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BEANSTALK December 2009

Centre for Legumes in Mediterranean Agriculture Newsletter Volume 10, No 2

BEANSTALK

Centre for Legumes in Mediterranean Agriculture Newsletter

CHARACTERISAtION OF AUSTRALIAN LUPIN COLLECTION

Contents Feature article Characterisation of Australian Lupin Collection ...................................... 1 Director’s report ........................ 2 Research reports Improvement of salinity resistance in chickpea .............................................. 4 New cassava cultivars take off in Timor-Leste ........................................ 5 The Japan connection on pasture ...... 6 POST-GRADUATES Vasanth completes his MSc with CLIMA ............................................ 7 new faces............................................. 7 VISITORs Doubled haploids in legumes – an international effort .......................... 8 Herbicide tolerance links CLIMA with China ................................ 9 VISITOR TABLE ........................................10 Publications FOR 2009 ............. 12

Jens Berger sampling the diversity of the Australian Lupin collection at Shenton Park in 2008.

The long-term future of the Australian lupin industry is at risk because of its narrow genetic base. Genotype x Environment studies demonstrate a lack of specific adaptation among Australian varieties, implying that production has not been optimized for any single environment type. To meet these challenges through breeding - increasing gross margins by improving adaptation to specific environments, herbicide tolerance or grain quality, will require access to diverse germplasm that can widen the narrow genetic base of the crop.

and L. luteus, the contribution of this collection-particularly of the wild material, to Australian elite cultivars has been relatively minor to date. The reasons for this are 2-fold: breeders are reluctant to dilute their elite gene pool with undomesticated material, and the collection lacked an entry point from which to access the germplasm. Without a context with which to select germplasm, the collection was largely ignored by lupin breeders and researchers.

Although the Australian Lupin Collection (ALC) holds an impressive array of Old World germplasm, particularly in L. angustifolius, L. albus

The GRDC funded project aimed to provide ready access to the ALC for researchers/breeders by characterizing the germplasm and forming easily

by Jens Berger

manageable core subsets that maximized diversity. Collection sites were checked for geographic accuracy, growing season climate characterized individually, and genetic diversity measured using DArT markers. A Genstat program was written (Maximin hierarchical clustering) to select the most different accessions in core subsets using the full range of available data. These cores were then evaluated for agronomic, disease resistance & quality traits. The project provided important insight into lupin adaptation, identified promising germplasm which has entered the breeding program, and is currently being used to select germplasm for research at CSIRO, CLIMA, ICARDA & DAFWA. continued on page 3

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DIRECTOR’S report

Prof William Erskine presents a copy of his recent book ‘The Lentil’ to the Director General Dr Md.Yousuf Mian of Bangladesh Agriculture Research Institute (BARI) (centre), in the presence of Drs Kuhu Chatterjee and Paul Fox (ACIAR) (left) and Dr M A Bakr, Project (Director Pulses & Oilseeds, BARI) and Dr Ashutosh Sarker (ICARDA Regional Coordinator S Asia) (right). At the recent World Food Summit, FAO, Rome governments pledged more resources to agricultural research for the poorer nations against a background of reduced support to agriculture aid budgets over the last two decades and the impending need to feed 9 billion mouths by 2050 with reduced water availability, changes in climate and escalating energy costs.These drivers of agriculture will wash over to Australia and ensure a continued need for legumes in the cropping system, so long as they (legumes) can perform reliably. This is our task: To contribute reliable legumes to the system. Several CLIMA researchers, namely Drs Kioumars Ghamkhar, Ping Si, Jon Clements and I, participated in the joint 14th Australasian Plant Breeding Conference /11th SABRAO Conference in Cairns, QLD from 10 to 14 August variously presenting papers, posters and running workshops.As it was a joint affair with the Society for the Advancement for Breeding Research in Asia and Oceania (SABRAO) held in Cairns, the breeding of tropical crops was a special emphasis. During the period I was invited to a workshop at the Australian Centre for Agricultural Research (ACIAR), Canberra on 16/17 July on Food Security in South and Southeast Asia. As a result I participated in an ACIAR project

development mission to Bangladesh from October 3 to 9, 2009 for a putative project on ‘Short-season Pulses for Food Security in Bangladesh’, which is now under development. (See photo) Regarding new project funding in the last six-month period, the Grains Research and Development Corporation (GRDC) is supporting a new project in CLIMA entitled ‘Interspecific hybrids in lupins - Stabilisation and trait transfer to fixed lines for lupin crop improvement’ with Dr Jon Clements as Principal Investigator. Jon Clements has also received new grant funding from the Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation (RIRDC) for a new project RIRDC PRJ-004225 ‘Quinoa as a new crop in Australia.’ A project extension to Research Project -CGO 9-2004: ‘Accelerated Genetic Improvement of Desi Chickpea’ was announced recently. This project, which started in January 2005, was due to end in December 2009. Following a successful review of the project’s progress as part of a meeting of the partners at ICRISAT, Hyderabad, India, the project run by Professor Kadambot Siddique is extended for a further three years (January 2010 to December 2012) During the period Dr Janine Croser hosted two visiting researchers: Dr Mercedes Dabauza from Instituto Murciano de Investigación y Desarrollo

