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LEADERSHIP THEORIES

CLEOFE A. BATERNA, JR.


Nature of Leadership Effective leadership is a key factor in the life and success of an organization.  

Leadership transforms potential into reality. Leadership is the ultimate act which brings to success all of the potent potential that is in an organization and its people. Leaders propose new paradigms when old ones lose their effectiveness.


Leadership Matters…. 

Intellectually 

Politically 

productively, economically, idealistically

Personally 

societally, culturally, globally, communally, & perhaps idealistically

Practically 

historically, psychologically, sociologically

interpersonally, ethically, selfishly

Scientifically 

empirically, conceptually


What is Leadership ? 

“The process of influencing the activities of an organized group in its efforts toward goal setting and goal achievement” (Stogdill, 1950, p. 3)

Three key components to this definition:  an interpersonal process between one person and a group  can’t have ‘leaders’ without ‘followers’  criterion for effective leadership = goal achievement


What is Leadership? 

Leadership: Leadership guidance of others in their pursuits, often by organizing, directing, coordinating, supporting, and motivating their efforts.     

Reciprocal Transactional Transformational Cooperative Adaptive


Who Will Lead? 

Perspectives on leadership emergence   

Trait Model: The great leader theory Situational Model Interactional Model: depends on the leader, followers, and the group situation.


The Great Man Theory 

Early explanations of leadership studied the “traits” of great leaders  

“Great man” theories (Gandhi, Lincoln, Napoleon) Belief that people were born with these traits and only the great people possessed them


Theories of Leadership: Trait Trait Theory/Great Man (Woman) – assumes the leader is different from the average person in terms of personality traits such as intelligence, perseverance, and ambition • Assumptions People are born with inherited traits. Some traits are particularly suited to leadership. People who make good leaders have the right (or sufficient) combination of traits.


Trait Theory

Early research on leadership was based on the psychological focus of the day, which was of people having inherited characteristics or traits. Attention was given to discovering these traits, often by studying successful leaders. Underlying assumption that if other people could also be found with these traits, then they, too, could also become great leaders.


The Great Man Theory 

Personal qualities of leaders 

 

Personality traits, such as extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness. Intelligence and emotional intelligence (degree of social skill). Expertise, skill, and experience. Level of participation in discussion: the “babble effect.”


Who Will Lead? (cont) 

Demographic background of leaders   

Height, weight, & age Ethnicity Sex: Bias against women (even thought women possess more skills needed to be a successful leader).  Implicit leadership theories (ILTs): members general beliefs about the qualities of leaders  Eagly’s social role theory: ILTs are not consistent with intuitive expectations about men & women: “think leader, think male”


Behavioral Theories Assumptions Leaders can be made, rather than are born Successful leadership is based in definable, learnable behavior Description Behavioral theories do not seek inborn traits – they look at what leaders actually do Success can be defined in terms of describable actions Implication Leadership capability can be learned


Behavioral Theories Two general types of behavior exhibited by leaders: Concern for People Concern for Production


Contingency Approaches Contingency approaches: approaches that seek to delineate the characteristics of situations and followers and examine the leadership styles that can be used effectively

Fiedler’s contingency model: a model designed to diagnose whether a leader is task-oriented or relationshiporiented and match leader style to the situation


Contingency Theory (Fiedler 1978) 

Leadership effectiveness is determined by the interaction between the leader's personal characteristics and the characteristics of the situation Leaders are classified as person‑oriented or task‑oriented (which type will be more effective depends on the leader's degree of situational control) Control depends on relationship between leader/followers, the degree of task structure, and the leader's authority (position power)


The LPC Scale

Measuring

Motivational Style

Least Preferred Coworker Scale, or LPC scale. “Think of the person whom you least like to work with”


LPC Scale ď Ž

He or she may be someone you work with now or someone you knew in the past. This coworker does not have to be the person you like least but should be the person with whom you had the most difficulty in getting a job done.


Contingency Theory (Fiedler 1978) 

The task‑oriented leader will be effective in extremely favorable or extremely unfavorable situations The person‑oriented leader will be more effective in moderately favorable situations Criticisms include most of research was in the lab


Path‑Goal Theory (House 1971) 

Path‑goal theory focuses on the kinds of leader behaviors that allow subordinates to achieve personal and organizational goals Four leadership styles can be adopted to facilitate employee attainment of goals    

Directive Supportive Participative Achievement‑oriented


Path-Goal Situations and Preferred Leader Behaviors Situation

Leader Behavior

Impact on Follower

Followers lack self-confidence

Supportive Leadership

Ambiguous job

Directive Leadership

Lack of job challenge

AchievementOriented Leadership

Set and strive for high goals

Participative Leadership

Clarifies followers’ needs to change rewards

Incorrect reward

Outcome

Increases confidence to achieve work outcomes

Clarifies path to reward

Increased effort; improved satisfaction and performance


Path‑Goal Theory (House 1971) 

 

The most effective leadership style depends on the situation and the characteristics of the subordinates Requires leader flexibility Directive style works best with unskilled workers Supportive leadership works best with highly skilled workers Theory is difficult to test and operationalize


Situational Theory - Hersey and Blanchard (1978)  Effectiveness depends on the leader's task and relationship behaviors.  The Leadership Grid: Blake & Mouton assume that people vary in their concern for others and in their concern for results and that individuals who are high on both dimensions (9,9) are the best leaders.

