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Encuro Blocks Chapter 1: Human Factors

Chloe Fong 12837126

DP363 Product Development

Module Leader: Dr. Derek Covill


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: This report is dedicated to those that are currently struggling with depression, and those who have had the courage to face it. Special thanks to: Dr Simone Blaney, who has convinced me that life is worth living. The amazing study participants, who have inspired the concept. Steven Smith, with his encyclopedic knowledge of timber. Gary Morgan, for his amazing patience and dedication to students. Oliver Keattch, who is just a genius. Tim Katz, Libby Cumming, Robert Otim, and Dickson Lo.


Ideation summary Setting the Scene Pain Points App Design Considerations Desirability


TABLE OF CONTENTS IDEATION SUMMARY ..........................................................00 SETTING THE SCENE ......................................................01 UPDATED PERSONA ..................................................01 CONTEXT OF USE ................................................02 PAIN POINTS .............................................03-06 APP DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS ..........07-08 DESIRABILITY ..................................09-10


Ideation summary

Setting the Scene Pain Points App Design Considerations Desirability


SETTING THE SCENE Research has shown that the experience of mental health problems (MHPs) is highly individualistic (see research report), and affects a quarter of the population. This could have led to a sweeping generalisation of all people with MHPs in the

formation of a persona. In order to reduce the inaccurate oversimplification, it was decided in the ideation phase to narrow the target user to people with depression, as it is the most prevalent form of mental illness. (Mental Health Foundation, 2015)

This book will seek to set the parameters for optimum functionality, usability and desirability.

Demographics of the user group: • • •

Depression affects people of all ages, but is most common among the 25-44 age group (Jones, 2013) The average age of onset in a person’s 20s (Jones, 2013) It affects twice as many women as men* (Mental Health Foundation, 2015)

Chapter 2 will attempt to satisfy theses requirements technically.

What this means: • •

As the product is a stepping stone to reach out for help and support, the target user’s is in their 20s Due to the lack of reporting the product must be inclusive of both genders.

*This statistic may be skewed as men are less likely to report MHPs

Accepted limitations: Due to nature of the illness, as well as ethical reasons, recruitment true potential users (within the user group) was difficult. Healthy volunteers were used to participate in the evaluation process. For details on plans to test with users that are currently suffering from depression, see DP364 Product Launch roadmap.

UPDATED PERSONA Occupation: Graduated, looking for a job. Living arrangement: Moved back home during university Family: Close, but don’t talk about emotions Sarah has undiagnosed depression, the following are her symptoms: • Persistent negative thoughts • Low self esteem • Harsh on self • Lacks motivation • Low working memory capacity • Does not like to show vulnerability • Appears to be happy • Experiences fatigue • Indecisive See appendix A1 for full rational and profile

Experience Goals • • • • • • 01

To feel satisfied when a problem is solved Feel as though she is in control Not to feel patronised by others Sense of accomplishment Be able to express her creativity Exercise mindfulness

Task Goals • • • •

Visualise problems/tasks Show others how she feels without awkwardness. Build a structure of problems easily. Use app effectively

Life Goals • • • • •

To be happy with herself Not to feel like life is a chore To be successful To get a job with good career prospects To be accepted by friends and family


CONTEXT OF USE: Although the context of use is traditionally subdivided into the physical and social environment, the psychological “environment” of the user is arguably more, important when designing for people with depression. The most important environmental factors for the project were identified as social and psychological. The social context of use was considered in the ideation phase, in particular the perception of assistance needed. Due to the stigma surrounding mental illness, users are likely to be too ashamed to seek help. Isolation can also increase the severity of the illness, and users normally

do not seek help from people around them. The inclusion of an online community removes the need for friends and family (F+F) to be physically close to the user, allowing them to achieve the same task goals.

Motivation:

Increasing motivation was considered in the ideation phase to refine the idea, application of gamification octalysis (Chou, 2013) was used to increase user motivation (see appendix A7). Further refining the purpose of the online community and the idea.