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Agrario y Alimentario (IMIDA), Murcia, Spain to research haploids in perennial pastures with Dr Daniel Real (DAFWA) and then Dr Kanjana (Kai) Saetiew from KMTL (King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang), Thailand to study haploidy in grain legumes. (see page 8) Additionally Dr Gang Pan of Zhejiang University, China has been visiting Dr Ping Si at CLIMA on an Endeavour Post-Doc Fellowship from July 2009, conducting research to investigate metribuzin tolerance mechanisms in lupin mutants (see page 9). The number of postgraduate students grows within CLIMA: Mr Vasanth Kumar submitted his MSc (Agriculture) thesis entitled ‘Shortening the generation cycle of Australian chickpea and field pea cultivars’ under the supervision of Drs Heather Clarke, Janine Croser and myself in December. Mr Bidhyut Banik has recently enrolled in the two-year MSc (Genetics and Breeding) course and is undertaking a thesis with CLIMA on subterranean clover genetics with Dr Kioumars Ghamkhar and I. A major loss in September was the departure of Dr Heather Clarke to the Research Office, The University of Notre Dame, Fremantle after 16 very productive years at CLIMA. Heather pioneered pollen selection and wide crossing in chickpea through a series of mainly GRDC-funded projects. Over the years she contributed hugely to the Centre in teaching and many other selfless ways. Meanwhile a large influx of new staff to CLIMA has occurred in connection with recent GRDC funding on lupin pre-breeding: Dr Susan Barker has moved from Plant Biology part-time to CLIMA. Drs Katharina Mebus, Margo Ferguson-Hunt, Susana Averis and Yuphin Khentry and Ms Priya Krishnamurthy, Nur Koshkuson and Clare O’Lone have all joined CLIMA recently. (see Page 7 – New Faces) Welcome aboard – All. Prof. William Erskine william.erskine@uwa.edu.au

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CHARACTERISATION OF LUPIN COLLECTION

continued from page 1

The ALC is a valuable collection with great potential to widen the genetic diversity of the Australian lupin industry, as well as increase our understanding of adaptation within the genus. By characterizing germplasm and habitats sampled in the ALC, search strategies can be tailor-made to suit the task at hand:

variability, min & max temperature, frost incidence etc during vegetative and reproductive phases. 4. Project germplasm evaluation has identified agronomic, disease resistance & quality traits which have the potential to widen the adaptation and increase the value of the industry:

1. The Maximin procedure can produce cores of any size that maximize genetic or environmental diversity, or both. Scientists/breeders without preconceived notions of the distribution of their trait of interest can use these to rapidly access the diversity of the ALC. 2. Using distance matrices generated by the project, the ALC can be used to select the most unrelated parent to produce diverse RIL or breeding populations. Using the within species habitat clustering developed in the project, scientists can select germplasm that has evolved in habitats that contrast a particular stress of interest. We have used this approach to initiate research on responses to terminal drought stress which indicates that lupins evolving under environmental stress gradients vary in phenology, water-use, biomass production and stress tolerance, trading off yield potential & drought escape. We conclude that the ALC is an excellent tool for studying specific adaptation, which is particularly important given the lack of diversity among Australian cultivars. 3. Using the collection site passport data generated in the project, scientists can filter germplasm selection directly using bioclimatic variables such as rainfall, rainfall

• A r a n g e o f v e r n a l i z a t i o n a n d p h o t o p e r i o d responsiveness-in particular the later flowering, thermoneutral NLL Elena 5. This is important because all later flowering Australian cultivars are strongly vernalization responsive, which appears to limit their adaptation to even long season environments in Australia. • A range of water use, biomass accumulation rates, and sensitivities to post-anthesis water stress in L. angustifolius & L. luteus. • A range of seed quality traits (protein >38%, oil >6%, dietary fibre >43%, oligosaccharides >5%) in NLL. • A range of disease resistance in NLL (CMV transmission < Tanjil, BYMV susceptibility <8%) Although the project has now matured, and successfully met its milestones, it is far too early to assess the real impact of the work. All project personnel are eager to see the project outcomes adopted in our continuing development of the Australian lupin industry, be it through the breeding of better-adapted varieties or more targeted identification of germplasm in our research effort.

Christiane Ludwig, Sanjeev Kumar and Mershad Barary studying adaptation of yellow and narrow leaf lupin ecotypes to terminal drought stress at CSIRO.

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research reports

IMPROVEMENT OF SALINITY RESISTANCE IN CHICKPEA The ARC-Linkage project also enables further work on salinity tolerance to be conducted at ICRISAT. Together, the UWA and ICRISAT teams will elucidate physiological mechanisms of salinity tolerance in chickpea, and identify molecular markers (QTLs) for use in future marker-assisted breeding. The two main aims are: 1. To identify the physiological processes, particularly in reproductive development, in chickpea, most affected by salinity using genotypes known to differ in salinity tolerance. 2. To identify QTLs in chickpea for salinity tolerance using existing and new RIL populations from parents, differing in salinity tolerance. The identification of molecular markers linked to the genes involved in salinity tolerance will enhance the capacity of the breeding program to use international germplasm from ICRISAT as donors of tolerance into locally-adapted cultivars. John Quealy measuring soil salinity in chickpeas plots at Bindi Bindi by Tim Colmer and Neil Turner

