w Room for Clean Washrooms w Steam Cleaning w Hand in Glove(s)
REVIEW July-Aug ’11 VOL. XI No. 4 Rs. 80
Towards Fruitful Waste w Cleaning Through Stain Gun w Ta c k l i n g Te r m i t e s E f f e c t i v e l y w Green Buildings ®
The Experts on Cleaning and Maintenance
E Publisher cum Editor Rajneesh Sharma Associate Editor Swarnendu Biswas Resident Editor Sharmila Chand (Delhi) Ashok Malkani (Mumbai) Sub-Editor Tapapriya Lahiri Layout & Design Hari Kumar. V Narender Kumar Photographer Mahendra Singh Mehta Production Controller Vinay Goel Production Assistant Mamta Sharma Advertising Sales Delhi: Kunal Gujral, Sharad Pathak, Neeraj Sharma Mumbai: Rajesh Tupsakhre Subscription Sales Dattaram Gangurde Director Sales Sanjay Anand Director Operations & Finance Rajat Taneja Editorial & Advertising Ofﬁces: Delhi: Hammer Publishers Pvt. Ltd. 1202, Pragati Tower, 26, Rajindra Place, New Delhi-110008 Phone: 45084903, 25854103 / 05 Mumbai: Hammer Publishers Pvt. Ltd. 105, 1st Floor, Aarpee Centre, Guﬁc Compound, 11th Road, MIDC, Near Tunga Paradise, Andheri (E), Mumbai-400 093 Ph.: 91-22-28395833 Telefax: 91-22-28388947 Website: www.chrmag.com E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org © 2011 Hammer Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
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Waste to wealth is not merely an emerging clean and green trend of today’s times. It can be easily construed as a new-age philosophy that encapsulates the idea of a hygienic journey towards sustainable prosperity. However, despite the presence of some noteworthy exceptions, the Indian state, business and society, still by and large, together continue to exhibit a disturbingly lackadaisical attitude towards waste management. This results in paving the way for unhygienic lives and lifestyles; plagued by diseases. It is lamentable that piles of solid waste of municipal and industrial nature are being scattered here, there and everywhere, thereby facilitating in spreading the ominous inﬂuences of environmental pollution. What is more lamentable that these potential threats to the well-being of our society could be used to augment entrepreneurial opportunities and in contributing towards employment generation, but are seldom being channelised in that direction. We have been wasting our wastes not only because of the paucity of adequate infrastructure, but also because of the rampant absence of the ‘adequate’ attitude. Therefore, more numbers of state-sponsored waste collection centres and waste recycling plants across the urban and rural landscape of India is not the complete solution to this perpetuating scenario, though it is a necessary condition to address the continual challenge of eﬀective waste management. The suﬃcient condition would suﬃce only when our municipal bodies become more proactive in their attitude towards waste management issues, our latent entrepreneurial spirits are channelised more frequently towards the reuse and recycling of waste, and we the civil society, make the necessary eﬀort to become less casual about the disposal of waste, and also take slight pains to reduce waste as much as possible. In the Cover Story of this issue, we have attempted to explore various facets of waste management in India, which I think our readers would ﬁnd to be useful. Maintenance of washroom hygiene is another crucial challenge of the hospitality industry in India, which needs to be addressed with due urgency. Unhygienic washrooms with absence of even the basic facilities constitute a predominant scenario in India, which leaves room for several diseases to enter. At the same time, the consciousness about and demand for clean toilets is on the rise in India. Now in order to cater to this growing demand, supply of plethora of spic and span washrooms; supported by comprehensive infrastructure and amenities is the need of the hour, which however, needs to be complemented by an enhanced army of qualiﬁed and skilled housekeeping staﬀ. For without maintenance, creation is meaningless. We have attempted to explore these issues in detail in our feature on washroom hygiene, with an objective of providing some insights on this often neglected area. The characteristics, utility and the growing relevance of green buildings, the crucial role of gloves in keeping the gloved threats to health and well-being at bay, exploring the types, tracing and the tackling of the termites, the beneﬁts of steam cleaning, advancements and innovations in industrial dairy cleaning are all discussed between the covers. I wish you all a pleasant read and a clean & hygienic festive season ahead…
Editorial Policy : Editorial emphasis in Clean & Hygiene Review magazine is on educational & informational material specifically designed to assist those responsible for managing cleaning & maintenance, Laundry, Pest Control, Water & Waste Management and Environment. Articles are welcome and will be published on the sole discretion of the editor.
Contents COVER STORY
18 WASHROOM HYGIENE
CII-Sohrabji Godrej Green
30 July-Aug ’11
Kerala Introduces ‘Green Army’ Cartoons Eram Scientiﬁc Solutions, an Indian e-toilet manufacturer, has partnered with a local animation institute named Toonz Academy to create hygiene promotion cartoons for schools. Both the collaborative bodies have together created the ‘Green Army’ cartoon characters to make and feel students aware of cleanliness and hygiene. The characters were selected based on a competition conducted among the students of the academy. The cartoon characters can be seen on the walls of school’s Delight e-toilets, supplied to the Ernakulam School by Eram Scientiﬁc Solutions. The Green Army debuted at the South Govt Girls Higher Secondary School (GGHSS) in Ernakulam, Kerala, as part of the suchi@school (Sustainable Comprehensive Hygiene Initiative) project. The cartoon characters showcased are crow, the nature’s sweeper, who keeps the surroundings clean by eating up the organic wastes; earthworm, known as the plough of farmers, which ploughs the soil and keeps it fertile; frog, which eats up the insects; mushroom, which absorbs all the organic waste dissolving them in soil, and the cat, which buries its excreta. These ‘soldiers’ will reach out to various schools along with two more characters — Shuchi and Joy — to teach the students about the necessity of keeping the place tidy.
Schools to be Awarded for Sanitation Initiatives Following the joint launch by the Ministries of Urban Development and Human Resource Development of the National School Sanitation Initiative in 2010, in collaboration with the CBSE and non-governmental organisation, GIZ, the Ministry of Human Resource Development has decided to institute National School Sanitation Awards. This annual award will be bestowed on those schools which have been rated online for their sanitation initiatives and have undertaken significant steps towards improvement of the sanitation scenario in their schools in various ways. Awards will be given in the categories of ‘awareness generation, leading to behavioural change through students and community’, mobilisation, technical innovation and interventions, creation and conservation of green spaces, and public-private partnerships. Sustainability, whether the model is replicable or not, innovation and dynamism are the factors on which the schools will be judged. Naturally, parents have welcomed this sanitation initiative as ﬁlthy toilets in schools have the history of inducing urinary infections, and also discouraging students to avoid school toilets. Some guardians have voiced that if there is frequent cleaning contest between the schools then the process would be more fruitful for both the students and the schools. 4
Eco-friendly Toilets to be Introduced in Lakshadeep Lakshadeep is set to become the ﬁrst place in the country to have bio-toilets, in both its local and government-owned buildings. This move is geared to save the archipelago’s brittle ecosystem, which has been plagued by serious problem of sewage disposal, caused by a steady inﬂow of local population and tourists over the years. 12,000 eco-friendly toilets are being proposed for Lakshadeep, and the DRDO has developed these bio-toilets for 27 islands of the archipelago. A study by the Tiruvananthapuram-based Centre for Earth Science Studies (CESS) has unearthed that the archipelago cannot experience sewage treatment because of non-availability of required slope as the ground water is just 1 - 2.5m from the surface. In these toilets, the human waste transmits to the bio-digester through the toilet inlet and ﬂows through diﬀerent chambers. During their passage, they get degraded by a bacteria named psychrophilic, which is found in tank. This bacteria is a native of the Antarctica region. Here it deserves a mention that the bio-digesters are slowly gaining currency. The Union Urban Development Ministry has endeavoured to install them at all the Metro stations of the country. Even the Railways are in the process of conducting trials for bio-toilets, based on biodegradable technology.
Effluent Treatment Plant Ushered in Delhi A new Common Eﬄuent Treatment Plant (CETP) has been installed at Bawana Industrial Estate in north
Delhi for treating eﬄuents and tainted water discharged from various industrial units. The plant was ﬂagged oﬀ by Sheila Dixit, the Chief Minister of Delhi. The plant has been set up with an investment of Rs.53.74 crore, and is spread across 53 thousand sq metres area. The plant is going to serve more than 20,000 industrial units. According to Sheila Dixit, the treated water will be channelised for horticultural purposes, which will facilitate in endowing the area with greenery.
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Kärcher Sets Up Shop in India
QUALITY ASSURED COMPANY
Alfred Kärcher GmbH & Co. KG has established a subsidiary in India. With this development, the world’s leading manufacturer of cleaning technology, based in Winnenden, near Stuttgart, Germany, now has sales organisations of its own across 50 countries, with 70 subsidiaries to its credit. The business endeavour behind introduction of this Indian company is to step up expansion of its dealer and service network across India, in order to increase customer proximity on the Indian subcontinent. The Managing Directors of this subsidiary company are Anil Sethi and Stephen Ede. “India holds tremendous potential for Kärcher. It is one of the world’s largest and fast growing economies, where cleaning needs are increasing in line with increasingly complex processes,” said Hartmut Jenner, the Chief Executive Oﬃcer of the Kärcher group. “The country’s infrastructure has been expanded greatly in the recent years and many hotels, oﬃce buildings, public institutions and roads have been built. Our innovative machines will make it possible to clean them quickly, thoroughly and eﬃciently,” he added. Here it deserves a mention that Kärcher provides innovative cleaning solutions such as pressure washers, vacuums and steam cleaners, dry ice blasting machines, sweepers and scrubber-driers, car washes, cleaning agents, drinking water and wastewater treatment systems, water dispensers and pumps for home and garden. The main buyers of its machines are in the automotive sector, commercial c leaning, h o t e l s a n d c a t e r i n g, farming, trade and industry, and also among local authorities and private households. In 2010, Kärcher posted sales of more than Rs.10,000 crore, the highest in its history, and sold 7.3 million machines, which is more then ever before in its 75 years in business. “We invest more than an average company in research and development, in modern production processes and in high-quality employee training and continuing education,” informed Jenner, while adding, “Equally important is proximity to our customers because cleaning is a complex process, which has to satisfy a wide range of demands. That is why in every sales region we rely on high service standards and expert advice.” Perhaps this customer-friendly business philosophy is the secret behind Kärcher’s enduring success story, which has scaled meteoric heights in the recent times. As far as the company’s recent Indian foray goes, Jenner also aﬃrmed that he was much more interested in exploring the satisfaction levels of the company’s customers in India than gauging the potential of the expected ROI from the Indian market. “I am keen on providing them with the right and comprehensive cleaning solutions and service,” he explained.
