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2010 BIOPOWER BUYERS GUIDE Utility Scale Solar Projects Contracts, construction & costs Benefiting from the Canadian Feed-In Tariff (FIT) program for renewable energy generation Offshore Wind Development

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contents 2010 BIOPOWER BUYERS GUIDE Utilit S Utility Scale l S Solar l P Projects j Contracts, construction & costs Benefiting from the Canadian Feed-In Tariff (FIT) program for renewable energy generation Offshore Wind Development




Wind’s Brilliant Past and Brighter Future


Contracting for the Construction of Utility Scale Solar Projects

May / June 2010 Volume 4, Number 3 EDITOR

PLUS Show in Print features… • NAWTEC • SOLAR 2010 • Intersolar Munich

Michelle Froese ART DIRECTOR

Rommel Ramirez SALES MANAGER


Photo courtesy SPG Solar, Inc., Thompson Technology Industries, Inc., and Xanterra Parks & Resorts, Death Valley.

Reaching Solar Grid Parity Energy: Not just about PV panel costs

Ian Stuart

Automated Assembly Propelling Solar Panel Productivity

Ian Stuart


departments Solar energy

10 20

Investing in Clean Energy


Wind energy


Show in Print: SOLAR 2010 Show in Print: Intersolar Munich



Case Study: Project Economics for Single-Axis Trackers Understanding the Feed-In Tariff Program for Renewable Energy Generation




The Canadian PV Gold Rush


Solar Energy Products




BioPower Buyers Guide 2010

Reducing Capital Expenditures for On-site Renewable Energy


Government Support for Offshore Wind: What can the US learn from Europe?


Show in Print: NAWTEC


Geothermal energy


Hydro and Marine energy



Ian Stuart

Port Moody, B.C. V3H 5H1 Phone: (604) 461-6223 North American Clean Energy is published bi-monthly by



Regulatory Uncertainty Hindering Offshore Wind Development

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Test Turbine Controls & Project Reliability

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Geographic Information Systems and Wind Farm Development

expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of North American Clean Energy. No portion of this publication may be reproduced without the permission of the publishers. Copyright 2008, Action Media Ltd.


How to Choose a Substation Transformer: Asking the right questions

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BioPower Buyers Guide 2010 The Ups & Downs of Geothermal Energy and Exploration A Developing Energy: Geothermal grows by 26% Case Study: Canoe Pass Tidal Power Plant

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editor's note

Photo by Michelle Moore

Demotions. Downsizing. Decreased mutual funds and 401K plans. According to President Obama, more than 600 thousand people lost their job in just the first half of 2009 and, some say that number was, and still is, much higher. The number of Americans receiving food stamps has been at a record high, and that doesn’t even touch on lost health care insurance and missed doctor’s appointments due to reduced cash flow (before and despite the recent US health care reform). It’s been labeled the “worst financial crisis since the Great Depression” in the United States, and it’s not quite over yet. Although the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) could declare the current recession will end by the close of 2010, undoubtedly, the impact on American families will continue throughout 2011. The recession has had catastrophic effects not just on the economy, but on businesses, families, people. Words cannot account for the challenges and devastation it has produced, in the US and globally. For all the damage and heartbreak caused, however, the recession has also been a catalyst for growth and change. I believe it was economist Joseph Schumpeter who coined the term “creative destruction?” Well, studies have shown that the recession has not only spurred many aspiring, or “accidental” entrepreneurs, but also prompted new policies and new technologies that might not have developed otherwise. I’m not sure if the recession should take full credit as far as renewables go, but there are some interesting stats. I recall perusing several articles last spring, which stated that the downturned global economy would affect and underfund clean energy projects, leading to slowed growth in an industry that was already “overhyped.” Although there have been delays in certain projects, a recent “Clean Energy Trends” report from SITING Clean Edge Inc. found overall growth despite predictions to the contrary. E & E’s environmental planning teams perform all Accordingly, the global biofuel market required studies for avian/bat and other sensitive rose 29%, hitting $44.9 billion; and, species, terrestrial and aquatic/wetland habitat, $63.5 billion was spent worldwide meteorology, cultural resources, land use, last year on wind farms, bringing the socioeconomics, noise, and radar. number up 23.5% from 2008. To add to that, the total installed wind energy capacity in the US alone was 35,086 MW at the end of 2009— PERMITTING making the country a leader in global E & E can prepare all required federal wind energy capacity (read more on environmental impact statements, page 8). And, the US geothermal state-equivalent impact assessments, power industry also continued strong and local use permits. growth in 2009, up 26% (see article on page 75). Only solar companies saw revenue decline in 2009, based on the research from Clean Edge, and this is STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT blamed on the plunging price of solar E & E can assist in identifying panels. stakeholders and engaging them early Certainly, the government stimulus on to obtain consensus on the project. and incentives are responsible for much of the success among most renewables. And, who knows, maybe “creative destruction” can even be attributed to some of the related growth in technology. I remember a saying I once saw near the door of a newly opened company that said: “If opportunity doesn’t knock, build yourself a door.” Seems many renewable energy companies have not ecology and just built the door but powered the environment, inc. entire building, too. Now the question International Specialists in the Environment remains: will they continue at the same rate?

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Michelle Froese

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news bites Investing in renewables More Ontario homes and businesses will soon be powered by green energy with the awarding of contract offers for almost 2,500 MW of renewable energy announced. These projects, approved under the Canadian province’s landmark Feed-in Tariff (FIT), are in addition to the 510 renewable energy contract offers totaling 112 MW approved earlier this year, and are part of the largest green energy investment of its kind in Canadian history. The 184 projects announced will generate enough energy to power 600,000 homes. Located in communities across the province, the total 694 Feed-in Tariff (FIT) contract offers to date will create 20,000 direct and indirect green jobs and attract about $9 billion in private sector investment, as well as investment in new Ontariobased manufacturing. Seventy-six of the approved projects are ground-mounted solar photovoltaic, 47 are onshore wind, and 46 are hydropower projects. There are also seven biogas, two biomass, four landfill gas, one roof top solar and one off-shore wind projects. “These projects are the latest accomplishments of the Green Energy Act which is making Ontario a place of destination for green energy development, manufacturing, and expertise,” said Ontario’s Minister of Energy and Infrastructure, Brad Duguid. “The investments generated by FIT will not only create green jobs, but will also build a coal-free legacy for future generations.”

Global wind energy on the rise Global wind energy markets are expected to continue their rapid growth, with the world’s wind power capacity increasing by 160% over the coming five years, according to the annual industry forecast presented by the Global Wind Energy Council. GWEC expects that the global installed wind capacity will reach 409 GW by 2014, up from 158.5 GW at the end of 2009. This assumes an average growth rate of 21% per year, which is conservative compared to the 29% average growth that the wind industry experienced over the past decade. During 2014, the annual market will be more than 60 GW, up from 38.3 GW in 2009.

“Even in the face of a global recession and financial crisis, wind energy continues to be the technology of choice in many countries around the world. Wind power is clean, reliable, and quick to install, so it is the most attractive solution for improving supply security, reducing CO2 emissions, and creating thousands of jobs in the process,” said Steve Sawye, GWEC secretary general. “All of these qualities are of key importance, even more so in times of economic uncertainty.” Global Wind Energy Market |

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Picking up the PACE The City and County of San Francisco officially launched GreenFinanceSF, the nation’s largest Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) program. The program allows San Francisco private property owners to finance water conservation, energy efficiency, and renewable energy improvements through a voluntary property assessment. Each assessment will be paid in full within 20 years. Oakland-based Renewable Funding, the leading provider of PACE services, will administer the program and provide capital to fund the projects. San Francisco-based Stone & Youngberg and Backstrom McCarley Berry & Co. are serving as municipal bond underwriters. Minnesota adopted a PACE law earlier this month, and programs are expected to launch in Louisiana, New Mexico, Maryland, and hundreds of additional cities and counties throughout California by the end of the year.

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Wind’s Brilliant Past and

Brighter Future By Ed Feo | Partner, Milbank Tweed Hadley & McCloy LLP


n April 8th of this year, the American Wind Energy Association issued its Annual Market Report for 2009. The report is an ideal source for anyone looking for a snapshot of the US wind industry. It also evidences how the wind industry has matured in the past decade. In 2009, over 10,000 MW of new wind projects were installed in the United States, following the 8,366 MW installed in 2008. The total installed capacity at the end of 2009 was 35,086 MW, making the US the leader in global wind energy capacity. These two years of continued growth (on the order of 39% year on year), over the span of the financial crisis and economic recession, is nothing short of amazing. The growth can be ascribed to a strong pipeline of projects coming into 2008/2009, the implementation of the ARRA Section 1603 Treasury grant in lieu of tax credits, and the fairly rapid recovery of the debt market in 2009. Although the first quarter of 2009 was challenging from a financing perspective, the bank market improved dramatically as the year progressed. As noted in the AWEA report, the pace of installation in the fourth quarter of 2009 accelerated over earlier quarters. The importance of regulatory certainty—but also responsiveness to changed conditions as evidenced by the Treasury grant—can be seen by the steady growth in annual wind installations since 2005. Prior to that time, annual wind installations followed a saw tooth pattern as the production tax credit would expire, and then be renewed on an irregular basis. While the regulatory climate is much better than earlier in this decade, the industry should be cautious about the potential for regulatory uncertainty in the future. The Treasury grant program will effectively expire at the end of 2010, and the production tax credit will expire at the end of 2012. While the expectation is that the Treasury grant will either be extended or replaced by a refundable tax credit, Congressional action has been slow in light of other legislative priorities. It may well be at, or after, the end of this year before the issue is clarified. As a consequence, expect to see wind developers pushing hard to reach commencement of construction this year, but that may mean 2011 will be an off year if legislative action is still pending. The report analyzes the location of wind energy facilities installed over the past decade. In 2000, California was the leader in wind capacity with a little over 2000 MW, most of that dating from the 1980s and early 1990s. Seventeen other states had some level of wind energy capacity at the commencement of this century. Presently, thirty six states have utility scale wind facilities, led by Texas with over 9,000 MW. The clear trend shows most growth has been in the middle third of the country. Wind installations have increased where there is the combination of good wind resources, renewable portfolio standards, community support, transmission capacity, and a favorable permitting regime. California, once the leader, has had very modest growth in installed capacity over the past several years (approximately 270 MW in 2009, compared to 2,300 MW in Texas)—notwithstanding, a very robust renewable portfolio standard and pricing. The reasons: transmission constraints and permitting challenges. Even though power prices in California are favorable compared to many other states, developers have elected to build where they can, instead of where they can’t. 8


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Ed Feo is a partner in the international law firm of Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy LLP. He co-chairs the Firm’s project finance and energy practice and is a member of the Firm’s Global Executive Committee.

The ownership of the US wind industry is fairly concentrated. Approximately 49% of the industry is owned by five companies (led by NextEra Energy Resources, formerly known as FP&L Energy). Consolidation in the industry has occurred as a result of foreign and domestic utilities buying portfolios of assets. Private equity investment has also driven the growth of certain companies, such as First Wind and Noble Environmental. Today, there are portfolios for sale such as Infigen (1090 MW under management or ownership) and John Deere Renewables (705 MW). There is some question whether the European utilities have concluded their period of acquisitions, and are now focused on developing their substantial pipelines of projects. Buying by US utilities continues, and we are starting now to see more interest from Asian buyers—Japanese trading companies and utilities and, more significantly, Chinese companies. It would not be surprising to see several thousand megawatts of capacity changing hands in the next two years. Wind has been one of the largest sources of new generation capacity generally. In 2009, wind accounted for 39% of all new generation capacity, second only to natural gas facilities at 43%. Wind was a little less than half of the new renewable generation installed in the US last year. Looking ahead, nearly 300,000 MW of proposed wind projects have applied for interconnection, with the largest queues being in the upper Midwest, the interior West/Northwest, and Texas. The mortality rate of those projects will be significant given the need for permitting, power contracts, transmission, and financing. But, one can expect, even with a healthy discount rate, that a pace of 10,000 MW or better per year will be achievable. One key factor will be the availability of power purchase agreements. Given the portfolio standards now in effect in the majority of the states, many renewables projects—and wind projects specifically—are receiving bankable power contracts. It is unlikely power contracts will be granted to fossil fuel facilities at anywhere near the same rate. So, given the preference of investors and lenders for contracted assets, one can expect the ratio of wind to fossil projects will continue to increase in the next few years. But what, if anything, stands in the way of wind’s bright future? One issue is power pricing. Currently, the economic recession has reduced electric demand (and demand for natural gas) with the result that power prices have gone down. Wind developers, especially in the Midwest, are finding it difficult to receive pricing that works for them. Another issue is transmission. The continued march of wind to 100,000 MW will require major transmission improvements. These are slow and expensive to develop, a situation not likely to change without further federal legislation. Finally, there is political and regulatory risk. As noted above, the current federal subsidies can end unless further action is taken. There is the risk that the underpinnings of the shift to renewables— energy security and environmental preference—are overcome by concerns over the apparent additional cost of renewables including investment in transmission. That being said, these issues have been faced before, and the industry prevailed. The industry has never been in better shape, or enjoyed more respect or power. Milbank Tweed Hadley & McCloy LLP |

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solar energy

Contracting for the Construction of Utility Scale Solar Projects By Lance T Brasher & Michael E Dailey


echnological advances, an abundant and reliable resource, and favorable regulatory policies are causing an explosion in the development of utility scale solar power projects in the United States, as well as in many other countries. Improvements in photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) systems are leading to more efficient plants, and more competitively priced solar energy. Solar energy, which generally follows daylight peak loads, has the highest potential of renewable energy resources. It’s been estimated that the potential supply capacity of the principal renewable competitor energy sources amounts to only 1% of solar power’s capacity. The key impetus for the tremendous growth in solar in the US is the favorable regulatory environment including the proliferation of state Renewable Energy Portfolio Standards across the country with solar set-asides and expectations for a national standard, the extension of the solar investment tax credit in-service date requirement to 2016, the expansion of the Department of Energy (DOE) loan guarantee program, as well as the creation of the Treasury grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act and the Environmental Protection Agency’s recent decision to regulate greenhouse gas emissions. Although a substantial amount of wind and other renewable energy generation capacity has been placed in operation in recent years, at only about 10 GW of installed capacity today, most solar technologies remain in their infancy. The successful build-out of solar power generation will rely on thousands of construction contracts addressing many issues of particular relevance to solar projects. The risks to be allocated between an owner and contractor pursuant to an engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC) agreement may seem as old as the solar resources these projects are designed to harness, and many of the issues and allocation strategies are the same for a utility scale solar project as for any other large-scale generation project. A few issues, however, should be given greater consideration. Specifically, considerations related to the assignment of equipment contracts to the contractor, intellectual property rights, confidential information, schedule guarantees, performance guarantees, and warranties.


Assignment of equipment contracts

It has become commonplace in contracting for the construction of large-generation projects for owners to purchase major components of the facility separately and, then, later assign those contracts to the EPC contractor such that the contractor “wraps” these separately negotiated equipment contracts. An arrangement is also possible in the context of a utility scale solar generation project, but the owner may encounter more difficulties. First, it may be difficult to find a contractor that is willing to wrap the equipment contracts because the equipment will likely be less familiar to the contractor than equipment assignments the contractor typically accepts. As a result, the contractor might be less confident in the equipment supplier’s ability to stand behind and achieve its schedule and performance guarantees. The contractor may also be concerned because this unfamiliarity will make it more difficult and time-consuming to ensure all gaps between the equipment supplier’s scope and the contractor’s scope are covered. If a contractor is willing to accept the assignment, it’s likely that it will increase the bid to account for the perceived increased risk. These problems are exacerbated if the equipment the contractor is asked to wrap is a high-technology or developmental component of the project. Projects where the developmental component is integral to the operation of the project (for example, equipment for a CSP project’s molten salt storage) are of particular concern to a contractor asked to wrap the equipment supply because, if the component does not work or does not work well, the viability of the entire project (and, therefore, payment under the power purchase agreement or acceptance into the rate base) is in jeopardy. In addition, equipment failure may have a material negative impact on the supplier’s creditworthiness, leaving the contractor without a backstop to its obligations under the EPC agreement. But, even in situations where the developmental component is merely ancillary to the project, it will be difficult to find a contractor willing to take on so much uncertainty. The key for the owner (and contractor, for that matter) is to allocate as much risk as possible to the supplier of the developmental component who is, after all, the party that stands to accrue the greatest benefit if the component is successful. A major obstacle in assigning the equipment supply contracts to the contractor and obtaining a wrap is the relative size of the equipment supply agreement as compared to the EPC agreement. For many solar technologies (PV, concentrating PV, and Stirling cycle-board CSP), the equipment supply agreement for key equipment may be of a much larger dollar proudly introduces value than the EPC agreement. Where Solar-Trac® the balance of plant is relatively small or less complex, a contractor is unlikely Flexible supply and return lines for solar heated water systems. to be willing or to have sufficient credit Inter Solar San Francisco booth #7815 capacity to wrap the equipment supply contract. Further, unless the value of the Solar-Trac Piping Benefits: EPC agreement incorporates the price • T316L Stainless Steel of the equipment contract following the • Available sizes from 3/8” thru 2” • Tubing bends by hand assignment (i.e. the contractor assumes • Routes easily around obstacles the payment obligation under the equip• Cuts using standard tubing cutter ment supply agreement), the owner may • Special lengths available be restricted to a limit of liability and liquidated damages caps, which are often Solar-Flare Fitting Benefits: tied to the contract price, that are much • Self-flaring lower than are available under the equip• No special tools ment supply agreement. While having • Reliable metal-to-metal a non-wrapped agreement increases the sealing surface potential for the owner to be caught be• No gaskets or rubber washers tween the contractor and the equipment Highest level of quality for tomorrow’s energy supplier on disputes, the owner should consider all of the implications before choosing to assign the equipment agreeOmega Flex, Inc. ments. Because a turnkey contract is still 451 Creamery Way • Exton, PA 19341 ISO 9001 Registered Company desirable, it may be necessary for the 800.355.1039 wrap to come from the equipment supSLT-006 Rev 12/09 plier. A number of PV suppliers are cur© Copyright Omega Flex 2009 rently providing this turnkey service.


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solar energy Intellectual property rights

Intellectual property rights and the confidentiality of information are important considerations on any generation project; however, some of the issues are intensified in the negotiation of an EPC agreement for a solar project. Much is a result of the emerging nature of the technology and competitors trying to insulate themselves from one another. The result, from the perspective of the owner, is decreased flexibility in many aspects of the project cycle. Some aspects of the negotiation that may be impacted include access and inspection rights, the owner’s remedy for a contractor’s supply of an infringing component, the owner’s assignment rights, availability of information to support the regulatory review of

the project, and restrictions on financing parties to the extent they are related to contractor’s competitor. Schedule guarantees

The most significant considerations in construction of solar projects related to contractor schedule guarantees are: 1. Commencement of construction as required to qualify for the Treasury grant (before January 2011), and the federal funding of the credit subsidiary fee under the DOE’s Section 1705 loan guarantee program for renewable energy projects (before October 2011); and

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2. Placement of the project in service during a specified period of time to receive tax credits or the Treasury grant (before January 2017). Although this problem of achieving the placement in service deadline has been greatly mitigated by the extension of the solar in-service date, owners need to provide sufficient float to ensure the prospect of missing the required in-service date is highly unlikely, particularly for large, complicated projects with lengthy engineering, procurement or construction cycles. Performance guarantees

Performance guarantees are technology specific by their nature, so time and attention is necessary to get the correct performance guarantees in place whether the project is fossil- or renewablebased technology. With solar projects, however, some additional elements of the performance guarantees must be considered. More established renewable generation sources have industry accepted standards and instrumentation for conducting a performance test (e.g. IEC61400-12, Wind Turbine Power Performance Testing), but newer technologies do not. That, coupled with the fact independent technical expertise on these newer technologies is limited, can make it difficult to challenge the testing protocol and criteria proffered by the contractor. In addition, inherent limitations in the available instrumentation can, in some cases, require additional flexibility in the establishment of the guaranteed amounts. Related to this lack of industry accepted guidelines and instrumentation is the concern that on projects with lengthy engineering, procurement, and construction cycles, the owner may have a greater risk of change-in-law liability than under an EPC agreement for a more traditional facility. This is because it is likely there will be more industry and legislative activity related to these technologies during the project cycle than would be expected for conventional generation sources. In fact, it’s entirely possible the contractor may be actively participating in the establishment of these laws, largely because there are few other parties that have the technical expertise to provide constructive input.

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solar energy With high technology or developmental components of the project, finding independent technical advice and industry standards may be impossible. As mentioned above, owners agreeing to incorporate these components into their projects should seek to place the maximum amount of performance risk as possible on the equipment supplier. It is also important to dedicate sufficient resources and time to fully understand the technology and gain familiarity with its expected performance and limitations, including discussions with other customers of the technology if possible. Warranties

Closely related to the issues associated with performance guarantees are those connected with the warranties provided under the EPC agreement. Most important

is an understanding of the precise terms of the warranties and the entities providing them. In many cases the EPC agreement may provide a short (e.g. one year) warranty covering the design, construction, and equipment supplied pursuant to the agreement. Longer term warranties covering the equipment are typically provided by the equipment manufacturer, either directly in the equipment purchase agreement (if it has not been assigned to the contractor) or by the contractor assigning its subcontractor warranties that extend beyond the warranty provided under the EPC agreement to the owner. In many cases, the entities providing long-term warranties are relatively new companies and an owner needs to consider the risk that the entity does not remain in existence or maintain its creditworthiness for the full term of the warranty—which, in some cases (e.g. PV modules), may be as long as 30 years. The owner may need to request some form of credit support or insurance to backstop those obligations. Generally, the types of warranties in EPC agreements for solar projects are very similar to the types found in EPC agreements for traditional generation; however it is important to consider whether a specific warranty type might be appropriate for the particular technology. For example, an owner developing a PV project with hundreds of thousands of modules might gain additional comfort with enhanced warranty rights in the case of a serial defect. Such enhanced Booth 8623 rights might require the equipment supplier to do a root cause analysis in the Visit us at Intersolar USA case of a similar failure of a pre-agreed 2010 percentage of the modules provided. Another issue to consider related to warranties arises when the entity providing the warranty is also contracted to operate and maintain the equipment pursuant to an operation and maintenance agreement or similar document (O&M). The difficulty is caused by the fact the warranty and the O&M will likely both be applicable during some period of time. Inconsistencies in the rights of the parties between the two documents can lead to disputes. An obvious solution is to ensure the terms of the warranty and the O&M are aligned to the greatest extent possible such that the potential for conflicts is minimized. It might also be tempting to minimize the importance of the warranty terms because the owner is protected under the O&M but this impulse should be resisted because, if the O&M is ever terminated, the owner or developer will need the protection of the warranty.

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The current political emphasis and attractive government incentives for abundant and reliable solar energy have lead to technological advancements in cost and efficiency and explosive growth in contracting for the development of solar energy projects. Although the majority of risks for solar projects are allocated similarly to fossil fuel projects, careful consideration of the risks described above will help ensure the successful development of utility scale solar power generation projects. Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP

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solar energy

Reaching Solar Grid Parity Energy Not just about PV panel costs anymore By John Skibinski


few years ago, the rule of thumb was that photovoltaic (PV) panels accounted for 70% of a solar farm’s initial cost. Throw that rule out because continuing advances in solar cell design and manufacturing, plus the increasing supply of solar panels, is causing that number to plummet toward 33%. End-to-end design, integration of PV panels, inversion, and power collection and distribution systems are now necessary to drive the costs of farm construction and operations and maintenance down—if solar energy production is to reach grid parity. Consider first the age-old solar industry question: to track or not to track? Tracking does not increase the power of a PV panel, but allows more power to be collected early in the morning and later in the afternoon. Over the years, peak demand has been moving from 2pm toward 6pm due to residential demand increasing after work hours. The additional power collected in the morning is not necessarily of premium value, but the additional power collected late afternoon and early evening certainly is. As a result, utilities are favoring solar farms as peaking plants that fill in late afternoon and early evening demand at a cost far less than a conventional peaking plant. But the cost of tracking systems has made tracking prohibitive in the past, so integration of the tracking controls with combiner boxes and solar inverters will

emerge to drive out the costs of redundant controls and multiple mark-ups from disparate suppliers. As for the true cost of PV panels, it’s no longer about efficiency. Factors such as resistance, spectral distribution, module construction, and ambient temperature are just a few that affect true life cycle costs. Thin-film life cycle costs are rapidly decreasing due to their lower manufacturing cost, flexible means of construction, and lack of toxic materials that incur recycling costs. As the technology to deposit solar cells directly on PV panel substrate materializes, thin-film will improve in both initial and life cycle costs per watt. After taking the power out of the PV panel, one of the hottest debates in solar remains whether to micro-invert the DC power to AC at the panel, or to series the panels into parallel PV strings that feed central inverters—or to use a combination of both approaches? Micro-inverters still have reliability vern polysilico Brushes an manufacturing of d brushh sus environment issues, and designs that Products for the olders for s fer wa lig con sili ht gr ning prot ounding, cessing of ection, po and the finish pro wer transf have improved upon reliability have ) energy. control ci lar (so ic er , olta an tov d rcuitry fo for pho r wind tu rbines. done so at a prohibitive cost. There is also little history about the reliability of synchronizing hundreds of micro-inverters to the grid for utility scale farms. So, micro-inverter life cycle reliability and cost have not yet been proven by the numbers. Schunk Graphite Technology The central inverter approach, due to W146 N9300 Held Drive, Menomonee Falls, WI 53051 ÚãØãÀãˆÞÀ{×ãôÚaÚìììÀÓb•å¨žÐJ»•˜ÜvÀb¬£ its power inversion economies of scale, has demonstrated lower cost per watt

Providing Products and Support for the Renewable Energy Industries



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for years. However, its reliability has not improved much beyond ten years as manufacturers continue to utilize air filters, unreliable fans, and power transistors taken near their maximum ratings to keep initial cost per watt down. In addition, central inverters are not keeping up with increasing thin-film PV string voltages, nor higher temperatures of operation required in the sunniest of environments. Therefore, a new category of hybrid solar inverters will emerge with builtin PV string MPPT optimizers that improve efficiency over 1/10th of 1 MW’s worth of strings instead of by panel. This retains the efficiency boosting micro-inverter approach, yet retains the life cycle reliability of the central inverter approach. In addition, next-generation inverters will operate with PV input voltages up to 1100 VDC to capture the additional power generate by adding more PV panels to each string. Higher PV input voltage also enables the inverter to output at the more common 480 VAC output voltage and eliminate costly internal line reactors. And, to further improve reliability, liquid cooling will be used to eliminate filters and unreliable fans while cooling power electronics at temperatures that extend the life of the inverter, without needing to de-power due to high temperatures. Eventually expensive shipping containers to house power inversion subsystems will be replaced by lower cost modular NEMA 3R/4 subsystems delivered on one skid for forklifting directly to the site, reducing initial, as well as installation costs. Solar power inversion will move away from separate disparate subsystems assembled at the site to pre-configured, pre-integrated, and precommissioned power inversion stations. Taking a step back, consider combiner boxes and their cabling. To further drive out end-to-end costs, the combiner box will evolve to integrate PV string protection and monitoring, sun tracker control and monitoring, and all communications back to the power inverter station. System integrators will also be able to use flexible 2,000 rather than stiff 600 Volt DC cable, which is difficult to work with. Again, disparate and costly multi-supplier approaches will be driven toward less costly, more integrated solutions. On the other side of the power inversion stations is the MV collection system and AC substation. Growing NFPA and OHSA pressure to improve site safety will drive replacement of conventional arc resistant switchgear, which vents arc flash explosions, with arc mitigating switchgear, which detects an arc flash immediately and disconnects the

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power before the arc can become explosive. Most developers are unaware that just one arc flash incident can result in millions of dollars of medical, insurance, and legal expenses that destroy a solar farm’s ROI. Therefore, it’s critical to pay attention not just to the DC side, but also the AC side of solar farm specification, as well.

