LLOYD LOCAL (FOOD) EXCHANGE CHRISTINE HOLMES University of Oregon Architecture Terminal Studio 2011-2012 Nancy Cheng
TABLE OF CONTENTS: Abstract Background Thesis Statement Site Analysis Scope of Issues The Vision: Goals & Values Programming Process Modeling Preliminary Sketches Process Diagrams Photo Collage Product Urban Design Diagrams Site Plan Floor Plans Rendered Perspectives Sections & Elevations Contruction Details
BACKGROUND: Beliefs & Assumptions of Social Change What is architecture?
Urban City Interactive Communities
What should a building do in terms of it’s aesthetic ability? Shouldn’t we be constantly engaged with the outside world and allow for opportunities of spontaneous interaction with our communities? Because we have become such a closed off community, separated by highways, cars, and all of the technology that is hindering our social needs to live closely and work together, communities have fallen apart and cities are struggling to become strong regions of growth and wellness. While urban cities struggle to increase density in areas of empty parking lots and high-rise office towers, suburban sprawl and big-box department stores are issues at the forefront of urban design. Bringing together all of these resources, spaces, and people of the city to one centralized location in an effective way could be the gateway for reconnecting human life to one another. Architecture is about the user, the person, the human being who is living, breathing, occupying, consuming, and producing in our environment. It is about their needs, first and foremost. As well as the individual, we must consider the community as a whole. This neighborhood or district, is a part of the city with its own personal identity specific to Portland. They are a diverse group of people, who strive to express themselves on a daily basis within their living and working environments. Lastly, the architecture must address the region, considering the city of Portland within Oregon, Oregon within the United States, and the U.S. within the world. It is at all scales that we must consider the impacts of this architectural development, and how it can improve the places we live in.
Food Production Healthy Food Cycles
Built Environment Connections to Nature
Interlocking Environments “Bridging The Gap”
ABSTRACT: Thesis Statement One of the primary systems separating our communities, is the exchange of food supplies, leading to less interactive lifestyles and further isolation of resources and people. These unhealthy supply chains disconnect the producers from the consumers, wasting energy, transportation, money, and time. In order to bring people together, we need to provide access to local food venues to the places people live and work, as well as create healthy food supply cycles that can take place on site rather than at a distant location.
My intent with this project is to bridge the gap between separated communities and lifeless urban areas with a local food system that provides interactive public spaces, healthy resource cycles, and lively 24/7 environments. I believe that by bringing in mixed-use housing and commercial buildings with amenities such as access to local food, art, and retail for people of all ages, the neighborhood can attract diversity, liveliness, and culture to an empty, lackluster existing city center in Portland, OR.
SITE Lloyd District, Portland, OR One of the chosen areas outlined by the Portland Sustainability Institute as an EcoDistrict.
SITE ANALYSIS: Sidewalk Progression down NE Holladay Street
NE Holladay Street Selected Site Cross-Streets: NE Holladay Street and NE 10th Avenue 460’ x 460’ Block 3.4 Acres of Available Land Existing Building on site: Lloyd Tower Site Owners: Ashforth Pacific
SITE ANALYSIS: Surrounding Landmarks of Selected Site
J Cafe/Housing Mixed-Use Building
MAX Transit Station Convention Center
Lloyd Farmers Market Open Tuesday 10am - 2pm
Temptations Cafe/Quiznos Mixed-Use Building
MAX Transit Stations Lloyd Center & NE 7th Ave.
Between 11th and 13th Ave.
Stormwater Retention Pond
Landscaping Planters Permeable Paving
Stormwater Bioswales Street Trees Covered Bus Stops and Building Overhangs
ANALYSIS Scope of Issues & Opportunities Suburban to Urban Increasing Density Cultural Identiity Healthy Neighborhoods
SPREADING URBANISM: Increasing Population Density in Central Portland The Lloyd District is primarily made up of office buildings and commercial retail, with some regional attractions such as the Oregon Convention Center, Lloyd Center Mall, Rose Garden Arena, and Veteran’s Memorial Coliseum. The area has become an “office district” but lacks any support for the employees of the area during the day or after work hours, making for a lifeless and abandoned feel downtown. With the MAX line and future street car addition, the transit options show potential for connecting this location to the surrounding neighborhoods, but currently, it is only utilized by employees commuting to and from work each day. The large regional attraction centers bring in vast amounts of people for short periods of time, but again, the district lacks in supportive functions available before and after big events for visiting tourists. The Lloyd District has fallen short in bringing a successful restaurant venue or housing options, failing to generate vibrancy, growth, and identity in the city.