More Power to Waste Hyderabad-based Hyquip Technologies, which is a total solution provider in material handling systems with its focus area on waste management, has entered into an exclusive contract with Zurich-based Hitachi Zosen Inova (HZI), which happens to be a global player in providing technology solutions for wasteto-energy projects. On the basis of this exclusive tie-up, HZI will be providing technology solutions to the promoters of solid waste-based energy plants in India and Sri Lanka. According to Erich Vogler, the Project Manager, HZI, the company is installing two power plants of 8 MW each in Sri Lanka. These plants would be commissioned by December 2012. Hyquip Technologies converts municipal solid waste into compost in 14-15 days, which traditionally takes 40 days. According to the MD of Hyquip Technologies, KBK Reddy, the company would presently execute EPC (engineering, procurement and construction) contracts for introducing wasteto-energy projects, with technology from HZI. Here it deserves a mention that though India generates 1.40 lakh tonnes of municipal solid waste per day, on an average, but due to several impediments, such as problems related to tariﬀs and the lack of proper technology for collection and combustion of waste, the waste-based power projects are yet to take oﬀ in India.
CCTV to Check Industrial Pollution in Surat Gujarat Pollution Control Board, Surat has asked all the industrial units in the city of Surat and its periphery to install closed circuit television cameras at their eﬄuent treatment plant sites. The board has given the time limit of one month to these industrial units for undertaking this task. Till now, GPCB, Surat has issued 100 notices to industrial units for inﬂicting the menace of air and water pollution. The body had also issued a notice to shut down more than 80 units in the past 10 months. Industrial clusters have been asked by GPCB to record and detect emission for 24 hours a day. It is hoped that this move, which has come not a day sooner, would help to curb industrial pollution in Surat to some extent.
E-Toilets for Government Schools in Ernakulam A government girls��� school in the Ernakulam district of Kerala will be the first school in the country to have an electronic toilet. This development comes under the ambit of suchi@school (Sustainable Comprehensive Hygiene Initiative) project, which is the brainchild of the district’s local CPI (M) MP, P. Rajeev. The project endeavours to provide comprehensive sanitation facilities in all the government and government-aided schools in the Ernakulam district. Under this project, a number of schools in the district will be ﬁtted with e-toilets, which will be endowed with automatic doors and the facility of self-cleaning after each use. Recycling units using bio-membrane reactors will be installed to address the issue of water paucity. Plans for installing electronic sanitary napkin disposal systems are also there. Primary schools are however excluded from this unique e-toilet initiative, as these e-toilets entail closing the doors completely, which may trigger fear and discomfort among young children. A Thiruvanthapuram-based company named Eram Scientiﬁc Solutions is supplying the e-toilets, which will be installed by Keltron. The maintenance will be jointly undertaken by both the companies. Each e-toilet facility will cost around Rs.1,25,000, and the facility of installing e-toilet facilities in schools would incur an expenditure of Rs.2.5 crore, out of which Rs.1 crore will be provided by the local government. The rest will be ﬁnanced by public sector undertakings like BPCL Kochi Reﬁnery. July-Aug ’11
COVER S T O R Y
Fruitful Waste 12
C O V E R STORY
With green environment being the watch word of the present generation, efforts are being made by all sections of the society to do their bit for avoiding the looming threat of global warming. The hotel industry has also strived to become ecofriendly. An effort in this direction is the usage of ‘green’ products by some of them, in the clean up operations of their rooms. There are several hotels utilising their kitchen waste as fertiliser. Eco-hotels are also recycling water. However, solid waste management in the Indian hospitality sector is still in its nascent stage. Very little is being done to convert solid waste to energy, which is the need of the hour. Municipal waste is piling up in the dump yards; creating health and environmental hazards. Though efforts are being made to convert municipal solid waste to energy, the process is moving at a tired snail’s pace. However, there is a great deal of potential for joint PPP endeavours in the ﬁeld of waste management. Here Ashok Malkani takes a look at the current scenario of solid waste management in India, and probes the reasons behind its sporadic performance. He also explores the advantages for waste-to-energy projects. July-Aug ’11
olid waste management has been a subject that has been mismanaged over the years. The Mumbai Municipal Corporation has come up with several schemes which have not really succeeded. One can even go to an extent of saying that they have been trashed. Segregation of wet and dry waste has not facilitated in solving the problem. Heaps of trash still lie piled up on the roadsides. The dump yards are bursting at the seams.
Treating Waste With per capita waste generation increasing by 1.3 per cent annually and urban population increasing between 3-3.4 per cent per annum, the yearly increase in waste generation is around 5 per cent annually. Statistics reveal that at present, India produces 42.0 million tonnes of municipal solid waste (MSW) annually. Collection efﬁciency is between 50-90 per cent of the solid waste generated. Urban local bodies spend about Rs 500-1500 per tonne on waste management of which 60-70 per cent of the amount is spent on collection, 20-30 per cent on transportation with hardly any fund being spent on treatment and disposal. The result is crude dumping of waste in the cities. Recent estimates show that approximately 48 million tonnes of urban solid waste is generated annually in India, which is increasing by approximately 1.3 per cent each year. However, waste should not be simply treated as waste. The potential for converting waste to wealth is huge in India. In a report brought out by Frost and Sullivan, it was estimated that the Indian municipal solid waste (MSW) to energy market could be galloping at a compound rate of growth of 9.7 per cent by 2013. However, hotel industry, being environmentally conscious, has already started conversion or recycling of waste. Vithal Kamath had started the ball rolling even before environmentalists had indulged in educating people about the importance of recycling. Kamath says that when he had planned on the eco-friendly Orchid his friends had advocated against the increased expenditure involved in setting up of an eco-friendly hotel. But he had gone ahead and, in the long run, it had proved economical due to lower consumption of electricity, water, etc. Maurya Sheraton, ITC, Lemon Tree Hotels, and several other hospitality groups too have been recycling their waste.
COVER S T O R Y
Charged Waste Mumbai is one metropolis which has been facing a solid waste management crisis for years. Without an integrated solid waste management policy, Mumbai cannot hope to become a world-class city. Thankfully, now the municipal corporations also have woken up to this pressing issue. The Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) has recently come up with a plan to recycle waste. It has planned to collect kitchen waste from the city hotels and process it at the Mulund dumping ground for generation of electricity. Here it deserves a mention, that there are more than 4,000 hotels and restaurants across the city of Mumbai. BMC envisages to earn Rs.20 crore per annum through from hotel waste. It plans to generate more than 6 crore units or around six megawatts
of electricity through processing of 500 tonnes of kitchen waste that will be collected from the hotels of Mumbai. This electricity would be sold at Rs 7 per unit to either a state undertaking company or its sister concern, the Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST) Undertaking. “ The municipal corporation will make a healthy net proﬁt of Rs 3.50 per unit from the power generation and its sales,” informed Bhalchandra Patil, the Chief Engineer of the civic solid waste management department of BMC: The corporation plans begin the project following the proposed Kanjurmarg dumping ground getting operational. This ambitious electr icit y generation project is expected to take off from December 2011 and the power generation will begin 21 days after the dumping of kitchen waste from hotels at the Mulund dumping ground. BMC has already roped in IL&FS as consultants and United Phosphorous Ltd and Rossrocca Company as operators for the plant, for the next 25 years. However, this initiative, though laudable, is quite late in the day. The municipal body should have shown more earnestness towards the potential of waste recycling much before.
The Waste of an Idea It may be recalled that over three years ago, when this publication had interviewed Prem Agarwal
of Brijwasi Biotech for their new solar powered toilet he had claimed that he had made a proposal to the BMC for converting waste into wealth by recycling it. His proposal involved paying the people to deliver the waste to assigned Waste Collection Centres (WCC), within easy reach. This, he had claimed, would encourage people to dispose off their waste in a proper manner and not dump it by the roadside. His company was willing to undertake the task with the cooperation of the BMC. But sadly and not surprisingly, the municipal body didn’t show any inclination to extend cooperation on this unique proposal. He had named the project as Kachre se Sona. Agarwal has also calculated the financial viability of the project, which according to his calculation, are as follows: Purchase of waste @ 0.50paisa/kg Operational costs (including weight loss & overheads) Establishment cost Transportation charge from WCC to treatment site
Rs 500 per tonne Rs.500 per tonne
Rs 250 per tonne Rs 750 per tonne
The percentage of proﬁt per tonne after recycling would depend on the recycling & compost technology. But, the BMC, according to Agarwal, had not taken cognisance of the project at that time. It has taken the BMC more than three years to wake up from its slumber. Reminds one of the mythological character from the epic Ramayana, the Kumbhkaran.