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is sensitive to salinity, and thus can not be grown on soils affected even by mild salinity. Few grain legume options currently exist for these soils. Cultivars of chickpea with improved salt resistance are needed by growers. CLIMA researchers, in collaboration with the School of Plant Biology and Institute of Agriculture at UWA, ICRISAT, and the University of Sussex, are mid-way through a collaborative project to improve salinity resistance in chickpea. The current ARC-Linkage project builds on an earlier COGGO project conducted by CLIMA and ICRISAT. The main outcome from that earlier project was identification of a 6-fold difference in salinity tolerance in the world mini-core collection of chickpea germplasm, evaluated in salinised soil in pots outdoors in the rain-out shelter at ICRISAT. The present project enables the UWA-based team to access and evaluate that salinity tolerance in chickpea, under WA conditions, with the longer-term aim to develop future varieties with enhanced salinity resistance.The project has imported the best lines from ICRISAT, as well as sensitive checks. The lines are being evaluated against local cultivars in glasshouse pot experiments using an artificially-salinised soil, and also in the field. During the 2009 season, evaluation rows were grown on mildly-saline and non-saline sites on a farm near Bindi Bindi. Regular measurements were taken to document salinity across the growing season (Photo shows John Quealy using the EM38 to measure soil EC).The large glasshouse screening experiment also conducted in 2009 has reinforced that considerable variation exists in chickpea for salt sensitivity and resistance. Genotypic differences in symptom development in the field supported that useful variation exists – these field samples are currently being processed for biomass and yield.

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In addition to the ARC-Linkage project an endeavour-funded PhD student, Srinivasan Samineni, located jointly at UWA and ICRISAT, is undertaking genetic studies of salinity resistance in chickpea. Both dominance and additive gene effects have been identified for the responses of chickpea populations to salinity. Sufficient genetic variation appears to be present to enable improvement in yield under saline conditions via breeding. The project team have also collaborated to write the first detailed review on salinity tolerance in chickpea; recently accepted for publication in a Special Issue on Salinity in Plant, Cell & Environment. The review concludes that selections for tolerance are required across the entire life cycle with nodulated plants in saline soil, preferably under salt-affected field conditions. Most chickpea lines are sensitive to salinity with the most susceptible genotypes dying in mild salinity (e.g. 25 mM NaCl or ~2.5 dS/m in hydroponcis or in the soil solution) whereas resistant genotypes can yield well in these conditions, but are unlikely to survive beyond 100 mM NaCl (~ 10 dS/m). Thus, the project aims to improve chickpea for the large areas of the cropping zone with mild salinity in sub-soils that can transiently rise as profiles dry; not for saline-waterlogged areas of ‘dryland salinity’ associated with rising water tables.

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Saline chickpea plots at Bindi Bindi

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research reports

NEW CASSAVA CULTIVARS TAKE OFF IN TIMOR-LESTE Seeds of Life staff Joao Bosco da Costa (L), Raquela Soares Brito (R) and Myrtille Lacoste (2nd from R) test the starch content of cassava at Quinta Portugal Research Station. production and become more food secure on their own land.

by Sally Bolton

Two new cassava cultivars released by the CLIMA-administered Seeds of Life program are set to make a big impact on food security across Timor-Leste. Ai-luka 2 and Ai-luka 4 were officially released by the Timor-Leste Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (MAF) in August 2009. More than 3,000 Ai-luka cuttings have been distributed to Timorese farmers in the three months since their release, primarily through the NGO World Vision.There is strong demand for more cuttings, and several hectares of Ai-luka 2 and Ai-luka 4 are being grown at the

MAF Loes Research Station in Liquica district and the MAF Betano Research Station in Manufahi district. Cuttings from these plants will be ready to distribute in 2010. Ai-luka 2 and 4 were chosen for release because of their high yield and good flavour, and the positive response from farmers.They produce a yield 51-65% higher than local varieties, based on replicated and on-farm trials of more than 60 varieties evaluated over the period 2001-2008. Meanwhile trials of more cassava varieties continue, with the aim of making a range of high-yielding varieties accessible, and helping Timorese farmers to increase

At recent farmer field days at the Quinta Portugal Research Station and the Betano Research Station local farmers tasted raw and cooked samples of the 20 cassava varieties being trialled at the stations. Farmer Adelina Amaral selected the variety Ca25 as her favourite. â&#x20AC;&#x153;I chose this one as the best because it is sweet to eat, it has a good tuber, it has a smooth texture, and it is big,â&#x20AC;? she said. SoL will use farmer feedback from the field day to assist in the selection of cassava varieties to test further in on-farm demonstration trials (OFDTs). The results from both research station trials and OFDTs allow SoL to determine which varieties are best suited to the agricultural conditions in East Timor, and which varieties local farmers are keen to plant in their own fields. Seeds of Life is a food security program funded jointly by the East Timor Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (MAF), AusAID and the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR). Seeds of Life aims to reduce hunger by improving crop yield, through the use of improved varieties of staple food crops, primarily rice, maize, peanuts, sweet potato and cassava.