As solar enters its second age, expect to see new suppliers stepping up to the challenge to help drive solar energy to grid parity. American Electric Technologies |

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solar energy

Automated PV production Quality control; automated string testing cell

Automated Assembly Propelling Solar Panel Productivity By Tim Metko | Photos courtesy of KUKA Systems


t the beginning of the 20th century, Ransom Olds patented the first industrial assembly line and Henry Ford accelerated it, but it was another seven decades before robots began performing most mind-numbing tasks like welding and painting. By contrast, manufacturers of photovoltaic panels have had the ability to automate virtually from the get-go. With the relentless downward pressure on PV panel manufacturing costs—the $1 per watt barrier was breached last year—fullline automation is becoming indispensable for assembling PV modules in Europe, Japan, and North America.

Competition from developing countries is becoming a major factor because of their highly competitive wage rates. Automation can shrink that labor cost gap significantly and allow other advantages, like incentives or proximity to customers, to level the playing field. It also goes hand-in-hand with capturing ever-larger economies of scale. Yesterday, plants assembling 25 megawatts (MW) of PV panels annually were considered large. Today, large is 100 MW to 200 MW and rising. Automation generates fast payback

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As a general rule, a 50 MW plant is about the threshold where automating module assembly becomes economically compelling. In the 25MW area, the utilization rate for a fully automated module assembly line would be just 55% to 60%. But at 50 MW, utilization jumps up to the mid-80% range and increases from there. A pair of parallel lines with a combined capacity of 150 MW, sharing one pack-out station, can reach as high as 95%. The fastest 100 MW line in the world produces a finished panel every 28 seconds. Another example of a 100 MW line in the US, employing 200 workers in manual production, if fully automated could run by 17—with an annual labor cost savings of $12 to $14 million. Every situation is different, but it takes about 24 months on average to receive a complete payback on an investment in fullline automation. Automation of all PV module assembly functions

Full line systems integrators trace their modern origins to the advent of industrial robotics, equip standard robots

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Supply and Return lines for solar thermal water systems OmegaFlex introduces Solar-Trac flexible supply and return lines for solar thermal water systems. This new system provides the highest level of quality for tomorrow’s energy. Solar-Trac is available in both insulated and un-insulated versions, adaptable to most solar thermal installation configurations. Solar-Trac Piping benefits include: T316L Stainless Steel; available sizes from 3/8" to 2"; tubing bends by hand; routes easily around obstacles; cuts using standard tubing cutter; special lengths available. Solar Flare fittings benefits include: self-flaring; no special tools; reliable metal-to-metal sealing surface; and, no gaskets or rubber washers. with specialized end effectors (the sophisticated tools on the robot arm), and the necessary software to create robotic work stations to perform specific module assembly tasks. A typical fully automated module line installed would feature automated glass-loading, string measurement and layup, foil layup, lateral soldering, trimming and taping, as well as a series of automated cell, matrix and panel tests, and final pack-out. When automating an entire module assembly line, the integrator supplies and integrates the various work stations and other manufacturing and testing equipment, as well as all gantries and conveyors. It designs all control and power systems to optimize a line’s performance, just as in other industries. That foundation of mature technology and decades of accumulated expertise has enabled integrators to adapt full-line automation to assembling all types of PV modules. It works equally well with thin-film or crystalline silicon cells, solid or liquid encapsulates, and any layout processes while complying with all electrical, noise, safety, and quality standards.

Omega Flex |

Automation delivers quality benefits

Automated assembly is ergonomically superior and produces higher quality product than a manual operation. Robots will routinely hoist and rotate glass or modules, as large as 1.4 x 1.2 meters, and have even handled modules 2.5 meters square. Automation also means less breakage, fewer defects, and greater consistency for a more reliable panel. Automated inspections can detect micro-cracks in cells that visual inspections miss, cracks that might only become a problem months or years later. Without automation and inspection criteria in place, one might never catch a micro-crack that would have to be reworked or replaced in a panel in the field—and who knows how much that would cost to troubleshoot and resolve. Kuka Systems is a full line systems integrator in Sterling Heights, Michigan. Kuka Systems

SERVICES: Detailed Design • EPC • CM • Studies • Owner & Bank Engineering CLIENTELE: Utilities • IPPs • Industry • Universities • OEMs • Banks/Investors PROJECTS: Biomass • Solar (Thermal & PV) • Wind • Simple & Combined Cycle • Fluidized Bed/PC/Stoker Boilers Biofuels • Landfill Gas • MSW • Gasification • Pyrolysis • Plant Improvements • Air Pollution Control Engine-Generators • CHP/Cogeneration • Energy Savings • Facilities/Buildings & Systems

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solar energy

1.2 MW installation at Xanterra Parks & Resorts, Death Valley by SPG Solar, Inc. on TTI’s SunSeeker Tracker.

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Project Economics for Single-Axis Trackers

Storing today’s energy for tomorrow’s use.



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s the cost of photovoltaic modules plummet by as much 20% a year, there is speculation in the market that plummeting module costs will erode tracker economics. One of the reasons trackers made economic sense is they increased the rate of return and decreased the payback period for relatively expensive solar panels. The dramatic price decreases is enough to prompt a re-examination of the economic assumptions of adding solar trackers to solar systems. Single-axis trackers follow the sun in its east-west path throughout the day, and boost kWh/kWp solar production by up to 20% compared to fixed structures. It has been established that trackers are preferred in an environment where PV modules are expensive, and almost all of the utility scale (1 MW+), ground mounted, crystal silicon PV installations in the US to date are on single-axis trackers. SPG Solar, Inc. embarked on a research study in late 2009 to test this hypothesis. Drawing on their experience with the design, installation, and maintenance costs associated with over 20MW of Thompson Technology Industryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s (TTI) SunSeeker Tracker, they ran a series of models in different geographies and under a number of rate structures to explore this question. The results challenge conventional philosophy. In almost every scenario explored, they found that it would be economically beneficial to use single-axis trackers at any module cost. Economic analysis

The key finding is that the two main drivers of the economics for a single-axis tracker system compared to a fixed-tilt system are: 1. What is the additional cost to install, operate, and maintain the system? 2. What is the value of the additional electricity that will be produced? The economics are driven by the marginal expenses and revenues, and module prices arenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t a factor. Why? Well, one can start with an estimate that a 1 MW tracker system costs an additional $250,000 more than a comparable fixed tilt system, including the higher long-term warranty and maintenance costs which are capitalized up front. Thirty percent of this is returned in the federal ITC, and another 28% is recovered by accelerated depreciation.

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Taking a sample site in Northern California, the tracker generates an additional 300 MWh per year. Put another way, one spends $250,000 per MW ($105,000 after federal incentives) to generate an additional 300 MWh per year. Putting these numbers through a financial model, the tracker investment generates a mid-teens IRR at a modest $0.10/kWh (3.5-year simple payback), or mid-20s IRR at $0.20 / kWh (1.75year simple payback). Keep in mind, this doesn’t account for additional incentives such as the performance based incentives or any value for SRECs. Moreover, these numbers improve in other geographies where the SunSeeker Tracker shows better performance relative to fixed tilt installations—the IRRs in Arizona, for example, are a few percentage points higher than in Northern California.

“SPG Solar’s findings align with what we are seeing in the market: single-axis trackers will continue to provide the best returns to the end customer,” comments TTI general manager Sean DuFosee.

SPG Solar is one of the country’s biggest solar project developers, with over 1,500 installations to date. SPG Solar, Inc. | TTI |

Jason Kaminsky is the strategic assistant to the CEO at SPG Solar, Inc. and led a cross-functional task force to study single-axis tracker economics year.

Back to Black!

Equivalent kWh scenario

To verify the findings above, SPG Solar also tested two systems—one tracker and one fixed-tilt—that put out the same number of kWh. Although the selling price per watt is lower for the fixed-tilt system, the total system cost is much greater—for the same number of kWh—due to the need for 20% more of every system component including panels, inverters, racking, labor, etc. Even with modest panel pricing, the extra fixed-tilt system cost a lot more than the additional tracker expense. As the industry shifts toward $/kWh from $/W, SPG Solar expects even a greater emphasis placed on trackers. Time-of-use rate schedules

Many customers are on TOU rate schedules, being charged more for electricity during summer and/or peak hours. Trackers broaden the shoulders of a typical solar installation, producing more electricity in the morning and afternoon, particularly in the summer when the sun is high in the sky. As it turns out, layering in time-of-use rate schedules only improves the economics for single-axis trackers for our clients. They produce more of both total and high-value kWh, and clients ultimately receive stronger returns for the investments. Conclusions

At the end of the day, module prices don’t even play into the economics for single-axis trackers: the primary drivers become the increased capital and maintenance expenses versus the value of the extra electricity over the life of the system. This conclusion holds across geographies and rate schedules, and has led SPG Solar to predict that single-axis trackers will be the standard moving forward for large, ground-mounted installations using silicon modules.


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solar energy

Understanding the Feed-In Tariff Program for Renewable Energy Generation Local manufacturing a strategy for long-term growth


ast October, Ontario, Canada launched the most comprehensive and generous set of feed-in tariffs in North America, piquing the interest of Canadian and foreign renewable energy companies at a time when Europe is starting to roll back its support for the sector. Ontario’s Feed-In Tariff (FIT) program for renewable energy generation is a cornerstone of the province’s Green Energy Act. The provincial government launched the program in September 2009, and the Ontario Power Authority (OPA) started accepting applications October 1st, 2009. It is North America’s first comprehensive feed-in tariff program for renewable energy. The program includes a stream called microFIT, which is designed to encourage homeowners, businesses, and others to generate renewable energy with projects of 10 kilowatts (kW) or less. MicroFIT is designed to make it simpler and faster to get small-scale renewable projects installed and producing power. The FIT program is designed for larger projects greater than 10 kW. Prices paid for renewable energy generation under FIT and microFIT vary by energy source, and take into account the capital investment required to get a project up and running:

Renewable Technologies & Pricing Landfill gas 10.3¢ - 11.1¢/kWh

Biogas 10.4¢ - 19.5¢/kWh

Waterpower 12.2¢ - 13.1¢/kW

Biomass 13.0¢ - 13.8¢/kWh

Windpower 13.5¢ - 19¢/kWh

Solar PV 44.3¢ - 80.2¢/kWh

The FIT Program is a guaranteed pricing structure for renewable electricity production. It offers stable prices under long-term contracts for energy generated renewable sources, including photovoltaic (PV). FIT pricing is the best in the world at 80.2 cents/KWh for systems, and smaller, and 71 cents for roof mounted systems up to 250KW. By encouraging the development of renewable energy in Ontario, the FIT Program will: 22


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increase their investment in the industry while establishing a greater customer-base and presence in Canada. For further information on Ontario’s Feed-In Tariff (FIT) program for renewable energy generation, visit

• Help the province phase out coal-fired electricity generation by 2014—the largest climate change initiative in Canada; • Boost economic activity and the development of renewable energy technologies; and • Create new green industries.

Melitron is a full-service contract manufacturer of precision metal components, industrial enclosures, frames and racks, and integrated assemblies to OEMs in global technology markets. Melitron Corporation |

Solar thermal control technology

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Solar industry effects

With the launch of the FIT Program, the Ontario solar industry is exploding. Foreign solar producers are looking to participate, grow, and take advantage of these government programs in the Canadian market. The cost of shipping heavy, renewable units, combined with the recent government stimulus package and demand fluctuations, make initiating strategic partnerships with a local manufacturing facility quite favorable. Advanced fabrication technologies can help develop and replicate proprietary processes that drastically reduce logistics issues, costs, and lead times while reducing the carbon emissions due to the transport of modules and increasing just-in-time delivery capabilities. A manufacturing partner approach offers an ideal, low-cost, highquality outsourcing solution for solar companies helping customers to fabricate everything from precision metal components and inverter boxes and enclosures to brackets, frames, and racks components for solar products. Outsourcing to the right manufacturing partner can provide the following benefits: make a significant market presence; save in time, effort, infrastructure, and resources; help make the right decisions about product lines; complete large volumes on time; reduce capital and labor costs; overcome operational challenges; and, offer better performance and management, as well as process maturity and scalability. By manufacturing alternative energy solutions locally, foreign companies adhere to the FIT Programs’ local content requirements, contribute to local economic growth, and provide customers access to many innovative lines of products that are the building blocks for superior solar installations. Ontario’s commitment to feed-in-tariffs enables foreign solar producers to

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solar energy

The Canadian PV Gold Rush By Artur Deger


he magic word is microFIT and it is part of the new feed-in tariff structure. Solar energy producers operating a photovoltaic installation with a maximum capacity of 10 kW AC receive 80.2 Canadian cents per kilowatt hour (kWh) produced. This amount is by far not only the highest current tariff arrangement in Ontario, Canada, but it is also the most remarkable—the government is guaranteeing this price for the next 20 years. As a result, investors are certain their projects cannot only withstand all costs, but can also run profitably for the long term. The microFit becomes even more interesting because it applies not only to systems located in outdoor premises, but also to those installed on the roof of, say, a farmhouse or an industrial building. However, the manifest goal of the Ontario government is not only to jumpstart green energy with its initiative and provide investors security, but also to change the power supply mix of the country permanently and make it “one of the cleanest in North America,” as stated in the feed-in tariff program.


Stimulus for the local economy

In order for the new tariff structure to benefit the local economy, a significant part of the technology used (and of the added value connected to projects) must be produced or generated in the country. The Domestic Content Compliance of the Ontario Power Authority (OPA) requires at least 40% of the costs of microFIT projects, which operate to the end of 2010, to be generated in the form of products


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Against the backdrop of the new feed-in tariffs, experts estimate the market potential in Ontario to be particularly high. Investors in Canada who produce their solar power using sensor-controlled tracking can count on returns in the two-digit percentage range—dream values for any investor, especially since they are guaranteed by the new feed-in tariffs.

DEGERenergie, a German manufacturer of solar tracking systems, is working together with Canadian distribution partners, completing an entire substructure of its systems. The pilot study, SunSaver1 Solar Farm, has been running for more than a year in Innerkip, Ontario. DEGERenergie |

and services in Canada. As of January 1st, 2011, the domestic content (DC) or local content rate must be at least 60%. For larger PV projects, the current limit is already at 50%—from 2011, it will also be 60%. For foreign manufacturers, this means they can only operate on this market and take part in the nascent boom if they shift a significant part of their added value there. What legislators want are manageable projects, which can also be financed and operated by smaller municipalities, agricultural outfits, or cooperative societies. As farmers make up the lion’s share, the new tariff structure offers them the best conditions to operate smaller solar installations on their land.

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Framing the power of the sun

Tracking systems: optimal ROI

Solar tracking systems play a significant role in cost efficiency and return on investment (ROI) since sensorcontrolled systems demonstrably bring up to 46% more profit compared to tracking systems with control-based on astronomical data. Additionally, tracked systems offer significantly longer profit peaks during the course of a day than rigid systems, which deliver peak profits only for about two hours around noontime. To approach the limit of 10kW on a sustained basis, rigid systems must be designed for 12kW to 14kW of output. This means investors working with sensor-controlled tracking can reach their desired profit with much fewer hardware than if they were using rigid systems. In concrete terms: with the feed-in tariffs guaranteed by the government the return on investment is reached in less than ten years, with rigid systems it would be reached two to four years later. The weathering resistance of systems used is what is important for installations not only in Canada, but elsewhere. The installations, moveable parts, and motors for tracking must be optimized so that they work fault-free under the harshest weather conditions. Moreover, wind loads appearing in the respective region must be calculated thoroughly and the systems precisely configured for these conditions.

Aluminum extrusion components for support structures, frames, and mounting systems for solar energy installations ydro is the leading supplier of custom extruded aluminum structural components for utility-scale CSP and commercial PV installations. A team dedicated to solar energy with the full support and resources of Hydro’s global aluminum network 300 MW of installed CSP experience Large-scale roof top and ground-mount PV experience Proven partner with full project management and logistics support Precise manufacturing of components using remelt billet (which contains more than 70% recycled content) Kitting, JIT delivery, and on-site assembly training

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North American Clean Energy

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solar energy Pluggable solar solutions Wieland’s ETL certified PST 40i1 connectors provide pluggable connections to most solar PV modules and over-extended cable runs. Featuring a 40A DC capability, these connectors satisfy the trend toward increased input on solar string inverters. Pre-assembled either at the factory or onsite, these connectors feature mate compatibility with industry standard types. The pre-assembled, cut-to-length, over-molded cable assemblies are delivered ready to install. The precision of the termination process and the contacts’ quality help mitigate the possibility of DC arc fault failure. The connector resistance, typically below 1 mohm, minimizes power losses. NEC code requiring a tool to disconnect the PV connection is accomplished with a clip inserted into the mated connectors. The safety clip is removed using a screwdriver, eliminating the need for a proprietary tool. Wieland Electric Inc. |

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High-strength solar bonding tapes MACtac Specialty Products now offers a new line of solutions for solar cell assembly with the launch of its SOLARFAST UV Cure Adhesive System. Designed for concentrating and flexible solar applications, the new SOLARFAST UV Cure Adhesive System highstrength solar bonding tapes (SF-1003 and SF-1005) are designed to withstand a range of environmental conditions where a high-temperature, highstrength bond is required. The bonding tapes feature free film adhesive, which, when UV cured, provides extreme heat resistance, making them a perfect alternative to standard UV curable liquid adhesives traditionally used in flexible solar applications. MACtac’s SOLARFAST UV Cure Adhesive System includes SF-1003, a 3-mil free film adhesive, and SF-1005, a 5-mil free film adhesive. Both are protected by a two sided, 80# release coated, brown kraft liner. The free film adhesive initially bonds similar to a typical pressure-sensitive adhesive, but the final bond is initiated through UV light. Once cured, the adhesive has extreme heat resistance, low creep and excellent peel. Tested and proven to resist more than 400° Fahrenheit, while maintaining a secure bond, the free film adhesive featured on the new high-strength solar bonding tapes is an excellent substitute for liquid or complex cure adhesives and simplifies the manufacturing process. MACtac Specialty Products

Securing a Brighter Future



NACE May June 2010.indd 26 Tel: 978.688.4900 Fax: 978.688.5100 1600 Osgood Street Bldg 20 Ste 2-23, North Andover, MA 01845

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Glass for PV applications PPG Industries has introduced Solarphire NaB glass for solar applications where sodium leaching can adversely affect the performance of solar panels, reflectors, water heaters, and other devices. The glass is formulated with a transparent barrier coating that retards the migration of sodium (Na) and other alkalis to the surface during hightemperature processing or long-term field exposure. Solarphire NaB glass is temperable, highly durable, and suits virtually any solar application because the coating can be used on the first or second surface as needed. The glass is approved for concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) applications where high in-use temperatures may be encountered. PPG Industries

Transfer valve solution VAT provides a transfer valve solution for vacuum-based thin-film roll coater systems (CIGS, a-Si, CdTe, organic cells, etc.) with its proven 3D MonoVAT sealing technology. The valve is placed between the front chamber in which the feed coil is placed, and the process chamber(s). A second valve is used in the rear chamber where the take-up roll is placed. Once the web is coated the valves are closed onto the foil, the front and rear chambers are vented to atmosphere, the web cut, the coils replaced and connected with the ends of the web while maintaining vacuum and temperature in the center process chamber(s). The result is a significant improvement in system availability; thereby, increasing the throughput. The linear motion 3D sealing technology makes it possible to clamp and seal the web (metal or plastic) without any deformation or damages. VAT, Inc. |





Solar thermal water heating system CIRREX from A. O. Smith is a leap forward in solar thermal water heating and is, quite simply, one of the greenest solutions available to homeowners today. Up to 70% of its energy comes from the sun, not from the power company, which can significantly reduce a homeownerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s utility bill, in addition to helping protect the planet. CIRREX is an all-in-one system, which simplifies specification and installation for the contractor. Its solar thermal collectors can generate as much energy as traditional photovoltaic solar panels at oneeighth the cost. Tank sizes range from 76 to 120 gallonsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;and with solar thermal technology, a larger tank actually makes the system more energy efficient and cost-friendly. With a Solar Energy Factor of 2.5, the CIRREX system is ENERGY STAR-qualified and eligible for a federal tax credit of 30% of the entire installation cost (no maximum).



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North American Clean Energy

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solar energy Sun tracking system DH Solar announces a new heavy duty sun tracking system. It is a two-axis geared horizon-to-horizon tracking system available in either aluminum or steel frame. It is adjustable to match any manufacturer’s panels. It tracks the arc of the sun automatically adjusting to the seasonal changing arc. Standard system is engineered for 320 square feet of solar panels. Hurricane zone designs available. DH solar is a division of DH Satellite, the largest US producer of horizon-to-horizon large, commercial antenna systems. DH Solar |

Organic solar cell manufacturing

Semi-conductor fuse holders Marathon Special Products has released a new addition to their Fuse Holder offering. The new SemiConductor Fuse Holders (FSM Series) accommodate semi-conductor and high-speed specialty fuses that come in various sizes. This new series is UL approved up to 1200 Amps and 1000 Volts. The high-electrical ratings make the Semi-Conductor Fuse Holders ideal for applications such as lithiumion battery packs, inverters, industrial panels, and other energy storage devices. The redesigned Semi-Conductor Fuse Holder series includes a new half-inch stud design to increase current ratings from 800A to 1200A. The new design incorporates a highstrength engineering thermoplastic insulator base, which makes these fuse holders ideal for applications exposed to extreme conditions such as shock and vibration. Marathon Special Products

Sono-Tek Corporation has announced a new ultrasonic coating system designed for depositing TCO layers (such as PDOT, P3HT/ PCBM and carbon nanotubes) in the manufacture of organic solar cells. The ExactaCoat Inert is a fully inert glovebox integrated with Sono-Tek’s PLC-controlled programmable XYZ ultrasonic coating system. Organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs) offer a low-cost solution to solar cell manufacturing; however, they have tight environmental constraints required to process TCO layers since they suffer from degradation at ambient conditions without protective coatings. Sono-Tek has developed the ExactaCoat Inert system to enable full control of coating deposition, grain structure, film thickness and surface morphology in an optimal R&D environment. The spray platform is fully integrated with a glovebox chamber capable of <1 ppm oxygen. The system is built for continuous operation with constant positive pressure environment using Nitrogen, Argon, or Helium. Other glovebox system features include continuous oxygen monitoring of moisture and oxygen, HEPA filtration, automatic regeneration, and push-button antechamber fill. Sono-Tek Corporation

Contactor combiner SolarBOS has announced its Contactor Combiner for commercial PV systems. This new product incorporates a 600 VDC load-break contactor into the combiner box, allowing system operators to remotely disconnect combiners under load and de-energize the conductors from the combiners to the inverter. They can also be set to automatically disconnect whenever the building loses power or the master system disconnect is thrown (in the event of a fire or other emergency). The Contactor Combiners are ETL listed to UL-1741 for up to 200 amps and include a “through-the-door” style manual over-ride switch that allows for local operation of the contactor. SolarBOS |



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Residential PV solar system installation Canadian Solar recently announced its NewEdge solar panels, compatible with the new Zep roof-mounting System, as well as several other existing mounting systems. The NewEdge panels provide one of the fastest and most cost-effective ways to install PV solar systems on residential roofs. The panels are the first of their kind to be equipped with special “Zep Grooves” that allow them to lock into ZepSolar’s state-of the-art, rail-free, auto-grounding Zep System. The Zep System could slash solar installation costs in half and the time installers spend on a roof by as much as 75%, yielding significant financial, labor and performance improvements with the NewEdge modules when compared to traditional roof-mounted solar systems. Canadian Solar |

PV & module temperature profiling systems Datapaq recently introduced three new products in their SolarPaq series for photovoltaic cell and module manufacturers. Datapaq designed the innovative SolarPaq systems to provide temperature-profiling solutions for the contact firing, anti-reflective coating, and lamination processes. These operations are all key to the quality and performance of the final PV cell and module. The SolarPaq system travels through the furnace or thermal process, measuring a time temperature profile directly from the product. The SolarPaq Anti-reflective Coating System provides temperature profiles from the solar cells as they pass through the silver nitride coating process. This is typically conducted using a plasma sputtering process and users can now monitor the cell temperature profile, even with the plasma energized. The SolarPaq Contact Firing Cell Clamp is paired with custom-designed thermocouple probes to ensure accurate and repeatable measurements—the foundation for any process optimization. The SolarPaq Vacuum Lamination System is used to profile the final assembly stage of the solar modules. An all-new thermal barrier ensures that the data logger is protected from not only the heat of the lamination process, but also from the external pressure that is applied. A unique external barrier frame eliminates the risk of any stress points being created on the vacuum membrane. Datapaq | North American Clean Energy

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solar energy

Solar tracking function block

PV panel performance

WAGO Corporation’s free Solar Tracking Function Block integrates into the WAGO-I/O-SYSTEM to control active photovoltaic panels. The Solar Tracking Function Block enables WAGO components to align PV panels directly with the sun, increasing energy production by up to 30% over fixed PV panels. WAGO’s Solar Tracking Function Block calculates the sun’s relative position by using a PV’s geographic location, standard/daylight status, and current time/date. The algorithm then employs celestial-based events to output the sun’s elevation and azimuth for accurate, day-long solar tracking. The Solar Tracking Function Block is compatible with WAGO’s Real-Time Clock Module, Servo Stepper Controller (control solar tracking motors), DC current Sensor (measurement up to 80A), and Wireless Bluetooth RF-Transceiver (decentralized, wireless data exchange).