The Reasons Behind Overall, the government’s policy towards waste management in the past can at best be described as knee-jerk, and might have still continued to be so if it wasn’t for the introduction of the Municipal Solid Wastes (Management & Handling) Rules in 2000. By making of waste source segregation, door to door waste collection, abolition of open storage, daily sweeping of
COVER S T O R Y
streets, transportation of waste in covered vehicles, waste processing by energy recovery or composting and sanitary landfills mandatory, the ruling has fostered the process of waste awareness and waste recycling in India, which in the long run can save the country from a imminent looking environmental disaster. But there is no denying the fact that despite the ruling, there is still huge scope for improvement in waste management in India. There are various reasons for improper management of waste in our country. These include lack of proper planning for waste management while envisaging townships, paucity of technically trained manpower in the ﬁeld of waste management,
not much societal awareness and community involvement regarding the management of waste, dearth of awareness creation mechanism and management information systems pertaining to waste management in the society, shortage of funds with urban local bodies or ULBs, and also a by and large callous attitude among ULBs to levy user charges and facilitate sustainability.
Recycle to Riches Recycling is the keyword to efficient municipal solid waste management. Recycling can be termed as processing needed to convert waste into new products, which would in turn not only reduce the consumption of fresh
raw materials, but would also contribute towards reduced energy usage, reduced air pollution from incineration and reduced water pollution from land ﬁlling and also lower greenhouse gas emissions as compared to virgin production. Recycling is an essential component of modern waste reduction policy, which includes the other two Rs – Reduce and Reuse. Bio-waste materials which are organic in nature, such as plant material, food scraps and paper products, can be recycled using biological composting and digestion processes to decompose the organic matter. The resulting organic material is then recycled as mulch or compost for the purpose of agriculture or landscaping. Besides, waste gases from the process (such as methane) can be captured and used for generating electricity and heat. The role of biological processing in waste management involves control and acceleration of the natural process of decomposition of the organic matter. According to the environmentalists, the problems caused by solid and liquid wastes can be signiﬁcantly mitigated through the adoption of environment-friendly waste-to-energy technologies that will allow treatment and processing of wastes before their disposal. These measures would reduce the quantity of wastes, generate a substantial quantity of energy from them, and greatly reduce pollution of water and air. Waste-to-energ y ( WtE) or energy-from-waste (EfW) is the process of creating energy in the form of electricity or heat from the incineration of waste source. But this may also involve pollution due to the smoke generated by burning as a byproduct.
Waste is Latent Energy However, besides incineration, there are galore of other new and emerging technologies, which can produce energy from waste and other fuels without resorting to direct combustion. Many of these technologies do have the potential to generate more electric power from
C O V E R STORY the same amount of fuel than would be possible through the process of direct combustion. Waste-to-energy is considered to be a renewable technology because it reduces the use of fossil fuels by converting waste into electricity or fuel. Although the proportion of waste-to-energy is small compared to other renewable technologies, it can nevertheless provide renewable energy to densely populated areas that generate large amounts of waste. Thus, waste-to-energy is also seen as an effective clean development mechanism for renewable energy projects. Regarding converting waste to energy, the urban India could take a cue from rural India. Here it deserves a mention that the process of using waste as a fuel source and converting it to energy is not a new phenomenon in India. Rural India has a history of anaerobic digestion and biomass gasification since independence through productive usage of animal and agricultural waste. However,
‘waste-to-energy’ in urban India is a relatively new concept that is becoming environmentally vogue. Apart from the reduction in environmental pollution, there are various other advantages of setting up waste-to-energy projects. Firstly, through the application of waste-toenergy projects, the quantity of waste generated gets decreased by nearly 60 percent to 90 percent, depending upon the waste composition and the technology adopted. The cost that has to be incurred for transportation of waste to distant landﬁll sites also gets reduced. The power crisis in the cities and rural areas could be addressed through this practice, and the constant demand for more land ﬁlling sites that are plaguing cities with scarcity of land, also tend to get reduced.
Noteworthy Strides India has already started taking some significant steps in the direction of converting waste to energy. India’s ﬁrst waste-to-energy
plant, which is projected as an effective answer to the waste and electricity crisis plaguing the capital since ages, has started its operations from July this year. Timarpur Okhla Municipal Solid Waste Management plant is the first commercial waste-to-energy facility in India that aims to convert onethird of Delhi’s garbage into the much-needed electricity, enough to serving 6 lakh homes. The plant is a private-public partnership project of the Jindal ITF Ecoplis and Municipal Corporation of Delhi. Moreover, a proposal to set up a 600 tonnes capacity waste to energy facility has been ﬂoated by the Surat Municipal Corporation (SMC). The municipal body has invited tenders from interested companies for the project on build, own, operate and transfer (BOOT) basis. The slated plant is expected to generate 12 MW of power. So the future doesn’t seem to be a waste; it happens to be energised with a new ■ power, despite the roadblocks.
Building Healthy, Wise and Green Green Boulevard — Noida, A Project of The 3C Company
By Swarnendu Biswas
midst the backdrop of continued t h re a t s t o o u r already fr agile environment fromwmyriad polluting inﬂuences, the importance and relevance of green buildings h a s g a i n e d i t s d u e u r g e n c y. Environmentally friendly homes, ofﬁces or retail spaces have graduated from luxury or fashion statements. Instead they are increasingly becoming necessities of our troubled times. Across the globe, the green building movement is gathering momentum. Though innovative designs play a key role in the creation of ecofriendly buildings, but they are not the products of architectural dexterity alone, but also of a passionate collective will by all stakeholders to make a difference. However, the construction and even use of green buildings not only help us to do our bit towards the cause of environment, which in itself deserves urgent attention, but the green buildings also contribute towards lowering the operating costs, increasing marketability of the buildings and giving an impetus to the owners’ image; corporate or
ENVIRONMENT otherwise. Adoption of eco-friendly practices also contribute to add years to the lifespan of the building and increasing the productivity of the workers, as the possibility of their catching an ailment through indoor air pollution decreases markedly in an environment friendly building. However, we not only need green buildings for our image and environment, but also for ourselves. Research has shown that people in industrialised countries use 90 percent of their time at indoors, on an average, and there is a wealth of scientiﬁc evidence showing that indoor air can be 10 to 100 times more polluted than the outside air. When we come to know that indoor air pollution accounts for the death of 1.5 million people every year, across the globe, thereby making it not only a global threat but a frightening reality, we can’t help but realise the perception of green in the reality of realty. Especially in India, where close to 500,000 people every year succumb to their deaths due to indoor air pollution, the importance of green buildings simply cannot be emphasised any further.
Countering Indoor Air Pollution Homes and offices with solar cooking systems is an effective alternative to keep the ambient air from getting polluted, but we could ﬁnd that very few residential buildings, offices or hospitality properties in India employing such methods. In the residential properties, the usage of the renewable and non polluting source of solar energy is far from being vogue. O ur gover nments and the corporates should do something about this on a war footing. Absence of adequate ventilation, which is a rampant feature in the Indian homes and offices, is another important cause of indoor air pollution. Even in an apparently sleek ofﬁce in a posh area of Mumbai or Delhi, indoor air pollution because of inadequate ventilation could be very much omnipresent. The emergence of the green building culture could address this challenge. Besides beneficial effects on
health and hence productivity, the improvement of ventilation of the buildings can lead to cost savings also. By improving the indoor air quality, the building owners and/ or property developers can lower the energy costs by as much as 50 percent by simply incorporating energy recovery ventilators (ERVs). Designing of the right spaces between things in the buildings could play a vital role in making it green, for pollution of indoor air is often facilitated through the cluttered furnishings in the room. Carpets, varnishes, solvents, printers, fax machines, asbestos, tobacco smoke all have the potential to release harmful contaminants like volatile organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehydes, radon, etc. and encourage development of biological organisms like bacteria, viruses, fungus, pollen, etc. They also do have the potential to emit foul odour and dust. The tightly sealed buildings, the increasing usage of synthetic building materials in the recent times, have also contributed to the indoor air pollution. The new-age builders should avoid such pitfalls through both awareness and action. One simple way of purifying the ambient air or keeping it from polluted is to dot your property with green plants at appropriate empty spaces. This would keep the level of CO2 and other air pollutants in the building in check. However, this measure, though praiseworthy, is far from enough for a building to be called a green building. The concept of sustainable building must include a variety of environmentally friendly strategies during the design, construction and operations of the building, in order to graduate to a welcome reality.
Optimising Green Power According to Brijesh Bhanote, Sr. Vice-President, Sales & Marketing, Three C Universal Developers Pvt. Ltd., a company which has become a torch-bearer in the movement of green architecture in India, “The formation of a green building adheres to a speciﬁc process, ranging from sighting the development area
and its designing, to construction, operations and maintenance of the building.” Here it deserves a mention that The 3C company is a pioneer in conceiving and executing green real estate developments across Delhi/ NCR. With the prime focus on delivering state-of-the-art energy efﬁcient buildings, the group has already delivered over 12 million sq.ft. of niche developments. The 3C Company is the only player in Asia to have three operational Platinum Rated and two Gold Rated LEED Certified Green Buildings from USGBC (United States Green Building Council). “To cater to the growing needs of the residents in an environment friendly manner, all the projects of The 3C Company allow onsite generation of renewable energy through solar power, wind power, hydro power or biomass. This signiﬁcantly reduces the environmental impact of the building,” explained Bhanote, while adding, “To the maximum extent feasible, all the facilities provided in our projects aim at increasing the dependence on water that is collected, used, puriﬁed, and reused on-site. This in turn results in lower wastage of water and aid water conservation.” A green building should make extensive use of eco-friend ly materials and products in its design. First of all, the building users should avoid using volatile organic compounds, which can cause a wide array of symptoms ranging from headaches, eye irritation and chronic coughing, to fatigue, depression and even loss of memory. VOCs are both naturally occurring and synthetic, and they evaporate easily at room temperature. Over long periods of time, VOC vapours are gradually released into the air at room temperature. These vapours are not detectable by your human senses, but can affect the environment and human health. VOCs are numerous, varied, and somewhat omnipresent. In a building, VOCs are present especiall y in wood paneling, particleboard, carpets, paints, glues, finishes, solvents, and pesticides.