CLIMA seminar series The CLIMA seminar series continues on a monthly basis. Please contact Janine Croser jcroser@clima.uwa.edu.au to suggest topics and speakers. In particular, we value the earliest possible advice of seminars offered by visitors. Volume 10

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research reports JAPANESE CONNECTION/ WESTERN AUSTRALIA

A

SUCCESS STORY ON COLLABORATION AND FELLOWSHIP By Kioumars Ghamkhar

Rottnest Island, March 2005. Medicago truncatula workshop. This was the first time I met Dr Satoshi Tabata, a prominent scientist from Kazusa DNA Research Institute (KDRI) and I was excited by the overwhelming data on red clover in his presentation. I talked to Dr Tabata about my long term targets and interest in clover genomics. Dr Tabata, a very serious yet friendly and modest person, was very positive about my interest and encouraged me to talk to his colleague, Dr Sachiko Isobe, then employed by the National Agricultural Research Centre at Hokkaido. Dr Tabata’s first comment was “you are an ambitious man!” Aberystwyth, Wales, July 2005. I will never forget this meeting associated with the XX International Grasslands Congress for good reason: constructing a precious relationship with KDRI. The event brought together many forage and turf molecular scientists and geneticists.This was the place I met Dr Isobe for the first time and once again was overwhelmed by her calibre. An invitation to attend another event while in Abersytwyth placed me among a group of clover breeders, molecular biologists and geneticists that led to the establishment of the International Trifolium Network (ITN) in the form of a small consortium. 4.5 years on: Perth, Australia, October 2009. A crucial meeting was held at CLIMA where four institutions (UWA, Murdoch University, Department of Agriculture and Food WA (DAFWA), and KDRI) discussed the current collaboration through the ARC linkage project “Molecular approaches for the exploitation of genetic diversity in subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) for profitable Australian farming systems”. The meeting brought together scientists with different expertise in pasture breeding, pasture systems, legume adaptation, animal science, biochemistry, bioinformatics, genetic resources and molecular genetics. Participants enhanced awareness of each others’ fields, explored potential synergies and discussed opportunities for future research directions and collaboration. An important outcome was the recognition that all parties were keen to continue the collaboration in the form of another potential ARC Linkage project in the exciting area of legume genomics.This will build on advances in basic knowledge brought about by the Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus genome sequencing projects. Dr Sachiko Isobe once again offered the welcome support of the KDRI. DAFWA is also interested in developing this technology for its forage breeding programs and Drs Phil Nichols and Clinton Revell from DAFWA’s pasture group made this commitment during the discussions. CLIMA, KDRI, DAFWA and Centre for Comparative Genomics (CCG) at Murdoch University have the capability to be

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Half of the 12 members of the subterranean clover research team. From left: Dr Sachiko Isobe (KDRI), Dr Phil Nichols (DAFWA), Dr Zoey Durmic (School of Animal Biology, UWA), Dr Clinton Revell (DAFWA), Professor Willie Erskine (CLIMA Director), and Dr Kioumars Ghamkhar (CLIMA,UWA)

prominent in developing a strategy for clover genomics and its utilisation for future marker assisted breeding.The meeting was an excellent opportunity to strengthen my network with collaborators and we have already gone ahead with a research proposal to the ARC. This initiative will be led by CLIMA and involves 12 scientists from the four institutes including Professor Rudi Appels, an outstanding scientist from the CCG and Professor Willie Erskine, CLIMA Director. I also received very exciting news from the Australian Academy of Science last June. I was nominated by the academy for a visiting fellowship by the Japanese Society for Promotion of Science (JSPS). In July it was confirmed that I was the winner of the fellowship.The fellowship will cover my travel and living costs in Japan for three weeks while I have the mandate of completing a comparative genomics project with Dr Isobe and her colleagues in Japan and giving presentations at KDRI, Hokkaido University, National Agricultural Research Centre at Hokkaido, Miyazaki University in Kyushu, and NATCKO in Kumamoto. All in all, what started with a curious question at Rotto resulted in the formation of an important team of excellent experts who are determined to work together to meet industry needs through cutting edge science in what I would like to brand “Japanese Connection Western Australia”!!

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POST GRADUATES

new faces

MR GARELA VASANTH KUMAR MSc SUBMITTED Mr Garela Vasanth Kumar has submitted his thesis for his Master of Science (Agriculture). His thesis is titled “Shortening the generation cycle of Australian chickpea and field pea cultivars”, supervised by Drs Heather Clarke (CLIMA) and Janine Croser (CLIMA) and Prof William Erskine (CLIMA, ICPBER). Vasanth’s research looked at methods of shortening the generation cycle in Cicer arietinum L. (chickpea) and Pisum sativum L. (field pea), both major sources of plant protein. Shortening their relatively long life cycles will aid breeding efforts and plant improvement. An in vitro-based single seed descent system, in which flowering and seed set is induced and the immature seed germinated, has been reported for the acceleration of generation turnover in some legumes including field pea, so Vasanth attempted to adapt the reported Pisum techniques to Australian cultivars, and extend the technology to Cicer sp. In peas, flowering was induced in the control but no seed set. Unfortunately no flowering was induced in the Australian cultivars and P. fulvum, despite varying the medium, photoperiods and temperatures. In chickpeas, using a shoot culture technique, flowering and podding was induced in the Australian cv. Rupali, but no seed set. The composition of the medium was found to be important. Vasanth concluded that more research is needed to study the effects of factors such as growth regulators and photoperiod on flower induction and pod formation in the Pisum and Cicer material used in this study.

Dr Susana Averis S u s a n a Ave r i s h o l d s a P h D i n Biotechnology. Her varied interests include the improvement of economically important crops for the benefit of the Agricultural Industry. Dr Margo Ferguson-Hunt After completing my PhD in plant molecular biology at UWA on narrow leafed lupin, I worked in the School of Animal Biology and then at Murdoch University for the Australian Centre for Necrotrophic Fungal Pathogens (ACNFP). Earlier this year I had the great pleasure of becoming a Mum, and have returned to work parttime where I am excited to be back working on lupins. Natalie Fletcher Nat’s is a well known face around CLIMA. O f l a t e s h e ’s been working at CSIRO but is glad to be back and helping out the new project on a casual basis. Dr Yuphin Khentry My name is Yuphin. I come from the Land of Smiles. I have a b a c k g ro u n d in horticulture, orchid virus and plant tissue culture for mass propagation, plant disease-free plant production, plant conservation and plant improvement.

