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Exam

: Alcatel-Lucent 4A0-103

Title

: Alcatel-Lucent Multiprotocol Label Switching

Version : R6.1

   

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1. Which factor is a primary cause of IP hyper-aggregation? A. IP routing protocols do not always select the best route to a destination B. IP routing protocols always select multiple routes to a destination C. IP routing protocols do not make use all available network attributes to select a path D. Improper network design results in limited network path redundancy Answer: C

2. Inspecting the MPLS header in the received packet and exchanging it for a new MPLS header is the function of which device? A. iLER B. LER C. LSR D. PE E. eLER Answer: C

3. Choose the answer that best completes the following statement. The device at the beginning of an LSP is referred to as the ____ while the device at the end of an LSP is referred to as the ____. A. PE, P B. LER, LSR C. LSR, LER D. iLER, eLER E. eLER, iLER F. P, PE Answer: D

4. Which of the following statements are true regarding the roles of devices in an MPLS domain? Choose 2 answers. A. An LER is located internal to the provider domain and switches labeled packets B. An LSR is located internal to the provider domain and switches labeled packets    

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C. An LSR is located at the boundary of the provider domain and may forward labeled or unlabeled packets D. An LER is located at the boundary of the provider domain and may forward labeled or unlabeled packets Answer: BD

5. Receiving labeled packets from the MPLS domain, removing the MPLS header and forwarding unlabeled packets outside the MPLS domain is the function of which device? A. LER B. LSR C. PE D. iLER E. eLER Answer: E

6. What are the functions of the control plane in a MPLS router? Choose 2 answers. A. Route exchange B. Label swapping C. MPLS neighbor establishment D. Label signaling E. Routing lookups Answer: AD

7. Which of the following factors are driving the evolution of the MPLS protocol and services? Choose 2 answers. A. Customers demand for differentiated IP services B. MPLS usage has been mandated by the IETF C. Providers want to improve service availability and reliability D. It is an easier technology to configure and manage than IP alone Answer: AC

8. Which of the following statements are true? Choose all that apply.    

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A. Selected labels from the FIB are populated to the LIB B. Selected labels from the LIB are populated to the LFIB C. Selected routes from the RIB are populated to the FIB D. Selected routes from the FIB are populated to the RIB E. All labels from the LIB are populated to the LFIB Answer: BC

9. What is the function of the MPLS label assigned to a packet? A. It identifies the FEC B. It specifies the packets header length C. It identifies the origin of the packet D. It specifies the type of data contained in the packet Answer: A

10. What is the common usage of the MPLS EXP bits? A. Each implementation may use them as they see fit B. They are used to carry the Ethertype value C. They are used to carry the TTL value D. They are used to map QoS classification E. They are used to carry fragmentation flags Answer: D

11. If an Alcatel-Lucent 7750 SR receives an unlabeled packet with an IP TTL of 1, which of the following statements is true? A. The packet will be labeled and forwarded with an MPLS TTL of 1 B. The packet will be labeled and forwarded with an MPLS TTL of 255 C. The packet will be dropped by the device D. An error will occur when the device attempts to label the packet and assign the MPLS TTL of 0 Answer: C

   

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12. Which of the following statements is true regarding per-platform label space? Choose 2 answers. A. A separate label is used for each interface that the FEC is advertised on B. Uses fewer label resources than a per-interface label space C. Is typically used when the device has ATM or Frame Relay interfaces D. Uses more label resources than a per-interface label space E. A single label may be assigned to a FEC and used across all interfaces of the same router F. Only valid when the LDP peers are directly connected over an interface, and the label is only going to be used for traffic sent over that interface Answer: BE

13. How many bits of the MPLS header are used for the label field? A. 16 B. 20 C. 24 D. 25 E. 32 Answer: B

14. When a device receives a labeled packet which of the following can occur? A. The packet may only be forwarded as an unlabeled packet B. The packet may be forwarded as a labeled or unlabeled packet depending on the received label value C. The packet may be forwarded as a labeled or unlabeled packet depending on whether there is a route to the destination in the FIB D. The packet may only be forwarded as a labeled packet Answer: B

15. What is the significance of receiving a packet with the bottom MPLS label S bit is set to 1? A. This condition results in forwarding based on the next packet header B. This condition indicates that this label is the bottom of the MPLS label stack C. This condition indicates that this label is the top of the MPLS label stack    

