desired happiness. It creates wonderful subjective elegance through natural materials and huge windows opened to woods.

‘43/elegance/ Church of St Francis

This church not even close to traditional understanding of fold, but it s dignity and elegance lies in its closeness to natural forms and simple geometry. Those are the things that are obtaining spiritual meaning.

‘44/elegance/ The dining room of Mr. Lundberg

Painting The dining room of Mr. Lundberg of Alexandre Serebryakov is definitely search of old venustas creating realistic justification of dining room. It is tends to become the subjective elegance.

‘45/elegance/Gold house

In Gold house we can see how simple geometry with permeability brings us closer to the nature. Materials: light wood, glass and stone, are natural and creates feeling of lightness, elegance and enjoyment.

‘46/elegance/ General Motors Technical Center

Staircase in General Motor Technical centre amazes with their lightness and decorativeness. Simple choice of colors and easiness of construction creates beautiful illusion of elegance.

‘47/elegance/ Farnsworth House

Farmsworth House interior fascinates with lightness and openness. Elementary schools geometry in combination with natural materials and detailed furnishing brings us to wonderful, elegant interior.

‘48/elegance/Walker Residence

Walkers Residence is simply elegant with its clean lines, its choice of materials and harmony with its surroundings. It creates wonderful desirable felicity that postulate being in balance with nature.

‘49/elegance/ Eames House

Eames House is simple example of objective elegance. Simple rectangular structure with big windows almost merges with its surroundings. It is becoming part of harmonized environment.

‘50/elegance/ Crown Hall

Crown Hall amaze with its illusion of elegance through its perfect geometrical symmetry. In this building perfection meets elegance and western understanding of bauety meets eastern traditions.

‘51/elegance/ Bavinger House

Bavinger house is wonderful example of formal approach creating building. Its plan is perfect copy of shells inner structure objective elegance with search for natures closeness and search for desired happiness.

‘52/elegance/Walker Guest House

Walkers guesthouse are one of those experiences that surprises with openness, creating space that clearly have been inspired by eastern cultures, space where people can meditate and become closer to nature.

‘53/elegance/ UNAM Library

UNAM Library has its own very specific identity, empowered by local culture. It embodies great deal of search for beauty and elegance through embracing cultural heritage in nowadays possibilities searching for utopia without forgetting our own roots.

‘54/elegance/Price Residence

Price Residence keeps great balance with being majestic and creating picture with very welcoming and desired space and life. In its foundations lies good geometry that is in deep harmony with architect’s idea.

‘55/elegance/Aalto Studio

Aalto studio as a place where to work and to be creative definitely holds a great deal of elegance. Letting architect and his ideas to take the lead role, but at the same time having unique style letting geometry live in symbiosis with search for divine.

‘56/elegance/ Air Force Academy Chapel

Air Force Academy Chapel as a saint place with a very appropriate light becomes really elegant and spiritual. Reaching for spiritual enlightenment it becomes good example in which geometry intensifies people belief.

‘57/elegance/Sydney Opera

Sydney’s Opera House so very famous for its shell also in its interior held’s large amount of elegance creating huge and very elegant space with wonderful covering. All made in natural colors and without too much decorations, keeping it simple.

‘58/elegance/ Berlin Philharmonic Hall

Berlin Philharmonic Hall is an example of objective elegance. It is created in asymmetry with geometrical principles, with sharp lines, that are emphasised by lightning techniques.

‘59/elegance/ Engineering Building

Engineering building at Leicester University has very appropriate facade. It is very technical and is based on geometrical and natural laws therefore are a good example of objective elegance.

‘60/elegance/Dulles Airport

Dulles airport created in several levels recalls living organism and its architecture with wide glazed openings and huge constructive ribs encourages this feeling. This combination creates masterpiece of subjective elegance.

‘61/elegance/Fawcett house

Fawcett house definitely holds great deal of elegance. Giving clear vision how simple geometry can make environment very attractive. It creates place that are well lit and very cozy- creates illusion.

‘62/elegance/ Solar Telescope

Simplest geometrical form for Solar Telescope is the most formal approach to elegant architecture. It makes the most objective elegance without taking inconsideration its surroundings.

‘63/elegance/ Beinecke Rare Book Library

Belnecke Rare Book library already in its first appearance creates feeling of being something special. Clearly interior with strong geometrical structure lets books rule the place and create rare elegant space.