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Nur Jamaluddin Koshkuson I have worked with Borneo’s endangered Slipper orchids and am now turning over a n ew leaf with Lupins. Wishing everyone a Merry Christmas!!! Priya Krishnamurthy I started my career on the transgenic pulse project at CLIMA in 2001. 4 years ago I left to work with doubled haploids and genetic distance studies for Canola Breeders WA. And now I’m back. Dr Katharina Mebus I h ave a P h D in zebrafish developmental g e n e t i c s f ro m the University of Sheffield. Before coming to CLIMA, I worked at Murdoch University studying molecular neurobiology in rats. Clare O’Lone Previously I was involved in the development of molecular marker and mapping technology for lupin breeding and genetic distance studies in canola. These days I spread my time between my gorgeous boys and a return to the stimulating world of lupin.

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visitors

DOUBLED HAPLOIDS IN LEGUMES – AN INTERNATIONAL EFFORT!

Dr Mercedes Dabauza-Micó (3rd from left, 1st row) and Dr Kanjana (Kai) Saetiew (right, 1st row) enjoys Kings Park with CLIMA staff and Janine Croser (centre) and her family. by Janine Croser

During the second half of 2009, CLIMA was the host organisation for two experienced biotechnology scientists. Dr Mercedes Dabauza-Micó from IMIDA (Instituto Murciano de Investigación y Desarrollo Agrario y Alimentario), Spain visited from July – September and Dr Kanjana (Kai) Saetiew from KMTL (King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang), Thailand visited from September – October. Both scientists undertook research within the legume doubled haploid program. Mercedes is a senior scientist with a background in genetic modification of grapevine. Her recent research interests have included in vitro germplasm enhancement of the pasture legumeTedera (Bituminaria bituminosa var. albomarginata). It was doubled haploid research in this species by Drs Janine Croser, Marie Claire

Castello and Daniel Real (FFI CRC) that drew her to CLIMA.Whilst at CLIMA, she worked on improving regeneration from anther and microspore cultures in Tedera, resulting in a robust protocol for plant regeneration from anther material in this species. Ongoing collaboration in this area is underway between IMIDA and CLIMA. Kai is a lecturer at KMUT with a background in genetic modification of the legume Stylosanthes hamata. Kai was interested in using chemical means to increase chromosome numbers in her current genus of interest, Jatropha, and flow cytometry to evaluate the resulting ploidy changes. Whilst at CLIMA, she examined the role of the chemical n-Butanol on gametic cell division in a range of legumes, finding that it promoted early haploid divisions. In addition, Kai participated in the

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development of anther and microspore culture protocols in Tedera and French serradella (Ornithopus sativus). Both scientists gave invited lectures on their research to the Plant Breeding Discussion Group. Despite their busy research schedules, both Mercedes and Kai found time to fit in some non-legume activities. Local attractions such as Kings Park, Perth Zoo, Perth Mint, Caversham Wildlife Park and the Aquarium were popular, whilst a trip to Augusta to do some whale watching with Mercedes and her family was particularly memorable with the Southern Right whales putting on a good show. We look forward to further collaboration with both Mercedes and Kai and thank them for their valuable contributions to the doubled haploid research effort.

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visitors

HERBICIDE TOLERANCE IN CROPS LINKS CLIMA WITH CHINA by Ping Si

Dr Gang Pan, Associate Professor at the Department of Agronomy of Zhejiang University, China, came to CLIMA in July 2009 as an Endeavour Post-Doc Fellow to carry out research in herbicide tolerance in lupins. Zhejiang University holds the ranking of the 3rd best university in China and is a member of the Worldwide Universities Network (WUN). UWA is also a member of WUN. Dr Pan is an experienced molecular geneticist and a couple of years ago he isolated and sequenced a herbicide tolerance gene in two rice mutants.

increased metribuzin tolerance in mutants. These two tolerance genes come from the two lupin mutants (Tanjil-AZ-33 and Tanjil-AZ-55). Each of these genes confers about a 6-fold higher tolerance than the original susceptible cv. Tanjil. His research at UWA will likely lead to further collaboration on improving herbicide tolerance in crops between China and Australia.

Improving herbicide tolerance in crops and understanding the tolerance mechanisms are the common interests for Dr Ping Si and Dr Gang Pan. Dr Pan has worked with rice and canola while in China, and now in Australia he quickly picked up lupins. He is keen to find out why the lupin mutants become tolerant to metribuzin through investigating the roles of cytochrome P450 and glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzyme systems in metribuzin detoxification in lupins. Within months, he has sown thousands of lupin seeds into hundreds of pots and applied metribuzin onto these seedlings in a number of combinations with P450 inhibitors. His experiments showed that P450 is involved in metribuzin detoxification in tolerant lupins.At CLIMA, he has clarified the five-fold additive effects of two genes for

Dr Pan with herbicide tolerant lupin mutants

Increased metribuzin tolerance as the additive effects of two tolerance genes at a very high rate, which almost killed the parents Tanjil-AZ-33 and TanjilAZ-55 (Top row), but among the F2 plants (Bottom row) some were highly tolerant.