ENVIRONMENT sustainable buildings are attracting popularity in the realms of Indian real estate. With rise in consumer awareness towards environment coupled with the eco-friendly measures being implemented by the government, many developers are opting for designing green and rated buildings.”
CII-Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre (GBC) in Hyderabad
They can also be found in building materials and furnishings, and office equipment such as copiers and printers. Installing an exhaust system for radon gas; a gas with a sizeable potential of causing lung cancer, avoiding wood products which contain formaldehyde and sealing those which do, using low or no VOC interior paints, using of solvent-free ﬁnishes, and solventfree construction adhesives are some of the effective measures that should be adopted by a building endeavouring to be environmentally friendly. The usage of terracotta ﬂoor tiles and ﬂy ash bricks can also make an elegant statement towards green architecture. At the same time, a building endeavouring to be a green building should strive to make optimal usage of water, light, electricity and other raw materials, and their wastage must be scrupulously prevented. The use of non-renewable sources of energy must be avoided, and wherever possible, non-renewable sources of energ y should be replaced by the renewable sources of energy. Wind power and solar power are two of the prominent renewable and cost-effective sources of energy, which should attract wider acceptance among Indians. Generating electricity through wind
turbines or solar panels can enhance a property’s green image. Thankfully, the green building movement is gathering momentum in India. Like elsewhere in the planet, India too has woken up to the needs and beneﬁts of sustainable architecture, but still there is a long way to go before this happening trend is to become an established culture, at least in the Indian context. Among the players doing great work in terms of spreading the ecofriendly message across post-modern architectural traditions of India, the name of TERI or The Energy and Resources Institute deserves special mention. “TERI has been instrumental in spearheading the development of GRIHA, a national rating system of green buildings in India. TERI and MNRE (Ministry of New and Renewable Energy) jointly did set up an independent society named ADaRSH (Association for Development and Research of Sustainable Habitats) to facilitate implementation of GRI HA across the countr y,” asserted Priyanka Kochhar, Program Manager – Strategic Partnerships and Implementation, ADaRSH, Sustainable Habitats Division, TERI. According to Priyanka, “The energ y efficient, green and
Adopting Green Technologies World over, the construction industry is rightly viewed as a major consumer of our scarce and non renewable energy resources. In this context, it is worthwhile to point out that the use of raw materials comprising natural resources and non- renewable energy sources in the green buildings should ideally be based on the ediﬁces of reduce, reuse and recycle, without compromising on the modern day standards of living. Though it may seem a painstaking exercise, an eco-friendly building is cost-effective in its maintenance in the long run, as it saves important resources in the form of land, water and energy. Introduction of green technologies may require more investment than traditional technologies, but their day-today running is more cost efﬁcient than conventional technologies. “Depending on the range of measures adopted, the green buildings, on an average, consume 40 to 60 percent less electricity and 40 to 80 per cent less water as compared to conventional buildings, “explained Priyanka. “By utilising ultra low-ﬂow ﬁxtures, dual plumbing systems, waste-water recycling systems and rain-water harvesting, green buildings can not only reduce their demand for water use but also look at on-site supply options to cater to its internal and external (landscape) water demands,” she elaborated. She also pointed out that green buildings generate less waste than conventional buildings through the use of waste management strategies on site, and generate less pollution; both during construction and in use. According to the renowned
ENVIRONMENT environmentally friendly architect Chitra Vishwanath, the Managing Director of Biome Environmental Solutions Pvt. Ltd. “ There is an urgent need to work at an architectural trend which appreciates our materials and climate, along with a good knowledge of and respect towards them. This certainly is a challenging task and has to be taken most earnestly.” New technologies are continually being developed and implemented to complement the conventional practices of creating greener structures. The usage of waterless urinals, sensor taps, heat reﬂecting paints, etc. are only some of the other simple and popular environmentally friendly measures that a building can adopt. But we do not always need trendy technologies to build a green home. “ We should work with low embodied energy materials; we should look at developing designs which are self sufﬁcient with respect to their energy and water needs. We are at a stage wherein we can develop our indigenous and relevant technologies rather than going for a real estate product involving conventional western technologies,” afﬁrmed Chitra. Even simple but effective steps like replacing all the standard light bulbs in your home or ofﬁce with compact ﬂuorescent ones can be a pragmatic step towards infusing eco-friendly character to the property. The energy consumption of ﬂorescent bulbs is approximately 70-75 percent lower than the incandescent bulbs and their lifespan is up to ten times higher than the incandescent ones. According to Bhanote, geothermal technology, which uses the latent reservoir of heat energy in the earth, is being deployed these days for the construction of green buildings. The use of geothermal technology can reduce carbon emissions and energy consumption of the building. “To endow the green buildings with greater sustainable features, high-efficienc y windows and insulation in walls, ceilings, and floors are being incorporated. Passive solar building design is often
implemented in low-energy homes, which feature designer-oriented windows, walls and place awnings, porches and trees to shade windows and roofs during the summer while maximising solar gains during the winter,” informed Bhanote. Though the importance and relevance of green buildings is gaining currency in India, but we have to remember that simply the construction of green buildings in an otherwise polluted area wouldn’t make much of a difference to the environment at large. The green residential and commercial structures, green retail establishments, green hospitals or for that matter, green public utilities would have any enduring macro effect on the environment at large, only if they are supplemented by a facilitative eco-friend ly infrastructure and support system in the vicinity. This need has fostered the idea of green townships, which are already a welcome reality, with great potential to mushroom across the metropolitan landscape of India in the years to come. “Green buildings, complemented by green and environment friendly surroundings, do greatly facilitate physical and mental well-being. There are various infrastructural factors which can support green constructions, such as an appropriate sewage system, a waste disposal system, water harvesting plants, solar panel, etc. Government can play a proactive role by providing appropriate infrastructure that will further encourage green developers like us to ink many more success stories,” elaborated Bhanote. In this context, Lotus Boulevard, the ﬁrst residential project of The 3C Company in Noida, which according to Bhanote, will be ready for deliver y in the last quarter of 2011, deserves a special mention. “This is India’s largest green residential real estate project, covering over 30 lush green acres. It is strategically located in Sector 100, Noida,” informed Bhanote. However, we need many more 3Cs to make our city and country healthy, wise and green. ■
Architects for a Cause Here it deserves a mention that Chitra Vishwanath is one of the prominent architects of India, who has been instrumental in bringing sustainable materials and designs into the mainstream. Besides Chitra, a few other creative architects like Anupama Kundoo and Shimul Javeri Kadri are also ushering in another green revolution through their designing vision. They have to their credit some innovative eco-friendly structures. Their structures are easy to maintain, and markedly reduce energy related greenhouse gas emissions as compared to the conventional buildings. Though initial investment for many of these eco-friendly homes may not be that affordable for the middle class, but in the long run, they are cheaper to maintain. Chitra and her company are famous for innovative earth constructions. “Our earth constructions are made with soil sourced, either from below the plinth of the building or from a source as close to the construction as possible. The soil is never of the quality which would be good for agriculture. We modify the soil depending upon the clay content,” informed Chitra. “Our present work veers towards the use of soil to the maximum, that is for foundations, walls, and roofs/ ceilings too,” added the visionary lady. The designs of her company are very well worked out with respect to passive ventilation.
Room for Clean Washrooms By Swarnendu Biswas
he overall state of washroom hygiene in India presents a dismal scenario. Not only 665 million people in India are without the access of toilets, but a great majority of the public toilets in India are extremely unhygienic
because of severe paucity of adequate infrastructure and maintenance pertaining to washroom hygiene. This unhygienic scenario has the potential to breed many diseases in the society. It is not uncommon to see public toilets in India even without the basic facility of a mug or a bucket.
There the pulling of cistern often doesnâ€™t yield water, and this often frightening characteristic is not very infrequently complemented by dried taps in bathrooms and wash basins too. Talking of hand drier, toilet paper dispenser, foam dispenser, feminine sanitary napkin bin, and room freshener in such a
WASHROOM HYGIENE toxic scenario tend to evoke nothing but a cynical laugh, though they too are a casual reality, albeit of a different India. We know that in the five-star and four-star hotels and resorts, and the MNC offices which are mushrooming through the metropolitan India with increasing regularity, we can experience spic and span washrooms, but we should not forget that they are being catered to by only a miniscule section of our population.
Callousness with Cleanliness Despite the pioneering efforts made by the world renowned sanitation expert and humanitarian Dr. Bindeshwar Pathak, which made India’s urban landscape dot with a plethora of clean and affordable to use Sulabh Toilets, and the commendable initiative of Fuad Lokhandwala, who has been the man behind the construction of some of the most sleek public toilets
in Delhi and Mumbai, unhygienic conditions continue to prevail in the washrooms and restrooms of India. It is because we need great many zealous mavericks like Dr. Pathak and Faud Lokhandwala to make the necessary graduation from a perceptible difference to a signiﬁcant difference in our state of sanitation. The enormously challenging task to cleanse our public toilets and toilets in educational institutions, hospitals and also offices from recurring ﬁlth requires great leaps in state and private investment in the often neglected direction of sanitation, coupled with great shifts in the attitude of the civil society. It is no less of a Herculian task than the cleaning of the mythical Augean stables. The reasons for the deplorable washroom hygiene in India are many, each involving myriad dimensions. It may seem that our state thinks that the poor people of our country do not need basic hygiene, but at the same time, we must concede
that the prevailing state of public apathy towards such mundane but essential element of public life as washroom hygiene is also responsible for this alarming state of affairs. The initiatives of the corporate sector to raise societal awareness and concern towards sanitation in general and wash room hygiene in particular are also not that encouraging. Of course, the governments need to build toilets endowed with adequate washroom facilities on a massive scale, with due urgency. But simply state endeavours would not solve the problem. The severe shortage of washroom hygiene facilities in India across slums, schools, colleges, hotels, hospitals and roadside is complemented by paucity of trained human resource personnel in this direction. The shortage of human resource in the Indian clean &
WASHROOM HYGIENE at the lower-end of the hierarchy also calls for a rapid and massive shift so that we collectively take the issue of washroom hygiene with due respect.
hygiene industry could contribute to the quick transformation of a clean washroom spruced with a comprehensive range of amenities into a total mess in no time, as a result of lack of its maintenance.