‘64/elegance/Olympic Arena

This photo of Olympic Arena fascinates with a small interesting lit technical detail. No doubt that in its background is lots of mathematical calculations, but most impressive it becomes in symbiosis with light and space.

‘65/elegance/ Gateway Arch

Gateway Arch as simple line in landscape definitely enriches it, gives new proportion and new point of view and reaches for new horizons and harmony, elegance. In its basics it is based on nature.

‘66/elegance/ New National Gallery

New National Gallery is one of examples where are strong eastern cultural role. Simple geometry combined with natural elements- water and stone- creates elegant and spiritual place.

‘67/elegance/ US Pavilion Expo ‘67

US pavilion in Expo ‘67 - Fullers dome created in a way with basic geometry triangles that it can held incredible weights it also creates very pleasant and elegant pattern.

‘68/elegance/ History Faculty Library

History faculty library with huge well light reading room in several levels creates great space that reaches for spiritual enlightenment. That becomes familiar with objective elegance.

‘69/elegance/ College Life Insurance Co.

College Life insurance company building is phenomenal example of objective elegance, it also embodies repeating element that emphasizes its geometrical base. Idea is made really clear and clean.

‘70/elegance/ Design Research Headqarters

Design Research Headquarters in this picture brings as close to nature as it is possible in interior. It held’s a great deal of eastern proportions and western traditions, creates very elegant subjective interior.

‘71/elegance/ Republic Newspaper Building

Republic Newspaper Building based on geometrical proportions creates simple facade, with obvious construction. This kind of glazed wall in combination with lights creates interesting and elegant street frontage.

‘72/elegance/Philips Exter library

In this library we can see how architect uses clarity of forms and different kind of materials that are not hidden to people’s eyes. Showing materials, the way they are, expressing their natural beauty. We can see how artist reaches elegance through form – circles (nothing to add or take away).

‘73/elegance/A.I.A. Headquaters

A I.A. Headquarters creates cozy inner space that are several stories height with symbolic sculpture in the middle. Every levels facade is made with black reflective glass and clean white line.

‘74/elegance/ Church at Bagsvaerd

Clean white wavy ceilings creates place of spiritual enlightenment. It is elegant form that creates place where to be close to nature and God.

‘75/elegance/Sears Tower

Sears Tower is very clear form of simple geometrical architecture that we can describe as objective elegance. We can see that it is reachable with the simplest forms.

‘76/elegance/Azuma House

Tado Ando Azuma House is clear example where western traditions meets eastern culture, these to components makes beautiful elegant space.

‘77/elegance/Sainsbury Centre

Sainsbury Centre is great example of subjective elegance that creates geat feeling of interpretation of nature.

‘78/elegance/ Federal Reserve Bank of Boston

Federal Reserve Bank’s of Boston building is the one of the clearest examples of geometrical and repeating element architecture. Light and material clarifies the forms and creates simple elegant building.

‘79/elegance/ Tampere Main Library “Metso”

Tampere Main Library “Metso” created with natural forms and simple principle. Creates very settle architecture that has its own identity and is a great example of objective elegance.

‘80/elegance/ Musee d’Orsay

T his picture of Musee D’Orsay is very thoughtful comparing people with symbolic time, showing person as a part of nature. Bringing this picture a great deal of subjective elegance.

‘81/elegance/ National Commercial Bank HQ

Look to National Commercial Bank HQ from up. Clear sight of objective elegance circular building with circular atrium creates elegant building. Clear influence of Mideast culture brings identity to it.

‘82/elegance/La Grande Arche

Le Grande Arch amazes people from all over the world with its clearness of form and its magnificent simplicity. This is an example in which we can see how geometrical forms and proportions create elegance.

‘83/elegance/High Museum of Art

High Museum of Art creates background for different art expositions, but holds it owns style with its wavy ceilings. And supplies space with indirect light creating atmosphere of spiritual enlightenment.

‘84/elegance/City of Music

City of music shows wonderful interaction between different geometrical forms. Light and shadows plays on their surfaces. Makes place of spiritual enlightenment and elegance.

‘85/elegance/ Menil Collection Museum

Menil Collection Museum was design so that it could be lit as much as possible with glazed roof and atriums it becomes place that creates illusion of nature’s closeness and spiritual enlightenment.