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CLIMA visitor LIST FOR 2009 Name of visitor

Date

Institution/ Country

Purpose of visit

Name of host

Nuermaimaiti Abudukelimu

1/2009 to 07/2009

Xinjiang Physics and Chemistry Technology Institute, Chinese Academy of Science, China

Study lupin chemistry

Dr Shaofang Wang, Prof. Siddique, Dr David Harris

Dr Mercedes Dabauza Micó

27/6/09 to 14/9/09

Biotechnology & Crop Protection, Counsel of Agriculture and Water Management, City of Murcia Spain

To work on pasture legume biotechnology

Dr Janine Croser Dr Daniel Real

Dr Gang Pan

27/07/09 to 25/01/10

Zhejiang University

Endeavour Fellow to investigate herbicide tolerance mechanisms

Dr Ping Si

Dr Salem Alghamdi

4/8/09

College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia

Part of an Institute of Agriculture visit

Prof Willie Erskine

Dr Yunbi Xu

15/08/09 to 17/08/09

CIMMYT. Mexico

Visiting CLIMA/IOA researchers

Prof Erskine and Dr Ping Si

Prof Cao Cougui

24/8/09 to 27/08/09

Dean, Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University (HAU), China

Attending the UWA – China Deans’ Workshop on strengthening and deepening the collaboration with UWA.

Dr Ping Si

Prof Gong Yanzhang

24/8/09 to 27/08/09

Deputy Dean, College of Animal Science, HAU, China

As above

Dr Ping Si

Prof Huang Jianliang

24/8/09 to 27/08/09

Deputy Dean, College of Plant Science, HAU, China

As above

Dr Ping Si

Prof Cai Chongfa

24/8/09 to 27/08/09

Dean, College of Resource Management, HAU, China

As above

Dr Ping Si

Dr Kanjana

1/9/2009 to 30/10/09

Department of Horticulture, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology, Thailand

University mobility in Asia and the pacific (UMAP) scholarship to work on microspore culture

Dr Janine Croser

Dr Sachiko Isobe

1/9/09 to 10/9/09

Department of Plant Genome Research, Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan

Continuing collaboration on subterranean clover genomics and genetics

Dr Kioumars Ghamkhar

Prof Fu Tingdong

17/09/09

Huazhong Agricultural University, China

Part of a UWA visit, interested in crop herbicide tolerance research

Professor Cowling Dr Ping Si

Dr Ahmad Maqbool

17/9/09 to 18/9/09

Coordinator of Pulse Breeding Australia (Germplasm Enhancement Program) University of Adelade

Visiting CLIMA researchers

Prof Willie Erskine

Dr Muhammad Imtiaz

8/9/09 to 9/10/09

Chickpea breeder of ICARDA

Visiting CLIMA researchers

Adj. Prof Tanveer Khan/ Prof Erskine

Dr Pooran Gaur

19/10/09 to 23/10/09

Chickpea breeder, ICRISAT

Chickpea breeding project meeting

Adj. Prof. Tanveer Khan

Saetiew

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CLIMA visitor LIST FOR 2009 Name of visitor

Date

Institution/ Country

Purpose of visit

Name of host

Dr Suresh Pande

19/10/09 to 23/10/09

Legume pathologist, ICRISAT

Chickpea breeding project meeting

Adj. Prof. Tanveer Khan

Dr Vincent Vadez

19/10/09 22/10/09

Legume physiologist, ICRISAT

Chickpea Salinity Project (ARC-Linkage/COGGO) meeting and visits to field and glasshouse screening experiments

Profs Tim Colmer and Neil Turner

Dr Xin Chen

20/10/09

Soybean breeder, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China

Interested in grain legumes research

Dr Ping Si

Dr Mona Darmency

26/10/09

INRA, Dijon

Interested in comparative mapping in legumes

Dr Janine Croser

Mr Bob Redden

6/11/09

Gene bank â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Horsham, Victoria

Visiting CLIMA researchers

Prof Willie Erskine

Dr Isobel Parkin

14/11/09

Agriculture and Agri-food Canada, Saskatoon, Canada

Initiating collaboration in the genomics of Camelina sativa

Dr Kioumars Ghamkhar

Dr Andrew Griffiths

14/11/09

Grasslands Research Centre, AgResearch, Palmerston North, New Zealand

Collaboration in clover comparative genomics

Dr Kioumars Ghamkhar

Dr Stuart Lumber

24/11/09

Crop Business manager, FMC Australasia Pty Ltd, Australia

Interested in herbicide tolerant legumes

Dr Ping Si

Mr Lloyd Milliner

18/11/09

CEO of Asella Model Agricultural Enterprise (AMAE), Ethiopia

Visiting CLIMA and IoA Heads to discuss Shortterm visiting academic experts, PhD supervision/ collaboration and 2-way student exchange.