Not a Clean Attitude And why there is a shortage of skilled quality hospitality manpower, especially in the realm of clean & hygiene industry? The reasons are not hard to seek. To put it simply, many housekeeping staff in the lower rung of the hierarchy who diligently perform the cleaning tasks on a day-to-day basis, are often saddled with low salaries and long working hours. They are also victims of unchanging societal disdain and prejudice towards many basic clean & hygiene jobs. The person who ‘actually keeps’ the toilet in a facility spic and span, unfortunately doesn’t get his deserved respect and recognition from the society. Next time when we visit a clean and cosy bathroom in a glitzy mall or a multiplex, we must respect the blue collared guys who work hard incessantly to keep it that way for our beneﬁt. The state and the corporate sector can together chip in to reduce the shortage of skilled human resource in the hospitality sector, by introducing a galore of specialised courses and hospitality institutes with focus on clean & hygiene. Together with that, better facilities and pay packets to the clean & hygiene professionals must be offered by the industry so as to attract better quality manpower. At the same time, our attitudes towards hospitality staff operating
Demand for Hygienic Solutions However, despite the prevalence of dark clouds, we cannot discount the silver linings. Things seem to be changing for the better, as far as awareness about clean & hygiene in the society is concerned, though there is no denying the fact that this awareness is still largely concentrated in the urban educated spectrum of our society. According to Rajesh Gupta, Managing Director of MystAir Hygiene Care Pvt.Ltd., a Gurgaonbased company, marketing a comprehensive range of hygiene care products, “ Momentum of awareness pertaining to clean & hygiene has increased manifolds in our society since the last decade, which has contributed to a greater demand for assorted clean & hygiene equipments and accessories in the market.” He believes that the concept of personal hygiene is gaining mind space in India, and there is a huge demand for good quality personal hygiene care products at affordable prices. MystAir endeavours to address this need. Gupta also elaborates that the setting up of shops of several MNCs in India has contributed greatly to the increasing demand for top-notch washroom hygiene standards, especially in the Indian corporate sector. As I was going through the impressive hand driers, foam soap dispensers, paper towel dispensers, toilet paper dispensers, room fresheners, hand sanitising liquids and other assorted range of impressive washroom hygiene products from the MystAir’s portfolio, my depressing mood about the washroom hygiene scenario in India started gaining some much needed optimism.
Rajesh Gupta keeping into account of the factors of affordability and environmental sensitivity. The company has its market spread out predominantly across hotels, restaurants, corporate sector, hospitals, malls & multiplexes and schools, though it doesn’t have any plans to extend beyond institutional sales and foray into the retailing space. “Corporates are our biggest market. We are getting very good responses from MNCs and as well as from the Indian corporates,” asserted Niraj Mehta, the Chief Operating Ofﬁcer of the company. However, he conceded that the acceptability for MystAir’s products is yet to get to their desired level in the education sector. “The demand for our products in the educational institutes is still low, though it is increasing day by day,” he said. Gupta talked about the need for sustained awareness building exercises to address this challenge.
Marketing Quality in Hygiene MystAir focusses on institutional sales of hygiene care products while
Niraj Mehta MystAir is committed to provide world class hygiene care products at economic al pr ice through innovation. Affordability, availability and accessibility are the three ediﬁces on which MystAir’s success story is based on. “Besides, the inherent technological advantage of our product proﬁle has given us a distinct edge over the competition,” asserted Gupta, who is planning to have representation of MystAir across south and west India, in tier-I and tier-II cities, supported by the distribution network. Among the impressive array of hygiene care products in its diversiﬁed portfolio, MystAir has two variants of air fresheners and odour neutralisers, which are ideal for lobbies, washrooms, offices and other high traffic areas, by helping them keep smelling fresh and pleasant. MystAir has introduced ENVIRO SENZ, a range of odourfoyl technology driven air freshener with dual scent feature (ability to alternate between two different fragrances). The dualfan technology runs silently. This singular room freshener named Duo Air Freshener deodrasises up to 6000 cubic feet of space and is ideal for medium and large-sized areas. The dispenser comes with advanced customisable features, such 24 hrs, day/night settings. In Duo Air Freshener, only extracts of pure essential oils are used as fragrance, which is devoid of any harmful propellant. EVA
or Ethyl vinyl acetate, a recyclable material, is used to develop the cartridges; a feature that further exempliﬁes MystAir’s commitment towards environment. This brand of room freshener also doesn’t have any VOC elements, which have the potential to harm the health and the environment. Gupta informed that ENVIRO SENZ has garnered considerable popularity among its target segments, but among them the demand for this unique room freshening solution is maximum among restaurants. He also stated that the technology embodied in the ENVIRO SENZ brand is new to India.
The Manufactured Bottlenecks Mehta informed me that MystAir does not manufacture these impeccable hygiene care products themselves because according to him, “if we manufactured them domestically instead of importing them, their costs would have been much higher.” The main reasons are exorbitantly high real estate prices, combined with the lack of the right technological know-how in India that is needed for the manufacture of this sophisticated washroom hygiene products, and the paucity of skilled manpower. These are also some of the valid reasons behind ver y few manufacturers of international level washroom hygiene care products in India, which in turn is again impeding the cleanliness quotient of our washrooms within reasonable affordability. “We source these products from across the globe, after getting these products developed by those specific manufacturers according to our specifications,” explained Gupta. As I left the ofﬁce premises of MystAir, I realised that India is ready to become clean and healthy, but what it needs is the political will coupled with concerted corporate vision along with civil society initiatives in the direction of clean & hygiene. However, we need many more companies like MystAir to cater to the growing demand for comprehensive sanitation solutions ■ in the society.
Towards Clean Dairies By Anand Patel
he modern dair y industry has become ver y complex over the years. It has went many miles ahead of the old times, when the purview of the dairy industry was limited to
only milk, and basic milk products like butter, cheese, milk powders, etc. But now, dairy manufacturers are providing a sophisticated and ever-changing range of products to customers all over the world. Moreover, the dairy industry has
become more competitive in the recent times, and the issue of food safety has gained currency among the media and the establishment. All these factors have put pressure on the dairy plants to produce more with existing capacity, assure safety of the products, produce them at lower cost and upgrade their products to higher quality standards than ever before.
Dairy Cleaning in India It would do us well to remember that traditionally, cleaning has never been a priority in the Indian food industry, which includes the Indian dairy industry too. Improperly designed cleaning protocols are still in use in most of the food industries in India. Such cleaning protocols result in high microbial counts in the ďŹ nal product, more wastage, more time spent in cleaning, high utilities consumption, continuous deposition of soils on surface, etc. Continuous deposition of soils even increases the complexity of cleaning process. But those above mentioned changes and pressures are reďŹ‚ected in the Indian dairy industry too, which in turn does demand changes in the technology used in cleaning and sanitation. Today the Indian dairy industry needs to have cleaning
INDUSTRY products and technologies which can clean and disinfect in the shortest period of time, maintain highest quality & hygiene standards, and ensure that the environmental norms are fully complied. And things are improving too in the Indian dairy industry, in the direction of clean & hygiene. Those days are gone when Indian dairy industry had to stick to traditional cleaning solutions and protocols. M o d e r n a n d c o m p re h e n s i v e cleaning solutions are now available as per the requirement, which can provide overall cost effectiveness with improved productivity. Use of poorly designed protocols may affect the Indian dairy plants’ efficiencies in the near future negatively. A well-designed cleaning protocol could help the dairy industry through improved productivity and organisational proﬁtability. They can in turn be achieved through: • By taking lesser time for cleaning • By providing better operational
efﬁciencies with savings in water, steam, electricity, etc. • Imparting peace of mind to the management • By providing improved employee satisfaction and employee efﬁciency • Facilitating better safety
The Facets of Dairy Cleaning H o w e v e r, c l e a n i n g a n d disinfection are very complex tasks and depend on various factors like MOC of equipment, surface proper ties, soil composition, bonding between soil and surface, processing parameters, limitations in cleaning in terms of maximum temperature and time availability, acceptable residual chemical limit after cleaning, required degree of cleaning and disinfection, etc. These factors demand food production units to apply specialised approach to maintain proper cleanliness of various surfaces, especially food contact surfaces. If
surfaces in a food production plant are not cleaned to an acceptable level, they may act as potential sources of microbial growth. Further, improper cleaning may increase the utilities consumption, viz. steam, water, electricity, etc. Use of specially formulated chemicals for cleaning and disinfection is an emerging trend in the Indian dairy industry. Formulated chemicals are customised as per the
requirement. For example, chemical with more chelating agent (to help mineral soil removal) is required for high heat-treated surfaces, while for cold surfaces chemicals with more emulsiﬁcation capacity are required. There may be one or multiple or a combination of criteria for selecting a formulated chemical. The criteria may include faster cleaning with savings in water and energy, cleaning and disinfection in one single stage, etc. In dairy industry, hygiene of CIP plays a very important role. There are various steps involved in a normal CIP-hygiene cycle, starting from pre-rinse to ﬁnal disinfection. New CIP cycles in dairy industry may involve the following steps: • Pre-rinse • Detergent cycle • Rinse • Disinfectant cycle • Potable water rinse Or it may take the following steps too: • Pre-rinse • Detergent-cum-disinfectant cycle • Final rinse
Soil and Substance Cleaning and disinf ection chemistry that is applied depends on the soils present. In dairies, when the soil is not heat-treated and the viscosity of the product
is fairly low, acidic cleaning and disinfection can be used. This technology uses emulsification as cleaning mechanism and does surface active disinfection. The disinfection property is not lost during its use, thus this can be reclaimed and reused after topping up to the required strength. The beneﬁts of this technology include savings in water, less energ y consumption and better safety, as this chemical works on lower temperature than traditional disinfection temperature. For heat-treated equipment, major part of the soil comprise of minerals and denaturised proteins, which is not possible to remove with alkali only. Acidic chemicals are used in the removal of this difﬁcult to clean soil. This acidic stage can be replaced with additive package to caustic, which will then eliminate or reduce the need of acidic stage. Minerals are removed by sequestration at high pH. The total impact of this would be saving time, alkali, water and energy with indirect beneﬁts of ETP load reduction and improved productivity. This technology can be applied to viscous, high fat or high protein containing non-heat treated soils also.