‘86/elegance/Bank of China

Building of Bank of China is famous for its geometrical facade solution. Color choice makes it even more appreciable and elegant - black and white as simple and elegant as it can be.

‘87/elegance/L’Institut du Monde Arabe

L’Institut du Monde Arabe has the one of the most amazing facades. It is creating even more amazing interior with light and shadows games, place for desired wonderland and happiness.

‘88/elegance/National Gallery of Canada

National Gallery of Canada is we can see how artist reaches elegance through some repeating elements and geometrical forms It is creating pattern that not only itself amazes, but also its shadows on the walls and floor of gallery.

‘89/elegance/ Pyramide du Louvre

Pyramid de Louvre shows how simple, light construction basic geometrical form, can become the part of complex and create world known elegant place. It reaches its potential also through combining materials and letting them work together.

‘90/elegance/ University of Minnesota Art Museum

University of Minnesota Art Museum is complicated geometrical composition that would be good example of objective elegance, but because of it expressiveness it more looks like subjective elegance.

‘91/elegance/Sondica Airport

Sondica Airport using reflective flooring creates interior that makes light the most important thing of it. It also recalls some elements of nature, it creates simple elegant interior without anything unnecessary.

‘92/elegance/ Allen Lambert Galleria

Allen Lambert Galleria recalls the artistic complex in Valencia, which is based on fish anatomy. We can see that this motive also here. Definitely holding on to same natures principles, but at the same time breaking them with refusing to express any beauty of material, it is becoming very elegant and clear about vision.

‘93/elegance/ Camerata Music Studio

Camerata Music Studio being as geometrical and formal as possible is objective elegance, but it would be unfair not to admit that it creates wonderful harmony and place for spiritual enlightenment.

‘94/elegance/ Kansai Airport Terminal

Kansai airport terminal ceiling is fabulous example how geometry and rhythm working together creates impressive subjective elegance. It even recalls illusion of desired happiness and spiritual enlightenment.

‘95/elegance/ Gap Inc. Offices

Gap Inc. office has wonderful space where nature is invited in literally and also indirectly through glassed ceilings. It embodies recreation place where people can regain peace of mind. Logical geometry and thinking creates this place a good example of objective elegance.

‘96/elegance/Millenium Bridge

Millennium Bridge in London is wonderful example how architects are trying to reach nature and take people breaths away by creating something new. It becomes a subjective elegance through its expressiveness.

‘97/elegance/ Guggenheim Museum Bilbao

Guggenheim Museum Bilbao creates wonderful harmony and illusion of desired happiness and spiritual enlightenment. It is very structured architecture with nicely chosen materials that reflects light from its surroundings.

‘98/elegance/Gare do Oriente

Gare do Oriente is also one of Santiago Calatravas masterpieces. It shows much more geometry and construction then his previous works. But at the same time he still stays very loyal to his ideas letting his work to become good example as “subjective” elegance sample.

‘99/elegance/ Diamond Ranch High School

Diamond Ranch High School buildings based on diamond form and proportions creates environment that held’s great deal of objective elegance. Light and shadow games even more enforces this efect.

‘00/elegance/ Elegance

In authors interpretation Elegance is something complex and unique. Elegance is like diplomatic answer it has to held great deal of things. It has to have structure and it needs to be based on natural proportions, it has to have a background of our culture, so that it can be understandable and it can have an ability to take a breath away. Elegance is in a simple, possibly new way how to explain complicated things through material, so that it can be part of idea, be equal participant. Elegance is in our interpretation through materials that we have about our idea of the background that we share.


‘00 The interior of the Munich glyptothek museum Unknown glyptothek_interior_1900.jpg ‘01 Interior with a piano and a woman in black Vilhelm Hammershøi http://cheukwanchi.blogspot. com/2010/12/poetry-of-quietness.html ‘02 George H.Boke house, California, USA Bernard Maybeck ure_2-1.html&image=11339_image_1.jpg ‘03 W.E.Martin house, Oak Park, Illinois, USA Frank Lloyd Wright ‘04 Schlesinger and Meyer Department Store, Chicago, USA Louis H. Sullivan php?projname=sullivancenter 1899-1904 ‘05 Glasgow School of Art, Glasgow, UK Charles Rennie Mackintosh glasgow_school_of_art.htm 1897 -1909 ‘06 Morgan Library McKim, Mead, and White h t t p : / / b u t t e r f r e i d . t u m b l r. c o m / post/1433568640/kateoplis-the-1906-mckim-building-at-the-morgan ‘07 Casa Batllo, Barcelona, Spain Antoni Gaudi popular-interesting/ ‘08 Coonley house, Riverside, Illinois Frank Lloyed Wright frank-lloyd-wrights-best-house-for-salein-illinois/ 1908-1912 ‘09 Robie Residence, Chicago, Illinois Frank Lloyd Wright ‘10 Pennsylvania Station, New York, USA McKim, Mead, and White