The product is aimed to be used in the user’s home. During both day and night.

Social context of use: One of the core features of the product is to make the users friends and family (F+Fs) more aware of the mental state of the problems faced by the user.

Worst case scenario • • •

F+Fs do not understand the purpose of the blocks. The user has not explained the blocks to F+Fs understanding due to cognitive impairment or psychological state F+Fs do not have the appropriate technical skills for equipment to scan the blocks. • i.e. they do not have a phone with NFC capabilities • They do not have the technical ability to scan the blocks and navigate the app F+Fs do not understand the condition, and hence does not see the importance in supporting menial tasks of the user such as household chores.

Adjustments made:

Addition of the card in packaging to explain the nature of the illness, with links to the charity sites for further information. A F+Fs’ side of the app where they can track the progress and see the blocks of the user in a remote location.

Psychological context of use: Worst case scenario • • • • • •

Motivation is impaired in those with depression, they are likely to give up easily if there is no perceived progress. Users might be ashamed to display their blocks Users may not want to “burden” their F+Fs with their problems Psychological fatigue in repetitive tasks The user will be in a depressive state, impairing their cognitive capabilities.

Adjustments made: • • •

Progress bar for sense of and feedback. Include a counter of blocks solved. Users are able to prioritise blocks by size (see page 5 for details) Push notifications to remind users to continue.

An overall positive attitude is needed in the user’s experience of the product, which leads to the analysis of the users’ attitude in the following pages. 02


Ideation summary Setting the Scene

Pain Points App Design Considerations Desirability


• Use app effectively

• Be able to express her creativity • Exercise mindfulness

Persistent negative thoughts Low self esteem Harsh on self Lacks motivation Low working memory capacity Does not like to show vulnerability Appears to be happy Experiences fatigue Indecisive

Life Goals

USER EXPERIENCE MAPPING TAG

SHARE

I don’t think people would want to see this.

Task complete

Where did I put the block?

lly

Now I have to find it in the app again? This is useless.

Remove block

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Let me deal with an easy block..

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This is so tedious, why bother at all?

Find block in app

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Nobody cares, this product will never work...

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Finally! Well, that was a waste of my time.

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Negative Attitude

Read comments

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Wipe block I’ve done the task why do I have do still do so much?

WIPE

file

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My blocks

Profile

Find display spot in home

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Is there enough space?

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I’ll never remember another password

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DO

There are so many options, this is going to take forever...

Display structure

Again!? I just put this in the app!

Time

The core functions of the experience was reduced down to 4 main tasks: Tag, share, do and wipe. Within this framework, the chronology of the subtasks was mapped against the persona’s emotions.

I have to go into each block to read the comments?

ne

Do

Nameck blo

How do I create a new block? Where is it?

WIPE

Look! I have a new message, wish I noticed earlier...

Place block Add new

Open app

SHARE

DO

blo ck

Where do I tap on the block?

Positive Attitude

Persona

Ph ysica

User journey mapping is a tool frustration points in the service design industry. As the target user has limited motivation and heightened agitation, this method was chosen over task analysis. It provides a more holistic approach to the user experience, seeing the tasks from the persona’s point of view.

Re a

• To be happy with herself • Not to feel like life is a chore • To be successful get a job used•toTomap outwith good career prospects • To be accepted by friends and family

TAG

I have a new A mock up (v.1) of theLook! app screens were made prior message, wish I Please see Appendix A2 for a full scale version to mapping (See appendix The speech bubbles noticedA3). earlier... of the map. represent the persona’s thoughts through their I have to go into each block to Task experience of using the blocks. Each dip in the emotion I don’t thin read the comments? complete I’ve done the task Finally! Well, w why do I have do graph was analysed and improvement were made. Where do I tap

I don’t think people would want to see this.

that was a waste of my time.

still do so much? on the block?