Chroma offers a new Solar Application Software, which provides out-of-the-box I-V curve data and maximum power point tracking capabilities using the company’s 63600 DC Electronic Loads. An intuitive GUI enables recording and analysis of a module’s electrical characteristics and output behavior without configuring any hardware. This software reports valuable information from early signs of degradation that develops over the course of the PV module’s life. Chroma’s Solar Application Soft Panel takes full advantage of DMM like measurement accuracy and multipower ranges found in their DC Loads, providing the right dose of portability and power. The Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) capability keeps the PV module operating at maximum efficiency. Analyzing a PV module’s ability to output maximum available power over time in various climate conditions presents excellent design feedback, contributing to essential product improvements.

WAGO Corporation |

Chroma |

Solar module for large-scale projects SOLON SE has developed the SOLON Black 220/16 including a service package for large-scale projects, thereby, providing a module that is a safe and highly profitable investment. The offering combines a module in the proven SOLON quality, which has been confirmed through accredited tests and certifications, with punctual delivery directly to the project construction site. This product has been carefully designed for the industry branch and is manufactured using high-capacity cells, 4 mm tempered high-security glass, and the SOLON-specific module frame with hollow-chamber profile for extra stability. The SOLON Black 220/16 measures 1640 x 1000 mm and consists of 60 monocrystalline cells. It attains a maximum peak power of 235 watts, which is the equivalent of an efficiency level of 14.33%. The module, which weighs 22 kg, comes with a five-year warranty. SOLON SE |

Modified sine wave inverters SAM Series low interference, high-efficiency, modified sine wave DC-AC inverters convert 12 VDC to 115 VAC at an output frequency of 60 Hz. Cost effective and powerful, SAM Series power inverter models range from 100 to 3000 Watts. All SAM Series Power Inverters are ETL Safety Listed. As a bonus feature, SAM-100-12, SAM-250-12, SAM-450-12, and SAM-800-12 each come with a USB charging port. Samlex Solar |


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investing in clean energy

Reducing Capital Expenditures

for On-site Renewable Energy By Andrea Thomas & Paul Shmotolokha


enewable energy use in the United States is growing rapidly due to a combination of environmental, economic, and political drivers. However, renewable sources still represent only a small fraction of the overall energy supply, mainly due to the high cost of related technologies in comparison to more conventional sources. Although the potential for Federal and state incentives may ease some of the initial capital expenses, there is another method by which companies can actively decrease the high cost of on-site renewable energy projects. By reducing operational energy demands upfront through energy efficient technologies and practices, for instance, companies can choose more affordable systems to cover their energy demands—thereby, making the proposition of using renewables all the more effective.

Energy 4 policy favors clean energy

Federal and state governments are offering various incentives, rebates, and tax credits to encourage investment in energy efficiency and renewable energy projects. Most notably, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 designated $4 billion dollars in Federal renewable energy loan guarantees and $16.8 billion dollars for energy efficiency and renewables. Most of this funding is realized in the form of Federal tax credits, which greatly help to offset the costs of on-site renewable projects for private business. Federal funding from the Reinvestment Act pushed the US solar industry to grow its revenue by 36%, boost its installations by 5%, and increase total electrical capacity by more than two gigawatts in 2009. Energy efficiency incentives include the Federal Energy Efficient Commercial Buildings Tax Deduction, in addition to hundreds of utility sponsored programs geared toward lighting and HVAC retrofits. Businesses should seriously consider taking advantage of these cost-saving measures to increase the payback period on their investment. Federal funding stimulates energy in private sector

Private sector companies seeing the advantages of on-site renewable energy have benefited from these incentives. For example, in early April 2010, PepsiCo. decided to put a halt to its purchase of Renewable Energy Credits (RECs) and, instead, invest in upwards of $30 million in renewable energy projects at its facilities across the country. PepsiCo. cites innovation in technology and changes in incentives as the reason behind this investment decision. Another example of private business interest in on-site renewable energy is Cox Enterprises, a cable TV provider. As part of “Cox Conserves” program that began in 2007, the company has installed nine photovoltaic solar arrays, and intends to reduce the company’s carbon footprint by 20% throughout the next decade. It was only after Cox Enterprises initiated several years of energy efficiency improvements to lower energy loads did it decide to install on-site renewable energy projects. Rising energy costs support operational efficiency

Historically, US companies have enjoyed relatively low energy costs. During this time, concerns about facility or operational efficiency were rare. Over the last decade, however, concerns about improving energy efficiency have increased along with the price of oil and natural gas. Regionally speaking, the US Energy Information Administration (EIA) expects utility rates to increase as the price for oil and natural gas continue to rise from 2009 to 2035. If greenhouse gas (GHG) legislation should come into play, EIA’s Annual Energy Outlook 2009 estimates that utility rates under a GHG policy would be 22% higher in 2030 than in a “business-as-usual” case. As utility rates increase, companies have a greater incentive to adopt energy saving technologies and behaviors to save money. Unfortunately, there is a perception that energy conservation projects in commercial and industrial facilities are expensive and present a long-awaited return on investment. On the contrary, many efficiency gains with a short-term ROI can be achieved with little or no capital investment. By evaluating the baseline energy consumption patterns of a plant or network, companies can start to identify significant savings opportunities.

planning methodology, and capital strategy to help meet energy goals. Creating an optimal solution is achieved by combining technical energy efficiency audits and behavioral change programs. Energy efficiency measures maximize investment

Despite the Federal incentives and tax credits available, on-site renewable energy systems remain inherently capital intensive—lowering overall consumption significantly reduces the upfront capital expenditures in the form of a smaller renewable energy system to cover energy demands. Consulting services can help identify areas that create visible energy cost savings. While energy efficiency and renewable energy projects can both reduce operating expenses and minimize risk against volatile utility prices, companies should prioritize efficiency measures to produce less costly returns on investment. Andrea Thomas is the carbon & energy analyst, while Paul Shmotolokha is the president of Coppervale Enterprises Inc. Coppervale Enterprises Inc. |

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wind energy

Government Support for Offshore Wind What can the US learn from Europe? By Shamshek Asad


hile onshore wind farms have mushroomed in the US in recent years, with generating capacity growing from over 16,800 MW in 2007 to over 35,000 MW by the end of 2009, offshore wind has met with numerous challenges. These range from technological and regulatory concerns to marine environment and “not-in-my-back-yard” issues. These challenges make capital expenditure per MW of capacity of offshore wind considerably higher than that for onshore wind. Nevertheless, once in place, offshore wind farms offer several advantages over onshore installations. Not only is the wind at sea stronger and more consistent, but the turbines can be sited closer to key urban centers along the coasts, allowing for easier connection to main load hubs. The introduction of the Carper-Snowe-Brown-Collins offshore wind bill in early March 2010 is an important, but delayed, recognition of the importance of offshore wind to urban America’s energy needs. The bill recognizes the long lead times required to permit and construct offshore wind projects and proposes to extend the ITC and PTC for offshore wind till 2020. Current federal incentives that use a blanket approach to stimulate the whole gamut of renewable energy solutions have not led to the construction of a single offshore wind farm in the United States. The main impediments to offshore wind have been high capital cost requirements, regulatory issues and a backlash from local communities, and current federal incentives have failed to do enough to compensate for such difficulties. In the EU, where the particular challenges of offshore wind have been recognized, special incentive schemes to account for the higher initial costs of offshore wind farms have been put in place. If the US is serious about tapping into offshore wind resources, it could benefit from examining the tailored support structures found in Europe. A tailored approach to offshore wind is imperative because of the long lead times required to permit and construct wind turbines offshore, compared to onshore. While current federal incentives have been vital to securing private finance for US renewable energy assets, these incentives also add complexity to the financing structure because they typically require the involvement of a third party for developers to benefit from the incentive. For example, if a developer wants to monetize tax-credits, an equity investor is needed with a tax-base that is large enough to utilize the credits, and a flip, sale-leaseback or other structure has to be put in place to ensure appropriate allocation of the revenue streams. This typically means that more parties need to be involved at an early stage of the project’s development and structuring. When capital markets are tight, it can be difficult to get the necessary parties on board for offshore wind structures when other renewable energy projects can offer a higher risk-adjusted return. Yet, offshore wind remains an integral component of an effective energy supply mix, with its key advantage of producing energy close to large population centers along the coasts. The US DOE estimates that wind resources along the US Ocean and Great Lake coasts could provide 900,000 MW of electricity, an amount almost equivalent to the nation’s current total installed capacity. Tailored incentives offered in the EU resulted in 577 MW of added offshore wind capacity in 2009, and there are plans to add another 1,000 MW in 2010. The main incentives consist of: 1. Feed-in Tariffs: Offshore wind farms can sell their power at a higher electricity rate than onshore facilities, as depicted in the comparison presented in Table 1. In the US, it can be challenging to receive an elevated tariff, for a variety of reasons. In fact, the 24.4 cents per kWh tariff negotiated by Deepwater Wind, with off-taker National Grid, was ruled too high by the Public Utility Commission of Rhode Island, where the project is scheduled to be built. Such tariffs themselves are an exception, rather than the rule, in the US. While feed-in tariffs are slowly being adopted on a state and local level, a national feed-in tariff program has not been implemented to date.

Table 1: National support schemes in key offshore wind markets





Between €50/MWh (federal) and €80/MWh (Flanders)

€90/MWh for 10 years


Market price plus €13/MWh premium

Tender system used to establish tariff


€82/MWh for 10 years, €28- €82/MWh for the next 5 years

€130/MWh for 10 years, €30-130/MWh for next 10 years


€83.6/MWh for 5 years, €52.8/ €91/MWh for 12 years, €61.9/MWh for next MWh for next 15 years 8 years


€68/MWh for 15 years


Renewable Portfolio Standards with tradable green certificates, which traded around €55/MWh in March 2010 (effectively a premium on top of electricity prices)

Tender system used to establish tariff

2. National Institutions: National financial institutions often supply funding in the form of concessional loans. German offshore projects have benefitted from loans provided by government-owned KfW Bankengruppe, while the UK recently established a US$3 billion Green Investment Bank. 3. E.U. Funding: The European Investment Bank (EIB) has provided significant support for recent projects, and the European Commission’s European Economic Recovery Plan allocated US$565 million to offshore wind facilities in December 2009. 4. Investment in Infrastructure: Governmental agencies on both the national— and EU-level support the addition of sub-sea transmission lines. The fact that the lines can be used for power-transmission between countries (for example, the Netherlands and the UK), and not just between a wind farm and the shore, enhances the viability of offshore wind investments. Besides offering higher financial incentives per kWh or per installed MW of capacity for offshore wind, compared to other types of renewable energy, these incentive structures typically feed directly into the project making the financial structure more similar to that of a conventional project financing, an important point to relatively complex and capital intensive offshore wind projects. This has reportedly been a key contributor to the growth of offshore wind farms in countries such as Denmark, the United Kingdom, and Germany. The explosive growth in offshore wind in the UK and Germany is depicted in Figure 1. Figure 1: Off- and near-shore wind farms in Europe Data Source: Wind Service Holland

Most forms of utility scale renewable power would not be cost effective without government incentives. As the US moves toward the goal of sourcing its needs from an intelligent “energy supply mix,” harnessing the winds of coastal America must be on the agenda. Europe has already set the stage by developing effective policy alternatives to support offshore wind. The US is in a unique position to cherry-pick the most promising approach. Shamshek Asad is the head of research and Bram de Roos, analyst at Taylor-Dejongh. Taylor-Dejongh |



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wind energy

Regulatory Uncertainty Hindering Offshore Wind Development

By Patricia Fleischauer


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nergy infrastructure development inherently has elements of uncertainty. The challenge is to reduce the level of ambiguity and manage the residual risk to expedite the siting and permitting process. Offshore wind development in the United States—not quite in its infancy but certainly not as mature as onshore projects—faces a host of uncertainties that continue to hinder its full potential as a useful renewable resource for power generation. The changes and evolution in the US environmental review process for offshore projects have helped, but more progress is needed for offshore wind projects to develop momentum. Just as a clearly defined regulatory path is imperative for onshore wind development (i.e. a clear statement of requirements that, if achieved, will result in project approval), offshore development needs the same certainty if it is to help meet near-term Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) requirements and long-term goals for energy independence. The promulgation of rules specifying the role and responsibility of the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) has helped clarify development in federal waters. However, development in state waters is not exempt from federal environmental permitting requirements, which could stall state efforts to advance offshore development. Some states have taken significant steps to reduce regulatory ambiguity for onshore development. There are opportunities to take these and other lessons learned from onshore development and apply them in the offshore arena. Doing so would facilitate the installation of current technology and encourage the development of new systems. Among the efforts to encourage onshore wind development, three approaches stand out: 1. The use of zoning to reduce or eliminate uncertainties in environmental permitting; 2. Directly sharing project benefits through payments to individuals that extend beyond landowner lease agreements; and 3. Innovative collaboration, which has led to clearly specified regulatory requirements. A recent study done for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts showed that eight northeastern states produced a measureable effect in encouraging development of onshore wind by adopting some or all of these principles.

The American Wind Energy Association website ( is one good source for an effective “model” ordinance. Although zoning is a widely accepted tool for managing land-based development, it is only rarely applied in offshore areas. With the exception of Texas, the east coast of the US is the main focus of current offshore development. Waters off the west coast are generally too deep for both current and near-term future technologies. Due to their favorable geology, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New York, and New Jersey have been identified as the first states likely to actually realize offshore development (Wissemann; August 2009). The southeastern states have a price structure that does not currently put them in the forefront of developer interest, although each state has its own utility, university, or state agency led offshore wind initiative. Of the states expected to be among the first to have offshore wind development, only Rhode Island has anything that approaches zoning in offshore areas. For some time, the state has had a program that identifies different types of waters and specifies allowable and prohibited uses for each. These include “Conservation Areas,” where all development is prohibited, as well as Types 1 through 5 that have various uses, including: • Low intensity; • High-intensity boating; • Multipurpose; • Commercial and recreational harbors; and • Industrial waterfronts and commercial navigational channels. Rhode Island’s current efforts to review these use designations through development of a new “Special Area Management Plan” most nearly models the onshore analogy. Its progress toward designating areas for offshore wind development is a continuation of the state’s tradition of zoning offshore waters effectively. By most any standard, RI is the farthest along in seeing offshore development realized. Its leadership role is reinforced by an MMS commitment, as stated in presentations related to its recent regulations, to work first with RI in forming a state-federal task force to coordinate offshore wind development efforts. Sharing project benefits

Zoning is crucial

The presence or absence of zoning, especially local wind ordinances, was repeatedly found to influence the location of wind projects. Developers noted they did not want to try to develop where they were not wanted. Zoning that addresses some of the issues associated with wind (height, setbacks, noise limits, etc.) provides a clear indication of a community’s interest in, and appetite for, wind projects. As the industry has developed, communities seeking to adopt a wind ordinance have an increasing body of reference material available to assist them in developing local requirements.

Debates over onshore wind development too often dissolve into discussions about which landowner will host, and benefit from, a proposed project versus who won’t profit financially but will bear the impacts of an altered view shed, disruptions in traffic, or potential noise. Some onshore developers have recognized the importance of sharing costs and benefits as widely as possible. In addition to agreements with landowners to construct a turbine on their property, they also enter into easement agreements. One developer has referred to his company’s benefits-sharing practice as its “Good Neighbor Policy.”

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wind energy The importance of broadly sharing offshore development benefits with numerous interests, including municipalities, was recognized recently in a meeting of the Maine Ocean Energy Task Force. The MMS has already addressed this need to share benefits through a specific formula included in its new regulations issued in April 2009 (Renewable Energy and Alternate Uses of Existing Facilities on the Outer Continental Shelf). The formula calculates—based on distance from the project site—the revenues from wind farm operating fees that will be shared with communities where new transmission lines come ashore. Collaboration needed

The need for definitive requirements and a clear delineation of each government agency’s jurisdiction and authority are at the heart of onshore development. Pennsylvania has addressed this challenge with an interesting approach. Early on, when the state wanted to encourage wind development, it established a “wind collaborative.” While many states have various collaborative efforts underway, the PA wind collaborative stands out for its many and varied participants including developers, state agencies and, perhaps as importantly, federal agencies. The collaborative has produced a model wind ordinance for communities to use as a template. The group has also prepared protocols addressing the requirements for avian studies to address one of the resources most sensitive to wind development. Developers who sign on to the collaborative can use these protocols knowing they have been developed jointly by the responsible state and federal agencies. In the offshore arena, regulatory collaboration is occurring, but it is bilateral (i.e. Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and other states working individually with the MMS). The Pennsylvania model suggests a wider collaborative effort could help advance offshore development. Nationally, the US Offshore Wind Collaborative was formed in 2004 for the very purpose of promoting offshore wind development. Though membership is open to any public or private entity that supports the mission of the offshore collaborative, to date membership has been limited. The collaborative has produced a number of useful technical papers and provided roadmaps of what should be done to foster offshore development. The October 2009 working paper entitled “US Offshore Wind Energy: A Path Forward” provides a useful summary of the role of the MMS in offshore wind development and

the projects underway in several coastal states. However, it draws no distinction between development in federal versus state waters and is silent on the importance of the US Army Corps of Engineers to offshore wind development in both locales. Permitting changes needed

The MMS has published rules that, although not fully tested, present a roadmap for offshore development in federal waters. But, as recent discussions and reviews of efforts by several states for development within their own waters make clear, US Army Corps of Engineers requirements remain a hurdle for all involved. Lacking a special permit program for demonstration projects, such as that of the Federal Energy Regulation Commission (FERC) for ocean energy projects, the Corps’ traditional permitting process will generally be lengthier than what is anticipated by state programs. More importantly, states’ efforts to help spur offshore development through expedited permitting will be fruitless unless the Corps process (and that of other federal permitting entities) is similarly focused. This may include requirements such as those used by the FERC where projects must be of limited size, be removable, and be easy to shut down. The goal of FERC pilot project-licensing is to allow for project installation, environmental testing, and operation as soon as possible to demonstrate technologies and answer the environmental questions that will allow full-scale development to proceed. Each agency’s obligations are different, and any solutions to technology advancement would similarly be different. Clearly, a traditional approach to permitting is not fostering offshore wind development. If the nation is serious about harnessing wind energy to help meet renewable portfolio standards, a solution to the permitting conundrum is imperative to facilitate the development of sorely needed demonstration projects in state waters. Patricia Fleischauer is the vice president of TRC Solutions. TRC is a national environmental engineering and consulting firm based in Lowell, Massachusetts. TRC Solutions |

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wind energy

Test Turbine Controls & Project Reliability In winter icing & offshore conditions By Ann T Pattison


turbine control anemometer acts as the eyes and ears of any wind turbine. Turbine control and project SCADA systems rely on this relatively small component to direct the turbine into the prevailing wind for optimal efficiency. Winter in the northern latitudes is a windy time and can also be a stressful time for many turbine operators. Unfortunately, atmospheric icing conditions can frequently occur in such locations. A wind turbine anemometer cups or ultrasonic sensors can freeze over, stopping all data transmission to the turbine controls, bringing operation to a halt. It is critical that a wind turbine ceace operation if communication with the anemometer is interrupted. If a turbine continues to operate when it is not pointed into the wind, the shear across the turbine blades can cause damaging mechanical strain on the machine. Any power produced during the time before a turbine shuts down for a met failure is not recorded by the SCADA control system. This means decreased wind farm reliability and significant lost profits for owners and utilities. “Icing events are not only bad for the owner. They are a nightmare for the utility,” according to one large Colorado utiliy representative. “With more wind than ever feeding into the grid, this is true now more than ever.” The industry’s eyes are turning to sensor reliablity as linked to project reliability.

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Experience. Technology. Answers.



1-800-346-4175 USA | 1-603-647-5299 International | 1-800-387-6487 Canada 011-52-722-265-4400 Mexico | 011-55-11-5515-7200 Brazil |


The end of 2009 brought increased interest in offshore wind development in the United States. Over 700 people were in attendance at the American Wind Energy Association workshop on offshore development last December to discuss the exciting challenges ahead for the North American wind industry in offshore wind development anemometers—both for assessment and turbine control, they are an essential part of the offshore equation. Anemometers positioned on turbines offshore are exposed not only to extreme icing, but also to highly corrosive salt water. For this reason, it is critical that anemometers chosen for offshore use are not only heated, but are also built of a non-corrosive material and extensively tested to perform in such an environment. Annodized aluminum is an example of a common construction material to find when procuring turbine control anemometers. Leaving a natural finish on an allumium alloy will also prevent corrosion. A common lab test for corrosion, which is said to simulate offshore conditions, is the MIL-STD-810 Method 509.3 corrosion chamber test. Many turbine manufacturers also offer cold weather packages to accommodate for wind turbine projects operating in colder environments. Available in either ultrasonic or cup style, there are a handful of cold weather products on the market. Wind industry accumulative knowledge and field experience have demonstrated few are without some problems. Due to increased concern and awareness of icing issues both offshore and on land, there is some movement away from the traditional cup and vane anemometers over to ultrasonic technology. Ultrasonic anemometers are generally preferred for turbine control because of their maintenance-free operation and longer life cycles but, until recently, they have been a second choice of wind profilers. This is primiarily due to the percieved high cost. Because ultrasonic sensors have no moving parts, they cost less to maintain and have longer life cycles than traditional cup and vane sensors. Future ultrasonic anemometers with intelligent interfaces will deliver added values such as electronic compasses and barometric pressure sensors. In 2005, all Automated Surface Observing Systems (ASOS) in the US switched over to ultrasonic wind speed and directional sensors. ASOS systems serve as the nation‘s primary surface weather observing network. Wind developers will often use ASOS wind data as reference data when determining the feasibility of a project site. In today’s uncertain economy and competitive industry climate, downtime due to met failure is not an option for any project owner. To assure customers of reliable project life, turbine manufacturers are requiring rigorous lab field testing prior to accepting a new brand of anemometer into its supply chain. An example of a lab test is a freezing rain simulation test, which is meant to simulate environmental conditions during extreme icing. The MIL-STD-810F , Method 521.2 test is the accepted test for ice-free operation. This test requires a certain chain of events that simulate extreme icing conditions in the field. The test begins with a one-hour cold soak followed by thirty minutes of high wind within a sealed chamber. Over the next three hours, the chamber temperature is reduced to 1.4° C while the sensor is hit with cold water through a wind tunnel at approximately 14m/s. This ‘icing test,’ or any similar testing proceedure, will help identify the most durable turbine anemometers. In environments where extreme icing is present, a higher power heater is required. Sources vary on exactly what that power level must be, but somewhere over 220W appears to be sufficent. Most importantly, a sensor must be tested in the field before it is installed for turbine operational control. The MIL-STD-810F test is a common and accepted standard for simulation of wind turbine field conditions. Winter field testing is completed by most turbine manufacturers before they can accept and integrate a new anemometer. The lab cannot tell you everything. A winter day in the midwest can be quite unpredictable. Hoarfrost off the coast of Rhode Island or ice rime near Lake Ontario simply cannot be simulated in the lab. Manufacturers typically spend up to a year reviewing and testing new equipment. Other tests that are common for anemometers are the IEC 60945 vibration analysis test and the MIL-STD-810, Method 509.3 corrosion test. Turbine downtime due to inclement weather need not be a concern on the long worry list of a project owner. The coming offshore market can learn from the experiences of onshore developers, as well. An anemometer with a powerful enough heater that has performed and tested well in the lab and field will be an effective eyes and brain of any turbine, no matter if it is installed in Palm Springs or Idaho Falls. Ann T Pattison is the director of business development for Lufft in the United States. Lufft USA |



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TO MEET THE DEMANDING WELDING NEEDS OF THE WIND TOWER FABRICATION INDUSTRY. Lincoln Electric’s advanced Power Wave® equipment platform, combined with our complete line of submerged arc wire and flux, delivers superior welding performance on typical wind tower applications, such as longitudinal and circumferential seams, flanges, door frames and more.


For a custom welding solution that delivers consistent, reliable performance while meeting the strict requirements for products used in wind tower fabrication–choose Lincoln Electric. © The Lincoln Electric Co. All Rights Reserved. AR10-11

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wind energy

Geographic Information Systems and Wind Farm Development By Shawn MacDonald


ver the last several years, the wind power sector has experienced a steep learning curve associated with evolving regulations, political perspectives, and public concerns. Evolving and regionally specific guidelines, combined with the timeframe required from initiation of a wind farm project to operation, create an assortment of

issues for wind farm developers. Geographic Information System (GIS) is one tool that has the capability and functionality to handle the dynamic nature of wind farm projects. There are a diverse array of factors that influence the feasibility, layout, and approach to the construction of a wind farm. In conjunction with these factors, differences in guidelines pose a challenging task for wind developers to assess the implications on project feasibility or layout. A number of wind developers have incorporated GIS to solve the complex and potentially evolving characteristics of the design and approvals landscape. GIS is typically used by wind developers for its simple mapping and layering capability. As data is added and manipulated, and guidelines are altered for a project, a GIS can quickly provide visual results to the client. A quick call from the field or boardroom can be translated into a series of maps, analysis, and reports that can provide time-sensitive information to a wind developer. This assessment can help identify the ripple effect of small changes to the wind power project on a wide range of aspects such as land leases, wind values, environmental and social impacts, construction costs, return on investment and, ultimately, project feasibility.

How can we get by with less when the whole world keeps asking for more?