‘11 Adziogol lighthouse, near Cherssan, Ukraine Vladimir G.Schuchov ‘12 Hotel Guimard, Paris, France Hector Guimard http://artdecoblog.blogspot. com/2006/05/hector-guimard-htel-paulmezzara-1911.html ‘13 Goetheanum I, Dornach, Switzerland Rudolf Steiner ‘14 Glass Pavilion, Cologne, Germany Bruno Taut File:Taut_Glass_Pavilion_interior_1914.jpg ‘15 ‘Woman sitting in an Interior’ Peter Vilhelm Ilsted e=RM&from=search&back=1343029&orn tn=3 ‘16 The J. B. Lee House renovation, Maywood, USA Rudolf Michael Shcindler schindler.htm ‘17 Lister County Courthouse, Solvesborg, Sweden Erik Gunnar Asplund gallery4-listerharadsradhus.asp 1917-1921 ‘18 Hallidie Building, San Francisco, USA

Willis Polk File:Hallidie_Building.jpg Photo: Lowe Jet ‘19 Einstein Tower, Potsdam, Germany Erich Mendelsohn architects/page/2/ 1919-1921 ‘20 The Aline Barnsdall House A, Los Angeles, USA Frank Lloyd Wright, Rudolf Michale Schindler schindler.htm ‘21 King’s Road House, West Hollywood, USA Rudolf M. Schindler cfm?fa=contentNews.newsDetails&newsI D=15809&from=archive 1921-1922 ‘22 Watts Towers, Los Angeles, USA Simon Rodia 1921-1955 ‘23 Mason La Roche et Jeanneret, Paris, France Le Corbusier h t t p : / / w w w. m a i t r e p o . c o m / a r t i cle-2240512.html ‘24 Schroder House, Utrecht, Netherlands Gerrit Rietveld rietveld/schroederinterior.shtml 1924 -1925

‘25 Stockholm Library, Stockholm, Sweden Erik Gunnar Asplund chunhin/2/1287176859/inside-the-stockholm-library.jpg/tpod.html 1918 -1927 ‘26 Van Nelle Factory, Rotterdam, Netherlands Johannes Brinkman 1926 -1930 ‘27 Melnikov House, Moscow, Russia Konstantin Melnikov http://blog.iwannagothere. com/2009/11/06/80-days-around-theworld-day-33-russia-%C2%BB-moscow/ ‘28 Chrysler Building, New York, USA William Van Alen h t t p : / / w w w. p a n o r a m i o . c o m / p h o to/1737584 1928-1930 ‘29 Barcelona Pavilion, Barcelona, Spain Ludwig Mies van der Rohe 1928-1929, demolished 1930 ‘30 Tugendhat house, Brno, Czech republic Ludwig Mies van der Rohe garden/22mies.html?_r=1 ‘31 Villa Savoye, Poissy, France Le Corbusier h t t p : / / w w w. p a n o r a m i o . c o m / p h o to/4788306

‘32 San Simeon, San Simeon, USA Julia Morgan 1922 -1939 ‘33 Municipal Museum, The Hague, Netherlands, Hendrik Petrus Berlage 1927-1935 ‘34 Regents Park Zoo, London, UK Tecton Group England+Slides 1933-1934 ‘35 De La Warr Pavilion, Bexhill-on-Sea, UK Erich Mendelsohn h t t p : / / w w w . f l i c k r. c o m / p h o t o s / dct66/4355409302/ ‘36 Kun’s house,California, USA Richard Neutra ‘37 Wingspread, Wind Point, Wisconsin Frank Lloyd Wright h t t p : / / e r i c r e b e r. w o r d p r e s s . com/2009/05/28/the-architect-the-american-country-house/08d_495-086/ ‘38 Museum of Modern Art, New York, USA Philip S. Goodwin, Edward D. Stone moma_new_york.htm 1938-1939