Place pages block Pain Point 1 + 6: Navigating to desired

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Problem Solving

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KEY:

Find block in app

Product Demands

Persona Thoughts

Cognitive

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Nobody c this produc never w

!

Pain Point 6: Wiping block on app

Visuospatial Verbal

Long term

Long term Attention

Working memory

Attention

Theory and solution:

Problem Zone ofSolving convenience theory was applied to Solving the information Problem Planning architecture of the app. As “my blocks” the most used, a short cutDecision was placed in theVisuospatial dashboard, the first screen the Decision user is presentedVerbal with. Furthermore, to increase ease of Verbal access, another shortcut was placed in the side out menu, which is available on every screen of the app.

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User Capabilities

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Pain Point 5: Finding block in structure

Decision

ks

Inclusion of the online network will help decrease user frustration.

This is so tedious, why bother at all?

Planning

Op e

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Pain Point 4: Waiting for feedback

Attention

ks bl y

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Remove block

Appro ach blo

Now I have to find it in the app again? This is useless.

Negative Attitude

Long term

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an easy block..

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The working memory, problem solving and attention demands exceed the user’s capabilities. Up

My blocks Finally! Well, that was a waste my time. Profile Let me dealofwith

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Nobody cares, this product will never work...

Find display spot in home

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ph The user has to navigate through 2 screens to get to the “my blocks” screen, which is one of the most used screens for the key function of Wipe block tag, share and wipe.

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Is there enough block space?

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I’ll never remember another password

The Problem

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03


Pain Point 2: Editing Block information App: Cognitive

Where do I tap on the block?

Positive Attitude

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Up

Profile

Verbal

Pa ss

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Decision

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My blocks

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Planning

Time

I’ll never remember another password

?

Problem Solving

There are so many options, this is going to take forever...

Ta p

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Attention

oc k

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Depressed users have a decreased attention span, decision making ability and motivation in depressed people. By decreasing the perceived effort needed, the user’s motivation is likely to enforce a positive attitude.

ne

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Pr io rit y

Long term

The Problem

w

Add ne

Open app

The Theory • 80/20 rule dictates that 80% of users will only use 20% of the functions. (Lidwell, Negative Attitude 2015) • Users visually scan forms pre and post completion, to estimate time and effort required and to check input information respectively. (Anthony, 2015)

How many times w

Design Changes • Hide non essential functions such as password protect to reduce visual cutter for the 80%. • Align text to the left so scanning is easier • Order items of entry from most effort to least effort so it gets progressively easier • Dropdown menu to reduce visual clutter • Top left aligned boxes to reduce WM in pro-scanning and visual fixations to decrease SHARE perceived effort pre fill stage.

I don’t think people would want to see this.

DO

Pain Point 3 & 5: Adding + removing blocks from structure

Where do I tap on the block?

Look! I have a new message, wish I noticed earlier...

App: Cognitive

I have to go into each block to read the comments?

Place block

Task complete

I’ve done why do I still do so

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The Problem To decrease the demand for long term memory recall in the wipe phase, a whiteboard surface for users to customise the block was added for quick identification. However, this increased user demands on the user in the tag phase.

04

Working memory

Attention

Is there enough space?

Ta

Long term

am rf fo

bl Pain Point p3 oc

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er rd

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Display structure

Again!? I just put this in the app!

box

D

Let me deal with an easy block.. Oh no it’s smudged!

The time needed to rewrite what is already programmed onto the block in the previous task will cause frustration. The perceived redundancy of the task will cause inattention and lack of motivation.


of my time.

ex

t

Now I have to find it in the app again? This is useless.

Appro ach

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M This is so tedious, why bother at all?

Working memory

Attention

Problem Solving

Planning

Visuospatial

Decision

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Op en

Pain Point 5

Remove block

Long term block

did I put k?

Find block in app

Verbal

Design Changes To create another screen after the edit block screen, where the user can place the block in 3d space in a graphical interface. Although this presents another screen to the user, the time taken is greatly reduced in the wipe phase, also eliminating pain point 5

Although the dexterity capabilities of the user are not impaired, the demands are high which will affect usability, in turn the overall user experience.