Existing Building Use
8% Residential 26% Office 34% Commercial
How can we revitalize the “downtown” of the Lloyd District in order to connect to the growing density of Portland’s central city and encourage future urban development in the existing neighborhoods? A mixed-use development consisting of an art center, restaurant, and urban farm with mixed-income housing above will increase urban population density in the district, while the art center and restaurant will bring life, culture, and expression to attract people all over the city.
MAX Line Bus Street Car (2012 Addition)
ATTRACTING SUBURBAN FAMILIES Urbanization of the “American Dream” In order to create a 24-hour zone that is constantly full of life and activitiy, it is important to make atmospheres desirable to families. There is already a high demand for young singles in the district, but the challenge is to create diversity in resdents in order to help the district develop a “neighborhood” feel. This project will be a catalyst in showing suburban homeowners that living downtown is possible, and can provide clean, safe, and healthy living environments for children to grow up in. What are the benefits of the suburban lifestyle? • Affordability • Convenience • Safety • Cleanliness • Family-Oriented • Privacy • Outdoor Space These aspects will be identified as the most important in creating housing that is highly attractive to suburban families. To bring people downtown, it is essential to provide the potential residents with all of these amenities in order to prove that urban living can be a great alternative to suburban neighborhoods.
? Where are the people?
ATTRACTING SUBURBAN FAMILIES: Urbanization of the “American Dream”
“Your Own Backyard”
Community Garden & Public Green Spaces
Private Views & Dwelling Units
Clean Suburban Streets
Walkable Urban Green Streets with Connections to Nature
Car-Dependency for Convenience Stores
Multiple Transportation Options
Separate Neighborhood Blocks
Diverse Neighborhood within 1 City Block
Safety in Suburban Privacy
Public Safety from “Eyes on the Street”
ECONOMIC PROSPERITY: A New Urban Center for Commerce & Growth The Lloyd District is a critical point of access for entering East Portland, and with so many empty parking lots and plenty of high-rise office towers, the area does not do its job in welcoming citizens or visitors to the area. In maximizing the density on a chosen site that is currently composed of underutilized parking space, the development of this project can be the catalyst in promoting future change to sites of similar scale and emptiness. The MAX line runs through NE Holladay Street, providing great potential transit connections to the other side of the river. As of now, there is nothing bringing people to this part of the city other than work. This development proposed at NE Holladay and 9th Street will explore the possibilities of what supportive functions could bring life and prosperity to the Lloyd District.
Constraints & Opportunities Existing Parking Green Nodes Entrance to the Lloyd via Steel Bridge
“Green Street” (down Holladay)
My vision is to create a series of similar projects that all encompass mixed-use housing blocks down Holladay, establishing a strong urban fabric that is pedestrian friendly in order to make the connection to the other large sectors in the district and beyond. This “green street” would stretch from the movie theatre at the Eastern end all the way down to the river, making for a lively walk through a variety of cultural destinations and urban infill.
Proposed Site (4.3 acres of available land) Future Development Posssibilities
In 10 years...In 20 years...
CULTURAL IDENTITY: Placemaking for the Lloyd District So, who are the people of the Lloyd District? The district is made up of a diverse group of people, all of different backgrounds, ethnicities, education, occupations, and income levels, with no sinlge identity that the area clings onto. Because there is nothing specifically unique or characteristic in this part of the city that could define what kinds of projects should be developed, it is a question of how to implement a genuine culture in an all-new development program.
Local Cuisine Art Gallery
How do we create a cultural identity for the downtown that makes the Lloyd District a desirable place for a diversity of people to live, work and play? Portland revolves around a freedom of expression, focusing on fresh, inspired minds all over the city to produce beautiful works of art. So, why not give the people a blank canvas with the available apparatus to create their own authentic character? Implementing an art center dedicated to the Lloyd District and surrounding communities will encourage local artists to display their creative talents and exchange innovative ideas.
