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Constructing Environments Logbook

Clarybelle Loi Zer Lyn (657294)

2014 Semester 1


Table of Contents Week 1: Introduction to Construction ................................................................................ 4 E-Learning & Readings ................................................................................................................ 4 Structural Concepts .................................................................................................................... 4 Construction Systems ................................................................................................................. 5 Materials ..................................................................................................................................... 5 Studio ............................................................................................................................................. 6

Week 2: Structural Loads and Forces .............................................................................. 12 E-Learning & Readings .............................................................................................................. 12 Structural Concepts .................................................................................................................. 12 Construction Systems ............................................................................................................... 13 Materials ................................................................................................................................... 14 Studio ........................................................................................................................................... 15

Week 3: Footings and Foundations ................................................................................. 21 E-Learning & Readings .............................................................................................................. 21 Structural Concepts .................................................................................................................. 21 Construction Systems ............................................................................................................... 21 Materials ................................................................................................................................... 21 Theatre ......................................................................................................................................... 21 Studio ........................................................................................................................................... 21

Week 4: Floor Systems and Horizontal Elements ........................................................... 22 E-Learning & Readings .............................................................................................................. 22 Structural Concepts .................................................................................................................. 22 Construction Systems ............................................................................................................... 22 Materials ................................................................................................................................... 22 Theatre ......................................................................................................................................... 22 Studio ........................................................................................................................................... 22

Week 5: Columns, Grids and Wall Systems .................................................................... 23 E-Learning & Readings .............................................................................................................. 23 Structural Concepts .................................................................................................................. 23 Construction Systems ............................................................................................................... 23 Materials ................................................................................................................................... 23 Theatre ......................................................................................................................................... 23 Studio ........................................................................................................................................... 23

Week 6: Spanning and Enclosing Space ......................................................................... 24 E-Learning & Readings .............................................................................................................. 24 Structural Concepts .................................................................................................................. 24 Construction Systems ............................................................................................................... 24 Materials ................................................................................................................................... 24 Theatre ......................................................................................................................................... 24 Studio ........................................................................................................................................... 24

Week 7: Detailing Strategies 1 .......................................................................................... 25 E-Learning & Readings .............................................................................................................. 25 Structural Concepts .................................................................................................................. 25 Construction Systems ............................................................................................................... 25 Materials ................................................................................................................................... 25 Theatre ......................................................................................................................................... 25

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Studio ........................................................................................................................................... 25

Week 8: Openings .............................................................................................................. 26 E-Learning & Readings .............................................................................................................. 26 Structural Concepts .................................................................................................................. 26 Construction Systems ............................................................................................................... 26 Materials ................................................................................................................................... 26 Theatre ......................................................................................................................................... 26 Studio ........................................................................................................................................... 26

Week 9: Detailing Strategies 2 .......................................................................................... 27 E-Learning & Readings .............................................................................................................. 27 Structural Concepts .................................................................................................................. 27 Construction Systems ............................................................................................................... 27 Materials ................................................................................................................................... 27 Theatre ......................................................................................................................................... 27 Studio ........................................................................................................................................... 27

Week 10: When Things Go Wrong ................................................................................... 28 E-Learning & Readings .............................................................................................................. 28 Structural Concepts .................................................................................................................. 28 Construction Systems ............................................................................................................... 28 Materials ................................................................................................................................... 28 Theatre ......................................................................................................................................... 28 Studio ........................................................................................................................................... 28

Week 11: A Changing Industry ......................................................................................... 29 E-Learning & Readings .............................................................................................................. 29 Structural Concepts .................................................................................................................. 29 Construction Systems ............................................................................................................... 29 Materials ................................................................................................................................... 29 Theatre ......................................................................................................................................... 29 Studio ........................................................................................................................................... 29

Week 12: Review ................................................................................................................ 30 E-Learning & Readings .............................................................................................................. 30 Structural Concepts .................................................................................................................. 30 Construction Systems ............................................................................................................... 30 Materials ................................................................................................................................... 30 Theatre ......................................................................................................................................... 30 Studio ........................................................................................................................................... 30

Glossary .............................................................................................................................. 31

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Week 1: Introduction to Construction E-Learning & Readings Structural Concepts

Figure 1: Knowledge Map of Forces (Ching, 2008)

Figure 2: Load and Load Path (Ching, 2008)

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Construction Systems

Brief •  Site boundaries

Nature •  Climate •  Sunlight, wind, rainfall •  Plants & vegetation •  Water features

Cultural and Historic Aspects

Users & Access

Site Analysis

Views •  Desirable or not desirable

•  Traffic flow of pedestrians and vehicles •  Public transport

Surroundings

Utilities

•  Characteristics/style of surroundings

•  Access to utilities, facilities & services

Topography •  Slopes •  Soil conditions

Figure 3: Knowledge Map of Site Analysis (Ching, 2008)

Materials

Strength

Sustainability

Stiffness

•  Impact

Material Properties Economic Sense

Shape

•  Cost efficiency •  Availability

Material Behaviours •  Isotropic •  Anisotropic

Figure 4: Knowledge Map of Material Properties (ENVS10003, 2014)

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Studio Week one’s studio activity involved using blocks of Medium Density Fibreboard (MDF) to build a tower that has an opening. The opening could be a result of building it as we go along or building a tower then removing blocks. We decided to go with the option of building an archway as we built the tower. Our plan was to make the tower circular and lay the blocks in a brick like manner where the next layer of blocks are in the middle of two blocks.