GIS can be used throughout the life of a wind power project. During the beginning stages of development, it can be used to evaluate a wide range of scenarios considering wind values, leased land distributions, as well as environmental, visual, and noise implications. For example, depending on the landscape, constraints surrounding environmental features such as streams, wetlands, or woodlots, can account for a large percentage of existing leased land becoming unusable. In other landscapes, setbacks from property boundaries or settlements can have an equally significant impact. These implications can vary widely, making a GIS a valuable tool in assessing initial project feasibility, the need for additional land leases, and the proper placement of turbines. GIS can also illustrate the inter-connections between project components and the need for further detailed assessments such as environmental and noise assessments. Perhaps the best example of the effectiveness of a Geographic Information System dur-

Getting more and more energy from fewer and fewer resources is our never-ending mission. In addition to excellent availability and utmost reliability, efficiency is a key requirement when it comes to supplying energy for the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s steadily growing megacities. Basically, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s all about making best use of all resources. We apply this principle across the entire energy conversion chain to take efficiency to totally new levels. Our new 800 kV transformer, for example, makes possible the efficient transmission of electric energy in the gigawatt range over distances of 850 miles and more. And our new generation of gas turbines makes combined cycle power plants deliver a record-breaking efficiency of more than 60 per cent.

Answers for energy.

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ing the development of a wind farm is from cases where the tool was not usedâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;there are a number of projects where limitations arose and certain decisions were made prior to analysis taking place. Through the ensuing year of process and study refinements, a range of factors were found to influence the yield of the project to the point where half as many turbines as initially planned were installed. Conversely, when a GIS has been used throughout the entire developmental process, turbine layouts and other project components have been adjusted as new data became available and impacts became apparent to the developer. In other words, mistakes were avoided and the appropriate action was taken to ensure few, if any, turbines were lost to feature constraints. Through the Environmental Assessment (EA) process, biologists at Natural Resource Solutions Inc. (NRSI) gather a range of data on the environment within the wind farm study area. Information on the vegetation types, habitat, and species found in the area are collected and brought into a GIS to illustrate these environmental features in relation to the proposed project. This information, along with the data collected for wind, noise, soils, and shadow flicker, as well as any government guidelines, can impact proposed turbine layouts, access roads, and cabling routes. For instance, potential access road layouts, which connect the main road to the base of the turbine, are often initially designed with efficiency and cost in mind. In some cases, lack of information can have access roads cutting through woodlots or creeks. By overlaying field data with these proposed roads in GIS, the developer can easily decide how to design these layouts with cost, efficiency, and natural features in mind.

Wind farm projects can range from less than ten turbines to hundreds of turbines. When taking into consideration all the analysis, planning, construction, post-construction monitoring, and reporting that takes place, projects can cost millions to hundreds of millions of dollars. With projects this size, a company needs to make informed, quick, and cost-effective decisions. A GIS can be an effective decision support tool, guiding the wind developer in which direction their project should proceed. Shawn MacDonald is a GIS Analyst II for Natural Resource Solutions Inc. Natural Resource Solutions Inc. |

Recently, wind power projects in Ontario, Canada have been challenged by the Ministry of Environmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s revision to the noise setbacks for residential buildings to 550 meters from 400 meters. With completed digital receptor surveys in a number of projects, it was possible to provide guidance to the developer as to which proposed turbines were at risk, which land leases were valuable, and what other lands may be considered for project expansion. This capability is invaluable to a wind developer when time and expanding costs are an enormous factor in the completion and overall success of a wind farm project.

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wind energy

How to Choose a Substation Transformer Asking the right questions By Tom Steeber


ransformer requirements change dramatically based on the application and the load. Several factors must be evaluated carefully during a selection process to make sure the unit selected meets the needs of both these primary concerns. The load type, the primary voltage, and the secondary voltage that might be required by load equipment are key factors. Other important factors include the frequency in Hz and phase (whether single or three-phase), and the kVa load, factoring in possible increases. Finally, the choice also depends upon whether the transformer is outdoors and, therefore, affected by weather and temperature changes. Transformer requirements change depending upon the application. Take the example of wind energy, where output varies greatly at different times. Transformers used here must be able to withstand surges without failure. Another example might be a utility substation, where transformer reliability makes the difference between a neighborhood that has power and one in the dark. Making the right choice involves asking the right questions. For each transformer or unit considered, particularly for wind turbines, it is important to ask the following: • Does the unit have enough capacity to handle the expected load, as well as a certain 1 9/2/09 8:29 AM amount50_Equipment_Express.eps of overload?



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• Can the unit’s capacity be augmented to keep up with a possible future increase in load? • What is the unit’s life expectancy? • What are the initial, installation, operational, and maintenance costs? Transformer type & material

The key available transformer types are liquid-filled and dry-type insulation, and there is room for debate on which is better. Generally accepted performance characteristics indicate that liquid-filled transformers are more efficient, have greater overload capacity, and longer life expectancy. They are better at reducing hot-spot coil temperatures, but have a greater risk of flammability than dry-types. Unlike dry-type units, liquid-filled units sometimes require containment troughs to guard against fluid leaks. Dry type units are usually used for lower ratings (the changeover point is considered to be 500kVA to 2.5MVA). Higher-capacity transformers, used outdoors, are almost always liquid-filled. The choice of the filler in liquid-filled transformers is usually based on the transformer’s temperature rating, the coils’ mechanical strength, dielectric strength of the insulation, expansion rate of the conductors under various loads, and the insulation system’s resistance to thermal shock. Using fluid both as an insulating and a cooling medium, liquid-filled transformers have rectangular or cylindrical forms when constructing the windings. Spacers are used between the layers of windings to allow the fluid to flow and cool the windings and core. Within the sealed tank that holds both core and coils, the fluid flows through ducts and around coil ends, with the main heat exchange taking place in external elliptical tubes. For transformers rated over 5 MVA, radiators (headers on the top and bottom) are used for additional heat transfer. Modern paper insulation in liquid-filled units allows a 65°C average winding temperature rise.

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High temperature conductors ACCC conductor’s high temperature, low sag capability allows it to carry up to twice the current of conventional conductors of the same diameter and weight, and its improved efficiency allows it to reduce line losses and emissions by over 30%. CTC Cable Corporation

Transformers use copper or aluminum for windings. Aluminum-wound units are typically less expensive and are usually the most cost-effective. Copper-wound transformers, however, are smaller, since copper is a better conductor, and copper also contributes to the coil’s greater mechanical strength. Core choice is also a crucial consideration, and core losses should be determined properly. Losses that occur in the core are due to hysteresis and eddy currents. High-quality magnetic steel should be used so that hysteresis losses are reduced; laminated cores are chosen to minimize eddy current losses. Protection from harsh conditions

It is important to ensure that transformer core, coils, leads, and accessories are properly protected, especially when used in harsh environments. Liquid-filled transformers should be of sealed-type construction, automatically providing protection for the internal components. For highly corrosive conditions, consider the use of stainless steel tanks. Liquid-filled transformers generally use porcelain insulators, which are available in voltage ratings exceeding 500kV. Transformers, when connected to a utility system, are dependent upon utility voltage; when utility operations change or new loads are connected to their lines, the incoming voltage to the facility may either decrease or increase. To compensate for such voltage changes, transformers are often built with load tap changers (LTCs), or sometimes, no-load tap changers (NLTCs). These devices consist of taps or leads connected to either the primary or secondary coils at different locations to supply a constant voltage from the secondary coils to the load under varying conditions. Transformer life expectancy

A transformer’s useful life is generally considered to be the same as that of its insulation system. Insulation life, in turn, is directly proportional to the temperatures the insulation experiences. Transformers typically have a ‘nameplate’ kVA rating, which represents the amount of kVA loading that will result in the rated temperature rise under ‘standard operating conditions.’ One can estimate a normal transformer life expectancy by using these standard operating conditions, including the accepted hot-spot temperature with the correct insulation class. It is crucial to determine how much overloading a unit can withstand without developing problems or faults. A primary issue is heat dissipation. For example, if a transformer is overloaded to a factor of 20% above its rated kVA for a certain period of time, any heat developed in the coils may be easily transferred to the outside of the transformer tank, depending on the period of overload. If this heat transfer occurs, the chances of a fault occurring are small. Heat can start to build up internally within the unit and cause serious problems, leading eventually to a fault and a possible power outage. Heat dissipation issues are often addressed with built-in fans, which augment the transformer’s load capability. The transformer’s insulation level is based on its basic impulse level (BIL), defined as the maximum peak voltage that a piece of equipment can withstand before insulation breaks down and the equipment shorts out. The BIL can vary for a given system voltage, depending upon the amount of exposure to system over-voltages a transformer might encounter over its lifecycle. The selection of BIL must be done especially carefully if the electrical system includes solid-state controls, because such controls chop the current when operating, and may cause voltage transients. A transformer’s ability to attenuate electrical noise and transients is another important consideration. A shield is frequently placed between a distribution transformer’s primary and secondary coils. Minimizing the distance between the unit and the principal load reduces energy loss and voltage drops, and brings down the cost of secondary cabling. However, any placement of high-voltage equipment requires close scrutiny of electrical and fire safety issues, and a suitable balance can be achieved by using units that are pre-approved or permitted by insurance companies. Be sure to work with a manufacturer that can match the transformer operating characteristics, size, and other attributes with the needs determined during the evaluation process. Tom Steeber is the vice president of marketing and sales for Pacific Crest Transformer. Pacific Crest Transformer |

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wind energy Wind prospecting data for advanced analysis


16 regional service centers Uptower maintenance services Authorized OEM generator repair Generator unit exchange program Spare parts—electrical & mechanical On-site generator pickup and delivery

888.694.6200 •



AWS Truepower, LLC has introduced windNavigator Compass, an intuitive web-based tool that grants instant access to the company’s comprehensive and accurate renewable resource data. Designed to significantly expedite wind site qualification and project management efforts with its advanced analysis capabilities, the Compass seamlessly integrates with AWS Truepower’s wind prospecting and resource analysis application, windNavigator. Within the windNavigator map window, Compass subscribers can instantly interact with data on nine essential site characteristics—location speed, display height, latitude and longitude, elevation, roughness, Weibull A & k factors, mean power density, wind rose, and monthly speed distribution—to determine whether or not prospecting goals can be met. windNavigator also offers customers the unique ability to conduct further analyses with advanced reports or GIS data. AWS Truepower

Multi-point lifting beam Caldwell has recently provided several large-capacity three-point lifting beams designed for handling wind turbines. These beams have custom-designed lugs to attach to the load, and an adjustable center of gravity to allow the operator to quickly and easily adjust the lifting point along the main lifting beam to insure a level lift. Since 1954, Caldwell has been designing and manufacturing quality material handling equipment, and all below-the-hook lifting equipment complies with current ASME B30.20 and BTH-1 standards. Caldwell Lifting Equipment

We are Aevenia. The way energy moves. Wind turbine brakes

We are Aevenia, Inc., a premier energy and electrical construction company. We offer a powerful bundle of services and back it up with 40 years in the energy and electrical construction industry. Every day, we show our customers what it’s like to do business where trust, integrity, efficiency and quality are principal values. • 218.284.9500 3030 24th Ave So. Moorhead, MN 56560




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Tribco Inc. offers brake pads that last three to five times longer than conventional brake pads—but won’t scratch or wear down brake rotors— because they are lined with Braketex, the world’s first and only 100% Kevlar fibered composite friction lining. Braketex is virtually dust-free; whereas, conventional linings generate dirty, abrasive black dust that contaminates lubricants and damages electronics and other critical components. Additionally, Braketex is environmentally friendly because it does not contain asbestos or other harmful ingredients. Braketex-lined brake pads are ideal for wind turbine mechanical and yaw brakes—and help reduce maintenance downtime and expense while increasing turbine, reliability, uptime, and output. Tribco stocks replacement brake pads and clutch plates for many applications and will also custom fabricate new parts to order or reline used metal plates and carriers. Tribco’s exclusive 100% KEVLAR fibered composite friction lining has been performance proven in thousands of dry and wet brake, clutch, PTO, power transmission, torque converter, synchronizer, and other friction applications worldwide for over 25 years. Tribco Inc. |

Inverter for small wind turbine systems SMA America has strengthened its North American wind inverter family with the new Windy Boy 8000US model. Combining the advanced technology present in the US series of Sunny Boy solar inverters, the Windy Boy includes special firmware that permits direct grid-tied operation with a broad range of wind turbines. Its longevity is enhanced via SMA’s patented OptiCool active temperature-management system and rugged cast-aluminum outdoor-rated enclosure. The Windy Boy 8000US features a CEC weighted efficiency of 96%, resulting in exceptional energy yields and is also certified to the UL 1741/IEEE1547 standard. Designers can take advantage of the Windy Boy’s versatility. The wind inverter can be installed with a direct gridtied connection or as part of a micro-grid in conjunction with the company’s Sunny Boy solar inverter, and Sunny Island battery inverter and management system, providing grid-quality power to remote locations. In conjunction with the debut of the new inverter, SMA has also doubled its standard warranty on its entire UL-listed line of Windy Boys. SMA America |

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Wind farm design software Garrad Hassan cuts wind farm design time and improves mapping capability with the latest release of its wind farm design software: GH WindFarmer 4.1. The new release provides a performance boost and introduces new features that build on the technology of its predecessor. The power of parallel processing has been used to cut calculation times, bringing significant time savings to the designers of todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s large wind farms. The previous version of GH WindFarmer saw the introduction of support for geo-referenced map data; this new release supports the reading of an increased number of file formats and is compatible with most of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s standard map formats. Support for international standards has been maintained with the latest IEC calculation for estimates of design equivalent turbulenceâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;an important tool when selecting turbines for a site. GH WindFarmer is relied on to design both onshore and offshore wind farms of all sizes. The powerful software tool integrates all aspects of wind farm energy and environmental assessments with wind farm layout design and data handling. It is acknowledged for its user-friendly interface and the speed and accuracy of provision of calculations; it is also unrivalled in the transparency of its data models, providing confidence to users who need to understand the decision-making that sits behind the solutions it provides.

Molded vacuum interrupter (MVI)

Concrete wind tower base system

The new Thomas & Betts Elastimold Molded Vacuum Interrrupter (MVI) is the industryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s only unit designed to fit through wind tower doorways. The unit is maintenance-free and environmentally friendly, containing no gas or oil, and is available for subsurface, vault, tower, padmount, or riser-pole applications. The 38kV 25kA MVI incorporates Elastimoldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s proven combination of EPDM molded insulation with a vacuum interrupter. This latest addition to the Thomas & Betts solid-dielectric family of switchgear utilizes a 25kA symmetrical vacuum bottle interrupter and a magnetic actuator mechanism, along with a current sensor and a broad line of control options, ranging from the companyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s internal E-Set software to their 80 Control or the SEL 351 Relay.

The Atlas CTB Concrete Tower Base by Tindall is a revolutionary new hybrid concept that brings significant performance improvements to the wind industry. Comprising the lower 32m of a tower, the Atlas CTB is ideal for raising large turbines to heights of 100m to 130m. This flared-base, precast concrete lower section accommodates a conventional steel monotower upper section. The large-footprint base is composed of multiple precast staves that are erected and stabilized by a concrete transition. The components are easily transported by road and rail and are quickly erected on a simple ring foundation requiring 1/4 to 1/3 of the concrete found in conventional tower footings. The base also provides plenty of enclosed space for equipment/mechanical storage. Tindall Corporation | |

Thomas & Betts |

Garrad Hassan |

Monitoring and Control 8JOEt4PMBSt(FPUIFSNBM

Turbine motion sensors FRABAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s OPTIPACT motion sensors measure velocity by calculating the rate at which an image of a moving surface travels across an optical sensor. With no contact between the sensor and the moving object, dust or surface contaminates will not cause problems. OPTIPACT sensors provide an ideal way of determining rotor speed in wind turbines: just measure the velocity with which part of the rotor (nose cone or shaft) moves past a point on the body of the turbine. OPTIPACT motion sensors are compact, robust, and ideal for primary or backup rotor speed regulation. FRABA Inc. |

The success of your investments can ride on the accuracy of your measurements. With 35 years of proven field experience, unmatched reliability, and exceptional measurement quality, you can trust Campbell Scientific data acquisition systems when your measurements matter.

â&#x2C6;&#x2020; 'JOEPVUNPSF









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wind energy

Wind SCADA technology

Wind turbine gear oil

CG Automation, a wholly owned subsidiary of MSE Power Systems, Inc., announced the acquisition of ADMS Wind SCADA and wind turbine monitoring systems technology from Second Wind Systems Inc. The Second Wind ADMS Wind SCADA technology is a system that monitors the operating conditions of all wind turbines and of the entire facility at a wind generation plant. Among other things, the plant monitors the power output of each turbine and of the plant as a whole, versus the wind conditions over time, to monitor the performance of each turbine. Additionally, the system monitors all key operating parameters of the turbines and the plant as a whole to provide alarms to the owner in case of a malfunction. MSE has traditionally offered clients engineering and full design/build turnkey services for the electrical system of wind plants. This system allows MSE to expand their offerings to customers to include the monitoring and management of the plant.

Following extensive R&D and a comprehensive test program, Klüber Lubrication has developed a line of products to meet the severe requirements of gear oil for wind turbine drives, including: Klübersynth GEM 4 N series (polyalphaolefin); Klübersynth GH 6 series (polyglycol); and, Klübersynth GEM 2 series (rapidly biodegradable ester). Klübersynth lubricants provide excellent wear protection and resistance to micro-pitting, foaming, and residue formation. Compared to standard gear oil, these products show good resistance to aging, high load-carrying capacity, and low friction values. Consequently, oil change intervals may be increased while improving the efficiency and overall life of turbine components. Plus, Klüber’s ADDED value program makes it easy for manufacturers and operators to simplify their lubrication requirements.

MSE Power Systems |

On-site torque tool calibration MobileCal is a full-service torque tool specialty company, serving the largest operators in the wind industry. MobileCal’s on-site torque tool calibration is ideal for wind operators whose expensive precision torque tools are constantly in use. Certified calibration vehicles bring expert technicians to any location, eliminating the hassle to package and ship (or be without) critical tools. Simply schedule a visit from one of MobileCal’s fleet of custom vans. It’s a highly cost-effective way to protect capital investment and to keep people safe. They calibrate all hydraulic, pneumatic, and manual torque tools, and inspect, maintain, and repair all tools and associated equipment. After calibration, technicians can track tools in TorqueWare, a custom online tool tracking software, for instant access to torque charts and provides alerts before certifications expire. MobileCal also sells a full line of torque tools and equipment. MobileCal |

Klüber Lubrication

Electric chain hoist for wind turbines

Rubber Track Conversion Systems for 4x4 Vehicles and ATVs ALL TERRAIN - ALL SEASONS Mud, sand, snow, swamp, rocks, as well as hard surface!


Konecranes offers specialized products and services for wind turbine applications. The wXN Electric Chain Hoist from Konecranes meets the needs of wind turbine applications with an innovative design that delivers multiple benefits. The wXN Electric Chain Hoist is lightweight, compact, and mounted to a jib crane within the nacelle of the turbine. With a standard lifting capacity from 1/8- to 1-ton, and optional higher capacities, the wXN offers performanceenhancing features such as a suspended hook, standard two-speed hoisting, epoxy-painted protection, and efficient heat dissipation through its ribbed design. The wind power industry commands very strict operation requirements due to the unique environment in which the equipment much function. The wXN addresses these requirements with its lightweight, compact, reliable, and cost-effective design. Lifting capacity, lifting speed, and lifting height can be configured based on handling system. Konecranes Inc. |

Data management system EASY INSTALLATION! MATTRACKS® GIVES YOU ACCESS TO EVEN THE MOST REMOTE TOWER SITES IN THE WORST CONDITIONS! Wind power generation presents unique challenges to access work areas. Mattracks can help provide access for maintenance services and repair, and with the low ground pressure, there is minimal impact on soft terrain.

The WindLogics OnSite tower data management system now includes the new AssetManager and DataViewer user interfaces, plus enhanced tower status reports. With AssetManager, users can view and update essential site and tower information including configurations, locations, photographs, and commissioning and maintenance information. The interface also highlights towers that have not transmitted data according to the programmed schedule. Using DataViewer, quality checked data from any combination of instruments and towers can be examined as soon as it is transmitted from the logger. Users can view graphs and tables of the data, which can also be exported in a flexible text file format. Customers also receive frequent status reports that highlight any data recovery or data quality issues identified during automated quality checks and subsequent meteorologist review. WindLogics |

202 Cleveland Ave. E. P.O. Box 214 Karlstad, MN 56732




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ASES National Solar Conference: SOLAR 2010 May 17th to 22nd • Phoenix Convention Center—Phoenix, Arizona Show in Print Features just some of the companies and technologies attendees will see at this year’s show.

The National Solar Conference is America’s leading conference on the emerging trends, technology, and opportunities shaping the new energy economy. Now in its 39th year, SOLAR 2010 is the longest-running educational event for solar energy professionals in the US. This year’s program will be developed by solar energy experts in all topical areas including technology, building, policy, professional education, workforce development, and consumer education. Many sessions will also offer continuing education credits for architects, installers, engineers, and more.

Solar power panel optimizer

Electrical distributors for solar energy projects

Fully integrated solar carport

North American solar wholesaler Session Solar is now a distributor of SunMizer, a per-panel power optimizer that performs MPP tracking at the panel substring level to increase power harvest. SunMizer achieves maximum power flow from the panel during sub-optimal module operating conditions caused by shade and soiling to recover over 50% of system level power loss. Parent company, SolarMarkt AG, tests all Session Solar products before they enter into distribution agreements with manufacturers. Because Session Solar believes in trouble-free installations and long-term output, they carry only high-quality solar equipment.

Border States Electric (BSE), provides products and solutions needed for all phases of solar energy projects. Count on BSE for a broad range of products that are competitively priced. BSE provides residential, commercial, and utility scale solar panels, inverters, batteries, racking, and all other balance of systems products, and also provides the support needed to get the required permits and tax benefits allowed. For solar energy projects that are completed efficiently, on budget, and on time, work with an experienced supply chain partner.

Baja Construction introduces a new concept in PV systems for the commercial market—a fully integrated solar carport that utilizes Baja’s Solar Support System to carry PV modules producing clean energy to power America’s businesses, and the emerging electric vehicle market. Baja’s solar carport is a specifically engineered shade structure that’s built right on a customer’s parking lot. It can be used as the sole PV solution or as a supplement to a rooftop PV solution. It differentiates itself from rooftop solar installations in that it has the secondary benefit of shaded parking (which may be a recognizable revenue source).

Border States Electric

Session Solar |

Baja Construction |


Energy from nature.

Heat transfer appliances California-based solar hot water manufacturer Heliodyne has introduced its newest line of Plug and Play heat transfer appliances, the Commercial Solar Station (HCOM). The HCOM is a packaged, closed-loop heat transfer appliance for accommodating large, solar hot water projects of up to 100 flat plate collectors with a single module, while still larger projects can combine modules in parallel for limitless sizing potential. Some notable features of the HCOM include “plug and play” installation, touch screen interface, advanced controller for remote Wi-Fi based monitoring and data storage, single/double wall heat exchanger, and integrated variable speed pumps for system energy optimization. Heliodyne |

The new Accelera® 300 can extract up to 80% of its energy requirements from the air around it. Heat pumps have been around for decades, but a heat pump water heater is a brand new concept. The Accelera® 300 works like an air conditioner - but instead of dumping the heat outdoors, it puts it into the water.


The Accelera’s compressor and fan consume only 1 kWh of electricity to generate the heat equivalent of 3 – 5 kWh. The efficiency of the unit goes up with increasing ambient air temperatures. This ground breaking efficiency redefines what a water heater is capable of, and what savings can really mean ! FEDERAL TAX CREDIT: SAVE 30% UP TO $1,500 OF THE TOTAL SYSTEM COST!






Simply the Best

800.582.8423 North American Clean Energy

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SOLAR 2010 show in print Solar panel installation assembly The newly improved S-5-PV Kit by S-5! is a rail-free, metal roof solar panel installation assembly. The embossed S-5-Mounting Disk with a module guide makes module placement easier. The S-5Mounting Disk features four under-disk hooks to help with wire management and has strategically placed holes for zip tie connections. The S-5-PV Grab now has broader ears, making installation easier and more precise. The mounting disk is universally directional, and the S-5-PV Stud is longer to accommodate solar panel frame thicknesses from 32 mm to 64 mm. S-5! | www.S-5-com

When it comes to mounting framed PV modules directly to standing seam metal roofs there is really only one way!


Pre-wired solar resource assessment & performance monitoring Campbell Scientific Inc. is now offering turnkey performance monitoring and resource assessment packages for the solar and wind industries. Choose from several existing standardized stations or work with an application engineer to configure a custom solution. With over 35 years of experience and 150,000-plus units sold, Campbell Scientific data acquisition systems have the flexibility and reliability to fit customer needs when measurements matter. Campbell ScientiďŹ c

The quickest way! The easiest way! The right way! Rail or Direct S-5! mounting solutions result in dramatically reduced costs. Mounting hardware as low as $.08 per watt*. *To learn how visit or call 1-888-825-3432.


Call Today - 831 438 9000




Delivered the most advanced automated lines Lines installed for most global module manufacturers Delivery of complete equipment and technology Turnkey integration of module lines from manual to fully automated Proprietary robot technology and new process development Flexible, expandable solutions for growth


Reis Robotics USA, Inc. 1320 Holmes Road Elgin, IL 60123 Phone: 847 741 9500



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Reis Robotics USA, West Coast 28490 Westinghouse Place Unit 170 Valencia, CA 91355 Phone: 661 702 0275

Deep-cycle lead acid batteries Surrette Battery Company has been manufacturing premium deep-cycle lead acid batteries for over 50 years. Exclusively branded as Rolls Batteries, they offer a full range of products for marine, railroad, motive power, and renewable energy applications, which are considered the best and toughest for the specific markets they serve. Surrette Battery | Rolls Battery

Advanced central inverter For a central inverter that saves time, money, and is easy to maintain, consider the KACO XP 100U. It is reliable, efficient (over 96%), easy to install, and completely digitally controlled. Digital signal processors monitor and advanced pulse width modulation controls the components and their functionality to provide a high degree of reliability and efficiencyâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;even when connected to unstable grids. Each unit is JAVA web enabled to give KACO service technicians 24-hour access to real-time performance data to operate the inverter and to update software remotely to ensure maximum kWh production. KACO new energy

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Monocrystalline PV panel

Microporous insulation applications Microtherm is a provider of microporous insulation applications, with 40 years experience in a wide range of demanding applications including power generation and renewable energy supplies. Renewable Energy is the key to the future, and conserving this energy by controlling energy losses is a factor in reducing cost by improving operational efficiency. This is the Microtherm approach in the provision of thermal insulation solutions for consolidating solar power. Ball joint assemblies for parabolic trough collectors, and the associated long piping runs and clamp supports are insulated with thin, lightweight Microtherm. The same applies with systems for solar towers. Microtherm is lightweight, load bearing, and offers the thinnest protection making it ideal for difficult areas. It is available in moulded shapes and bend assemblies, flexible panels and rolls, and as pourable granules. It is fast to fit and backed by a full thermal design support service.