‘39 Turku Cemetery Chapel, Turku, Finland Erik Bryggman bryggman-chapel-turku-cemetery.html 1939-1941 ‘40 The G. Droste House, Los Angeles, USA Rodolf Michale Schindler schindler.htm ‘41 ‘42 The J. Rodriguez House, Glendale, USA Rodolf Michale Schindler schindler.htm ‘43 Church of St Francis, Pampulha, Brazil Oscar Niemeyer galleries/72157623064673419/ ‘44 The dining room of Mr. Lundberg Alexandre Serebryakov h t t p : / / d o v e c o t e d e c o r. b l o g s p o t . com/2010/08/this-july-while-visiting-newyork-my.html ‘45 Schindler’s Gold House Schindler ‘46 General Motors Technical Center, Warren, USA Eero Saarinen h t t p : / / a r q u i n o i a s . t u m b l r. c o m / post/138242113/general-motors-technical-center-warren-mi-eero 1946-1955

‘47 Farnsworth House, Plano, USA Ludwig Mies van der Rohe large_image.php?id=70 Photo: Jon Miller 1946-1950 ‘48 Walker Residence, Carmel, California Frank Lloyd Wright h t t p : / / w w w. b m w m o a . o r g / f o r u m / showthread.php?t=13092&highlight=Fran k+lloyd+wright ‘49 Eames House, California, USA Charles Eames eames-house-kappe-house.html 1945-1949 ‘50 Crown Hall, Chicago, USA Ludwig Mies van der Rohe 1950-1956 ‘51 Bavinger House, Norman, USA Bruce Goff Forms/AllItems.aspx 1950-1955 ‘52 Walker Guest House, Sanibel Island, USA Paul Rudolph http://www.trianglemodernisthouses. com/rudolph.htm ‘53 UNAM Library, Mexico City, Mexico Juan O’Gorman post/2483914077/biblioteca-unam-central-university-city-campus

‘54 Price Residence, Paradise Valley, Arizona Frank Lloyd Wright ‘55 Aalto Studio, Munkkiniemi, Helsinki, Finland Alvar Aalto http://thenorthelevation.blogspot. com/2009/11/creative-spaces-studio-ofalvar-aalto.html ‘56 Air Force Academy Chapel, Colorado Springs, USA Walter Netsch, SOM http://aedesign.wordpress. com/2010/02/17/air-force-academy-chapel-colorado-united-states/air-force-chapel-inside-2/ 1956-1964 ‘57 Sydney Opera, Sydney, Australia Jorn Utzon http://mikebm.wordpress. com/2008/07/06/architecture-for-musicsydney-opera-house/ 1957-1973 ‘58 Berlin Philharmonic Hall, Berlin, Germany Hans Scharoun view_from_here/2009/11/berlin-philharmonic-in-chicago-once-is-never-enough. html 1956-1963 ‘59 Engineering Building at Leicester University, Leicester,UK James Stirling

‘60 Dulles Airport, Chantilly, USA Eero Saarinen 1958-1962 ‘61 Fawcett House, Los Banos, CA, USA Frank Lloyd Wright http://arquiteturaconceitual.blogspot. com/2009/11/uma-casa-de-frank-lloydwright.html ‘62 Solar Telescope, Kitt Peak, USA Myron Goldsmith/ SOM ‘63 Beinecke Rare Book Library, New Haven, USA Gordon Bunshaft/ SOM Photo: Thomas P. Benincas ‘64 Olympic Arena, Tokyo, Japan Kenzo Tange 1961-1964 ‘65 Gateway Arch, St. Louis, USA Eero Saarinen 1961-1966 ‘66 New National Gallery, Berlin, Germany Ludwig Mies van der Rohe 1962-1968