Figure 5: Approach to Activity

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Figure 6: Initial Stages of Construction

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The process of building the arch consisted of offsetting the blocks and adding a block on top of it if it does not hold.

Figure 7: Process of Building Arch and Self Weight of Blocks

The same was done on the other side and we eventually had an arch.

Figure 8: Building the Arch

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Figure 9: Completed Arch

Then it was just laying the blocks to achieve height since that was one of the objectives in the brief.

Figure 10: Constructing the Tower

After a while, we realised that it was slightly time consuming and that we had limited time. We decided to taper it so that height could be achieved more quickly. This was done by Constructing  Environments  Logbook   9  


alternating the orientation of the blocks and offsetting them slightly, similar to the process of building the arch.

Figure 11: Alternate Orientation of Blocks

Figure 12: Final Product of Tower

Time was running and we had to start the deconstructing process. The other groups that had to remove blocks for the opening did so at this point. Constructing  Environments  Logbook   10  


Figure 13: Removing Blocks for the Opening

Contrary to what we thought, the blocks came out quite easily without ‘disrupting’ the entire structure. This might due to the fact that the weight of the block on top generates a force that counters the weight of the now offset block, not unlike building our arch. As we attempted the deconstructing process for our tower, we found that ours was not the case. It was difficult for us to remove individual blocks. The side was pushed it and the structure was getting deformed.

Figure 14: Deformed Tower upon Applied Horizontal Force

This was probably because of the layout of both our towers. Constructing  Environments  Logbook   11  


Figure 15: Difference in Layout of Blocks

Our tower, (on the left), had blocks which are closer together. On the other hand, the other group’s tower (right) had gaps in between blocks. It may be that with a tighter arrangement, the weight of two blocks are holding the block below in place.

Week 2: Structural Loads and Forces E-Learning & Readings Structural Concepts Solid •  compression structures •  stone, bricks

Hybrid

Surface/ Shell

Structural Systems

Membrane •  cover large areas efficiently

Skeletal/ Frame

Figure 16: Structural Systems (ENVS10003, 2014)

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Construction Systems

Enclosure Systems •  Roof •  Exterior & interior walls •  Windows •  Doors

Structural Systems

Mechanical Systems

•  For supporting loads •  columns •  beams •  load bearing walls •  floor & roof structures

•  Utilities •  Water supply •  Waste disposal •  Heating & air conditioning

Figure 17: Constructions Systems (Ching, 2008)

Performance Requirements •  Structural compatibility •  Safety in use •  Accommodation of building movement •  structural deflection •  expansion and contraction •  Acoustics •  Resistance to wear, corrosion and weathering •  Finish, cleanliness and maintenance requirements

Aesthetic Qualities

Regulatory Constraints

• Relationship of building to site • Preference in form, colour, texture and details

• Building codes

Economic Considerations

• Material costs • Transportation costs • Labour costs • Maintenance • Operation and energy consumption • Demolition and replacement

Environmental Impact

• Conservation of energy and resources through siting and building design • Energy efficiency of mechanical systems • Use of resource efficient and non-toxic materials

Construction Practices

• Safety requirements • Industry standards • Budget constraints • Construction equipment • Erection time

Figure 18: Considerations (Ching, 2008)

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Figure 19: ESD Strategies (ENVS10003, 2014)

v

Roller Joint

Fixed Joint

Pin Joint

Figure 20: Structural Joints

Materials

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1

Life Cycle1

Embodied Energy ESD Considerations

Recyclability

Carbon Footprint

Figure 21: ESD Considerations (ENVS10003, 2014)

Studio The objective of today’s studio was to construct, with strips of balsa wood, the frame of a tower that will reach the ceiling and resist a reasonable amount of load. Since balsa is a soft material that is easily subjected to buckling, the emphasis of the activity was on the structure of the frame, with the aid of glue.

1

Stages of life cycle: raw material acquisition > processing/refining > manufacturing > distribution > construction use and maintenance > disposal/recycling Constructing  Environments  Logbook   15  


Figure 22: Initial Design Sketch

Figure 6 shows our initial plan – ‘stacking’ the pieces lengthwise and adding horizontal pieces at certain intervals for the purpose of bracing the structure. Since we had limited balsa, not unlike having financial constraints in the future, we had to be conscious of the usage of materials and to use the balsa efficiently. Our plan was to add the horizontal pieces where the vertical strip adjoins another vertical strip, and if necessary, adding horizontal pieces to the middle of vertical strips as well.