Fluitecnik Inc. is a manufacturer of highquality mono and polycrystalline photovoltaic panels that carry a 25-year warranty. With over 12 years experience in the renewable energy market, Fluitecnik’s attention to detail and customer service is of the highest level. For 2010, Fluitecnik is pleased to announce the introduction of the 240 Watt Monocrystalline PV Panel. The panel’s high-efficiency rating and black frame/black back sheet option will make it a popular choice for residential installations. Fluitecnik Inc. |

Microtherm |

Solar pool heating The LeverEdge is proud to introduce the Nuvis Solar Collector, the latest addition to its pool heating product line. Nuvis is the next generation in solar pool heating and is designed for today’s high-performance pool systems. The LeverEdge solar pool collectors are manufactured using the most advanced technology available and produced in their new state-of-theart facility. The LeverEdge has been providing its customers with the highest quality product and service for more than 30 years. The team at The LeverEdge can provide customers with the support needed to be successful including technical, sales, and marketing support. The LeverEdge

Total home energy monitoring Powerhouse Dynamics eMonitor is the first application that monitors PV solar and solar hot water, as well as home energy use at every circuit in the home, in a single integrated system. For the first time, home owners can see where they are using energy at a level of granularity that enables them to reduce energy use. This may result in the ability to implement a smaller PV array—or save money by increasing net metering. The eMonitor actively monitors the home and delivers alerts on PV performance, appliance problems, circuit overloads, appliances left on, energy costs, and more. Powerhouse Dynamics

CALL 1 (888) 878-8750 TO FIND OUT MORE, OR GO ONLINE Heliodyne, Inc. • 4910 Seaport Avenue • Richmond, CA 94804 T: 1.888.878.8750 or 510.237.9614 • F: 510.237.7018 Information & Support: Sales Inquiries:


North American Clean Energy

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SOLAR 2010 show in print

Single-axis horizontal trackers

Solar module grounding bolt

Patriot Solar Group introduces its new line of single-axis horizontal trackers (motorized HZT series). This tracking system will increase total kW output of the modules by up to 30% or more depending on the latitude of the installation. Patriotâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s new horizontal units are designed for durability and ease-of-installation. They can be installed in nearly any environment, worry free, due to the robust structure. All units come standard with modular rails (fits nearly any commercially available PV module), bolt and template kits for installation, single-axis tracking controllers, and pillow block bearings.

The SOLKLAMP grounding bolt from Tyco Electronics shortens the installation time required to ground modules in a solar array. The threaded bolt, secured with a supplied onepiece lock washer-nut, inserts through the ground hole of a solar module aluminum frame and penetrates its surface to establish a reliable ground path. The SOLKLAMP grounding bolt handles 6 to 12 AWG (13.3 and 3.3 mm2) solid, uninsulated copper wire. The six-second, short-term current test indicates that the product handles 1530 Amps with 6 AWG ground wire. In the UL 486A/B pull-out test, the grounding bolt provides 100 pounds (45.3 kg) retention with 6 AWG wire. The product meets the requirements of UL 1703 for safety in flat-plate PV modules and panels, as well as the UL 467 requirements for grounding and bonding equipment.

Patriot Solar Group |

Tyco Electronics |



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Batteries for renewable energy applications MK Battery, a wholly owned subsidiary of East Penn Manufacturing Co., Inc., offers a broad spectrum of batteries to meet virtually any renewable energy application. Engineered and tested to the most stringent industry standards, the Deka Solar line features the highest quality Gel, AGM, and Flooded batteries in 6- & 12-volt monobloc, and high-capacity 2-volt configurations. With options of 5, 10, and 20-year design life products, the Deka Solar Line offers reliable battery solutions designed for frequent deep cycling and minimal maintenance. Technical training, engineering support, state-of-the-art recycling facilities, and dependable service from 25 distribution centers worldwide make MK Battery and Deka Solar the reliable choice for renewable energy storage solutions. MK Battery |

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PV performance technology Day4 Energy Inc., a technology developer and manufacturer of high-performance solar electric modules, recently announced the expansion of its product offering to include the Day4 60MC-I featuring breakthrough Guardian Technology. Guardian Technology dramatically improves the performance of PV modules when exposed to partial shading, snow, debris, and other external factors that may cause a substantial reduction in power yield. As a direct result, Day4 60MC-I modules with Guardian Technology are three times less sensitive to these external factors. They also offer as much as 25% greater power yield from the same installation area due to higher installation density. The 60MC-I featuring Guardian Technology is in the process of receiving UL certification and, based on positive internal testing, is expected to be certified for sale in both the North American market by summer 2010. Day4 Energy |

Space & water heating combined Heat Transfer Products (HTP) has introduced The Phoenix Evolution, the first device available in the US that integrates a high-efficiency water heater with a heating element to provide both hot water and space heating with one compact, efficient appliance. The modulating condensing gas water heater operates at 93% combustion efficiency and 96% thermal efficiency. An attached space heating module draws latent heat from the hot water, eliminating the need for a boiler. An optional solar heat exchanger, when connected to solar collectors, increases the unit’s efficiency to over 100%, significantly reducing carbon emissions and fuel consumption. The all-in-one design of the Phoenix Evolution not only contributes to the environment’s well-being but also to the consumer’s, offering considerable space and cost savings. The Phoenix Evolution requires about one-third the space of a typical system, replacing a boiler, indirect tank, and buffer tank with one appliance. Cost savings include substantial reductions in installation, maintenance, and operation costs.



Heat Transfer Products

Available in 20 countries on 6 continents worldwide, Rolls offers the broadest product line of deep cycle, low maintenance and maintenance free batteries for the Renewable Energy market. From large-scale storage to small village electrification, our flooded or AGM storage batteries deliver the power you need every time. Each is backed by our industry leading warranty, solid reputation and 97% recyclable at end of life. Green just got a whole lot meaner.

Certified passive solar systems Premium Solar LLC is the southern distributor of Ezinc Solar Products in the United States. Their flagship products are their SRCC certified 46and 80-gallon thermosyphon systems. Premium Solar claims these systems to be some of the most efficient, certified passive solar products in the US. Thermosyphon systems are also some of the most widely used solar hot water heating systems around the world, and also have some of the lowest installation costs as there are no moving parts.

Superior Cycling | Dual-Container Construction | Widest Range of Specs Largest Liquid Reserves | Easiest to Install | Longest Life Span | Premium Warranties

T. 1.800.681.9914 E.

Premium Solar LLC North American Clean Energy

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SOLAR 2010 show in print

Solar cell optimizing technology

Junction box automated assembly

tenKsolarâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s RAIS (â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Râ&#x20AC;&#x2122;edundant â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Aâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;rray of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ntegrated â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Sâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;olar) Wave system produces more energy per square foot on commercial flat rooftops than any other solar PV system on the market today. The increased energy output is made possible through the Cell Optimizing technology that continuously adjusts the moduleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s MPPT and enables the ability to harvest additional illumination from the sun via reflection. The redundancy inherent to the RAIS architecture improves system availability over traditional string inverters by eliminating any single point of failure from cell through inverter. The RAIS Wave system is also an easy to install, all-in-one system with integrated reflection, requiring no additional racking, and the self-ballasting capability eliminates the need for rooftop penetrations in typical applications. The RAIS system operates at a safe low voltage dramatically reducing the risk of a fire caused by the solar array.

Reis Robotics offers a new system for fully automatic setting of the junction box, which is mounted on a platform completely ready for operationâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;and can, therefore, be integrated into any existing production line with minimum expenditure. This new concept has many advantages compared to the conventional method. Critical work steps before lamination are omitted, including: foil stamping; unthreading of terminal leads; no emerging EVA during lamination; and, no soiling of the membrane. This method also avoids the risk of damaging the membrane during lamination due to protruding contact leads. As a result, an optimum of cost saving can be seen since various manual and automatic work steps are made unnecessary and material is saved. The possible breakage rate is also reduced as no manual actions are required. Reis Robotics USA

Manual production PV module laminators Bent River Machine Inc. has developed a new pin bed solar panel laminator for PV research and small panel production. Their SPL series offers consistent results with programmable routines and variable cycle, temperature, and vacuum options for processing panels that fit in a 30" square envelope. Process parameters developed on the SPL can be transferred to production. This new laminator features a welded frame, robust structure, industrial controls, manual loading, and lifting pins. PLC control and touch screen interface allow for process control. Vacuum capability is less than one Torr vacuum to ensure superior de-gas for defect free product. Smaller footprint fits in a laboratory or development area and uses less energy to prove newly designed products. Bent River Machine Inc.

tenKsolar |

Surge protection devices Since 1937 CITEL, Inc. has been specializing in the manufacturing of reliable Surge Protection Devices (SPD). CITEL, Inc. has since expanded its surge protector line to include models DS60PV and DS50PV, two wire and ground DC power surge protectors for applications up to 1000 Vdc. Designed for the most severe applications, DS60PV is a Heavy Duty DC surge protector rated to withstand a direct lightning strike (10/350us waveform) as defined by ANSI/IEEE C62.41-2002 and IEC 61643-11. It is typically installed at the DC input to the inverter of a solar power system. For more general duty applications, DS50PV is surge rated at 40kA 8/20us, and engineered to protect against indirect lightning, ac utility grid surges, and internally generated switching transients and faults. These din rail mount devices can be integrated into a PV combiner box or standalone enclosure. CITEL is also pleased to announce model DS50PV as the first UL recognized DC Surge Protector with replaceable modules. CITEL, Inc. |

Solar mounting system

Ä&#x17E;ĹśĆ&#x161;ZĹ?Ç&#x20AC;Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x152;DÄ&#x201A;Ä?Ĺ&#x161;Ĺ?ĹśÄ&#x17E;/ĹśÄ?Í&#x2DC; Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2014;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x192;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2014;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2018;Â&#x17D;Â&#x192;Â&#x201D;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2021;Â&#x17D; Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2022;ÇĄÂ&#x2014;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x2018;Â&#x2018;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2030;ÇĄ Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x2018;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x2022;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D; Â&#x203A;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2014;Â&#x201D;Â&#x201E;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2022;Â?Â&#x2021;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2022;Ǥ




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Mudge Fasteners is the first in the US to distribute SmartRack, a patent pending mounting system developed originally for asphalt shingle roofs, but that can also be used on commercial structures with standing seam roofs. It cuts down, not only on installation and material costs by making the use of rails redundant, but also shipping, handling, and inventory costs, allowing for significant savings. Solar industry installers, integrators, and manufacturers can now easily obtain all the stainless steel fasteners needed for their projects at a single source with the convenience of 24/7 ordering. Mudge Fasteners, Inc.

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PV performance monitoring system

Solar test & measurement equipment

The Draker Sentalis 200PV is a new, cost-effective solution that provides owners and operators of small- and medium-sized PV systems with highly accurate and reliable data for monitoring system performance. The Sentalis 200PV is optimized for systems up to 250kW with a single production meter. At the heart of every Sentalis 200PV system is a base station that includes a reliable and accurate datalogger from Campbell Scientific, a trusted name in data acquisition and instrumentation. The base station also features a dedicated backup battery to prevent data loss in the event of a power outage and a simplified wiring panel to facilitate quick and safe installation. A robust web interface is provided for data management and reporting, making this a true turnkey system. In addition to the Sentalis 200PV, Draker also provides a Sentalis 1000PV monitoring solution that is specifically engineered for large, commercial and utility scale systems.

Solmetric Corporation delivers innovative, accurate, and easy to use solar test and measurement equipment. Solmetric will be featuring a variety of products including the SunEye 210, a newly updated PV Designer, and PV Performance Analyzer. The SunEye 210 is the newest version of the SunEye and features a new, rugged design and updated features including an integrated electronic inclinometer, compass, and optional GPS. The SunEye is a handheld electronic device that allows users to assess total potential solar energy given the shading of a particular site. PV Designer enables users to layout solar PV modules on a roof surface and calculates the energy production for the system. The PVA-600 PV Performance Analyzer is an instrument to verify performance of a PV module or string. It measures IV characteristics and compares measured results to expected results based on an integrated system performance model.

Solar measurement system StellarNet announces a new SpectroRadiometer system designed to characterize and evaluate light emissions according to industry standards used for solar simulators and a variety of applications. The complete NIST traceable system consists of a portable UV-VIS-NIR fiber optic spectrometer and fiber light receptor. The SpectraWiz software now includes a new solar match panel that is part of the Light Monitor application, which is used to characterize and classify light emissions for solar simulators. The Solar Match Monitor application calculates spectral irradiance for each 100nm bin from 400nm to 1100nm and compares the results to the ideal percent for each bin range per IEC/JIS/ASTM. The proximity of the measured data to the ideal values results in classification of the solar simulator lamp from A through D. The Light Monitor also measures UVabc regions below 400nm using both US and European standards. StellarNet |

Solmetric Corporation |

Draker Labs |

Adhesives for PV products Harness the power of better adhesion with pressure sensitive film and foam tapes from Adhesive Applications, designed specifically for assembly and mounting applications for photovoltaic products. These specialty adhesives provide high-strength bond, excellent environmental properties, UV-resistance, high/low temperature properties, extended service life, and make for easy application. They provide a superior bond to metal, plastic, or painted surfaces. Adhesive Applications can help with innovative solutions to meet special bonding or mounting purposesâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;fast samples, low minimums, and a variety of adhesive, backing, and liner options to solve almost any requirement. Adhesive Applications North American Clean Energy

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SOLAR 2010 show in print

Solar storage & drain back tanks

Thermal solar water heating systems

Direct-mount PV racking

Solar Skies Mfg., a manufacturer of solar thermal collectors, is now offering a full line of stainless steel, high-performance storage and drain back tanks. A new addition to the Solar Skies’ product line is the new internal temperature sensor well. This sensor well allows for a more accurate internal temperature measurement of solar collectors. Solar Skies’ full product line of collectors, hardware, and water heating systems are designed and manufactured for both residential and commercial applications.

Stiebel Eltron SOLKITS 2 and 3 thermal solar systems are Energy Star Rated and have SRCC OG300 system certification. Each solar closed loop system includes SOL 25 PLUS flat plate collector panel(s) and mounting hardware, SB/SBB storage tank with heat exchanger(s), pump station with expansion tank, temperature/pressure gauges, pressure relief and check valves, and controller unit with corresponding sensors. There is an industry leading 10-year warranty on Stiebel Eltron solar panels and tanks.

AET recently launched an innovative PV racking product for direct-mount applications on both residential- and commercial-pitched roofs. Their revolutionary snap-in-place panel clamps allow for lightning-fast panel attachment. Stainless steel jaw-clamp assemblies hold the rails to the roof and can be mounted to most stand-offs in the industry with no drilling required on the jobsite. Rails are available in mill-finish aluminum or anodized coating.

Stiebel Eltron |


Residential solar systems

Black solar modules

A new generation of residential solar hot water tanks is at the center of Schüco’s new developments for residential solar thermal systems. In the field of innovative solar system solutions, the company has introduced a range of corrosion-resistant hot water tanks with above-average technical features and performance. The new portfolio features two sizes, 70 & 75 gallons for smaller residential systems, with approximately two to three collectors, and 110 & 115 gallons for mid- to large-size residential systems, with three to four collectors. Three integrated backup heat sources are available including: electric elements, secondary heat exchange coil for a boiler, or an innovative internal gas burner. The Schüco Solar Electric Backup, the Schüco Solar Gas Backup, and the Schüco Solar Dual Coil Storage Tanks are all designed for optimum energy efficiency and easy installation. Twoinch thick CFC-free insulation on the sides and top of the tanks reduce heat loss and energy consumption. The innovative tanks also feature double-wall enameled steel solar heat exchanger coils with 1.5" O.D. for maximum solar collection. Integrated system design allows components such as the Schüco Solar Station PS 1.3 and the digital system controller Schüco SDC 204 to be installed quickly and easily.

Trina Solar Limited, announced that its subsidiary, Changzhou Trina Solar Energy Co., Ltd., has introduced its new “Design Series.” Due to the rising demand for residential PV systems worldwide, the company has developed a high-efficiency black module, the first of several new PV modules in the Design-Series, which aims to blend seamlessly with darkcolored rooftops, offering customers’ sleek design, as well as aesthetically pleasing and reliable solutions for residential and commercial applications. In addition to positive power tolerance of 0/+3 watts, the module uses Trina Solar’s high-efficiency cells, laminated with black sheet and framed with black anodized aluminum, and it is expected to guarantee a leading standard of structural stability and resilience to stress. The monocrystalline TSMDC01 Black and multicrystalline TSM-PC05 Black modules are expected to offer a power output ranging from 165Wp to 175Wp and from 215Wp to 230Wp respectively.

Solar Skies |

BIPV system ATAS International, Inc., a manufacturer of metal roofing, wall and ceiling panels, offers green systems for commercial and residential buildings including a building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) system. ATA-Solar is a thin-film solar laminate that is applied to a standing seam metal roof to generate renewable solar power. The laminates are applied to the standing seam panels in a factory controlled environment. ATA-Solar comes in a variety of system output levels ranging 1.5kW to 120 kW, sized according to roof surface area available. ATAS International, Inc. | Intersolar North America July 13-15 2010 | Booth 7151 Moscone Center | San Francisco, CA 800.248.3548 |

Reliability In Surge Protection

Surge Protection Since 1937 A comprehensive approach to the application of lightning and surge protection will help to ensure the maximum life expectancy and efficiency for your solar PV power system. The following illustration details the application points for the surge protectors and the primary protection goal of each device.

Are you protected? 1 AC Distribution Panel DS150E

2 Inverter AC Output 3 Data/Signal Lines DS40S/G

4 Inverter DC Input


5 PV Array Combiner DS60PV DS

Schüco |






Trina Solar Limited |


5 2010

GEOTHERMAL BUYERS GUIDE Technology and the Reliability of Wind Turbines




Making Solar Smarter Increasing grid stability & integration off The Pot Potential o Osmotic Power PLUS Show in Print features… • IEEE PES Transmission & Distribution Conference • International BIOMASS Conference & Expo • WINDPOWER 2010 Conference & Exhibition

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Intersolar Munich June 9th to 11th, 2010 • New Munich Trade Fair Centre—Munich, Germany Show in Print Features just some of the companies and technologies attendees will see at this year’s show.

As the international platform for solar technology, Intersolar reflects the dynamic development along the entire value added chain in the areas of photovoltaics and solar thermal technology. The show brings people and markets together under the guiding principle, “connecting solar business.” As trade visitors from over 145 countries have confirmed, no other event brings together so many decision makers from industry, trade, and commerce with solar industry manufacturers, suppliers, institutes, and associations.

Electrical insulator for solar modules

Flexible solar power solutions

InsulPatch is a multi-layered laminate designed to act as an electrical insulator and physical spacer in critical areas inside electronic devices. It is specifically designed by Madico to offer engineers flexibility and additional construction options for their solar modules. All three products available are multi-functional and can be implemented during the assembly phase of the solar module, or as a patch system if unforeseen issues occur. The different levels of increased thickness are designed to meet the specific requirements of any panel design. The HD and SHD versions are the ultimate in dielectric bonding and offer greater partial discharge.

Ascent Solar brings flexible solar power to products that people and businesses use every day. Involved in electronic integrated photovoltaic (EIPV) solutions, Ascent Solar works with visionary designers, manufacturers, and integrators to solar power applications such as consumer electronics, transportation, building integration and rooftops, defense, space, and other custom applications. Ascent Solar WaveSol modules are ultra-lightweight, durable, and flexible technology that easily integrate into solutions to deliver powerful solar energy. Imagine the possibilities of renewable power flexible enough to integrate into products of any size or shape—by making their vision a reality, Ascent Solar has opened up the doors for solar power integration.

Madico, Inc. |

Ascent Solar |



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Support beam for ballasted roof mounting system Schletter, Inc. announced they will begin using a new KlickTop support beam, termed FlexConsole, as a standard component on their WindSafe ballasted roof mounting system. The WindSafe is the ballasted or minimally attached commercial flat roof racking system available from Schletter, Inc., which includes a rear wind deflector to minimize wind uplift and down pressure loads. This technical advance in design will increase the pre-assembly from a manufacturing standpoint by roughly 80%, without increasing costs and, in addition, will decrease the installation time in the field by almost 50%. The KlickTop component utilized with the FlexConsole is a top-down assembly solution, which only requires an Allen wrench to tighten the module support beam to the cross-rails. Therefore, there are no additional components (nuts, bolts, clamps) required, which eases overall installation time and avoids access issues at all different module tilt angles. Schletter Inc. |

Large-scale solar inverters Among the latest innovations by Ingeteam are the new Ingecon Sun 315TL / 470TL / 625TL and 500HE inverters (specially designed for multi-megawatt installations), which complete the Power Max series. They are characterised by an optimum cost/power ratio and a modular design for increased plant availability and ease of maintenance. These inverters offer a broad input voltage range from 450 V to 1,000 V to give a flexible system that facilitates PV array sizing. A key feature of these inverter models is their high efficiency, achieving values of up to 98.5% in the case of the Ingecon Sun 625TL. Another innovation is the Ingecon Sun Power Maxter option, which is directed at maximizing PV plant efficiency in conditions of low irradiance. This option is available with power outputs from 375 kW to 1,250 kW and functions by grouping together a number of power blocks in the same DC bus. In this way, based on the power available in the PV array, a system master determines which blocks should operate and the specific power output at each particular time, for optimum inverter operation and improved overall plant efficiency at low power outputs. INGETEAM |

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intersolar 2010 show in print Power harvesting & management solution for PV power plants Satcon Solstice is the industry’s first complete power harvesting and management solution for utility class solar PV power plants. Solstice sets the new standard for large-scale solar power production by addressing the performance of the entire system; enabling string level energy harvest optimization, total array monitoring and control, simplified grid interconnection features, and advanced utility control capabilities. Solstice improves system safety and reliability, delivering more kWh per kW peak of installed capacity and boosting total power production by 5% to 12% while reducing overall balance of system costs by 20% to 25%. Built on a 24-year old foundation of the industry’s most tested and proven utility ready solar inverters, Satcon is the solution of choice for the world’s largest and most advanced solar farms.

Thin-film measurement system

Satcon |

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StellarNet has announced a low-cost thin-film thickness measurement system, covering a multitude of materials from 50Å-200μm thick. The non-contact measurement system includes portable, rugged hardware and reliable, user-friendly software. The large library of materials supports multilayer, freestanding, rough, thick and thin layer structures. Thickness is measured quickly and easily using reflectance spectroscopy with analysis provided in just seconds. With USB2 connectivity, the powerful thin-film software package provides complex measurements via user configurable recipes and new materials can easily be added. Each system includes spectrometer(s) required for measurement of desired thickness range. External light sources and a high-quality reflectance probe (with stand) allow for ultra-sensitive reflectometry measurements. From the most simple, routine measurements to multilayer, multi-sample analysis, this system is ready to provide quick, accurate analysis. StellarNet |

• Concentrating Solar Power

OCTOBER 12-14, 2010

• Passive Solar

Los Angeles Convention Center Los Angeles, California, USA

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Square monocrystalline cells boost module power With its latest ‘Quad Max’ technology, Trina Solar developed high-efficiency, square-shaped monocrystalline cells. Built into the modules, Quad Max cells will boost module power output by up to 8%. Leveraging its vertically-integrated business model, Trina Solar developed the Quad Max with new, innovative manufacturing processes and a proprietary, state-of-the-art metallization and passivation technique that yields enhanced cell conversion efficiencies of up to 18.8%. The Quad Max’s square shape allows the cell to harvest more sunlight and avoids the loss of surface area typical of conventional octagonal monocrystalline cells. The five-inch cells are standard in size and a typical 72-cell module will provide power outputs of 200W and above. Trina Solar |



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Azimuth & elevation absolute rotary encoder US Digital launches its latest absolute, blind, hollow bore shaft encoder, the HBA4. The HBA4 is designed for solar tracking systems and is commonly used as an azimuth position sensor in two axis tracking systems. This single turn absolute encoder provides 16-bits of resolution over 360째 of rotation. The HBA4 is available with a 12mm or 0.500" diameter bore size with either a ball bearing or sleeve bushing bearing assembly, and is sealed to an IP65 rating. The absolute encoder slips over a shaft and is locked in place with a unique self centering ring clamp. A flexible anti-rotation tether provides single point mounting for bolt circles ranging from 2.50" up to 5.00" in diameter, and compensates for shaft run out up to +/- 0.01". The HBA4 communicates serially to a host via the industry standard RS485 bus. US Digital |

System Photonics ceramic solar tiles for roofs and facades are designed for strict architectural integration, enabling designers to implement truly building-integrated photovoltaic applications featuring color, visual impact, high-electrical performance, durability, reliability, strength, rapid installation, and recyclability at a reasonable price. The frameless colored ceramic BIPV solar tiles were engineered from the outset by System Photonics as building components, and include all mounting hardware. Ceramic, glass, and solar cells are laminated together using tough rigid DuPont encapsulants, engineered for structural glass. A roof tiled with System Photonics solar tiles is watertight, can be walked upon, and withstands extreme weather including hailstones. PV tiles by System Photonics are as efficient as normal monocrystalline solar panels, but they are easier and faster to install, come with a better guarantee on workmanship (10 years), have significantly higher recyclable content, and come in 13 colors, from slate grey to clay red. Passive tiles of the same ceramic material are available to complete a roof or a ventilated facade. Solar architecture elements from System Photonics are based on Laminam, an extremely tough non-porous thin colored ceramic sheet invented and manufactured by the System industrial group.