Pain Point 3 + 5: Adding and removing blocks from structure Blocks Dexterity Aim : Reduce the amount of dexterity demands by optimising block size and interlocking mechanism. Test 1: Physio-desire and structural footprint Theory: A pinch grip provides the accuracy needed to manipulate and build structures with the blocks, however it only provides 25% of max grip strength. However, the strength also decreases rapidly at spans <1” (32mm) and >3” (65mm) (Hedge, 2013).

Method: Cubes increasing in increments of 11mm, between 32 and 65mm were created to gauge user feedback on size and physio pleasure in hand. A 1:1 scale “footprint” of a 3x3x3 structure was also created to simulate the area the product will take. Sampling: The test was carried out in the studio and during an open day to increase sample size. As the target users’ dexterity and visual capabilities are not compromised, healthy participants were used.

Validity: Although this test was useful to determine an arbitrary size of the block, it did not consider the dexterity + cognitive demands. The smaller the blocks, the closer together the NFC chips become; as NFC antenna locations vary by phone make and model, small blocks may cause errors in scanning. Further testing is required to determine user capabilities.

Result: A combination 32, 43, and 54mm cubes were preferred. The majority prefered 32 and 43 cubes, one participants preferred a 54mm block. 05


Test 2: User scanning proximity demands All participants preferred 32, 43 or the 54mm blocks. Miller (1996) found that humans have a working memory of 7 ±2 chunks, and as the blocks are already subdivided, nine 32mm cubes, seven 43mm cubes and five 55mm cubes were given to participants. Aim: To find out if using a combination of block sizes will affect the usability of the product. Method: Both the hook side and loop side Velcro strips were placed on 5 faces of blue foam cubes to simulate the effects of a magnetic surface, and NFC tags were placed on the non Velcro-ed surfaces. Each participant was asked to make structures using a combination of the blocks. The structure was presented to the next participant and they were asked scan the information pre-tagged on the blocks. Accuracy of scanning was recorded alongside the think aloud protocol to gauge user frustrations. Sampling: 6 participants both male and females were used to gauge frustrations. Healthy participants were used as the scanning user is likely to be friends and family of the affected. Results: The accuracy of the tags were 100% when scanned. However, participants expressed frustration when scanning the 32mm blocks. Multiple attempts had to be made and they were not certain if they scanned the correct block when they placed in close proximity to another small block.

Design Changes: Although participants preferred the smallest blocks in test 1, test 2 showed that the product demands exceeded user capabilities. The final block sizes were changed to 43, 54, and 65mm.

Aspect 2: Interlocking mechanism Blocks: Cognitive Background:

During the ideation phase, a peg and hole + magnetic system for interlocking blocks. However, this was eliminated to increase usability.

Fine Finger

Theory:

• Gamification octaylisis: Empowerment of creativity can increase motivation (Chou, 2013) The addition of the pegs limits the possible structural variations as one of the faces are not flush. • Physio pleasure- A flush finish on all sides will increase the physiopleasure

Power

2 hand

Precision

Solution: Remove the nibs and only use magnets for interlocking mechanism. However, with the deletion of the whiteboard face, additional affordance features had to be added to inform users to the face they should tap 06

Logo engraving added to increase affordance on NFC tap face.


Ideation summary Setting the Scene Pain Points

App Design Considerations Desirability


APP DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS Version 1 of the core functions of the app was made using various UX design methods and principals: reuse principal, wireframing, and responsive design, as android devices do not have a set screen size. Please see DP365 Web Usability for details of the principals, and see appendix A3 for version 1 of screens. For the purposed of this report, below are the UX methods used to iterate on the initial design.

Focused Navigation Theory: visual clutter Depression shortens attention span (Adler et al, 2006). Measures were made to reduce visual clutter on pop up pages to focus the user’s attention to the task they have to complete. This included placing a colour filter over the rest of the screen, providing visual contrast.