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Figure 23: Slit for Connecting Balsa

Figure 24: Connection Detail of Balsa Strips

We used the method illustrated in Figure 9 to connect the vertical strips. This connection was relatively stable which meant that we could do with little or no glue, which was useful considering that we would not have to wait for the glue to dry. But the time pressure was on and in an effort to speed things up, we attempted to stack a few vertical strips continuously without adding the horizontal bracing pieces yet. The length of the strips made it fragile and the slit end was splintered.

Figure 25: Splintered Strip

We fell back to our original idea of adding the bracing strips after we had two vertical strips.

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Figure 12: Stacked Vertical Strips

Figure 13: Adding Bracing

At the point in Figure 12, we realised that the base was not stable enough and the three ‘columns’ moved around a bit too much.

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Figure 26: Adding the Base

The structure was more stable after we added the base. This was probably due to the fact that the triangular base were at a fixed length and thus resisted small compressive and tensile forces that would occur should the vertical strips move about.

Figure 27: Connection Detail of Base

The arrows in Figure 14 represent the forces that the base can resist relatively well. This meant that the vertical strips could move around less. However, if the forces have a Constructing  Environments  Logbook   19  


different sense, then a smaller force is required to dismantle that particular joint, although it can be remedied easily. This applied to the higher triangular frames as well. Our structure tapered towards the top and shorter horizontal strips were needed for the higher triangular frames.

Figure 28: Frame being Transported

Our final product’s centre of mass was at one of the triangular frames, easing the transporting process, even making it possible to lift it with one hand/finger.

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Week 3: Footings and Foundations E-Learning & Readings Structural Concepts Construction Systems Materials

Theatre Studio

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Week 4: Floor Systems and Horizontal Elements E-Learning & Readings Structural Concepts Construction Systems Materials

Theatre Studio

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Week 5: Columns, Grids and Wall Systems E-Learning & Readings Structural Concepts Construction Systems Materials

Theatre Studio

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Week 6: Spanning and Enclosing Space E-Learning & Readings Structural Concepts Construction Systems Materials

Theatre Studio

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Week 7: Detailing Strategies 1 E-Learning & Readings Structural Concepts Construction Systems Materials

Theatre Studio

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Week 8: Openings E-Learning & Readings Structural Concepts Construction Systems Materials

Theatre Studio

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Week 9: Detailing Strategies 2 E-Learning & Readings Structural Concepts Construction Systems Materials

Theatre Studio

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Week 10: When Things Go Wrong E-Learning & Readings Structural Concepts Construction Systems Materials

Theatre Studio

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Week 11: A Changing Industry E-Learning & Readings Structural Concepts Construction Systems Materials

Theatre Studio

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Week 12: Review E-Learning & Readings Structural Concepts Construction Systems Materials

Theatre Studio

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Glossary Term Bracing Carbon Footprint Embodied Energy Load Path Masonry Night Air Purging Pad Footing Retaining Wall

Sense

Definition Illustration Week(s) Page(s) Additional support to prevent a member 15, 16, 2 from buckling 17 Amount of greenhouse gases generated during fabrication, transportation and use of 2 13 a material/product (ENVS10003, 2014) Total energy (oil, water, power) used during all stages of a material’s life (ENVS10003, 2 13 2014) The path of an applied load when it is being 1 4 transferred to the ground. Work done using stone, concrete or brick 1 (Merriam-Webster) Opening windows at night to replace warm 2 13 air in a building with cool air. 3 3

Used to describe a force. ‘Direction’ of a force describes where the force is oriented in space while ‘Sense’ of a force describes which way forces with the same direction point.

These forces have the same direction but different sense

Strip Footing Substructure Thermal Mass Water Harvesting

1

3 3 Measure of a material’s resistance to change in temperature. High thermal mass = more heat absorbed (AUTODESK) Reusing water. Can be greywater harvesting or rainwater harvesting

-

2

13

-

2

13

Table 1

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References AUTODESK.Sustainability workshop. Retrieved March 20, 2014, from http://sustainabilityworkshop.autodesk.com/buildings/thermal-mass

Ching, F. (2008). The building. Building construction illustrated (4th ed., pp. 2.08 - 2.10). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Ching, F. (2008). The building. Building construction illustrated (4th ed., pp. 2.11). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Ching, F. (2008). The building. Building construction illustrated (4th ed., pp. 2.02 - 2.04). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Ching, F. (2008). The building site. Building construction illustrated (4th ed., pp. 1.07). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

ESD and selecting materials. . (2014, 9 March).[Video/DVD] ENVS10003.

Melbourne's bluestone. . (2014, 6 March).[Video/DVD] ENVS10003.

Merriam-Webster. Retrieved March 19, 2014, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/masonry

W01 m1 introduction to materials. . (2014, March 5).[Video/DVD] ENVS10003.

W02 s1 structural systems. . (2014, 9 March).[Video/DVD] ENVS10003.

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