‘67 US Pavilion at Expo ‘67, Montreal, Canada Buckminster Fuller and Shoji Sadao ‘68 History Faculty Library, Cambridge University, UK James Striling page/2/ Photo: Quintin Lake 1964-1968 ‘69 College Life Insurance Co., Indianapolis,USA Roche Dinkeloo WM70PF_College_Life_Insurance_Company_Indianapolis_IN 1967 to 1971. ‘70 Design Research Headquarters, Cambridge, Massachusetts Benjamin Thompson entry.html?entry=14248 ‘71 Republic Newspaper Building, Columbus, USA Myron Goldsmith/ SOM gbi.cgi//cid_20031024_kmm_img_2861. gbi ‘72 Philips Exter library, New Hampshires Luis Kahn post/457934778/spatula-exeter-academy-library-louis-kahn ‘73 A.I.A. Headquaters, Washington, USA

TAC gbi.cgi//cid_2881987.gbi ‘74 Church at Bagsvaerd, near Copenhagen, Denmark Jorn Utzon U4kQfoQrKFzaMXQ7UPuhww 1974-1976 ‘75 Sears Tower, Chicago, USA Bruce Graham/ SOM sears-tower-goes-green.php 1974-1976 ‘76 Azuma House, Osaka, Japan Tadao Ando ‘77 Sainsbury Centre, Norwich, England Norman Foster ‘78 Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, Boston, USA Hugh Stubbins usa/boston,_ma/federal_reserve_bank_ of_boston.html ‘79 Tampere Main Library “Metso”, Tampere, Finland Reima Pietila 1978 -1982. ‘80 Musee d’Orsay, Paris, France Gae Aulenti

Warner/Musee-D’Orsay,-Paris-250115. html Artist: Phaul Warner 1980-1987 ‘81 National Commercial Bank HQ, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Gordon Bunshaft/ SOM Photo: Wolfgang Hoyt 1981-1983 ‘82 La Grande Arche, Paris, France Johann Otto von Spreckelsen Photo: Florian Gerus 1982-1990 ‘83 High Museum of Art, Atlanta, USA Richard Meier asp?PRINT=Y ‘84 City of Music, La Villette, France Christian de Portzamparc File:1984-1995_The_City_of_Music,_Paris_03.jpg ‘85 Menil Collection Museum, Houston, USA Renzo Piano h t t p : / / w w w. p r i n c e t o n . e d u / p r / pwb/06/0417/3a.shtml Photo: Hickey and Robertson 1982 -1986 ‘86 Bank of China, Hong Kong, China I.M. Pei http://seowjin-ism.blogspot. com/2010/06/singapore-architectures. html

1982 -1990 ‘87 L’Institut du Monde Arabe, Paris, France Jean Nouvel N03/favorites/with/2780782381/#pho to_2780782381 1987-1988 ‘88 National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, Canada Moshe Safdie html 1986-1988 ‘89 Pyramide du Louvre, Paris, France I.M.Pei ‘90 University of Minnesota Art Museum, Minneapolis Frank Gehry ‘91 Sondica Airport, Bilbao, Spain Santiago Calatrava bilbao/calatravaairport/calatravaairport2. html 1990 -1999 ‘92 Allen Lambert Galleria, Toronto, Canada Santiago Calatrava ‘93 Camerata Music Studio, Heyri Art Village, Korea

Byoung Soo Korean Cho Photo: Yong Kwan Kim ‘94 Kansai Airport Terminal, Osaka, Japan Renzo Piano Photo: Yves Rubin ‘95 Gap Inc. Offices, San Bruno, USA William McDonough Feature79.htm 1994 -1998 ‘96 Millenium Bridge, London, UK Norman Foster bridge_b.html 1996-2000 ‘97 Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, Bilbao, Spain Frank Gehry ‘98 Gare do Oriente , Lisbon, Portugal Santiago Calatrava N06/3169546098 ‘99 Diamond Ranch High School, California, USA Thom Mayne - Morphosis 1999-2000

‘00 Elegance - Apollon Alise Argale

INTERIOR WOR(L)DS. Elegance is part of the book collection created by the students of the course “Interior Architecture” 20102011 and edited by Professor Gennaro Postiglione. Each student chose paper from IFW and selected 99 pictures for time period 1900-2000. Each picture for one year linked to their chosen paper. The 100th picture is students own interpretation of word. Elegance and beauty are words often used to describe interiors and buildings. But what does it really mean? Is elegance humans 5th sense or is it based on simple mathematical principles? Paper has several arguments on both sides “objective” formal, mathematical elegance and “subjective” sensual elegance. It becomes even more complex with our moral values and cultural background.



Finnal version