Changes: “My blocks” was place on the dashboard and menu bar, shortening the user flow for edit/ wipe and tage blocks. This document was also sent to app developers to aid their understanding of the app.

#88C69E

#EF7C7F

#9C9B9B

From UX Camp Brighton (Power, 2016) This method is similar to user experience mapping seen on page 3, however it is applied to the user’s journey through the app with a specific task goal. By laying the tasks out onto a flow diagram, the steps can easily be visualized and modified.

Public block page Search results

Profile page (not in diagram)

Please see Key: Appendix A5 Online support for aTag/Edit full scale Wipe version of the diagram

User Flow Mapping

Explore

#00000

Gotham Bold Avenir condensed italic

Catergory page Locate block page

Menu

Dashboard

User’s block page

Return to my blocks

My blocks Edit block

(Catergory suggestions)

Password pop up Add block

User Flow- Version 2 (Core Functions) 07


Heuristics

The industry standard usability test, heuristic testing (Nielsen, 1995), was ran on v1 of the app. Although widely used, heuristics does not account for users with limited capabilities, furthermore, it does not consider the sensory and physical usability of the app. The following extra

Add top right X There is no way to leave the screen. of leaving a NFC Also allow user to tap approach block screen. outside the box for the same function. User control and freedom

3

There is an edit button on all existing blocks. Default Android back button on all screens.

Add support for undo and redo for the whole block

Users cannot easily follow a friend. This prevents F+Fs from helping remotely. According to the URS, F+Fs must recognise User test with F+Fs, when help is needed. ask users to run heuristics. Flexibility + efficiency of use

4

Problems

1-5 Severity

Changes in time constraints

Futher changes

Layout of screens using the reuse principal conforms to the users’ expectation (menu Test the app with a hamburger, edit pencil, range of users (5 expert, User flow rubbish bin etc). 5 mainstreamers, 5 willing pathways are limited adopters), log errors to prevent and make changes. potential errors. Error Prevention Add confirm dialogue for block wipe. Edit and Bin icons are Change iconography very close on Edit Block page. for wipe pop up. There following screen is the Beta testing when same, there is a high app is taken to the chance of accidental online community data wipe.

Add text prediction Users may not know during category input what to type in to make searching easier. the category box. Consistency No consistency on + standards Carry out a card sorting exercise for the information tagging screen. architecture of the app to gain insights from the user's POV Standard wireframe layout for Google Android apps. Consistent typography and colour scheme.

Please see version 2 (V2) for all changes applied after the heuristic evaluation in appendices A4 and A5.

Measures in Place

Create a follow function Experienced users can for F+Fs. Place navigate to frequently used “Buddies”shortcut pages from the menu tray as on the dashboard well as the android as it will often back buttons. be used.

3

changes were made to increase usability. The following are the heuristics which have a severity of 3/5 or more. For full set to heuristics, including descriptions in appendix A6.

4

Add help text as icons next to input fields.

3

Hint text is used in text input fields.

Help + Documentation As there are no Create a tutorial similar products on wizard to walk the the market, users may not user through the core know how to interact functions of the app with the product. on download.

An expert review was subsequently done on V2 of the app from startup app developers Hedgehog Lab. Changes made to the architecture after the 3 hour consultation will be handed in with the physical prototype. 08


Ideation summary Setting the Scene Pain Points App Design Considerations

Desirability


DESIRABILITY

Desirability is of utmost importance for the blocks. The process users are more likely to forgive the time and attention required of tagging each block can easily cause frustration to the user to tag each block if they are aesthetically pleasing. group that has a decreased attention span, causing a loss in As aesthetics cannot be quantified objectively, 2 models of user engagement. Although the usability of the core functions measuring satisfaction was used; Chou’s gamification octalysis has been optimised, an aesthetically pleasing product can model and the four pleasure framework (Tiger, 1992). create an aesthetic usability effect (Lidwell et al, 2003),APPENDIX where A7 GAMIFICATION OCTALYSIS APPENDIX A

Creative empowerment in structure building. User control on what they want to share online.