Profs Kadambot Siddique, Willie Erskine and Wallace Cowling

Mr Kedir Tessi

18/11/09

Dept Head and Livestock Manager of AMAE, Ethiopia

As above

Profs Kadambot Siddique, Willie Erskine and Wallace Cowling

Ms Robyn Grieve

18/11/09

Horticulture Officer of AMAE, Ethiopia

As above

Profs Kadambot Siddique, Willie Erskine and Wallace Cowling

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Centre for Legumes in Mediterranean Agriculture Newsletter

CLIMA PUBLICATIONS 2009 Journal articles Adhikari, K.N., Buirchell, B.J.,Thomas, G.J., Sweetingham, M.W. and Yang, H. (2009). Identification of anthracnose resistance in Lupinus albus L. and its transfer from landraces to modern cultivars., Crop & Pasture Science, 60: 472-479. Aryamanesh, N., Nelson, M.N., Yan, G., Clarke, H.J., and Siddique, K.H.M. (2009). Mapping a major gene for growth habit and QTLs for ascochyta blight resistance and flowering time in a population between chickpea and Cicer reticulatum. Euphytica DOI 10.1007/s10681-009-0086-2. Borges, L.F., Ferreira, A.d.R., Da Silva, D, Williams, R., Andersen, R., Dalley, A., Monaghan, B., Nesbitt, H.J. and Erskine,W. (2009) Improving food security through agricultural research and development in Timor-Leste: a country emerging from conflict, Food Security Bramley, H., Turner, N.C., Turner, D.W and Tyerman, S.D. (2009) Roles of Morphology, Anatomy, and Aquaporins in Determining Contrasting Hydraulic Behavior of Roots, Plant Physiology, 150: 348-364 Clements, J.C., Chong, L., Quealy, J., Prilyuk, L., Yang, H., Francis, G. and Buirchell, B.J. (2009) Interspecific hybrids between Lupinus angustifolius and L. luteus – an avenue to increase the value of narrow-leafed lupin in Australia, SABRAO Journal of Breeding and Genetics, 41 (in press) Erskine,W. (2009) Global Production, Supply and Demand, The lentil Botany, Production and Uses, ed W.Erskine et al., UK, CABI International, pp 4-12 Erskine, W. and Nesbitt, H.J. (2009) How can agriculture research make a difference in countries emerging from conflict, Experimental Agriculture, 45: 313-321 Erskine, W., Muehlbauer, F.J., Sarker, A. and Sharma, B. (2009) Introduction, The lentil Botany, Production and Uses, ed W.Erskine et al., UK, CABI International, pp 1-3 Erskine, W., Muehlbauer, F.J., Sarker, A. and Sharma, B. (2009) The Lentil Botany, Production and Uses, UK, CABI International Flowers, T.J., Gaur, P.M., Gowda, C. L. L., Krishnamurthy, L., Samineni, S., Siddique, K.H.M., Turner, N.C., Vadez, V.,Varshney, R.K., and Colmer, T.D. (2009) Salt sensitivity in chickpea, Plant, Cell and Environment doi: 10.1111/j.13653040.2009.02051.x Ghamkhar, K., Isobe, S., Appels, R., Nichols, P., Snowball, R. and Ryan, M. (2009) Initial linkage map of a subterranean clover (trifolium subterraneum L.) F2 population for multiple traits, SABRAO Journal of Breeding and Genetics, 41: 213-220 Grewal, R.K., Lulsdorf, M., Croser, J., Ochatt, S., Vandenberg,A. and Warkentin, T.D. (2009) Doubledhaploid production in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.): role of stress treatments. Plant Cell Reports, DOI 10.1007/s00299-009-0731-1, online. Gunasekera, C.P., French, R.J., Martin, L.D. and Siddique, K.H.M. (2009) Comparison of the responses of two Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) genotypes to post-flowering soil water

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deficit with the response of canola (B. napus L.) cv. Monty, Crop and Pasture Science, 60: 251-261 Hosseini, N.M., Palta, J.A., Berger, J.D. and Siddique, K.H.M. (2009) Sowing soil water content effects on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.): Seedling emergence and early growth interaction with genotype and seed size, Agricultural Water Management Knights, E.J., Siddique, K.H.M., Khan,T.N. and Hobson, K.B. (2009) Development of the Australian Chickpea Industry: Booms and Blights, Milestones in Food Legumes Research, ed Masood Ali and Shiv Kumar, India, Indian Institute of Pulses Research, pp 36-57 Kumar, A. and Turner, N.C.G. (2009) Growth and sucrose synthase activity of developing chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seeds uder field conditions, Australian Journal of Crop Science, 3(1): 20-27 Kumari, M., Clarke, H.J., Small, I. and Siddique, K.H.M. (2009) (Review) Albinism in Plants: A Major Bottleneck in Wide Hybridization, Androgenesis and Doubled Haploid Culture Lin, R., Renshaw, D., Luckett, D., Clements, J.C., Yan, G., Adhikari, K., Buirchell, B., Sweetingham, M. and Yang, H. (2009) Development of a sequence-specific PCR marker linked to the gene “pauper” conferring low-alkaloids in white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) for marker assisted selection, Mol Breeding, 23: 153-161 Materne, M. and Siddique, K.H.M. (2009) Agro-ecology and Crop Adaptation, The lentil Botany, Production and Uses, ed W.Erskine et al., UK, CABI International, pp 47-63 Nasar-Abbas,S.M., Siddique, K.H.M., Plummer, J.A.,White, P.F., Harris, D, Dods,K. and D’Antuono, M. (2009) Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) seeds darken rapidly and phenolic content falls when stored at higher temperature, moisture and light intensity. Food Science and Technology, in press Nichols, P.G.H., Cocks, P.S. and Francis, C.M. (2009) Evolution over 16 years in a bulk-hybrid population of subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) at two contrasting sites in southwestern Australia, Euphytica, 169: 31-48 Norman, H.C.,Wilmot, M.G.,Thomas, D.T., Masters, D.G. and Revell, D.K (2009) Stable carbon isotopes accurately predict diet selection by sheep fed mixtures of C3 annual pastures and saltbush or C4 perennial grasses, Livestock Science Robertson, D., Zhang, H., Palta, J.A., Colmer,T. and Turner, N.C. (2009) Waterlogging affects the growth, development of tillers, and yield of wheat through a severe, but transient, N deficiency, Crop and Pasture Science, 60: 578-586 Shrestha, R., Siddique, K.H.M., Turner, D.W. and Turner, N.C. (2009) Breeding and Management to Minimize the Effects of Drought and Improve Water Use Efficiency, The lentil Botany, Production and Uses, ed W.Erskine et al., UK, CABI International, pp 172-193 Si, P., Buirchell, B., Sweetingham, M. and Khan, T. (2009) Improved herbicide tolerance through induced mutation, SABRAO Journal of Breeding and Genetics 41 (in press) Si, P., Buirchell, B. and Sweetingham, M. (2009a) Imroved metribuzin tolerance in narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) by induced mutation and field selection, Field Crops Research, 113: 282-286