 Hersey and Blanchard’s extension of the Leadership Grid focusing on the characteristics of followers as the important element of the situation, and consequently, of determining effective leader behavior.  Hersey and Blanchard suggest that groups benefit from leadership that meshes with the developmental stage of the group.


Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory of Leadership Follower Characteristics

Appropriate Leader Style

Low readiness level

Telling (high task-low relationship)

Moderate readiness level

Selling (high task-high relationship)

High readiness level Very high readiness level

Participating (low task-high rel.) Delegating (low task-low relationship)


Leader‑Member Exchange Theory (LMX) (Graen & Schlieman 1978) 

 

Leader‑member exchange theory (LMX) focuses on how the leader‑follower relationship affects the leadership process Subordinates are of two types: "in‑group" and "out‑group" In‑group employees are viewed by the leader as competent, trustworthy, and highly motivated Out‑group employees are viewed as incompetent, untrustworthy, and poorly motivated


Leader‑Member Exchange Theory (LMX) (Graen & Schlieman 1978) 

Two leadership styles: supervision (based on formal authority) and leadership (based on persuasion) Leaders use supervision with out‑group employees, and leadership with in‑group members Leaders and in‑group members establish personal relationships leading to mutual support and understanding High‑LMX relationship groups tends to outperform low‑LMX relationship groups


Transactional vs. Transformational Leaders   

Transactional leaders focus on the social interactions between leaders and followers It is based on followers' perceptions of and expectations about the leaders abilities The behavior of transactional leaders depends on what their followers think of them


Transformational Leaders 

 

Transformational leaders are not constrained by their followers' perceptions but are free to act to transform (change) their followers' views They challenge and inspire with a sense of purpose and excitement They create a vision and communicate it while accepting feedback and suggestions


Elements of Transformational Leadership Creating a Strategic Vision

Communicating the Vision

Transformational Leadership Building Commitment

Modeling the Vision


Transformational Leaders…         

Do not accept the status quo Create a graphic and compelling vision of the future Act as role models Are often referred to as “tough” Energise and inspire others Are said to be “charismatic” Are very instrumental in times of turbulence / crises Provide sense of individual consideration Provide stimulation (intellectual and emotional)

(James MacGregor Burns, 1978)


Authentic Leadership 

Owning one’s own personal experiences (values, thoughts, emotions and beliefs) and acting in accordance with one’s true self”

Leader-follower relationships characterised by:   

transparency, openness & trust guidance towards worthy objectives emphasis on follower development (William Gardiner et al, 2005)


Moral Leadership 

“As a concept, leadership should mean a set of values dedicated to promoting human development for the common good of people in a democratic environment, both at the national and international levels” (Adel Safty, 2003)

“The modern leader is willing to take responsibility without waiting for a request or bureaucratic permission” (Ronald Heifertz, 2003)


Leadership & Gender Differences

Sex differences in leadership effectiveness:  Women tend to adopt participative and transformational styles of leadership  Men are more likely to enact autocratic, laissez-faire, and transactional styles.


Leadership and Emotions 

“An emotionally intelligent leader can monitor his or her moods through selfawareness, change them for the better through self-management, understand their impact through empathy, and act in ways that boost others’ moods through relationship management” (Goleman, Boyatzis & McKee, 2001)


Distributed Leadership 

“In the twenty-first century organization, we need to establish communities where everyone shares the experience of serving as a leader, not sequentially, but concurrently and collectively. These I call leaderful organizations.” (Joseph Raelin, 2003, p. xi)

“The model makes the case for the end of leadership as we commonly know it—that is, rank-based management—and introduces a method for developing an organisation into a true society of peers. I call this model the peer-based organization”. (Jeffrey Nielsen, 2004, p. x)


Level 5 Leadership Hierarchy  

Level 5: Executive builds enduring greatness through a paradoxical blend of personal humility and professional will Level 4: Effective Leader catalyses commitment to vigorous pursuit of a clear and compelling vision, stimulating higher performance standards Level 3: Competent Manager organises people and resources toward the effective and efficient pursuit of predetermined objectives Level 2: Contributing Team Member contributes individual capabilities to the achievement of group objectives and works effectively with others in a group setting Level 1: Highly Capable Individual makes productive contributions through talent, knowledge, skills and good work habits (Jim Collins, 2001, Good to Great)


Management Theory 

 

Management theories (also known as “Transactional theories”) focus on the role of supervision, organization, and group performance. These theories base leadership on a system of consequences: reward and punishment. Managerial theories are often used in business; when employees are successful, they are rewarded; when they fail, they are reprimanded or punished.


Leadership Theories