Meaning

is

hm en

t

App: progress bar on the dashboard, showing the amount of blocks completed historically (in green).

Users take ownership of their probelms and activity try to tackle it.

t

See appendix A7 for a full scale version of the diagram.

Satisfaction when taking removing block structure. (Magnetic click and weight)

en m er w po Em Social pressure

Ownership

Cataylst for social interaction with friends and family

lit

y

Ownership of problems they can controll, vs things they can’t

Sense of belonging to an online group

ta bi

Sc

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ic

ar ci

ty Avoidance

U np

The 8 core drivers of motivation were selected over Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. It was found that Maslow’s model was too vague and Chou’s model was designed specifically for a human centred process. The specific core drivers used to improve the design are ownership, meaning and empowerment. Both these drivers can be filtered into the physio and and ideo pleasures outlined in the 4 pleasures framework. (see appendix A8 for full description of model)

Being part of a bigger cause to help raise awareness of mental health

Sense of accomplisment whist watching the structure decrease in size.

A cc om pl

Gamification Octalysis:

1) Epic Meaning & Cal Where a player believes tha doing something greater th or he was “chosen” to do s He devotes a lot of his time taining a forum or helping things for the entire commu Wikipedia or Open Source

When a solved block is uploaded online it may help others in the same situation.

Each block has unique grain and patterning, which is unlike any other

The blocks evoke curiosity for friends and familys. Which will tigger scanning behaviour.

First 200 batch are limited first edition products handmade in the UK with Bristish hardwoods. By being a physical product users cannot hide their problems in an app. The blocks will physically take up space and is less likely to be ignored.

2) Development & Ac plishment Development & Accomplis internal drive of making pr developing skills, and even overcoming challenges. Th “challenge” here is very im a badge or trophy without a is not meaningful at all. Th the core drive that is the ea design for and coincidently most of the PBLs: points, b leaderboards mostly focus

3) Empowerment of C & Feedback When users are engaged a process where they have to figure things out and try di combinations. People not o ways to express their creati they need to be able to see of their creativity, receive f and respond in turn. This is playing with Legos and pai fun in-and-of themselves an become Evergreen Mechan game-designer no longer n continuously add more con the activity fresh and engag

4) Ownership & Posse When a player feels owners innately wants to make wha better and own even more. being the major core drive to accumulate wealth, this many virtual goods or virtu cies within systems. Also, if spends a lot of time to custo profile or her avatar, she a ly feels more ownership tow

5) Social Influence & ness Including: mentorship, acc social responses, companio well as competition and en includes the drive we have closer to people, places, or we can relate to. If you see

Weight of blocks Physio- pleasure/meaning/ownership The weight of the blocks should not only feel pleasurable in the hand, but also give the user a sense of achievement and empower them to want to remove more blocks.

Method:

3 hollow laser cut boxes were made to the dimensions of the blocks. A hole was drilled into each block. The blocks were fully filled with sand to simulate different weights. Sand was gradually poured out of the full blocks and participants were asked to tell their upper and lower limits of what they thought was a satisfying weight.

Sampling:

As desirability is not specific to people with depression. 5 healthy participants in the user group of 20-40 were used.

Results (average): S: 43-70g

M: 76-125g

L: 112-189g

Discussion: During the test, participants voiced that they found it hard to tell, when taken out of context what weight felt satisfying. During the test, 3 of the 5 participants voiced that they would prefer solid blocks of wood, which increased in weight volumetrically. So as to have all the blocks with the same density. (see material selection of technical book for details of timber choice based on these parameters) 09


Click of blocks Physio- pleasure/meaning / ownership The magnetic strength of the click can also give the user a sense of control and achievement when blocks are placed on the structure. This test was done in the same session as the block weight test, and therefore had the same participants.