Source: juwi AG

Ceramic BIPV tiles for solar architecture

System Photonics

North American Clean Energy

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intersolar 2010 show in print Distributed solar power harvesting & PV monitoring solutions SolarEdge provides innovative distributed solar power harvesting and PV monitoring solutions, allowing up to 25% more energy production, at lower cost. Benefits include constraint-free site design, optimal site utilization, reduced maintenance cost, module-level monitoring, and others. The company will announce the introduction of the first commercial PV modules with embedded power electronics, as well as the expansion of its product range. SolarEdge’s PowerBox power optimizers now support modules of up to 350Wp. The range of inverters so far included 3.3-6kW singlephase and 10kW three-phase inverters; SolarEdge now offers its new three-phase inverters, including 8kW, 12kW and, in the US, a 15kW inverter. The SolarEdge innovative system provides the industry’s first fully automatic solution for electrocution prevention and fire safety, through shut down of each PV module’s DC voltage by the PowerBoxes, to prevent fires and protect firefighters and maintenance personnel when AC power is disconnected. SolarEdge |

GLOBAL EXPERTISE DELIVERED LOCALLY RSA is the world leader in renewable energy insurance. With renewable energy teams based in more than 20 global operations we speak your language and can deliver protection at every stage of development, from the initial planning stages through to construction and operation. Talk to your insurance broker about RSA’s renewable energy products and expertise or find one online at

Solar modules for various applications Scheuten Solar will supply the new, high-quality Multisol P6-60 series as an addition to its Multisol product portfolio, which covers a power range with only positive tolerances from 190 Wp to 260 Wp in 5 Wp steps. With this complete range of German-made solar modules, Scheuten Solar offers an optimal solution for every application. The new Multisol P6-60 module has a power range of 215 Wp to 230 Wp, and comes with Scheuten’s leading warranty conditions: a combination of best-in-class 10-year product warranty and a 25-year power output warranty with a linear diminution. This extended power output guarantee equals 1.5 year of extra energy production over a 25-year period. The new series features a rigid black anodized aluminium frame, combined with a black back foil. This combination gives the new module a sleek and modern design targeted for use in the residential segment. Scheuten Solar

© 2010. RSA is a registered trade name of Royal & Sun Alliance Insurance Company of Canada. “RSA” and the RSA logo are trademarks used under license from RSA Insurance Group plc.



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Solar power availability – everywhere at any time. We invite you to visit us at Intersolar Europe in hall C4 | stand 230. This year we will present our innovations in the fields of energy storage solutions, monitoring and services. With our new product range of Cellstrom batteries – FB 200/400 and FB 10/100 – we offer turnkey solutions making energy available everywhere at any time. Visit us and convince yourself of the consistent quality and efficiency of our innovative products. We are looking forward to seeing you at our stand!


09 June 2010 | 09:00 am – 06:00 pm


10 June 2010 | 09:00 am – 06:00 pm


11 June 2010 | 09:00 am – 05:00 pm

Energy storage Cellstrom GmbH

a+f GmbH | Faulenbergstraße 4 | D-97076 Wuerzburg Fon +49-(0)931-25064-0 | Fax +49-(0)931-25064-104 | info @ |

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Fluid Components International Fluid Components International (FCI) has released its new Model ST51 Mass Flow Meter for owners, operators, and manufacturers of biogas production and methane capture and recovery systems. These users will find the new Model ST51 provides the high performance and features required of these applications in an explosion-proof instrument that is easy to install, safe, and requires virtually no maintenance to deliver a truly best cost solution. FCI’s ST51 Flow Meter is designed specifically to measure biogas and all methane composition gases including natural gas. ST51 features a thermal mass, insertion-style flow element with flow accuracy to ±1% of reading over a broad flow range, from 0.3 to 400 SFPS (0.08 to 122 MPS), and repeatability of ±0.5% of reading. The flow element is available for use in line sizes from 2 to 24 inches (51 to 610 mm) diameters.


feedstocks that, until now, were impossible or difficult to process; thereby, significantly reducing the cost to produce biodiesel.

Materials Handling Equipment Company Materials Handling Equipment Company is a custom designer and builder of bulk material handling equipment including, but not limited to, bucket elevators, screw conveyors, drag conveyors, apron conveyors, feeders, live bottom bins, belt conveyors for biomass, waste, ashes, and all other materials. Serving the industry since 1927, Materials Handling Equipment Company offers the broadest line of bulk material handling equipment and capabilities of any other manufacturer.

Novozymes Novozymes creates superior and sustainable biosolutions that improve their customers’ business and safeguard the world’s resources. Novozymes’ enzymes promote everything from removing trans-fats in food to advancing biofuels. Biofuels reduce dependency on oil, decrease carbon emissions, and create jobs. The next big step is cellulosic ethanol—and they are the first to deliver commercially viable enzyme solutions for this purpose. Novozymes is working with industry leaders to accelerate the commercialization of cellulosic ethanol with improved enzyme technology and process optimizations. A number of pilot and demonstration plants are already in operation, while large-scale commercial plants are under construction and scheduled to be operational in 2011.

Mcgyan Biodiesel The Mcgyan Biodiesel Process eliminates the production of glycerin, increases yield, and allows 100%-free fatty acid feedstocks. The ability to process 100%-free fatty acids gives flexibility to utilize very inexpensive


Di Più – Sunomi LLC Di Più Srl offers 30 years of experience in the design and manufacture of heavy duty mechanical briquetting presses. Their machines have a remarkable record of quality and dependability. Mechanical briquetting presses reach pressures up to 36,000 psi. Several different materials can be briquetted, from wood and waste wood to paper and cardboard to agricultural and energy fibers, and to nut and grain shells. More exotic materials can be transformed into briquettes or pucks: MSW, water treatment plants solids, coffee grinds, and more. Briquetting, or compressing into pucks, makes these materials ready for the energy markets. Sunomi LLC, based in Atlanta, Georgia, provides full support to design, supply, install, service, and parts in North and Central America. Di Più presses offer the best value.

Your Value-Driven Bio-Energy Contractor.

OTHER Building & structures Bulk material handling systems Air pollution control Fiber optic cable solutions Gas collection covers Air pollution control Economic development office

McCormick Construction

ExxonMobil Lubricants & Specialties For more than a century, the team behind Mobil Industrial Lubricants has been delivering premium products and comprehensive maintenance solutions that help companies boost productivity, enhance the performance and life of their equipment, increase profitability, reduce downtime, and stay ahead of the competition. As they have for more than 100 years, the team behind Mobil Industrial Lubricants is continually pushing the boundaries of innovation to set new benchmarks for lubrication excellence. With qualified research chemists and lubricant formulators worldwide, as well as an extensive Equipment Builder Group that works side-by-side with customers and leading equipment manufacturers around the globe, the team behind Mobil Industrial Lubricants leverages its application specific expertise and close relationships with OEMs to engineer products that enable customers to take their productivity to new heights.

McCormick Construction has been involved in the construction of more than 45 bio-energy facilities. The value we bring to every project results in lower operating costs and greater plant productivity. Our objective is to always provide a safe working environment for all employees while delivering a high quality product backed with service and long term customer satisfaction. SERVICES WE PROVIDE: • • • • • •

Design Build Project Management Custom Fabrication Steel Tanks Concrete Slip-Form Concrete Foundations & Slabs

Pre Fab Metal Buildings Crane Services Equipment Installation Millwright Services Emergency Repair

Strategic Shut Down Planning

• • • •

Learn more about McC at our website: McCormick Construction Company 7900 69th Avenue Greenfield, MN 55373 Phone: 763-477-4774 Fax: 763-477-5174 North American Clean Energy

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biopower buyers guide 2010 BIOMASS PRODUCTS & EQUIPMENT

PeopleFlo Manufacturing, Inc. PeopleFlo Manufacturing offers EnviroGear Sealless Pumps, which are magnetically coupled gear pumps designed to lower maintenance costs and eliminate environmental costs at an affordable price. They have a magnetic coupling that replaces traditional mechanical seals and provides zero leakage. It’s also maintenancefree and requires no flush water. EnviroGear’s unique, patented design provides “between-the-bearing” support of the pumping elements and allows for a simple, compact design. PeopleFlo is working with many industry leaders in regards to biodiesel and ethanol.

Schutte-Buffalo Hammermill, LLC The Series 15 Industrial Grinder from Schutte-Buffalo Hammermill is a high-production hammer mill suitable for processing virtually any biomass feedstock to the exact finished size required for boiler fuel, pelletizing briquetting, and more. Specially designed mill components reduce the material faster and more efficiently than conventional mills, while the large screen discharge opening maximizes production capacity. This combination often allows larger screens to be employed compared to those of competing machines, without sacrificing particle size, which translates to higher production, lower energy consumption, and decreased wear. All mills custom configured to meet customer’s specific processing goals.

Hurst Boiler The Hurst Reciprocating Grate Stoker with automated ash removal is the latest edition in Hurst Boiler’s biomass boiler series. The unit offers the best of solid fuel combustion, allowing mechanical replacement of fuel with the least amount of moving parts. This efficient multi-fuel design is offered in various configurations to utilize a wide selection of solid fuels. All Hurst factory stokers are cast from the highest quality steel alloys and mounted on a robust undercarriage system. Capable of burning wood, coal, bark, construction debris, nuts, shells, husks, paper, cardboard products, hog fuel, sawdust, shavings, sludge, and agricultural biomass, the Hurst BIOMASS-TER features a CO2 Neutral Release and PLC based total systems monitoring. Hurst’s biomass product line is available with options including Flat Grate Stokers, Underfeed Stokers, and Traveling Grate Stokers to meet all biomass system requirements. The company also offers many alternative fuel solutions and shovel-ready packaged projects that can help reduce carbon, emissions, and operating and fuel costs, as well as enabling eligibly to sell carbon credits.

Metso Power Metso Power provides engineering, construction, and manufacturing services, as well as technology (CFB&BFB) products, along with automation, instrumentation, and integrated solutions by delivering environmentally friendly combustion solutions to the power, industrial, and pulp & paper sectors. Metso boilers use Fluid Bed technology, combining high-efficiency combustion of high calorific value fuels with low emissions, even when burning various fuels simultaneously. Boiler Service: rebuilds and repairs including, but not limited to, chemical cleaning consulting, inspections, maintenance, replacements in kind, made-to-order, pressure parts, spare parts, lifecycle service with local manufacturing and service facilities. Pressure Parts: membrane wall panels, long flow economizers, generating banks, tubular heat exchangers, super heaters, loose tube bending. Full metal fabrication is available including 2D/3D laser cutting (6-axis), engineered solutions, tube shields, alignment bars, headers, air heater seals, machining and saw cutting, assembly, shearing, bending, welding, plating, and powder coatings. Plus, a complete range of tube shield styles to solve tube wear problems fast.

Pratt & Whitney Power Systems Pratt & Whitney, a division of United Technologies Corporation (UTC), is committed to providing clean, efficient, and reliable power within the renewable energy market. Its Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) product line, developed by Pratt & Whitney Power Systems (PWPS), harnesses heat to generate electricity from a variety of sources including biomass, geothermal, reciprocating engines, industrial waste heat, incinerators, oil and gas fields, etc. PWPS developed the PureCycle power system (280 kW) for low- to moderatetemperature heat streams, particularly in the smaller (1 MW or lower) size range. Turboden, a PWPS company is an ORC manufacturer based in Italy with over 30 years of experience. They manufacture ORC product lines suitable for moderate and higher temperature heat streams, particularly in the larger (1 MW to 7 MW and up) size range.

Rawlings Waste Wood Hogs For over 30 years, Rawlings Waste Wood Recovery systems has offered a blend of process expertise, solid detailed design capability, and proven project construction management skills. Rawlings Waste Wood Grinding systems come in all shapes and sizes. Stationary, portable, and skid mounted systems; both vertical and horizontal models available to meet customers’ specific project requirements. For the best return on wood waste grinding equipment, contact Rawlings.

Rotochopper Rotochopper two-stage fine grinding systems offer turnkey solutions for processing raw wood fiber and agricultural residue down to short fiber specifications for pellets, suspension burner fuel, and other fine texture fuel products. Combining the versatility of Rotochopper horizontal grinders with the fine grinding efficiency of hammermills, these two-stage systems can process a wide range of raw materials, from round corn stover bales to urban wood waste, down to short fiber specifications in a single pass. The advanced particle size control of a Rotochopper horizontal grinder optimizes the efficiency of the in-line hammermill, minimizing wear costs and downtime. Available with up to 1,000 combined horsepower, Rotochopper two-stage fine grinding systems can be sized to match unique raw material and end-product needs with unmatched efficiency.





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biopower buyers guide 2010

re-li-able 1: suitable or fit to be relied on 2: giving the same result on successful trials


Focus on your research – not on finding funds to replace your chamber. Percival Scientific plant growth chambers are your reliable choice for chambers that will support your research projects for years to come! Let us customize a chamber to meet your exacting research needs! Contact us 1-800695-2743 or sales@

Percival Scientific, Inc. 505 Research Drive | Perry, Iowa 50220 800.695.2743 or 515.465.9363



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Warren & Baerg Manufacturing, Inc. The Warren & Baerg Grinder and D-Stringer System: Baled biomass is conveyed horizontally through the D-Stringer and into a sealed chamber at a constant rate where it is ground to the desired particle size in the W&B Grinder. A sealed conveyor or air take-away delivers the material into the system. The benefits are greater production, accommodates any size bale, less labor, less equipment, less maintenance, and virtually no dust. Warren & Baerg also manufactures metering/surge bins (small to large) and conveyors (drag and belt types). Their metering bin provides an even, consistent, positive feed, eliminating bridging and clumping—a blending action occurs as incoming material flows through the equipment.

Atlas Systems LLC Atlas Systems manufactured its first storage and reclaim system for a saw mill in 1959. Since then, the Atlas has worked well on sawdust, sander dust, wood chips, wood shavings, bark, hogged wood waste, and refuse derived fuel. The Atlas live bottom system consists of a storage unit, sweep conveyor, and one or more outfeed conveyors. The simple and unique design can be configured in a broad range of sizes and can be adapted to “open” storage and, in some cases, to existing storage. The systems can be used for fuel feed, process feed or truck loading, and are designed to meet the user’s unique storage and feed requirements. The advantages of an Atlas include automated positive material retrieval, low energy consumption, and easy maintenance.

Bliss Industries, LLC Bliss Industries, LLC is a manufacturer of wood and biomass pelleting equipment for residential, commercial, and industrial pellet fuel. Founded in 1981, Bliss Industries maintains a reputation of manufacturing the most efficient, reliable, and well-built equipment in the industry. Developed from a design concept proven worldwide, the range of Pioneer Pellet Mills continues to expand. Overall reliability, maximum efficiency, ease of operation, and maintenance combine to provide lower operating costs to each owner. Bliss also manufactures an extensive line of hammermills and coolers for biomass size reduction, processing, and cooling.

Briquetting Systems The cost of operation and capital for fuel puck manufacturing is less than pelletizing. Fuel pucks can be used in all applications that pellets are used for and have similar heating values and bulk densities. They will max out a truck or train car. Most fibers such as wood, agriculture, and paper feedstocks can be briquetted. Mulitiple systems are available for processing green slash and small diameter logs

taking advantage of portability where the equipment can be taken to the source of the fiber; thereby, maximizing logistics and transport costs. Fuel pucks can be used for heating greenhouses, institutional heating, as well as co-firing electric generation plants. Fuel pucks are available in quartered fashion, which is the size of cubes but denser.

Dearborn Mid-West Conveyor Co. With over 60 years of experience in the power and pulp & paper industries, Dearborn Mid-West Conveyor Co. (DMW) provides project management of complex material handling systems. The company performs design, integration, and installation of material handling systems for industries in North America and abroad. DMW provides an experienced staff of project managers with a proven success rate of managing major projects and diverse resources. By integrating advanced technologies into their designs, such as the pipe conveyor, air supported conveyor, and rotary plow feeder, systems perform at the highest efficiency possible.

KEITH Mfg. Co. KEITH WALKING FLOOR systems are integrated into material handling systems as receiving, storage, and metering bins. The KEITH DrivOn bin is designed to facilitate the delivery of material directly into the plant distribution system. Material is unloaded directly onto the DrivOn bin where it is stored and metered as needed. The WALKING FLOOR system is well-suited to handling difficult materials, providing the ability to move solid materials of almost any size. In addition, the WALKING FLOOR system has low power requirements.

MFL Maschinenfabrik Liezen und Giesserei Ges.m.b.H. MFL, an Austria-based private company, is a top European supplier of heat-resistant castings for the waste and biomass incineration industry. The product range includes a variety of grate bars for biomass stokers, and they can be found in the major biomass plants all over Europe. The precision production process used in the foundry of MFL is shell-moulding, which is ideal for the manufacture of castings that have to meet the highest demands with regard to surface finish, dimensional accuracy, and reproducibility. MFL is acting worldwide, delivering castings for the incinceration, automotive, cement, and transport industries, and is renowned for its high-quality products.

dry, granular, or powdery material. Unlike valves made from castings, Precision’s machined valve components last up to four times longer in harsh environments.

Robert White Industries, Inc. Robert White Industries, Inc. provides equipment integration services for recycling and processing biomass into value-added usable material. Since 1989, RWI has offered system design services, experience, equipment, and expertise to deal with the challenges presented by biomass size reduction, storage, and material handling. Drawing on a variety of manufacturers, RWI provides profit-improving biomass processing solutions for small firms to the largest US corporations. More recently RWI provided biomass receiving, handling, and fuel preparation systems for various companies, including the world’s largest ethanol producer.

Vecoplan, LLC Vecoplan engineers and manufactures complete alternative fuel systems including: pre-shredding, separation, screening, air classification, re-shredding, storage, unloading, sampling, and delivery of fuel to its processing destination. Systems are used in the preparation of biomass boiler fuel for co-firing with coal and other fuels, for size reduction prior to gasification, for size reduction prior to pelletizing, and in the conversion process for cellulosic ethanol and other biofuels. Vecoplan shredders provide consistently sized feedstock, the flexibility to change the size desired, high throughputs, heavy duty construction, and low-cost, easily replaced wear parts. Vecoplan is experienced in wood, corn stover, switch grass, miscanthus, any Ag fuel crop, and all organic matter used as alternative fuel.

West Salem Machinery Co. (WSM) West Salem Machinery has over 60 years of experience manufacturing fuel preparation machinery and systems with the flexibility to customize the right solution for customers around the world. One example is a biomass facility that teamed with WSM to upgrade their fuel handling system to keep up with changes in incoming feedstock. The system, which includes WSM 60-12 Disc Screen, WSM 4048BP Grinder, all in-feed and discharge chutes, support structures, access platforms, and factory assistance with installation and start up, allows them to process higher volumes of biomass from more diverse fuel types and produce a lower cost fuel—all from a single supplier. WSM is a solution-oriented company with application expertise in processing systems and machinery with fiber prep systems in operation throughout the world.

Precision Machine & Manufacturing, Inc. Founded in 1977, Precision Machine & Manufacturing, Inc. is a designer and manufacturer of rotary valves, rotary feeders, and screw conveyor material handling systems and components. The company works closely with biomass power co-generation customers throughout North America to create unique solutions that maximize uptime and efficiency and minimize lifecycle costs. Precision Machine’s products are designed using the best materials and fabricated in the USA to tight tolerances, using the latest CNC and robotic equipment to handle virtually any

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Intrinergy Operating LP Through three subsidiaries, Intrinergy manufactures wood pellets, sources biomass, and builds, owns, and operates CHP facilities around the world. Intrinergy’s Enviva Materials aggregates and delivers wood biomass for Intrinergy facilities and third parties in the US and Europe. Their foresters and operators have over a century of combined experience in the biomass industry. Intrinergy’s Enviva Pellets produces high-quality industrial and residential wood pellets, manufacturing and distributing several hundred thousand tons of pellets annually to customers globally. Intrinergy’s CHP division converts cost-competitive biomass into green electricity and steam for industrial customers through CHP. The entire Intrinergy team is dedicated to seeking out safe, stable, reliable energy solutions.

Jackson Lumber Harvester Company, Inc. Jackson Lumber Harvester Company, Inc. manufactures and sells biomass Webb Burners around the world. Their Webb Burners continue to hold the rank “Best Available Combustion Technology.” Using a variety of alternative fuels, years of clean combustion performance has resulted in positive evaluations by environmental protection agencies. For companies that use a large amount of energy, Webb Burners offer both profitability and fuel cost savings.


RSA RSA has been in business for 300 years and has offered renewable energy insurance for 30 years. RSA has the expertise and global reach to deliver seamless protection at every stage of development, from planning and transportation to construction and operation. Their specialist renew-

able energy underwriters are linked into a team of experts around the world and can offer expert advice and flexible programs. Their risk control specialists work with clients and their broker to identify areas that need clarity and provide solutions to keep projects on track. And, should the need arise, their Claims Service is here to help companies get back on track as soon as possible.

Taylor-DeJongh (TDJ) Taylor-DeJongh is an energy investment banking firm that provides tailor-made capital solutions to conventional and renewable power projects globally. The firm brings project development, capital structuring, project financing skills, and over 29 years of experience in closing energy projects. TDJ has successfully advised on the structuring and financing of US$70 billion worth of debt and equity investments in more than 100 countries. The

A Renewable Energy Leader

Trace Environmental Systems Trace is a provider of Continuous Stack Monitoring Systems and Reporting Software. Trace offers both CEMs and PEMs, as well as ongoing support services including report generation and on-site preventive maintenance and audit programs.


Biodiesel Analytical Solutions Equip a whole Biodiesel Quality Lab with every ASTM D6751 specified analyzer—all from one company. BAS will install, calibrate, write the SOPs, and service all the equipment. Biodiesel Analytical Solutions can even finance a laboratory with lease and rental programs. BAS is also the provider of the Mcgyan Biodiesel Process that can convert all known feedstocks up to 100% Free Fatty Acids into ASTM-quality biodiesel without producing glycerin or using harsh acids or bases.

ion ... s s a p r u o is n io t Construc ss long lasting busine reward. ur relationships are o Offices in Indiana, Texas, and Ontario, Canada • 1-800-355-9401 Come visit our booth at Windpower 2010 #8433 North American Clean Energy

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biopower buyers guide 2010 firm also advises clients on corporate finance, capital raising, and M&A transactions. Furthermore, TDJ has advised on over 240 power projects worldwide including conventional, CHP, CCGT, waste-to-energy, and other renewable power projects. The firm is a financial advisor to the US Department of Energy’s Loan Guarantee Program.


Aevenia, Inc. Aevenia, Inc. is a premier energy and electrical constructor providing design-build services for collection systems, transmission, tower wiring, interconnection, substations, and fiber optic systems. The company offers design, installation, and management to cover every critical aspect of a project, as well as a guarantee of safety, efficiency, and quality maintenance when the job is done. Aevenia companies provide electrical construction, heavy industrial wiring, power transmission and distribution, fixed security systems, data and fiber-optic networking, as well as service and technical support.

grant applications, financial models, and transaction structuring. Founded in 1924, Plante & Moran is the nation’s 12th largest certified public accounting and management consulting firm according with locations throughout the world. Fagen, Inc. Fagen, Inc. is one of the largest merit shop green energy design-builders in the United States. Utilizing a database of over 25,000 direct-hire employees, Fagen, Inc. has constructed 60% of the ethanol production capacity in the US. Fagen, Inc. has constructed a variety of projects including biomass plants, wind farms, and power generation facilities. Fagen, Inc. owns the equipment necessary to meet industrial demand growth, including one of the largest heavy crane fleets. Their standard for quality, safety and service has led Fagen, Inc. to be listed in the top 40 in ENR’s largest contractors in the United States.

TekSupply ClearSpan Fabric Structures are durable, affordable, and versatile, with sizes to fit any application. Ideal for equipment and material storage, ClearSpan Fabric Structures are easy to build and relocate, and are available with options like steel roll-up doors, vented end panels, and roll-up sides. Constructed from rugged Allied Gatorshield structural steel tubing and a durable fabric cover, a ClearSpan structure is built to last. Compare the price of a ClearSpan building to the $30,000 to $40,000 price tag of a metal or wood building, and enjoy lower construction costs, maintenance fees, and energy bills.


McCormick Construction Company McCormick Construction Company (McC) is a trusted partner/contractor to build, support, and maintain premium renewable energy facilities. They specialize in bulk storage, material handling, and processing of feedstock. The value they bring to every project results in lower operating costs and greater plant productivity. The company’s objective is to provide a safe working environment for all employees while delivering a high-quality product backed with service and long-term customer satisfaction.

Viability When weighing financial strategies for expansion, acquiring new technologies, or becoming more energy efficient, consider Viability, LLC. Viability acquires grants, secures tax incentives, generates carbon credit financing, and realizes other incentives to lower costs and improve return on investment. The company embraces sustainable strategies and believes that doing good business can change the world. They accomplish this by using best practices consulting, which results in customized, creative, and innovative solutions. They also offer a free incentive analysis ( Plante & Moran PLLC Plante & Moran is a public accounting and business advisory firm specializing in providing clients with assistance in renewable energy with project formation, on-going operations, and regulatory compliance. Their professionals have experience working with renewable energy production credits, energy incentives,


Innovatus Energy Harness the stored sunlight in biomass for heat, power, and liquid fuels synthesis. Innovatus Energy provides renewable fuel solutions for mill owners, businesses, researchers, villages, home owners, and off-grid power projects. Their modular biomass refineries create an ultra-clean syngas that can be used to power engines, provide heating fuel, or act as a feedstock for gas-toliquids research.


Short Elliott Hendrickson Inc. (SEH) Each biomass project is comprised of distinct components that must come together to form an efficient, energy producing solution. SEH helps clients identify and optimize the pieces of the project from funding, planning, and permitting to customized plants, process technologies and related support. Their expertise extends to biomass, wind, hydropower, pulp & paper, metals, mining, and other industries. SEH delivers complete projects that enable clients to reduce costs, eliminate dependence on fossil fuels, and lower greenhouse gas emissions. With a network of consultants working from offices throughout the US, SEH is a trusted advisor for helping spark new ideas and new approaches to energy independence.