Advancements and Innovations Dairy industry disinfection has also advanced to a higher level. The traditional method of dairy disinfection uses live steam or hot water at 85 degree centigrade, for at least 30 minutes. Practically this method takes one hour for complete disinfection. In this process, 10-20 minutes are required for bringing the temperature of equipment surface to 85 degree centigrade, and another 10-20 minutes are required for hot water disinfection to cool, which is necessary before the beginning of the
next production cycle. The advanced technology uses peracetic acid based disinfectant, which can be used at ambient temperature and requires very less contact time of say 5-15 minutes. It generally does not require any rinsing, thus maintaining the sterility of the system. Also, if required, the temperature of the plant during disinfection can be maintained at the temperature of the production. Thus there would be no need of cooling or heating the system. This technology is applicable to both heated and non-heated soils. For non-heated soils, an acidic detergent-cum-disinfectant can be used, which in turn can save water, time and energy. This process needs lesser temperature than traditional disinfection and gives simultaneous cleaning and disinfection. These innovations in dairy equipment disinfection do save time, water and energy, thereby paving the way towards improved operational excellence. Another development in the dair y industr y cleaning is the cleaning of vertical surfaces, which is applicable to tank exteriors, evaporator calendria, etc. Vertical surfaces are difficult to clean, as the detergent applied flows down due to gravity and does not provide sufficient contact time between detergent and the soil. But thankfully, new products and methods are available to improve the retention time of the cleansing chemical. These chemicals need to be applied using foam cleaning machine. The additional cling time will yield better cleaning results while undertaking vertical cleaning, as contact time will increase thereby reducing the scope of repeat applications, w h e r e v e r needed. This leads to savings in time and water, and hence, eventually costs. The author is the Marketing Manager, F&B, Diversey India Pvt. Ltd.
Cleansing Stains Through
emoval of stains from the fabric is one of the daily challenges which a laundry manager faces. These days the challenge can be catered to by the spotting machines. Without these machines, the role of a laundry manager, particularly in a busy ďŹ vestar hotel, becomes an uphill task, for cleaning tough stains manually turns out to be an extremely labour intensive, time consuming, and often an irritating process. However, despite its obvious benefits, its application in the Indian market has not shown encouraging responses over time. Spotting machines are a handy weapon in the cleaning industry to eliminate stubborn stains. Its projectile stain gun releases forceful pressure of steam and ultrasonic vibrations, which facilitates to clear off tough and irritating stains of persistent nature, without the exertion of physical labour. The use of stain gun also saves a lot of valuable time. Its use also eliminates the possibility of damage to the fabric, which manual washing of tough stains may give rise to. The vibrations loosen the strength of
the stain, and the steam ďŹ‚ushes the steam particles away. The projectile stain gun of the spotting machine is self-contained and compact, and its usage is easy. In terms of looks, the contour of the spotting machine is not much different from a gun. It constitutes a nozzle, two trigger buttons and three paddles. One button is meant for jet speed steam while the other is meant for ejecting high-pressure air. Steam, air and suction are indicated on the three paddles of the spotting machine. The suction part usually pertains to a blower machine of half horsepower (hp). The powerful suction can dry out the fabric immediately after eliminating the stain. The cleaning process with the spotting machine involves some easy steps. The laundry professionals use various solvents and chemicals on the stained fabric, and then apply the gun on the stains. First of all, the spotted fabric should be put on a net-board and then the stain should be scraped with a scraper tool. After that, appropriate chemical, which is compatible to the fabric, should be applied on the stain. If the chemical happens to be too strong for the fabric, it should be
diluted before its application on the fabric. The colour and thickness of the fabric must also be taken into account before the application of the chemical. In the third step, the spotting machine enters the scene. After you push the button of the machine, jet speed steam would be ejected from the machine. The spotting machine should be positioned straight on the stain. The steam almost immediately diffuses the grip of stain on the fabric. Then you can press the air button, which releases the air on the wet area, thereby removing any traces of stain from the fabric, by diffusing and discharging it into the atmosphere. Thereafter, vacuum the wet part of the fabric and dry it out. The cleaning process usually takes 90 to 120 seconds in case of normal stain, and near about four minutes in the case of stubborn stain. In the case of tough stain, the cleaning process is repeated twice. However, be careful of not overdoing the cleaning act, by using the projectile stain gun on the garment more than twice for cleaning one particular stain, as it may damage the texture of the fabric. Usually, spotting machines are capable of removing one stain at a time. It can also dry out the part immediately after the stain is completely eliminated from the fabric. During the machine’s cycle, pneumatic clamps automatically close in the front and back of the garment. Then side expanders come out to shape the sides of the garment.
Once the steam cycle begins, the form moves up slightly to hold the garment under tension, creating a high quality ﬁnish. Though in India, spotting machines are widely used in export houses and hospitals, but their usage in the five star hotels of India has still, by and large, not attracted the desired acceptability. It is lamentable that many ﬁve star hotels still try to eliminate stains manually, through the help of various stain removing chemicals. Moreover, most of the industrial laundry operations in India still take the manual route. But at the same time, one has to infer from the ﬁgures that the demand for spotting machines is showing an increase in the hospitality industry. Especially in the hospitality industry, where restaurant linen and kitchen garments are always prone to get stained, the utility of spotting machines cannot be overstated. Presently, there are various models of spotting machines available in the market. The new-age spotting machines are equipped with a computerised system. Moreover, almost all new-age spotting machines have heat pumps that use distillation vapours to back up the primary heat pump, resulting in minimum energy consumption with electrical heating. The new features also include an electronic voltage regulator that prevents problems caused by voltage ﬂuctuations. All switching inside the machine, except for the motor, are ■ done in low voltage.
The Benefits of
Steam Cleaning R
esearch has shown that the steam and very high water temperature s y s t e m provides the most desirable results in terms of cleaning. Through steam cleaning, dirt, grime and mold get blasted out from dirty areas due to extremely high temperature and pressure. Following the blast, dirt is sucked into a powerful vacuum, in a holding tank. Steam cleaning systems provide for superior and economical cleaning, which are suitable for housekeepers who strive towards a healthier environment in their facilities. People suffering from allergies and chemical sensitivities can also be greatly beneﬁted by steam cleaning as it prevents triggering of these untoward symptoms. Steam cleaning technolog y works efﬁciently on tile, linoleum, carpets, bedding, windows, fabrics,
bathrooms, kitchens, mirrors, grills, ovens, sealed hardwood ﬂoors and round the corner where grease, grime, mold, mildew and allergens do accumulate. One can even use steam cleaning technology to remove wrinkles from clothing, strip wax floors and wallpaper and degrease your automobile engine! Succinctly, one can clean and sanitise the premises in a healthier and more environmentally beneﬁcial way by employing steam cleaning technology.
toxic odours in cleaning process. Neither does it leave any residue like chemical cleaners. Moreover, after steam cleaning, the surfaces get dried up in seconds,
Gathering Steam Steam cleaning facilitates to clean, sanitise and deodorise a variety of surfaces and materials around the premises with ease, and involving no chemicals or detergents. Steam cleaning facilitates lifting off greasy grime and dried on dirt. Through steam cleaning one can clean those tough stains without exposing oneself and the environment to hazardous chemicals, as it doesn’t involve harmful chemicals and
CLEANING The typical steam cleaning machines have the following accessories: window squeegee, bristle ring nozzle, reﬁlling bottle or tank and curved detail nozzle. These features help to ensure that your steam cleaning is satisfactory. Some more expensive forms of steam cleaning machines may have quality stainless steel boilers, heavy wiring, more insulation, and may have the heating unit mounted inside the boiler. They are also likely to have more attachments and additional safety features than the comparatively low-end ones.
thereby preventing mold and allergen growth, which can rear up from the soaked materials. The steam cleaning, besides being efﬁcient and hygienic, makes cleaning a much less cumbersome process as it eliminates the use of mops and buckets. Steam cleaning also cleans soap scum and mildew off the bathroom tile and shower doors. It is also an economical cleaning method, as by employing this method one doesn’t have to bear the cost of cleaning chemical agents, except of just plain tap water. Steam cleaning not only decimates most bacteria, viruses, mildew and allergens such as E.coli, salmonella and dust mites that are exposed to it, but also helps control allergens in carpet and bedding. Most steam cleaning machines operate on the principle where the water in a boiler tank gets heated up and escapes in ‘vapour’ like fashion, through the multi-powerful jets or hoses. The three common forms of steam cleaning machines are: vapour steam cleaning machine, dry steam cleaning machine, and the multipurpose steam cleaning equipment.