Mixed-Use Housing/Commercial (10-15 stories)
Housing Tower Commercial/Office Podium (15-20 stories)
Mixed-Use Residential and Commercial Development • 2 Mid-rise residentail projects -26 units per floor, 260 units total -Focus is on one building @ 260,000 sqft • Commercial Uses at ground level (26,000 sqft) -Art Center -Restaurant • Urban Agriculture & Public Plaza Space (50,000 sqft)
Connection to Farmers Market
HEALTHY ENVIRONMENTS: Planting the seeds for Ecodistrict Initiative How can we integrate the Ecodistrict strategies to promote sustainability in Portland in order to make safe, clean, and aesthetically beautiful built environments?
Linking nature throughout the city, using park space, trees along sidewalks, trellised coverings, and landscaped open space.
“Our neighborhoods must provide business and services, healthy food, parks and other gathering places and housing that are easily accessible by foot, wheelchair, bike and transit so residents have options for living a healthy active lifestyle.” -Portland Plan 2011 Providing adequate housing options at the site is important according to recent studies by the Portland Bureau of Planning & Sustainability as well as the city of Portland Plan for 2011. In order to support the healthy lifestyles of these neighborhoods that the plan is committed to creating, there must also be a system of habitat connections, weaving nature through city to give Portlanders a healthy environment to live in. Healthy watershed systems will be incorporated visually in this project to display the importance of the natural, preserved environment in this part of Portland. There will also be a great pedestrian path that links people to the Willamette River, keeping us deeply rooted to the natural landscape of the water. The great connection to food and agriculture at this location will pave the way for future site developments to link outdoor spaces to this green corridor along Holladay. With a strong initiative to improve the farmers market at its current location, expanding it to the proposed site, will contribute to the availability in local food for the area.
Lloyd District Greenway Connection Corridors
Farmers Market Access Natural Watershed Patterns Pedestrian Access to Willamette River
Goals for Healthy Neighborhoods • Habitat Restoration: -Increased Tree Canopy -Connection to Sullivan’s Gulch & Willamette River -Rooftop Gardens • Water Use: -Mimic Natural Watershed -Consider Annual Precipitation Budget -Treat Wastewater On Site -Disconnect from City Sewer System • Access to Local Food -Urban Agriculture Gardens for Restaurant Venue -Farmers Market for Community Use
DISPLAYED PROCESS: Transparency of Integrated Systems In connecting art and food, the goal is to show the way these two processes are interactive. In terms of art, the process starts with the raw work that is created in artist studios to the exchange of ideas in small classrooms, and finally it is exhibited in an art gallery. At the same time, food begins at a natural level, grown in an urban farm, is harvested for restaurant use in creating a local cuisine, and then enjoyed as a service to the public in restaurants and cafes. The play between art and food in terms of how they go from the raw state of production to the final product of consumption will be relatable to the public and spread awareness of what it means to live and work in mutual relationships. What we produce is often completely separated from the result at the end of the cycle, but what if we could interject and put all of these activities in a central location? Could we eliminate the amount of transportation, energy, water, equipment, and money that goes into fueling these processes? If we can put on display the way these functions are carried out in a sustainable format, where the production of goods to services is viewed at a highly transparent level, visitors and locals alike can feel proud to call this successful system a part of their identity. This advanced way of living and working in one space to maximize our resources can pave the way for future movements in sustainable architecture and design practice.
Nature as Artistic Inspiration
Studio & Classroom Creation
Urban Farm Harvesting
The Art of Food Food as Art?
Exchange of Ideas through Cultural Events
PROGRAM Who/What/Where? User Profiles Programming Activity Uses
WHO ARE THE USERS? Creating Character Scenarios for Lloyd Locals Kids (12 and Under) • • • • •
Playground Indoor Hobby/Workspace/Daycare/Play space Children’s Agricultural Garden Children’s Art & Gardening Classes Play space within the apartment, ample space for bed rooms, kid-friendly living spaces, kitchens, and bathrooms
Lenny, 8 years old
Teens 13-18 • • • •
Teen Art Classes: Drawing, Painting, Sculpture, Ceramics Teen Indoor Lounge Connection to large parks nearby, bike paths, Rose Quarter, Lloyd Center Mall, and the movie theatre Nearby schools & recreational activities
Lexi, 4 years old Lindsay, 16 years old
Young kids living on and off site looking for fun activities to do after school and on the weekends can explore their creative sides in the art classrooms, learn about local food in the garden, or run off steam in the outdoor playground.