Solutions Sustainable Design-Build

When you need a quality building fast, ClearSpan™ is the only choice. Buildings available up to 250' wide.

ADI Systems Inc. ADI Systems offers waste-to-energy systems that produce renewable energy in the form of biogas used to offset electrical and natural gas expenses. ADI treatment systems produce effluents that meet even the most stringent effluent limits and are suitable for discharge or re-use.

Low in cost per square foot. Natural daytime lighting. Easy to relocate. Expandable.

Call one of our ClearSpan™ Specialists at 1.866.643.1010 or visit us at Please mention code CST1044. 68


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Conestoga-Rovers & Associates Conestoga-Rovers & Associates (CRA) provides comprehensive engineering, environmental consulting,

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construction, and information technology (IT) services to the energy industry. Since 1976, CRA has provided practical, innovative, and effective services in such areas as environmental site assessment and remediation, regulatory compliance and permitting, environmental health and safety, solid and hazardous waste management, air quality management, municipal infrastructure planning and design, as well as construction services. CRA is a technical service organization, and their diversified staff is committed to meeting or exceeding clients’ expectations through a team approach, hands-on experience, and technical expertise. CRA has a reputation for delivering technically sound and sustainable solutions on time and within budget.

The Avogadro Group, LLC The Avogadro Group, LLC (Avogadro) specializes in air emission measurements of many different types of stationary sources, striving to create a seamless, personalized service that is the provider-of-choice to air

quality decision makers and environmental engineers for accurate and timely emissions data. From their location in Portland, Oregon, as well as other locations in Oregon and California, The Avogadro Group can field multiple mobile test labs and over 30 experienced source testers to handle any size sampling project. In addition, they maintain a full-time, in-house laboratory and provide cutting-edge on-site analytical capabilities such as FTIR analysis. Avogadro takes pride in building a long-term client relationship, which gives the company a higher understanding of facilities, personnel, and business concerns. With this approach, Avogadro consistently

provides proof of compliance with air regulations to help clients improve operational efficiencies, enhance their environmental image, and avoid penalties.

Newpoint Thermal Newpoint Thermal designs and manufactures custom equipment that can convert waste gas into energy. The waste gas is converted into useful energy, in the form of process heat. Their equipment can reduce operational costs compared to conventional energy sources and they welcome the opportunity to evaluate process requirements. Newpoint’s process heating equipment offered includes: Thermal Fluid Systems (gas and oil fired); Direct Fired API Heaters; Convection Process Heaters; Process Bath Heaters; Waste Heat Recovery Systems; High-Pressure Steam Generator; and Engineered Skid Packages. Service and maintenance for new equipment and services for existing equipment includes: Pre-commissioning Check-out; Commissioning and Start-up Support; Operator Training; Regular Maintenance Support; and Replacement Parts.

“Perfect In One Pass” TM particle size control


for converting raw wood fiber & agricultural residue into biomass fuel products. x x x

Electric or diesel 150 - 765 horsepower Portable, stationary, or track-mounted

Ecology and Environment, Inc. E & E brings 40 years of worldwide environmental consulting experience to biopower projects. They can identify and measure available biomass and wasteto-energy resources, and model and monitor air emissions, surface, and groundwater supplies, as well as wastewater effluents and noise. They also assess project land use, transportation, and socioeconomic and cultural resource impacts. E & E’s highly multidisciplinary teams include specialists in outreaching to a broad range of stakeholders and specialists in obtaining all of the required federal, state, and local government regulatory permits. E & E can help get the “green light” for biopower projects throughout North America and overseas.

Rotochopper, Inc. | 217 West Street | St. Martin, MN 56376

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biopower buyers guide 2010 FOREST & WOOD PROCESSING

Continental Biomass Industries, Inc. (CBI, Inc.) For more than 20 years, CBI has designed solutions for an ever-changing marketplace. As opportunities change, CBI continues to be at the forefront in creating new, innovative processes to efficiently utilize wastes currently going into the landfill and help customers realize the “Lost BTU’s.” With focus on reducing dependence on foreign oil, CBI continues to engineer and build equipment and systems that will: “Fuel the Future.” Processing C&D, MSW, RR ties, telephone poles, and countless other contaminated waste streams, as well as traditional wood wastes, at a lower cost per ton strongly positions CBI to enter the next era of utilization and waste reduction. With a product line that extends across the full spectrum—including shredding, feeding, sorting, grinding, screening, and conveying, CBI provides more value, by design.

Bandit Industries, Inc. Bandit Industries, Inc. offers a complete line of powerful whole tree chippers and horizontal grinders that assist in producing feedstock for the growing bioenergy markets. The oversized drums and powerful feed systems on their whole tree chippers make them some of the most productive machines on the market today. Bandit’s Beast horizontal grinders are equally effective in producing wood biomass as these innovative wood waste recycling machines can produce a variety of end-products: from quality mulch to miniscule chips known as ‘biosawdust,’ and everything in between. These machines are available as both track units or towable, and are available with engine options up to 1200-hp.

BEDESCHI AMERICA INC. BEDESCHI has been designing, manufacturing, and marketing industrial equipment for the biomass, cement, brick, mining, mineral, power, wood, pulp, and paper industries for over 100 years. Their line of products encompasses equipment for raw materials handling, designed to fit the specific needs of clients such as: Apron Feeders, Crushers, Stackers (linear and circular), Reclaimers (linear, circular, and blending), and Ship Loaders and Unloaders. With their in-house engineering department, BEDESCHI designs and engineers all of their equipment using the latest software systems. They fabricate, assemble, and test all machines in their 500,000 ft² manufacturing facility. BEDESCHI’s field technicians follow the erection/ assembly phase of the machines on-site, along with providing start-up and commissioning assistance—allowing the company to supply machines and plants to engineering companies and clients around the world.

Diamond Z As a pioneer in wood grinding technology, Diamond Z has established a global reputation for manufacturing the high70


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est quality, most durable, easy to service, and most productive industrial grinders available. Their state-of-the-art grinders ensure a cost-effective and profitable environment for customers. Diamond Z offers a broad range of tub, horizontal, and solid waste grinder models designed to suit any application. From composting to construction and demolition, land clearing to tire disposal, municipal solid waste to asphalt shingle grinding, nothing grinds like the Diamond Z.

DuraTech Industries DuraTech Industries is a respected equipment manufacturer in the global marketplace, offering products that have a reputation for being durable and built to exceed market expectations of high-value for the dollars expended. These quality built units offer today’s busy operators new and better cost-effective methods for performing their many and varied functions. DuraTech Industries manufactures farm and industrial equipment that help make tough jobs easier. DuraTech’s products can be found on the farm or ranch, in the fields or forests, and in the city or country. DuraTech provides its customers with equipment specially designed to harness the economical, environmental, and efficient powers of biomass technology. Whether it’s in the forest or on the farm, DuraTech has the answer for biomass equipment.

Peterson Pacific Corporation Peterson’s popular 5900 disc chipper has been further enhanced with key features that high-volume chipping operations demand. The new 5900EL (extended length) features an 11-foot (3.3 meter) feed deck, PT Tech hydraulic clutch, direct drive for the internal feed rolls, a totally enclosed CAT C18 engine, and is Tier 4 ready. The Peterson model 5900EL disc chipper is built to produce high-quality paper chips when paired with a Peterson model 4800 debarker or fuel chips as a standalone fuel wood chipper. The 5900EL has a large feed throat capable of accepting up to a 23-inch (563mm) diameter tree or multiple smaller diameter stems. The 5900EL is provided with a standard three knife disc, and is also available with an optional four knife disc. Peterson’s heavy duty 66inch (1676mm) diameter 4.75 inch (121mm) thick chipper disc has a replaceable 0.5-inch (13mm) thick wear plate. Chipping production rates from 60 to 100 tons (55 to 90 tonnes) can be achieved depending on chip size.

FUEL PRODUCTION Greenwave Biodiesel Greenwave Biodiesel’s objective is to be an influencing factor in the wave of change throughout the nation’s energy sector. They are committed to producing the highest quality biodiesel that meets or exceeds the specifications set forth in ASTM D6751 specifications. Their production facility in Fort Lauderdale, Florida has implemented a perfected process for generating a clean, renewable energy source through the beneficial re-use of a problematic waste stream (waste vegetable oil/ animal fats). Greenwave Biodiesel utilizes a time-tested methodology of producing biodiesel, further enhanced by recently developed production process improvements. Their second-generation process is a completely closed loop, waterless system that is capable of efficiently processing multiple feedstocks including waste vegetable oil and animal renderings.


WIKA Instrument Corporation The WIKA XSEL process gauge series is designed for applications with high dynamic pressure pulsations or vibration. Utilizing a stress reducing Bourdon tube design and movement with hardened components, the XSEL process gauge pressure system is capable of producing 10 million or more pressure cycles. Due to its greater resistance to vibration and pulsation, the XSEL reduces downtime from regularly worn-out instruments and improves safety risks from the release of gaseous or liquid media. With positive pressure ranges up to 30,000 psi, a five-year warranty on the gauge and a 10-year warranty on the pressure system, the WIKA XSEL series exceeds industry expectations. The XSEL family includes a variety of options including stainless steel, Monel, and copper alloy models.


American Electric Technologies, Inc. (AETI) American Electric Technologies, Inc. is the first to offer 38kV arc mitigation switchgear—the safest and most cost-effective alternative to arc-resistant switchgear. AETI’s switchgear requires no venting of arc flash explosions, and exceeds NFPA Code 70E guidelines by including closed-cell remote rack-in and rack-out. As a result, the switchgear addresses OSHA’s concern with arc flash hazards, while providing high-end performance with 3000 Amp and 150k BIL ratings with ANSI/UL and ANSI Non-UL certifications. In addition, the use of vacuum rather than SF6 technology eliminates expensive gas recharging cycles and the handling of toxic gas. For over 60 years, AETI has been providing innovative power distribution and conversion equipment and electrical voltages services to the utility and renewable energies industries.

Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) The Babcock & Wilcox Company is an international provider of advanced clean energy technology solutions. B&W has demonstrated experience with a wide range of biomass and waste fuels and technologies to generate steam for electric utilities, process industries, and heat. Technologies include bubbling fluidized-bed, circulating fluidizedbed, stoker-fired, and process recovery boilers. In addition, B&W’s capabilities include co-firing technologies, biomass gasification, municipal solid waste, and refuse-derived fuel combustion for waste-to-energy facilities, as well as solar thermal receivers for scalable concentrated solar power. B&W also provides advanced emissions control systems, engineered upgrades, condition assessment, field engineering services, construction, and plant operations and maintenance services. B&W offers a diverse portfolio of clean and efficient energy technologies to meet the power demands of today and tomorrow.

KBR KBR is a global engineering, procurement, construction, and operations and maintenance services company supporting the energy, hydrocarbon, government services, and civil infrastructure sectors. The company provides its clients with vast knowledge and expertise in the growing end-markets it serves, particularly renewable energy, biofuels, gas monetization, refining, petrochemicals, and specialty chemicals businesses. With respect to biofuels, KBR has extensive material handling, fermentation, gasification, synthesis gas conversion, and product separation experience. As a technology based company operating its own Technology Development Center for 83 years, KBR has experience in process development, scale-up, and commercialization of new technologies. Also, the company’s record on safety, sustainability, and training local workforces remains one of the highest in the industry.


NAES Corporation As a worldwide provider of third-party power plant operations and maintenance (O&M) services, with a portfolio of 161 projects and 45,000 MW, NAES Corporation operates energy facilities with best practices to deliver the highest levels of safety, compliance, and performance. NAES operates the broadest range of technologies and fuels in the industry, and is an operator of biopower facilities in the US. NAES also provides specialized services to improve plant technical and economic performance while enhancing personnel effectiveness. Born from 22 years of bestin-class operations, these technical support services include customized operating procedures and system descriptions, plant operational programs, NERC Compliance, computerized maintenance management systems (CMMS), oversight/assessment, and start-up and commissioning services.

Superior Industries Superior Industries, a manufacturer of conveyor systems and components, has announced its new Core Systems Design program, which offers drive and tail pulley assemblies custom-engineered for a specific application. Core Systems creates cost-efficiencies for customers by ensuring that drive components are ideally suited for the particular job specifications, while also making sure that power requirements are met. Each custom-engineered drive assembly is delivered as a pre-assembled package, which eliminates the costly labor involved in on-site assembly and greatly reduces installation time.

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Percival Scientific Percival Scientific research chambers offer reliable custom solutions designed to meet specific research requirements. Their solutions begin with two distinct lines of quality chambers, the CustomDesignSeries and the SelectSeries. Both represent a long and rich tradition of delivering product ingenuity and dependability throughout the world’s top research labs. No detail in their chambers is overlooked. Percival offers multiple lighting and humidity options, and their products are manufactured and tested in the USA.

fuel-free, emission-free and low-cost technology offers the industry’s shortest payback period on investment.

ElectraTherm, Inc. ElectraTherm, Inc. delivers renewable energy solutions for a sustainable future, now. The company’s proven, patented Twin Screw Expander enables its line of heatto-power generators to make electricity from waste and geothermal heat instead of fossil fuel. ElectraTherm’s

The Teaford Company, Inc. The Teaford Company designs, fabricates, and installs biomass combustion and drying systems for the forest products

and agricultural industries. These systems include biomass combustion energy systems for superheated and saturated steam boilers, cogeneration systems, thermal oil heaters, and direct fired systems. The Teaford Company also offers lumber dry kilns heated from biomass fired boilers, thermal oil heaters or direct fired with flue gases. The Teaford Company is the licensed fabricator in North America for SPE/ Dieffenbacher rotary dryers, superheated steam dryers and flash tube dryers. The Teaford Company and SPE can offer an energy and drying system for a pellet mill, OSB, MDF, or particleboard plant or any other drying application.

Penn State University - Industrial Research Office Penn State has significant strengths in biomass feedstock production, sustainable bioenergy systems, and biomass conversion to energy. The Industrial Research Office can help companies identify researchers with the expertise to meet their needs. Inquire about their BioEnergy Bridge consortium with industry and the public sector to examine the critical, systems level issues related to creating a sustainable bioindustry for fuels, heat and power, and products from America’s rich biomass resources.


Wilks Enterprise, Inc. Wilks Enterprise manufactures rugged, portable, cost-effective analyzers for biofuels. The InfraCal Biodiesel Blend Analyzer and InfraCal Ethanol Blend Analyzer are low-cost, single component analyzers for percent biodiesel in diesel or ethanol in gasoline. The InfraSpec VFA-IR Spectrometer is a spectral range analyzer capable of monitoring more than one component. Measurements include ethanol in gasoline, biodiesel in diesel, water and FFA in biodiesel feedstocks, and production monitoring of total glycerides. The InfraCal Analyzers and the InfraSpec Spectrometer are easy to use, give results in under one minute, and are ideal for on-site or laboratory use.


Alter NRG Corp. Alter NRG aims to meet the growing demand for energy in world markets by providing clean energy solutions that are economically viable and environmentally sustainable. Through its wholly owned subsidiary Westinghouse Plasma Corporation, Alter NRG owns the only commercially proven, plasma gasification technology providing a wide variety of energy outputs—including liquid fuels like diesel, ethanol, power, and syngas—from variable feedstocks. Alter NRG also owns CleanEnergy, a geoexchange company leading the rapidly growing Canadian geoexchange residential and commercial heating and cooling market. By providing an energy alternative that is used extensively around the world Alter NRG, through CleanEnergy enables consumers to reduce their carbon footprint and reduce the cost and volatility of energy bills using the energy from the earth.

One enormous outlet for clean renewable electricity. It’s in our power.™

Zero emissions. Endless potential. Our PureCycle® Power System and Turboden products harness hot liquids from sources including biomass, geothermal or oil & gas co-produced fluids, reciprocating engines, gas turbines and industrial waste heat. Generating from 280 kW to more than 2 MW of clean, reliable electricity. Learn more at Power Systems

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biopower buyers guide 2010 WASTE-to-ENERGY PRODUCTS & EQUIPMENT

CW Mill Consider using biomass to provide electricity not only to power plant equipment, but also to provide electricity to operate Electric Powered HogZilla Grinder. CW Mill has been building electric and diesel-powered grinders for decades—such as 14 tub and horizontal units for wood and waste recycling, ranging from 565HP to 2000HP, including self-propelled track driven, self-loading, and electric units. Optional thrown object restraint and tire processing packages are also available, and ask about their tips, screens, and service for all brands.

Firestone Specialty Products Innovative projects require innovative products, like Firestone Geomembranes. From anaerobic digesters, which convert animal waste into an alternative energy source, to landfill caps, which harness solar power and biogas— Firestone is proud to be a part of the solution. Their geomembrane products’ durability and elasticity even in exposed applications, combined with their expertise, help ensure the success of even the most demanding projects.

Midwesco Filter Resources, Inc. Midwesco Filter Resources, Inc. is a global industrial air filtration company. The company manufactures and distributes air filter elements in 100 market segments, across six continents. They maintain a large diversified inventory of high-quality, custom-made dust collector and baghouse filter bags, cartridge filters, pleated elements, and baghouse accessories in their global manufacturing facilities for critical delivery. AgSolutions LLC AgSolutions LLC provides alternative heating solutions for biofuels producers. Their system can operate with most types of liquid fuels, including waste products or byproducts such as glycerin. They can also modify many larger burners for use with the same alternative fuels, even synthetic fuels.

Amandus Kahl USA Corporation KAHL Biomass Pelleting Plants Amandus Kahl offer pelleting presses with a drive power from 3 kW to 500 kW. In total, 12 different sizes are available. The production capacities of the most plants range between 1.5 and 8 t/h. Larger plants of up to 40 t/h are provided for industrial production 72


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of pellets. Possible applications of the KAHL pelleting press include Wood Waste: wood shavings, wood chips, sawdust, wood and sanding dust; and, Straw: Miscanthus, Bagasse, and other biomasses. Services include: consultation and assistance in obtaining approval, engineering, commissioning, installation, and after-sales service; KAHL supply turn-key plants for the recycling sector; and, product tests, which can be carried out in the KAHL pilot plant.

MFL Maschinenfabrik Liezen und Giesserei Ges.m.b.H. MFL produces air-cooled and water-cooled grate bars for the major stoker manufacturers. The production expertise with regard to water-cooled grate parts cover both, components with integrally cast cooling tubes and precast cooling channels. MFL’s grate bars can be found in waste and biomass incineration plants, coal fired power plants, and sinter plants all around the world.

SSI Shredding Systems, Inc. Since 1980, SSI Shredding Systems has designed and manufactured size reduction systems for solid waste preparation for thermal treatment or alternative fuels processing. SSI has supplied solutions worldwide for waste materials including industrial and hazardous wastes to tires, as well as wood and organic materials. With many low-speed, high-torque technologies to offer, SSI creates custom size-reduction solutions made for high-performance, low-maintenance, and online reliability.

TurboSonic Inc. TurboSonic Technologies designs and markets air pollution control technologies to industrial customers worldwide. TurboSonic has provided emissions control and evaporative gas cooling solutions to more than 2000 projects. Its products help companies in the cement and mineral processing, ethanol and biofuels, metals and mining, petrochemicals, power generation, pulp & paper, waste incineration, and wood products industries meet the strictest emissions regulations, improve performance, reduce operating costs, and improve community relations. Products include: SonicKleen Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP); Turbotak Atomizing Nozzles; SoniCool Evaporative Gas Cooling and Conditioning; TurboVenturi Scrubber; Turbotak Wet Scrubber; TurboSOx SO2 Recovery; SonicBURN Waste Fuel Combustion; TurboSorb Semi-Dry Scrubber; and, NOx Control Systems, CGT Systems for VOC control, spare parts, and system upgrades.

Vermeer Corporation The Vermeer TG7000 tub grinder offers many unique characteristics for organic/wood processing applications.

The TG7000 has two CAT 3412 E engine options including: 860 hp (641 kW), and 1,000 hp (746 kW). The unit has an inside tub diameter of 10 feet (3m), a depth of 56 inches (142cm), and an 11-foot-4-inch (3.45m) loading height. The Duplex Drum cutting system offers optimum cutting performance and simplified maintenance. The reversible hammers and cutter blocks offer nearly double the life of single-sided designs. The patented Thrown Object Restraint System (TORS) combines a tub cover and rotor deflector, reducing the quantity and distance of thrown objects.

OTHER (Fiber optic cable solutions) FiberTech USA, Inc. FiberTech USA Inc., a division of LEONI Fiber Optics, is a specialist for all fiber optics needs. They offer customized fiber optic solutions for renewable energy systems. Their product range includes POF, PCS, and glass fibers, as well as high-flex cable solutions and assembly. They also have long-term experience and product approvals including UL and or CSA.

OTHER (Gas collection covers)

OTHER (Building & structures)

ClearSpan Fabric Structures Low in cost and easy to relocate, ClearSpan Fabric Structures are an ideal solution for equipment, vehicle, and other storage needs. Discover a cost-effective building with a spacious interior, which needs no artificial lighting during the day. With minimal foundation requirements, the structures can be permanent or temporary, and are easy to relocate. ClearSpan structures are also virtually maintenance-free as dust and dirt wash off easily with water and no painting is required. Made in the USA, these structures can be built to any size.

OTHER (Bulk material handling systems)

Martin Engineering Martin Engineering, an international supplier of systems and services to improve the handling of bulk materials, has introduced a new standard for the design and construction of belt conveyors. EVO, a dust accumulation resistant system, uses a new engineering concept to produce clean, safe, and productive belt conveyors from the ground up. Flat surfaces, where dust can accumulate, are eliminated. The EVO Modern Conveyor Architecture offers a complete and re-thought system that is cost competitive with conventional design standards, and also provides improved performance in cleanliness, service-friendliness, and safety. Martin Engineering also specializes in air cannons, air-supported conveyors, belt cleaners, engineered vibration, installation, maintenance, process improvement services, and much more.

OTHER (Air pollution control)

TurboSonic Inc. TurboSonic designs and markets clean air technologies to customers worldwide. Hundreds of companies in industries including power generation, biofuel (including ethanol), cement, steel, mineral processing, metallurgical smelting, petrochemical, pulp & paper, waste incineration (including waste-to-energy), and wood products rely on TurboSonic to meet the strictest emissions regulations, improve performance, and reduce operating costs.

Geomembrane Technologies Inc. (GTI) Geomembrane Technologies Inc. provides innovative gas collection cover systems. GTI also designs, engineers, fabricates, installs, and maintains complete odor control and gas collection systems.

OTHER (Air pollution control)

McGill AirClean McGill AirClean is uniquely positioned in the air pollution control industry with the ability to supply multiple solutions for any given application. With this advantage, they will customize an ideal solution based on an individual application, and not just promote a technology because it is all they can offer. McGill AirClean offers turnkey projects with complete engineering, fabrication, construction, and service. Their solutions for boiler MACT compliance include: Dry Sorbent Injection Systems, Spray Dry Scrubbers, Pulse-Jet Fabric Filters, Dry and Wet Electrostatic Precipitators, DeNOx SCR Reactors, and Regenerative Thermal Oxidizers.

OTHER (Economic development office)

Sarnia-Lambton Economic Partnership (Economic development office) The community of Sarnia-Lambton is heavily involved in the field of industrial bioproducts, and is also home to Canada’s Bioindustrial Innovation Centre. The Bioindustrial Innovation Centre is located at The Research Park in Sarnia-Lambton (operated by the University of Western Ontario). There, researchers and scientists work with business to commercialize bio and sustainable energy products. State-of-the-art facilities include a pyrolysis unit and wet labs. The Bioindustrial Innovation Centre and its lab facilities (see photo) are located in southwestern Ontario, Canada.

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18th Annual North American Waste-to-Energy Conference (NAWTEC) Show in Print Features just some of the companies and technologies attendees will see at this year’s show.

May 11th to 13th • Hilton Orlando Bonnet Creek—Orlando, Florida NAWTEC is widely recognized as the leading industry technical conference and trade show focusing on municipal waste-to-energy operational issues and policy, technology and research initiatives.

CEMS integrator EcoChem Analytics is a Continuous Emissions Monitoring Systems (CEMS) integrator with decades of experience. Their systems are based around a MC3 multicomponent IR based analyzer capable of measuring up to eight gases including: SO2, NOx, CO, CO2, NH3, HCl, CH4, H2O, and O2. The robust units typically run in the “Hot-Wet” mode. All components in contact with the flue gas are maintained above the dew point (185°C or higher). These third generation system are widely used in the waste-to-energy industry (over 800 MW being monitored with MC Series analyzers in the US), power plants, chemical process facilities, pharmaceutical, and cement kiln applications for certified regulatory applications for Part 60, Part 75, and PADEP. EcoChem Analytics |

Interlocking adhesive seal Midwesco’s Pleat+Plus Molded Design eliminates abrasion issues compared to traditional metal end caps. The traditional metal end cap can create abrasion in the recess, as well as shrinkage and chemistry fluctuations between the potting compound and the end cap. Midwesco’s new molded bottom integrates a universal pleat spacing and inner core rest-up while improving the company’s interlocking adhesive seal. Midwesco’s new molded design creates a stronger, more complete interlocking adhesive seal for the Pleat+Plus product line. Midwesco’s molded design provides customers with longer pleated bag life, which is resistant to the corrosive baghouse gas flow and withstands operating temperatures up to 375oF (191oC). The new design can be manufactured to meet the food grade and other unique industry standard requirements. Midwesco Filter Resources, Inc.

What’s Missing from Your Wind Project? When Competitive Power Ventures Inc. (CPV), a power generation development and asset management company with extensive wind energy development experience, decided to sell Phase I of its Keenan wind farm project to Oklahoma Gas & Electric Company, CPV turned to Dickstein Shapiro’s experienced wind energy and corporate counsel to structure, negotiate, and document the transaction. CPV continues to rely on Dickstein Shapiro’s energy transactional and regulatory attorneys in connection with all aspects of its wind energy development program to help ensure that it remains a significant player in the North American wind energy sector.

“In today’s ever-changing energy market, the success of our power generation development program requires a unique mix of regulatory and transactional experience, and Dickstein Shapiro excels in both.” Doug Egan Chairman, Competitive Power Ventures CEO, CPV Renewable Energy Company

Larry Eisenstat, Energy Practice Leader (202) 420-2224


WASHINGTON, DC | NEW YORK | LOS ANGELES | IRVINE Prior results do not guarantee a similar outcome. © 2010 Dickstein Shapiro LLP. All Rights Reserved.