Cleaning Through Vapour Vapour steam cleaning differs signiﬁcantly from the function of common carpet cleaners that claim to steam clean, but are actually hot water extractors. These carpet cleaners utilise hot water of lower temperature, along with chemical detergents that saturate fabrics and leave them water soaked, requiring a significant amount of time to dry. Here it deserves a mention that fabrics that remain wet for long periods can contribute to accumulation of bacteria, mold and mildew growth and the proliferation of other allergens such as dust mites. Vapour steam c leaners use a super-heated vapour that has minimal moisture content and will not saturate fabrics such as carpets and bedding. Surfaces cleaned with vapour steam cleaners dry quickly. Vapour steam cleaning machines produce higher temperatures than the boiling point of water by pressurising the steam. When the pressure of steam is increased, the temperature of the steam will also increase. The pressurised high temperature dry vapours penetrate deep down into materials and surfaces to kill allergens such as dust mites, mold and fungi, as well as bacteria and viruses. The super-heated steam breaks down grease and grime to facilitate the tough cleaning jobs around the premises. This is done with the help of normal tap water and without costly toxic cleaning products that usually end up polluting the indoor air and the
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Dry and Clean Dry steam cleaner is a very useful steam cleaning machine as well. It cleans virtually any area that one can think of, which may include seals on the fridge or oven, the runners on patio doors, etc. Some dry steam cleaners claim to be able to do odd jobs such as defrosting a fridge, as well. Some of the new models feature special self-cleaning systems, where you can afford to dispense the thought of replacing calcium ﬁlters. Also, the newer models heat and reheat in record time, some as fast as within thirty seconds, and they do come with different bar pressures that change the speed and efﬁciency of cleaning performance. Dry steam cleaning machines or dry vapour steam cleaning machines generate low moisture vapour and a very high temperature. The low moisture vapour in dr y steam cleaning machines generally has generally only about six percent of water which is even less moisture that we get in the air surrounding us. This is why this type of steam cleaning is known as ‘dry.’ Here it deserves a mention that the dry steam cleaning machine is easy to maintain and clean and it is light enough to be carried, even when you ﬁll it with water. This endows it with a user-friendliness, especially if you’re planning to use it often. Both vapour and dry cleaning machines are the perfect choices if one sees chemicals as a threat and at the same time, is concerned about environment safety. Points to Ponder However, one needs to remember some points when one is using dry steam cleaning technology. F irstl y we need to know that dry steam cleaning should operate between 2 4 0 d e g r e e Fahrenheit a n d 260 degree Fahrenheit, in
order to be effective. Therefore, a machine claiming to offer dry steam cleaning service, but operating between 360 degree Fahrenheit and up to 410 degree Fahrenheit is not likely to be that useful. The best dry steam cleaning machines should also have a reasonable water tank capacity. Even though steam cleaning machines are fantastic at utilising small amount of water to conduct huge cleaning jobs, you need to ensure that you won’t have to change water more than once while completing your cleaning job. The boiler parts as well as other parts of dry steam cleaning machine should be made of stainless steel. The dry steam cleaning machine should also have a feature that can regulate water steam outﬂow as well as its temperatures. And you should also remember that some low pressure steam cleaning machines do perform better than the high pressure ones. Dry steam cleaning machines should be endowed with some features for undertaking special cleaning tasks and should have some variety of cleaning brushes. More expensive machines may also have more options on hose outlets. It is not especially important if you are using your machine once in a while but for frequently used dry steam cleaning machines such facility may be a huge advantage; they are generally more efficient when it comes to cleaning difficult areas. Most dry steam cleaning machines should last anywhere from ten to up to twenty years, provided you are able to get the required parts and if the repair shops know how to deal with your machine in case of its breakdown.
Getting Floored Steam cleaning is very effective in cleaning ﬂoors. There are ﬂoor care steam cleaning systems, which can sanitise and clean bare ﬂoors with the power of steam. The multipurpose hand-held steam cleaners can also sanitise and clean a variety of ﬂoor surfaces. They manage to eliminate most bacteria, viruses, mildew and allergens such as E.coli,
salmonella and dust mites. They are environmentally safe and use plain tap water, but employ no hazardous chemicals and no toxic odours. They are mostly used for tile, vinyl, ceramic and sealed wood ﬂoors. These are also used primarily to clean glass and mirrors, upholstery, appliances, countertops, charcoal grills, ovens, refrigerators and anywhere where mildew, scum or greasy dirt can collect and coalesce. With multi-purpose hand held steam cleaners, you can escape the hazardous ammonia or chlorine smell while cleaning windows, mirrors and bathroom tile.
Under the Carpet Steam cleaning is also an effective way to clean tiles and other surfaces, such as counters or carpets. Steam cleaning can ensure that you have nothing under the carpet, literally. By using steam cleaning carpet machines one can get the carpets thoroughly cleaned and free of unseemly items like oil or sticky soil and mud that your average vacuum cleaner cannot get rid of. Whether you decide to go with steam vapour cleaning ser vice or dry steam cleaning ser vice, your carpet will benefit greatly. In case your visiting guests suffer from asthma and allergies, steam cleaning equipment and steam cleaning process would prove to be more beneﬁcial than any other method of cleaning. The carpet should be steam cleaned at least once in a month depending on the frequency of guests visiting and how often they walk over a particular carpet. Steam cleaning can be useful for cleaning of tiles as well. Steam cleaning machines are fantastic in removing soap scum, ﬁlm and grout. For example, if a direct steam is used for grout, and towel steam for picking up scum from tile, the whole area could be cleaned within no time without any wet mess. Once the steam cleaning is used you should be able to wipe dirt off the surfaces. Some people who have used steam vapour cleaning machines use them to remove caulking as well as paint ■ from the tiles.
ermites are social insects that live in colonies. A colony of termites can be scattered throughout the soil or can be extended in underground tunnels ranging from tens to hundreds of feet. Each termite colony is segmented into three types of termites, viz. worker termites, soldier termites and reproductive termites. They are distinct in their physical features and perform their individual tasks, which are evident from their name. The division of labour in a given termite colony is quite stringent. Generally, a termite colony has workers, soldiers and reproductive termites. The king and the queen are primary reproductive termites of the colony. The workers are about 1/8 inch in length and are blind, sterile, wingless and soft-bodied. Their colours range from creamy white to grayish white, and round head is their distinctive apparent physical feature. Workers are in majority
Types, Tracing and the Tackling of
in a given termite colony, and they are the ones who actually eat wood. These sterile individuals search and collect food and water, construct and repair shelter tubes, feed and groom other termites, take care of the eggs and the young ones, and also take participation in the defense of the colony. The soldier class is also wingless and resembles the workers in appearance except that they have a large, rectangular, yellowish-brown head with large mandibles (jaws). Their primary function is to defend the colony. They are also blind and sterile. The reproductive termites are necessary to keep a given termite colony to stay alive and growing. The male and female reproductive types come in both winged (primary) or wingless (neotenic) forms. Winged reproductive termites are called alates or swarmers. Their body colour varies from black to yellowbrown and also by species. The neotenic reproductive ones often serve as replacements if something happens to the king or the queen. The neotenic termites are generally yellow or mottled black and their femaleâ€™s abdomen may look enlarged due to the development of eggs. Here we discuss some common types of termites.
(I) Dampwood Termite Dampwood termites belong to the family of Hodotermitidae. As their name suggests, dampwood termites infest wood that has an excessive moisture condition, and therefore they are not often found in dry structures. To avoid their infestation, prevent leaky plumbing, faulty gutters or downspouts against wood exteriors, which could result in
moistening of wooden materials. A mature colony of dampwood termites may have winged males and females who pair to reproduce. After pairing, males and females shed their wings and may move on to infest wooden materials. The majority of the dampwood colony consists of nymphs that are pale and soft-bodied. They do not belong to the worker class but perform the housekeeping duties of the colony. This involves enlarging the gallery system, care of the eggs and obtaining food for other colony members. As nymphs mature, they become reproductive termites or join the ranks of soldiers.
(II) Drywood Termite Drywood termites have soft bodies and are cylindrical in shape. They are usually pale brown in colour. They have six legs, compound eyes and chewing mandibles. These termites belong to the family Kalotermitidae. Their soldiers measure 3/8th inch in length. The king and queen termites perform the reproductive functions. During their winged stage these reproductive termites have four equal sized wings, which extend beyond the body by 1/8th to 1/4th inch. The colour of the king and the queen vary from light to dark brown, with their sizes varying from 1/3rd to 3/8th inch. Like other forms of termites, drywood termites too live in colonies, but the singularity of these colonies is that it is devoid of a worker class. Immature termites perform all work before they attain adulthood. The soldiers guard the colony against invaders such as ants. These soldier termites are pale, cream coloured and wingless with large brownish heads and jaws.
Drywood termites infest only dry wood and are most often found in wood framing as they do not require contact with soil. They obtain moisture from the water produced by the digestion of cellulose. Wooden articles can be sealed with a uniform coating of paint, varnish or other sealant, which will help prevent them to give easy access to drywood termites.
(III) Other Termites Few other kinds of termites are also found in nature but their presence is restricted to particular geographical locations, like Formosan Subterranean Termite of Coptotermes formosanus family. The composition of their colony comprises of king, queen, workers and soldiers. Their reproductive cycle begins on a rainy day, in late spring or early summer. These termites are generally more vigorous and aggressive than their other subterranean counterparts. Their nests are usually located inside walls, under cabinets, and in other enclosed voids, from where they quietly eat away. Another type found is a subterranean termite, which comes under the Rhinotermitidae family. Their normal size varies from 1/8th to 3/8th inch in length. The body of their soldier termites has large deck head with powerful mandibles. They are pale and vary from cream to light coloured. The reproductive ones may be light to dark brown / black in colour. These termites live in colonies in the ground and also in vertical tunnels. These termites die if exposed to air for an extended period of time and the tunnels they build protect them from open air. They need to stay in contact with
the soil in order to survive, unlike drywood termites that only need low moisture.