Luke, 14 years old
Teens living on and off site have access to all of the surrounding amenities when coming to this development. They find the outdoor plaza and coffee shop lounge to be a perfect after school hangout with close proximity to the park and movie theater for weekend entertainment.
Landon, 23 years old A local chef who lives and works at the restaurant on site, using locally grown food from the urban agricultural farm on his menu.
Adults 18-64 • • • • • •
Housing Options for young singles (1-2 bedroom lofts and apt flats) Restaurant/Bar and Gallery for local events Housing Options for young families with children (larger apartments with 2-4 bedrooms) Local Food & Agriculture grown in their own space-balconies? Art Classes to attend/teach on site Jobs created for cooks, storeowners, restaurant staff, art teachers, farmers, gardening teachers, market owners, etc.
Laura, 26 years old A local artist who lives on site, teaches art classes to teens, and enjoys the restaurant/bar scene with her husband and friends on the weekends and after hours.
Lance, 32 years old A nearby office employee has no trouble commuting to work as he lives on site with his wife and young kids, and often enjoys the local restaurant food served during his lunch breaks or for after work.
• Housing Options for young singles (1-2 bedroom lofts and apt flats) • Local Food & Agriculture grown in their own space • Art Classes to attend/teach on site • Jobs created for cooks, storeowners, restaurant staff, art teachers, farmers, gardening teachers, market owners, etc.
Lydia 58 years old A retired art teacher who lives on site and teaches children’s gardening classes on the weekends, as well as enjoys buying local food at the nearby farmer’s market for her family.
Lloyd, 70 years old & Lily, 66 years old A retired couple who live in the complex and enjoy the garden and public plaza space, watching children, and walking along Holladay Green Street.
Storage 250 sqft
Children’s Art Classroom 1,000 sqft
Storage 250 sqft
Gardening Classroom 1,000 sqft
Children’s Art Classroom 1,000 sqft
Public Plaza & P 15,000 s
Storage 250 sqft
Storage 250 sqft
Bathrooms 500 sqft
Urban Agriculture Garden 60,000 sqft
Teen-Adult Art Classroom 1,500-2,000 sqft
Kid-Teen Gallery Space 1,000 sqft Teen-Adult Art Classroom 1,500-2,000 sqft
Adult Gallery Space 2,000 sqft
Mechanical 250 sqft
Lobby 500 sqft Lobby 500 sqft
Art Supply Store 3,000 sqft
Art Center: 10,500 sqft
Restaurant/Bar 5,000 sqft
Restaurant & Art Gallery: 8,000 sqft
Small Ca 1,500 sq
PROGRAMMING: A Series of Community Spaces
merâ€™s Market 0,000 sqft
Multi-Family Apartment Unit 800-1,500 sqft (x40)
Single-Family Loft Unit 800-1,500 sqft (x40)
2 bedroom, 2 bath 3 bedroom, 2 bath 4 bedroom, 2 bath
1 bedroom, 1 bath 2 bedroom, 1 bath
Bathrooms Lobby 500 sqft
Outdoor Space: 96,000 sqft
Teen Lounge 1,000 sqft
Kid Indoor Play Space 1,000 sqft
Supportive Functions: 3,500 sqft
LIVING Housing: 80,000 sqft
Housing.....................................80,000 sqft Art Center................................10,500 sqft Restaurant. & Gallery...............8,000 sqft Public Outdoor Space............96,000 sqft Supportive Functions..................3,500 sqft Total = 198,000 sqft
(@ 70% efficiency)
198,000 sqft x .7 =138,600 sqft 198,000 sqft - 138,600 sqft = 59,400 sqft 198,000 sqft + 59,400 sqft = 257,400 sqft
Total Square Footage = 257,400 sqft
ACTIVITY How & When are the Spaces Used? Art Center:
Classrooms: art classes run by community organization of art teachers who are hired from all over Portland and encouraged to live on site • Children’s Art Class • Teen-Adult Visual Arts Class • Teen-Adult Photography Class • Teen-Adult Ceramics Class Art Supply Store: small shop run by locals in the building and supports the art classes in the complex
Open Saturday through Sunday (times will vary monthly with a calendar of workshops and classes available)
Open Saturday through Sunday 9am - 5pm
Restaurant & Gallery:
Restaurant: mid-size restaurant for locally grown food serving lunch and dinner 7 days a week Bar: bar connected to the restaurant that stays open after hours serving drinks and smaller menu to locals who can also listen to live music and socialize • Live Performances Weekly
Open Saturday through Sunday 11am - 10pm Open Saturday through Sunday 4pm - 2am
Gallery: small gallery space connected to the bar and restaurant for art shows ocurring a few times a month
Open Saturday through Sunday (times will vary with a calendar of events)
Garden Space: agricultural garden for local food to be harvested and used in the menu
Open 24 hours a day
Café: small coffee shop open in the mornings and through lunch to serve drinks, small breakfast items, soups, and sandwiches Lounge: lounge space connected to the coffee shop for a teen-young adult “hangout” with news about local events for young people posted around, but open to the public
Open Saturday through Sunday 6am - 2pm
Children Play Space:
Indoor Play Space: small playground inside, downstairs from the housing for young kids and open to the public Outdoor Play Space: large outdoor playground for kids open to the public
Open Saturday through Sunday 9am - 4pm
Children’s Garden: small garden space dedicated to the children’s gardening classes • connection to children’s art center for gardening classes that occur after school and on the weekends
Open Saturday through Sunday (times will vary monthly with a calendar of workshops and classes available)
Community Garden: garden space dedicated to the community, with many selfmaintained plantings that the public can visit and enjoy Public Plaza: large public plaza for the community with a connection to all of the ground level commercial buildings, including the restaurant/gallery Farmers Market: market space that has a permanent indoor retail space with a connection to the public outdoor space for mobile market stands • market runs 7 days a week by people living on site and has a public Saturday Market larger event for locals in the area to bring their own food to sell
Open 24 hours a day Open 24 hours a day Open Saturday through Sunday 9am - 8pm
PROCESS Initial Design Ideas Modeling Sketches/Drawing Diagramming
Human Spinal Cord & Rib Cage: Structural Connections • Interlocking Elements • Strong, Rigid Connections • Building Screen • Flexible Spaces
A Study of Interlocking Parts
Section Series demonstrates the interlocking of the two slat elements that work as a hinge opening up to a canopy.
Pin Detail goes through wood slats still allowing for lfexibility through rotation.
Front Elevation shows staggering of linear pieces to create interesting light patterns on the interior spaces.
SketchUp & 3D Model of a “Stick-like” Facade
Sketching of Terraced Spaces
Photo Collage for the Experience of Key Spaces
FINAL Design Solution Urban & Site Planning Building Design System & Structure
>> nature in the city lloyd local food center [An Alternative to Suburbia]
Sustainable Living in an Urban Environment
NE Holladay “Green Street”
Water Runoff to Sullivan’s Gulch Retention Pond
Through creating a green oasis for local food, we can attract families from suburban sprawl to live, work and play sustainably in a developed city center.
Wrapped in Nature
“your own backyard - in the sky”
people (housing) + nature (food)
24 Hour Activity “eyes on the street”
A street-front plaza is framed by the market, res-
taurant and gallery for spill out space and to accomodate large community events. The central axis running through the site aligns the food market with the Oregon Public Health building and current farmers market space as well as a future green space to the North which city plans to develop. Service entries occur on both sides of 7th and 9th avenue for the loading and distributing process.
Maximum solar exposure was essential in orienting the
housing towers to allow two south-facing vertical greenhouses to receive maximum sunlight. Views to the river and cityscape to the west also directed where the majority of the housing would be focused. At the base, highlighting the corners with key public spaces with transparent edges attracts visitors to increase revenue.