Theory: The force of attraction between two magnets has an inverse squared relationship to their separation distance. This was then reverse engineered in the technical section (see technical book).

Method:

Two (12mm dia x 2mm N35) magnets were placed with their attracting faces against each other, separated by materials of increasing thickness (1mm, 4mm and 6mm). Users were asked which strength they felt most satisfying.

Results + Discussion:

Users preferred a separation distance of 4mm, followed by 1mm, stating that 6mm felt â&#x20AC;&#x153;too weakâ&#x20AC;?. It is interesting to note that users found it easier to tell which click felt more satisfying when compared to choosing a satisfying weight. Accepted limitations: This separation distance of the magnets was dictated by the thickness of separating material, hence only 3 distances were provided to participants.

Increasing the perceived value: Ideo pleasure/ ownership As ill mental health has negative social connotations, efforts have to be put in to create a high perceived value in the blocks. Solid wood is perceived to be of better quality than veneers or hollow block (Kimball, 1998), the blocks should be made to look like a solid block of wood. Smoothness was found by Fujisaki et al. (2004) to be a major factor in determining perceived sophistication, pleasantness,

and expensiveness in timber products. The surface of the block must therefore be smooth. Hardwoods also have a higher perceived value than softwoods (Loria, 2014), and normally have a higher density. It was found that the densities of common British hardwoods fit into the weight parameters in the block weight test. For details on timber selection by user testing, please see technical booklet.

Further usability testing was done later on in the development process; a working prototype using a mitre joint method was made.

Upon testing, it was found that there were affordance issues with the locations of the embedded magnets. As the magnetsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; polarities affect how they have to be assembled, it was decided that there needed to be markings on the outside of the box to inform users of the magnet locations.

10


REFERENCES

Adler, D. (2006). Job Performance Deficits Due to Depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(9), p.1569. Anthony, (2015). Why Infield Top Aligned Form Labels Are Quickest to Scan - UX Movement. [online] Uxmovement.com. Available at: http://uxmovement.com/forms/why-infield-topaligned-form-labels-are-quickest-to-scan/ [Accessed 9 May 2016]. Chou, Y. (n.d.). Actionable gamification. Fujisaki, W., Tokita, M. and Kariya, K. (2015). Perception of the material properties of wood based on vision, audition, and touch. Vision Research, 109, pp.185-200. Hedge, A. (2013). Manual Materials Handling. [online] Ergo. human.cornell.edu. Available at: http://ergo.human.cornell. edu/DEA3250Flipbook/DEA3250notes/mmh.html [Accessed 9 May 2016]. Jones, P. (2013). Adult mental health disorders and their age at onset. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 202(s54), pp.s5-s10. Kimball, H. (1998). The kitchen consultant. Newtown, CT: Taunton Press.

Lidwell, W., Holden, K., Butler, J. and Elam, K. (2010). Universal principles of design. Beverly, Mass.: Rockport Publishers. Loria, K. (2016). Raw Material Rationale | Biomassmagazine. com. [online] Biomassmagazine.com. Available at: http:// biomassmagazine.com/articles/8835/raw-material-rationale [Accessed 24 Apr. 2016]. Mental Health Foundation, (2015). Fundamental Facts About Mental Health. 2015. London: Mental Health Foundation. Miller, E., Erickson, C. and Desimone, R. (1996). Neural Mechanisms of Visual Working Memory in Prefrontal Cortex of the Macaque. The Journal of Neuroscience, 16(16), pp.5154 â&#x20AC;&#x201C;5167. Nielsen, J. (1995). Heuristic Evaluation: How-To: Article by Jakob Nielsen. [online] Nngroup.com. Available at: https:// www.nngroup.com/articles/how-to-conduct-a-heuristicevaluation/ [Accessed 6 Mar. 2016]. Power, J. (2016). [Presentation] Effective Wireframing. UX Camp Brighton


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