1825 Eye Street NW, Washington, DC 20006 (202) 420-2200 |

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nawtec show in print

Ash processing & metal recovery systems

Full-service custom metal fabrication & manufacturing

Over the last twenty years, Southern Recycling has developed Ash Processing and Metal Recovery Systems specifically for the waste-to-energy industry. As former owner/operators, they are uniquely qualified to produce valueadded metal from the WTE/RDF ash streams and market these products. Services include project development and preliminary design consultation, as well as meeting the unique operational and mechanical requirements of individual customers. Upfront business plan development ensures optimal system performance maximizing customers’ revenues. Southern Recycling provides full-service marketing of recovered nonferrous metals for WTE Facilities in the US, which includes arranging transportation of recovered metals, obtaining the highest available price for recovered metals in domestic and international markets, and detailed reporting of all material sold. Southern Recycling maintains strategic relationships with valued consumers to ensure consistent, viable, and valuable markets.

Metso Power provides tube shields, full-service custom metal fabrication, CNC machining, and pressure part manufacturing. The Lancaster facility is a 102,000-square-foot facility that concentrates on pressure part manufacturing. Pressure parts include: membrane wall panels, longflow economizers, generating banks, tubular heat exchangers, superheaters, and loose tube bending. The Fairmont facility is a 58,000-square-foot facility concentrating on tube shields, alignment bars, headers, air heater seals, plate work fabrication, and machining and headers. Process capabilities include: saws, shears, press brakes, punch presses, tube benders, CNC milling, manual machining, CNC laser cutter, high def plasma, and welding SH-D equipment. A complete range of tube shield styles are available to quickly solve tube wear problems. The Boiler Service rebuilds and repairs including, but not limited to, chemical cleaning consulting, inspections, maintenance, made to order, pressure parts, and spare parts, while providing engineered solutions.

Southern Recycling, LLC

Geomembrane systems

Pollution control valves

The Tessman Road Landfill project, with the first-of-its-kind solar energy cover, required an innovative product like the geomembrane systems manufactured by Firestone Specialty Products. Firestone’s TPO Geomembrane was selected for this unique landfill cap for a variety of reasons including the membrane’s durability, weatherability, and proven performance record. The geomembrane serves a critical role in this application: it protects the solid waste from exposure, prevents stormwater infiltration, and provides a stable surface for mounting the flexible solar panels. Additionally, the UV stable geomembrane is easy to install, requires less maintenance, and offers leachate and erosion control solutions, while improving methane drawdown. Firestone Specialty Products also manufactures Firestone EPDM, EPDMR and EcoWhite EPDM Geomembranes, as well as Firestone fPP and fPPR Geomembranes—each complimented by a full line of accessories.

In waste-to-energy power plants, valves are required to discharge ash and fines from precipitator hoppers. Though rotary valves are frequently installed initially, Plattco has increasingly been called upon to replace those with their Double Flap Airlock Pollution Control Valves to reduce emissions. When AES Puerto Rico investigated how to improve their emissions to acceptable EPA levels, the answer was as simple as replacing existing rotary valves with Plattco valves. The Plattco valves eliminated the leakage caused by the poor seal of the rotary valves, allowing air to enter the precipitator. As a result of Plattco valves’ seal, AES’s emission problems dissipated, along with much of the maintenance they previously had to perform on the rotary valves.

Firestone Specialty Products

Metso Power

Buy Our Filter . . . Protect The Future! Join Midwesco in protecting the environment and develop new “green” technology to Àght climate change. ®

Plattco |

Buildup removal system The JBC PowerShot Buildup Removal System is built around a PowerShot Tube, which fits neatly through a small pre-installed base located at the heart of the area where buildup occurs. The “PowerShot” uses a special chemical generator device and a pressure vessel tube filled with liquid carbon dioxide. A special electrical “trigger” sets off a fuse in the gas generator cartridge. Within 20 milliseconds, 50 liters of carbon dioxide gas are created. This quick release provides, not a dangerous explosion, but a safe and powerful “push” that can dislodge surrounding material at a single blast. This system is used in over 300 industrial plants around the world. JBC Industries |

Waste-to-energy services

Midwesco ’s “Buy Our Filter . . . Protect the Future” initative will allow customers to join Midwesco in protecting natural habitats and environments as well as furthering education to develop new “green” technology. ®


To set the precedent of creating a sustainable future, a portion of every order that is placed with Midwesco in 2010 will be donated to non proÀt organizations in an effort to Àght against climate change. A press release and a certiÀcate will be drafted to our customers recognizing them for their partnership in Midwesco ’s sustainability initiative. ®


Learn More at

Energy from waste has a variety of demands for insulation, ranging from the boiler itself to custom removable insulation bags on turbines. Zampell has a history with waste-to-energy spanning more than four decades. Services Zampbell provides include: external wall insulation and lagging; custom turbine insulation design, installation, removal, and repair; steam lines and other piping; chemical treatment systems; external insulation and siding on structures; and, custom hatches for boiler penthouses. Zampbell further completes a turnkey approach to energy from waste by offering a range of plant services, along with their core of refractory and insulation. Zampell |



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geothermal energy

The Ups & Downs of Geothermal Energy and Exploration

By Cadence McKenna


nce produced, geothermal energy is nearly completely non-polluting—there are The GEA’s Karl Gawell writes (in a piece entitled, “Does Geothermal Drilling Cause no emissions, environment hazard wastes, or exhaustion of natural resources. Earthquakes?” | “Although geothermal drilling does The energy is reliable, renewable, and can be used as a direct power source. Unlike not cause earthquakes, there has recently been heightened concern about induced seissolar or wind power, which are intermittent (they rely on the sun shining and the wind micity because of the development of Engineered Geothermal Systems technology… blowing), geothermal provides continuous baseload power. The US Department of Energy is actively working to address these issues. Federal Moreover, currently geothermal power supplies more megawatt hours of electricity agencies, together with international groups such as the International Energy Agency, in the US than either wind or solar energy. According the Geothermal Energy Associa- have developed monitoring protocols to address the risk of induced seismicity. For any tion (GEA): “Geothermal power makes up a total of 3.15 gigawatts (GW) of installed particular site, these protocols establish standards for assessing natural seismic hazards capacity in the United States, its largest producer, and more than 10 GW worldwide.” and the potential for induced seismicity, and for establishing a micro-seismic monitorBut, that’s only the beginning. Advocates believe the ultimate potential to be larger ing network and implementing procedures for evaluating any damage.” still. “If all of the planned projects were to go forwards as planned, an unlikely scenario, Gawell further points out that the Recovery Act has allotted over $4.5 million to the total US geothermal capacity would reach today’s worldwide capacity of 10 GW— seismicity research, with an additional $2 million for monitoring and mitigation, develenough to meet the power needs of an average 10 million people or supply 25% of opment of best practices, and public education and outreach. California’s 2008 power consumption,” reports the GEA. Certainly, it is worth the research. Every industry is going to come with advantages Sound too good to be true? Though geothermal energy doesn’t seem to get the same and disadvantages. Weighing the differences between the two, while employing ways to level of press or attention as solar or wind power does, it is a growing industry. Geonegate the cons, is the only way to move forward and explore better ways to power in thermal grew by 26% in 2009 (turn the page for more stats on its growth and potenthis country and others. tial). However, it also doesn’t get the same financial support. Initial costs are extensive, Indonesia, for instance, is (as of press time at the end of April) hosting the World and plant set-up is not only expensive but not always a sure bet. Initial analysis of a site Geothermal Congress, a conference that is bringing together representatives from at and exploratory drilling, for instance, does not always lead to final permitting or plant least 80 countries in an attempt to look at how to better develop geothermal energy for production (likely also affecting financial commitments). Thanks to the American Rethe future. Currently relying on coal-fired power plants, the country does not have the covery and Reinvestment Act, up to $400 million was granted for the US Department means to provide electricity for everyone—not to mention the toll their current system is of Energy’s (DOE) Geothermal Technologies Program, support does appear to be taking on the environment. Looking beyond just the heat stored in the earth, Indonesia growing along with the industry. Congress further extended the production tax credit is also considering “volcano power” as the country sits on one of the most active regions for new geothermal plants until 2013; also, allowing some geothermal projects to opt worldwide. Comprised of over 17,000 islands, which contain hundreds of volcanoes, the for a cash grant instead of an investment tax credit. But one step forward almost also archipelago is estimated to hold about 40% of the world's geothermal energy potential. Globally, geothermal plants have the capacity to generate about 10 gigawatts, if not ensures a step or two back. more, of electricity—theoretically enough power to support the entire world’s needs. Drilling has often been suspected for setting off minor tremors and, potentially, Without ongoing discussion, research, and funding, however, that potential could be full-force earthquakes. Back in 2007, the Geopower Deep Heat Mining project in lost. A step or two back should not limit further analysis. Basel, Switzerland is said to have triggered an earthquake of magnitude 3.4 on the Richter scale, followed by numerous aftershocks. A California geothermal project, led by AltaRock Energy, Inc., was recently shut down because of earthquake fears. As a Cadence McKenna is a freelance writer who focuses on the renewable energy industry. result, “The New York Times” reported that the DOE plans to compile more stringent regulations governing similar geothermal projects with Enhanced Geothermal Systems Resources: Geothermal Energy Association | WGC 2010 World Geothermal Congress | (EGS) so that they use ground sensors, which monitor and shut down operations in the event drilling initiates an earthquake. (ESG often involves the fracturing of deep reservoir rock to create a reservoir For the th time, America’s leading to better access the earth’s heat.) It’s also worth noting that most reconference for renewable energy financiers searchers agree that drilling itself is not and developers returns to New York the issue, but one of enhanced geother• Meet decision-makers – in 2009, over 70% of attendees held the title mal projects in which high-pressure waof CEO, CFO, President, Managing Director or Partner ter is injected below the earth’s surface. • Hear from thought leaders – over 50 leading investors, developers and government officials will address the delegation Consider the Geysers in California. The • Make your projects bankable with advice from global leaders in largest single geothermal field in the financing and developing of renewable energy projects world, the Geysers produced over 800 • Understand the impact of new and existing federal policies on MW in 2009, increasing as EGS activities your renewable energy projects carry forward. Here, seismicity related to production and injection has been observed since the 1970’s. “At The Geysers, it is clear that one of the main causes of seismicity is the injection of the water to prevent pressures in the steam reservoir from falling below uneconomic levels,” according to the DOE’s Earth Sciences Division (http:// The overall volume of seismicity (seismogenic zone) is controlled by the volume of rock that is capable of building up stress and the forces that are acting to deform that volume. These forces are the forces that are fundamentally generated by the dynamic nature of Email: Call: (US) +1 212 224 3789 (UK) +44 20 7779 8999 the whole earth.”


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geothermal energy

A Developing Energy Geothermal grows by 26% he US geothermal power industry continued strong growth in 2009, according to a new report by the Geothermal Energy Association (GEA). The “April 2010 US Geothermal Power Production and Development Update” showed 26% growth in new projects under development in the United States in the past year, with 188 projects underway in 15 states, which could produce as much as 7,875 MW of new electric power. Once completed, these projects will add over 7,000 MW of baseload power capacity; enough to provide electricity for 7.6 million people, or 20% of California’s total power needs, and roughly equivalent to the total power used in California from coal-fired power plants. “Geothermal power can be a critical part of the answer to global warming,” according to GEA’s executive director, Karl Gawell. “For example, California could achieve its 2020 goal for global warming emissions reductions just by keeping energy demand level and replacing its coal-fired generation with geothermal,” he asserted. Nevada continued to be the leading state for new geothermal energy, with over 3,000 MW under development. The fastest growing geothermal power states were Utah which quadrupled its geothermal power under development, New Mexico which tripled, Idaho which doubled, and Oregon which reported a 50% increase. In addition, Louisiana, Mississippi and Texas all reported their first geothermal projects compared with a year earlier. “These geothermal power projects will create substantial sources of new employment across the country,” said GEA executive director Karl Gawell. “Not only are we seeing more and more development and hiring in places with a long history of geothermal like

Milbank 30 years of experience in renewable energy Over 200 successful deals completed More than 10,000 MW of renewable power developed We get this business.

Nevada and California, but for the first time these jobs are being created in the Gulf Coast, in states such as Louisiana and Mississippi. Along with a huge number of new construction jobs, geothermal power also creates many permanent positions that can never be outsourced.” Together, the direct, indirect and induced employment created by these projects is estimated by GEA to be 29,750 permanent jobs and 112,000 personyears of construction and manufacturing employment. According to GEA, the projects under development will represent capital investment of more than $35 billion when completed. New geothermal power projects are in progress in 15 states from the Pacific to the Gulf Coast. GEA identified new projects in Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Louisiana, Mississippi, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Texas, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. In addition to large utility scale power projects, the survey continued to show expanding interest in small power systems (under 1MW) with projects in Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, Oregon, and Wyoming. “The federal stimulus, tax incentives, and strong state renewable standards continue to fuel the growth in geothermal power,” said Gawell. “Many geothermal developers are building several projects in the US, and the cash grant provides them an effective incentive that quickly reduces their debt—an important fact in the present economic recession." GEA noted that all of the geothermal power projects coming on line in 2009 utilized the new federal tax grant provisions authorized in the stimulus bill. In addition, four of the top five states with geothermal power under development have substantial renewable standards. Those states, in order of geothermal development and their state renewable requirement, are: 1. Nevada (25%); 2. California (33%); 3. Utah (20%); 4. Idaho (none); and 5. Oregon (25%). The report also documents federal stimulus funding in the geothermal industry, which will result in over $600 million of research into new technology at 135 projects in 25 states over the next two years. “Stimulus funding will support geothermal development in states where geothermal technology presents vast new opportunities,” notes Dan Jennejohn the author of the report. DOE stimulus funding has been targeted to support development of enhanced geothermal systems technology, new drilling and exploration techniques, geothermal power production from oil and gas wells, and other industry needs.

Outstanding for Methane Release. ■ œ“«>VÌÊvœœÌ«Àˆ˜ÌÊ>œÜÃÊ vœÀÊÃi̇իʈ˜Ê̅iʓœÃÌÊÀi“œÌiÊ œV>̈œ˜Ã ■ iÜiÀʏœ>`Ãʓ>ŽiÊvœÀÊÀi`ÕVi`Ê VœÃÌÊ>˜`ʵՈVŽiÀÊÃi̇ի ■ Îää]ää䇏L°Ê…œˆÃÌÊV>«>VˆÌˆià ■ ÀˆiÀ½ÃÊV>Lˆ˜Ê`iÈ}˜i`Ê vœÀÊVœ“vœÀÌÊ>˜`ÊÃ>viÌÞ

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Vacuum pumps & compressors

“In our survey last fall, we were concerned that the progress of new projects appeared to be stalling due to financing and permitting problems,” Jennejohn added. “Now, along with a number of new projects, we are seeing projects continue rapid development indicating that growth is returning across the industry.”

GD Nash’s new NASH 2BE4 series of vacuum pumps and compressors provide the same long life and reliable operation expected from the 2BE3 series, in addition to the following benefits: optimized inlet and discharge porting for enhanced performance; cylindrical roller bearings for improved load ratings and increased reliability (bearing upgrade is possible in existing 2BE3s); optional lobe purge piping to remove entrained solids and prevent erosion; inlet bypass piping not required in most installations; available in cast iron and stainless steel construction; and, drop-in replacement for existing 2BE3 installations. Reliability, efficiency, and flexibility, coupled with the comprehensive Gardner Denver Nash expertise, service and technical support, provide customers with unmatched value in liquid ring pumps and compressors. Gardner Denver Nash |

The Geothermal Energy Association (GEA) is a trade association composed of US companies who support the expanded use of geothermal energy and are developing geothermal resources worldwide for electrical power generation and direct-heat uses. Geothermal Energy Association

Geothermal drilling solutions Techno Drill offers a turnkey drilling solution consisting of a TD 410 geothermal drill and a MudSlayer Mini 500. The rig is designed to drill geothermal boreholes as fast as a 60,000-pound truck rig, yet weighs only 10,000 pounds and is 48" wide. It has a lower ownership costs (and purchase price) compared to other rigs available—plus it is fast and efficient. When Techno Drill talks about geothermal they are referring to warm soil, rather than hot rock technology—using heat pumps to heat or cool buildings rather than hot rocks and steam to generate electricity. Their rigs can compete in the commercial market, drilling geothermal boreholes around public or commercial buildings, but they are also small enough to get into the smaller residential sites as this is where the main future growth will be. The residential market is going to be three times bigger than commercial; however, the problem has always been a lack of suitable small rigs. Techno Drill has solved this. Their rigs are built in a 160,000-square-foot facility in Fort Worth, Texas. They have been building drilling equipment on this site for over 60 years and are currently selling rigs to drilling contractors and HVAC companies who have never drilled before. Techno Drill supplies turnkey solutions, along with a training course of rig operations, maintenance, and safety. Techno Drill | North American Clean Energy

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hydro and marine energy

Case Study: Canoe Pass Tidal Power Plant The project

New Energy, along with its partner Canoe Pass Tidal Energy Corporation, is in the process of implementing the first gridconnected tidal energy project in Canada. The Canoe Pass Tidal Commercialization Project, or Canoe Pass as it is more commonly referred, represents many firsts for tidal energy within British Columbia (BC) and Canada as a whole. The 500 kW project is currently in the permitting stage and is expected to be installed in the second half of 2010. Location, location, location

Canoe Pass is a narrow passage between Quadra and Maude Islands off the east coast of Vancouver Island, just north of Campbell River, BC. The flow within the passage is currently blocked by a barrage that was constructed by the federal Department of Public Works in 1942 to deal with a navigable hazard, Ripple Rock, which was located in Seymour Narrows— directly west of Canoe Pass. The causeway was used to transport men and equipment from Quadra Island onto Maude Island in order to drill under Seymour Narrows and blow-up Ripple Rock. Ripple Rock was blown up in 1958 with the largest peacetime non-nuclear explosion in history. For the Canoe Pass project, the existence of the causeway allows for still-water construction of the tidal power plant. This is one of several characteristics that make Canoe Pass an ideal commercialization site.

Join more than 2,500 attendees and 300 exhibiting companies from around the world for a week of informative hydropower-focused meetings, workshops, tours, an extensive conference program and exhibition. Hydrovision International will be this year’s largest gathering of hydro professionals worldwide. Don’t miss your chance to be a part of this exciting event.

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Other attributes include: • The location of BC’s distribution grid, with a 25 kV distribution line running directly over the site; • An existing construction and staging area (another leftover from the project to blow-up Ripple Rock); and • Broad general support for renewable energy initiatives in nearby communities. The Canoe Pass Tidal Commercialization Project has financial backing from Sustainable Development Technology Canada and the British Columbia Innovative Clean Energy Fund. BC Hydro is also a supporter of this project. Proposed project plans

Canoe Pass will include the installation of two (2) 250 kW EnCurrent Power Generation Systems in a single span across the passage. The systems will be installed in such a way that the still-water characteristics can be recreated to move forward with a full-scale commercial project at some point in the future. First-level numerical

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modeling, which was carried out by ASL Environmental Sciences of Sidney identified the potential for a 3 MW to 5 MW tidal power plant with capacity factors as high as 50%. There are three main components to the execution of Canoe Pass: • Regulatory approvals for the site; • Scaling up New Energy’s product sizes from the current 25 kW models to the 250 kW models required by the project; and • On-site engineering and construction. The regulatory approval process is in progress and the project proponents are finalizing the detailed design for the site. The scale-up of the product is proceeding in parallel with the civil and marine design of the site. The approval process being undertaken for Canoe Pass will help to map out the permitting process for tidal energy projects within Canada. The proponents are currently working with Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Transport Canada, Environment Canada, Natural Resources Canada, and the British Columbia Integrated Land Management Bureau to coordinate necessary environmental assessment and review. Current plans call for the hydrokinetic equipment to be installed in Q3 of 2010 followed by interconnection to the BC electrical grid. It is expected that the project will be a springboard to commercial-scale tidal power generation in the region, including the potential for a commercial power plant at Canoe Pass. Campbell River and North Vancouver Island are home to the greatest abundance of tidal energy generating capacity on the West Coast. Seymour Narrows, which lies directly west of Canoe Pass, was identified in BC Hydro’s Triton Report as having the largest potential for tidal generation on the BC Coast. Review & permitting

The Canoe Pass tidal energy commercialization project is presently going through an environmental and tenure review. The review and assessment process consists of three multi-jurisdictional reviews together with a process of First Nation consultation and community engagement. The government reviews are an environmental assessment under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA), a land and seabed tenure review under the BC Lands Act, and a re-zoning review and approval under the authority of the Strathcona Regional District. The First Nation consultation process is intended to engage the We Wai Kai First Nation, Homalco, and the Nanwakolas First Nation Society in discussions about potential project impacts and opportunities. Local community and resource use interest groups, such as scuba divers and recreational trail societies, are among the organizations that have been contacted and provided with project information and whose feed-back has been integrated into the project design.

The CEAA review is coordinated by Transport Canada, who, together with Fisheries and Oceans Canada and Environment Canada are the “Responsible Authorities” under the Act. These agencies will review the project’s Environmental Impact Assessment report (EIS), prepared by the proponents, and refer it to other interested federal and provincial government agencies. They will be interested in any potential impacts to navigable waters, effects on fish and marine resource habitat, and the effects of any material disposed of in the ocean. The CEAA review is estimated to take about four months from the filing of the EIS. The BC review is coordinated by the Integrated Land Management Bureau. They will refer the EIS to a number of provincial

agencies including the Ministries of Environment, Transportation and Infrastructure, and Energy Mines and Petroleum. ILMB will also refer the package to the First Nations and local government. The two government processes will proceed in parallel fashion and approval and permitting under the CEAA process will be a “condition precedent” for final issuance of the land and seabed tenures. The re-zoning process under local government authority has already been successfully completed, and it is anticipated project approvals and permits will be completed and issued by October or November 2010. New Energy Corporation |

Canadian Wind Energy Association’s Annual Conference and Exhibition November 1–3, 2010 Montreal, Quebec CanWEA’s 2010 Annual Conference and Exhibition will bring together over 2,500 delegates and 250 exhibiting companies from around the world to discuss emerging opportunities in Canada’s rapidly growing wind energy industry. The event will provide an exclusive opportunity to network with industry leaders and generate new business.

Join us at Canada’s largest wind energy conference.

REGISTER Learn more about the emerging opportunities in the Canadian wind energy industry

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North American Clean Energy

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July 13–15, 2010 North America’s Premier Exhibition and Conference for the Solar Industry San Francisco | Moscone Center

700 Exhibitors 1,600 Conference Attendees 20,000 Visitors Co-located with

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advertisers’websitedirectory Page

JUNE 2010 7-9 Corporate WaterVision 2010 The Almas Temple Club—Washington, DC;


Advanced Renewable Energy Project Finance Doubletree Guest Suites Time Square; New York, NY


4th Annual Concentrated Solar Power Summit USA San Francisco, California—Parc 55;

JULY 2010 12-15 Energy Storage Week San Diego Marriott—San Diego, CA;




Intersolar North America Moscone Center—San Francisco, CA; Carbon Capture & Storage AED Conference Center—Washington, DC; Waste-to-Energy Summit 2010 Hilton Del Mar—San Diego, CA; GEA Geothermal Energy Workshop Las Vegas Convention Center—Las Vegas, NV;


HydroVision International Charlotte Convention Center—Charlotte, NC;

SEPTEMBER 2010 06-10 25th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition Valencia, Spain—Feria Valencia, Convention & Exhibition Centre;


a+f Gmbh


Advanced Power Products




AL-PRO Wind Energy

American Electric Technologies


Applied Energy Technologies


Atlas Material Testing Solutions


AWEA 2010


AZZ Galvanizing Services



Baja Construction


Bent River Machine Inc


Bibb Engineers Architechts & Constructors


Burndy LLC


Campbell Scientific


Canwea 2010


Carbone of America




Clean Span Structures


Cooper Power


Day4 Energy

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ZeroEmissions Rome Rome, Italy—Rome Fair Centre; GridWise Global Forum Washington, DC—Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center; World Renewable Energy Congress 2010 Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; 4th Annual Algal Biomass Organization Phoenix, Arizona—JW Marriott Desert Ridge;

OCTOBER 2010 12-14 Solar Power International Los Angeles, California— Los Angeles Convention Center;


GEA Geothermal Energy Expo & GRC Annual Meeting Sacramento Convention Center—Sacramento, CA;

Send us your clean energy show and event listings. Email information to the Editor at



NACE May June 2010.indd 82

DEGERenergie Tracking Systems

Dickstein Shapiro LLP

Ecology and Environment, Inc.


Equipment Express Inc


ET Solar


Fagen Inc




Haticon Solar


Heliodyne, Inc


HuksefluxUSA Inc


Hurst Boiler


Hydro Solar Solutions


Hydrovision International




Intersolar North America 2010


Iowa Department of Economics


Kaco New Energy Inc


Lincoln Electric


Marathon Special Products




McCormick Construction Company


Messe Düsseldorf North America


Midwesco Filter Resources Inc


Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy LLP


MK Battery




25th European Photovoltaic Conference and Exhibition








Next Generation Energy


Nordic Windpower


NRG Systems Inc




Pacific Arborist


Panel Claw


Percival Scientific


Pivot Point



Polaris America LLC


Pratt & Whitney


Premium Solar




Reis Robotics USA


Rennsteig Tools Inc




Rolls Battery Engineering




RSA Group




3 59

Schletter Inc


Schüco USA L.P.


Schunk Graphite Technology LLC


Sesson Solar


Siemens AG


Solar Power International 2010


Solar Skies


Solectria Renewables LLC.


SSB Service Inc


Stiebel Eltron


Thompson Technologies Industries


Trico TC Wind


Trina Solar


Troutman Sanders




US Digital


White Construction


Wieland Electric Inc

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North American Clean Energy - May June 2010  

Wind’s Brilliant Past and Brighter Future, Contracting for the Construction of Utility Scale Solar Projects, Reaching Solar Grid Parity Ener...

North American Clean Energy - May June 2010  

Wind’s Brilliant Past and Brighter Future, Contracting for the Construction of Utility Scale Solar Projects, Reaching Solar Grid Parity Ener...