The central â€œgemâ€? of the
site houses both a covered and semi-covered farmers market to feed the residents, nearby employees, and visitors. A sustainability education center for growing, storing, and cooking local foods sits above the market and provides classrooms connected to outdoor terraces and direct access to a large rooftop community garden.
local office workers
7 8 13 UP
6 7 2 4
1 restaurant 2 cafe 3 kitchen 4 housing lobby 5 loading/storage 6 retail space 7 public restrooms 8 market 9 art gallery 10 public plaza 11 sculpture garden 12 surface parking (service entry)
PU ND PU
1 2 3
greenhouse resident garden/courtyard atrium
4 5 6
apartment flat mechanical/storage 2-story apartment
market mezzanine classroom
The site was designed on a 30â€™ by 30â€™ grid with some small service parking at grade and underground parking below the entire structure for residents, visitors, and office employees of the existing towers. The landscape design consists of a large urban plaza with some smaller garden spaces as a sculptural park with benches and large trees for shade.
Scale: 1/8” = 1’-0”
Scale: 1/8” = 1’-0”
(typical apartment flat)
(typical 2 story)
A series of interior units were designed to give beautiful natural light and open, spacious public rooms that facilitate healthier lifestyles.
The groundfloor market keeps an open plan with large curtain walls on either side for a bright space that can be transformed as a permanent market with a mezzanine level to invite visitors to the local sustainability classes on how to grow, cook, and store food grown on site. To allow the residents a public space with connections to the vertical greenhouse, an atrium was designed to be the heart of the tower, where people are able to have private â€œneighborhoodâ€? spaces on the corridor terraces, substituting for the typical suburban driveway and small yard space.
north elevation The north facade is kept simple, with the terracotta panels covering the residential space and the perforated metal at the ground floor for commercial space. The idea is that the windows of the building are pushing back and forth to create the appearance of forms interlocking and the dynamic play of these spaces. As you move around the building, perforated panels are on the East, West, and South facade for enhancing this dynamic exterior.
south elevation The south facade works in a gradient from left to right, left being the most private space for residents and with the most pattern and variety of material coverage, and working towards the right side as being a transparent piece with some panels of perforated metal and green gardens showing through. As this gradient works towards the middle of the site, your eye is directed towards this beacon of sustainability, which is the most public space.
HVAC section B
Large thermal mass collects heat through direct radiation during the day and releases during the night. In terms of the water usage on site, the large roof area for each of the towers will collect water to reuse for graywater storage to be treated in a storage cistern in the basement of the site. The rest of the roof area will be covered in greenroofs to help mitigate water runoff and permeable pavers in the plaza spaces as grade will assist in that process as well.
Operable windows creates a thermal chimney through the north facing housing units and south facing greenhouse. Pressure differences between the indoor and outdoor spaces push hot air out of the building allowing fresh air to circulate and naturally ventilate the building.
The vertical greenhouses serve both the residents of the towers as well as the market, restaurant, and small cafe with fresh fruits, vegetables, flowers, and herbs that are changed out year round and use drip irrigation to maintain. On-site farmers would live and work in the greenhouses and there would be ample community garden space on the rooftops where the public could gather. The rooftop gardens would be accessed by the community through these sustainability classes such as gardening, cooking, and understanding how local food is produced, harvested, and stored in this central building.
Level 17 160' - 0"
Level 16 150' - 0"
Level 15 140' - 0"
Level 14 130' - 0"
Level 13 120' - 0"
Level 12 110' - 0"
Level 11 100' - 0"
Level 10 90' - 0"
Level 9 80' - 0"
Level 8 70' - 0"
Level 7 60' - 0"
Level 6 50' - 0"
Level 5 40' - 0"
Level 4 30' - 0"
Level 3 20' - 0" Mezzanine 15' - 0" Level 2 10' - 0"
Level 1 0' - 0"
section A - site
thermal batt insulation exterior sheating vapor barrier
exterior wall panel water & air barrier
interior sheating panel clip
Curtain Wall Head Detail 3” = 1’-0”
panel clip thermal batt insulation exterior sheating
exterior wall panel water & air barrier
Curtain Wall Sill Detail 3” = 1’-0”
interior wood paneling
gridline texture terracotta cladding
dappled light perforated metal
water & air barrier
Roof Detail 3” = 1’-0” rigid insulation
exterior sheating thermal batt insulation
2 x 6 steel stud water & air barrier vapor barrier
thermal batt insulation
vapor barrier interior sheating
exterior sheating water & air barrier panel clip exterior wall panel
Roof Detail 3” = 1’-0”
Wall Detail 3” = 1’-0”