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D. Any LSR receiving an S bit set to 1 must discard the packet Answer: B

16. Which of the following statements is true regarding the control driven label distribution model? A. Label bindings are formed before the arrival of any user traffic B. Label bindings are formed upon the arrival of user traffic C. Label bindings are formed manually D. Control over label bindings is the responsibility of the IGP Answer: A

17. True or False? MPLS may use an existing data link layer header field to identify the label, instead of using a specific MPLS header. A. True B. False Answer: A

18. An MPLS router may originate a label mapping for a FEC under which of the following conditions? Choose 3 answers. A. Only when the MPLS router is configured to use downsteam on demand mode. B. When the next-hop is external to the MPLS domain C. When the FEC label mapping is statically configured D. As soon as the FEC is removed from the MPLS router FIB.As soon as the FEC is removed from the MPLS router? FIB. E. When the FEC is a directly connected interface Answer: BCE

19. If an Alcatel-Lucent 7750 SR receives a labeled packet with a outer label TTL of 250 and an inner label TTL of 251, which of the following statements is true? A. The packet will be label switched and the outer label TTL will be 249 and the inner label TTL will be 250 B. The packet will be label switched and the outer label TTL will be 249 and the inner label TTL will be 251    

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C. The packet will be label switched and the outer label TTL will be 250 and the inner label TTL will be 250 D. The packet will be label switched and the outer label TTL will be 249 and the inner label TTL will set to 249 since they must be the same Answer: B

20. True or false? A Targeted-LDP session may exist between directly connected or non-directly connected devices. A. True B. False Answer: A

21. Refer to the diagram above. ECMP LDP is enabled on all routers. PE-1 sends a packet to PE-2 which follows the LSP via path P5-P1-P2-P4. PE-3 also sends a packet to PE-2. If the packets have a single label in their stack what path do the packets from PE-3 to PE-2 take?

A. It takes the path P5-P1-P4 based on the hashing algorithm B. There is insufficient information provided to be able to determine the path taken C. It takes the path P5-P1-P3-P4 based on the hashing algorithm D. It takes the path P5-P1-P2-P4 based on the hashing algorithm E. The path taken alternates between all possible paths for each packet sent Answer: D

22. Which of the following statements is true of an LDP session?    

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A. A UDP connection using well known port number 464 B. A UDP connection using well known port number 646 C. A TCP connection using well known port number 464 D. A TCP connection using well known port number 646 Answer: D

23. Which of the following statements best defines an LSP? A. An LSP is a bidirectional path across the MPLS domain B. An LSP is a bidirectional path for a particular FEC across the MPLS domain C. An LSP is a unidirectional path across the MPLS domain D. An LSP is a unidirectional path for a particular FEC across the MPLS domain E. An LSP is a unidirectional path between adjacent LSRs F. An LSP is a bidirectional path between adjacent LSRs Answer: D

24. Which of the following LDP message categories is not TCP based? A. Notification B. Session C. Discovery D. Advertisement Answer: C

25. What is the label space identifier portion of the LDP identifier? A. A random 8 bit number B. A random 16 bit number C. Always zero D. Always non-zero E. Always zero for per platform label space F. Always non-zero for per platform label space Answer: E    

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26. Which of the following are fields contained in the LDP PDU header? Choose 3 answers. A. Version B. Label C. PDU Length D. Transport Address E. LDP Identifier Answer: ACE

27. Which device assumes the Active role during the establishment of a LDP session? A. The peer with the higher physical address B. The peer with the higher transport address C. The peer with the lower physical address D. The peer with the lower transport address E. The peer who generated the first Hello Answer: B

28. True or False: On the Alcatel-Lucent 7750 SR an ingress LER with ECMP LDP enabled selects the egress label and interface to forward the packet based on a hashing algorithm which uses the outer most label along with the source and destination IP address in the packet. A. True B. False Answer: B

29. Which of the following are the default settings for the Alcatel-Lucent 7750 SR when using LDP? A. Ordered Control mode, Downstream on Demand B. Ordered Control mode, Downstream Unsolicited C. Independent Control mode, Downstream on Demand D. Independent Control mode, Downstream Unsolicited Answer: B

   

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