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CLIMA PUBLICATIONS Januaryâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;June 2009 Si,P.,Buirchell, B. and Sweetingham, M. (2009b) Induced mutation in narrow-leafed lupin improvement: an example of herbicide tolerance. In: Q.Y. Shu (ed), Induced Plant Mutations in the Genomics Era. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, pp 77-79 Song, L., Li, F.M., Fan, X.W., Xiong, Y.C., Wang, W.Q., Wu, X.B. and Turner, N.C. (2009) Soil water availability and plant competition affect the yield of spring wheat, European Journal of Agronomy, 31: 51-60 Turner, N.C ., Furbank, R.T., Berger, J.D., Gremigni, P., Abbo, S. and Leport, L. (2009) Seed size is associated with sucrose synthase activity in developing cotyledons of chickpea, Crop Science, 49: 621-627

Ujagir, R. and Byrne, O.M.T. (2009) Insect Pests and Their Management, The lentil Botany, Production and Uses, ed W.Erskine et al., UK, CABI International, pp 282-305 Varshney, R.K., Hiremath, P.J., Lekha, P., Kashiwagi, J., Balaji, J., Deokar, A.A.,Vadez,V., Xiao,Y., Srinivasan, R., Gaur, P.M., Siddique, K.H.M., Town, C.D. and Hoisington, D.A. (2009) A comprehensive resource of drought- and salinity responsive ESTs for gene discovery and marker development in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), BMC Genomics, 10: 523 Wijayanto, T., Barker, S.J., Wylie, S.J., Gilchrist, D. G. and Cowling, W. A. (2009) Significant reduction of fungal disease symptoms in transgenic lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) expressing the anti-apoptotic baculovirus gene p35, Plant Biotechnology Journal, 7: 778-790

Yan, G., Nelson, M., Pradhan, A., Mason, A., Weerakoon, S. R., Si, P., Plummer, J. and Cowling, W. (2009) Progress towards the creation of trigenomic brassica hexaploid populations, SABRAO Journal of Breeding and Genetics 41 (in press) Technical Reports Turner, N.C. (2009) Traits for yield improvement of chickpea for droughtprone environments of India and Australia (CIM/1996/007). In:Adoption of ACIAR Project Outputs: Studies of Projects Completed in 20042005. (Pearce, D., and Templeton, D. (eds.). pp. 41-48. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra.v

legume upcoming conferences 26th to 30th April 2010 A combined conference of 5th International Food Legume Research Conference (IFLRC) and 7th European Conference on Grain Legumes (AEP) to be held at Antalya, Turkey 2nd to 8th July, 2010

Vth International Congress on Legume Genetics and Genomics to be held at Asilomar Conference Grounds in California

newsletter creDits CLIMA M080 Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences The University of Western Australia 35 Stirling Highway CRAWLEY WA 6009

Volume 10, Number 2, December 2009 EDITOR Dr Ping Si

pingsi@cyllene.uwa.edu.au Email: Website:

Assistant Editor Ms Sarah Mawson

smawson@cyllene.uwa.edu.au

LAYOUT

Contributing authors Dr Jens Berger Ms Sally Bolton Prof. Tim Colmer Dr Janine Croser Prof. William Erskine Dr Kioumars Ghamkhar Mr Vasanth Kumar Dr Ping Si Prof Neil Turner

clima@cyllene.uwa.edu.au www.clima.uwa.edu.au

Uniprint Jens.Berger@csiro.au communications@seedsoflifetimor.org tdcolmer@cyllene.uwa.edu.au jcroser@clima.uwa.edu.au werskine@cyllene.uwa.edu.au kioumars@clima.uwa.edu.au garelv01@student.uwa.edu.au pingsi@cyllene.uwa.edu.au ncturner@clima.uwa.edu.au

Volume 10

No.2

Š CLIMA 2009

DISCLAIMER

While every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information in this newsletter, the Centre for Legumes in Mediterranean Agriculture (CLIMA) cannot accept any responsibility for the consequences of the use of this information. The Newsletter provides you with a brief explanation of research and other activities in progress and is a guide only.

December 2009

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Clima Newsletter December 2009  

Centre for Legumumes in mediterranean Agriculture newsletter