Tracing the Termites The menace of subterranean termites may be detected by the sudden emergence of winged termites (alates or swarmers), or by the presence of mud tubes and wood damage. Large numbers of winged termites, seen swarming from wood or the soil, are often the ﬁrst sign of a termite colony in the vicinity. Swarming occurs in mature termite colonies that typically contain at least several thousand termites. A ‘swarm’ can be described as a group of adult male and female reproductive termites that leave their colony in an attempt to start new colonies. If temperature and moisture conditions are favourable, the alate termites emerge usually on warm days, following rainfall. The swarms can develop in indoor condition, where moisture content supports their sustenance. However, swarming occurs during a brief period (typically less than an hour), and alates quickly shed their wings. The presence o f winged termites or their shed wings inside a building serves as warning of a possible termite infestation. Other signs of termite presence inc lude mud tubes and mud protruding from cracks between boards or other areas of possible termite infestation. The tubes are made by transported soil and water to construct earthen runways (shelter tubes) to reach the wood. These tubes protect them from
the drying effects of air and from natural enemies, such as ants. Usually, these tubes are about 1/4th to 1 inch wide. To determine if a termite infestation is active, shelter tubes should be broken or scraped away and then monitored to see if the termites repair them or construct new ones.
The Termite Menace Termites damage wooden articles but in the initial stage, the effect does not become visible until it is scrutinised well to ﬁnd the extent of damage. They feed on wood, making it hollow from inside. Their ‘work’ can be spotted as wooden dust, and faecal remains are also left behind as evidence. Various damaged wooden areas become hollow from inside, which makes hollow sound when tapped from outer surface. Prevention is better than cure, and the crux of the prevention process centers on disrupting termites’ ability to locate moisture, food (wood), and shelter. Avoiding moisture accumulation near the foundation, which provides water needed for termites’ survival, is important. The following barriers can be used to prevent termite attacks: (i) Soil Barrier Termiticides Conventional soil treatments rely on creating a chemical barrier in the soil that is toxic to termites coming in contact with. Many also have repellent characteristics and termites avoid treated soil. To achieve termite control for a long period of time, soil barrier termiticides must be applied as a continuous barrier in the soil next to and under the foundation of any wooden work e.g. wooden planks used during construction of building, etc. It is also true that termites have a very high probability of ﬁnding other untreated points for entry into wooden structures. Localised spot treatments are considered risky except in re-treatment situations. If untreated gaps are left out, termites may circumvent the chemical
treatment. Hence, such treatments during preconstruction can provide for more uniform coverage. There is also a practice of chemicals being injected through drill holes to address the termite menace.
(ii) Treated Zone Termiticides Some of the termiticides in the market are non-repellent to termites, but show delayed toxicity. As termites penetrate the ‘treated zone,’ they contact with the active ingredient, which causes delayed mortality. Control usually is achieved within three months. As with soil barrier termiticides, specialised application equipment and large volumes of chemical solution are needed in treated zone termiticides also. (iii) Baits Bait technology uses wood or a cellulose matrix, favoured by termites. They are infused with a slow-acting toxic chemical. Termite workers feed upon the bait and transfer it through grooming activities and social food exchange to other colony members, eventually reducing or even to the extent of eliminating the entire colony. Termites are not site-speciﬁc. They can be found at various food sites, which results in the bait being exposed to many colony members. However, the toxic chemical used in the bait does act slowly because termites tend to avoid sites where sick and dead termites accumulate. The monitor ing wood should be replaced with the toxicant once termites have been detected feeding on it. It is very important that bait systems are properly installed and diligently serviced. The only drawback of baits is that they work slowly than other termiticides. One distinct advantage of termite baits is that they are environmentallyfriendly because they use very small quantities of chemical, thereby greatly decreasing the threat for environmental contamination. A number of baits have been marketed to prevent the entry and prevalence ■ of termites.
Hand in Glove(s) H
and gloves are not only essential for the safety in handling of chemicals, but are being widely used in hospitals, and at various industrial workshops where manual work is being done, especially at extremely high or low temperatures. They are also essential in kitchen operations in the hospitality industry. In fact, cleanliness of hands and prevention of infection from hands should be of paramount concern for anyone employed in a chemical industry, hospital, laundry, kitchen, gardening, etc. The hand gloves play a crucial role in hospital operations, where total clean and hygienic conditions are required. Hands can remain clean and insulated from infection by using appropriate hand gloves. At the same time, they prevent any possible infection from hands to pass through.
The main function of hand gloves is to act like a protective ďŹ lm. They can prevent hands from getting infected by harmful chemicals, and at the same time prevent the germs from hands to transmit into food items. Therefore, it is wise to use hand gloves at every area where there is possibility of skin damage. The professionals need to identify such areas and use the appropriate type of gloves to avoid possible skin damage.
Gloved Threats However, merely using gloves is not enough in some cases. For example, end-users need to wear the appropriate gloves before handling of hazardous chemicals, and this appropriate choice must be guided by technical knowledge or proper guidance. The wearing of wrong gloves while handling chemicals or biomedical waste can invite dangerous consequences
to the handler. For example, one should protect ones hands from direct contact with certain soaps, detergents, scouring powders, and similar irritating chemicals by wearing waterproof, cotton lined gloves. For example, Methylene chloride based solvents, commonly used for many cleaning purposes, normally react with most types of rubber gloves. If rubber gloves are used while handling this chemical, they are likely to act as sponge, absorbing the chemical and holding it against the workerâ€™s skin. In some cases, if the chemical contains acetic acid or methanol, it penetrates through the rubber along with methylene chloride, which can cause a powerful skin irritation. Similarly, careful analysis is required to choose the right kind of gloves when using a common chemical like lacquer thinner. Lacquer thinner, another example of
HYGIENE a seemingly un-harmful chemical, is a blend of many chemical substances. These chemicals can cause harm if they come in contact with the skin. Alcohols such as methanol or isopropanol can degrade the gloves made of PVC and aromatic solvents such as toluene or xylene can degrade the gloves that are made of neoprene, PVC, natural rubber, and butyl.
Tips for Using Gloves Moreover, one should always replace gloves that develop holes. The gloves should not get drenched from inside, if they do, they should be changed immediately. Waterproof gloves should be used while peeling and squeezing citrus fruits like lemon, orange, or grapefruit, peeling of potatoes and tomatoes, while heavy-duty gloves should be used when doing heavy manual work and gardening. While doing housework or industrial work, direct contact with turpentine, paint, thinner polishes for furniture should be avoided. And to prevent those contacts, one should wear heavyduty gloves before handling these solvents since they react with skin. Similarly, one should use rubber gloves for handling heavily soiled linen, whic h may be infested with a large number of pathogenic microorganisms. Soiled linen is generally sorted in the laundry before washing. G l ov e s and other appropriate protective apparel should be worn by the laundr y personnel while sorting soiled linen. Gloves should be used when certain chemicals and solvents like bleach a re e m p l oy e d i n laundry operations, since these chemicals can damage the skin.
Laminate Gloves Laminate gloves provide good protection to hands against harmful chemicals. The outer layer of laminate gloves is polyethylene, while the middle layer is made of a highly polar polymer such as polyamide or polyvinyl alcohol-acetate. Sometimes these gloves have intermediate layers that act as adhesives, in order to keep the entire assembly together as a single ﬂexible ﬁlm. The main beneﬁt of laminate gloves is that the low-polarity layers of laminate stop high-polarity chemicals and the high-polarity layers stop lowpolarity chemicals from seeping in. As a result, laminate gloves are resistant to every chemical. Laminate gloves can be used as a first hand-protection when dealing with unknown chemical spills. However, these gloves do not present a complete solution for handling every kind of chemical. These gloves cannot be stretched and are loose ﬁtting as compared with other gloves. Also, these gloves do not have the sure grip due to their smooth surface finishing. Moreover, the laminate gloves are thin and so can tear or puncture very easily. Double Protection Sometimes two sets of gloves, when combined together, offer workers a holistic solution for hand protection. There are areas and situations where creative use of double gloving, or wearing one pair of gloves over another is generally required. For workers who print materials for ski tops, wearing a knit liner, supplemented with a nitrile glove is beneﬁcial. The liner is lightweight and helps to absorb perspiration, while the nitrile offers protection from chemicals. In workshops where resins and hot tools are used, workers can wear a heavier cotton liner with a rubber glove. This combination keeps the resins away from their hands. Leather gloves for protection from steel edges and ﬂash are worn over rubber, which protects against the grinding ﬂuid, and the rubber in turn is worn over a liner that absorbs
sweat and provides comfort. At an automobile glass workshop, where workers handle raw wet glass, wearing Kevlar gloves to protect their hands from cuts and using nitrile disposable gloves for an added layer of cut protection and also to keep their hands dry is very much there.
Facilitating Kitchen Sanitation Many specialised gloves are widely used in the kitchen to protect hands from burns, cuts and the painful gouges and abrasions. Disposable latex, vinyl or polyethylene gloves are the most commonly used in the kitchen. Normally, they play an indispensable role in maintaining food safety and preventing crosscontamination of food products. Close-ﬁtting latex gloves offer the best tactile sensitivity. However, some employees can develop latex allergies, which prevents them from wearing gloves made of this material. To avoid such gloves, you can use a special type glove that is made from a high-tech vinyl compound, which offer the same comfort and sensitivity minus the possibility of allergy. Many times disposable poly gloves can be used for food handling chores, such as assembling sandwiches or plating salads. They can be disposed off after using once. While handling hot utensils, one requires heat-resistant gloves. These gloves protect the ﬁnger tips better. Foods which require employees to reach deep into an oven or stove, heat-resistant gloves help to reach beyond the wrist; to the elbow or even to the shoulder level, and at the same time, prevent burns. These gloves can also protect employees from fryer spatter. Similarly, a worker handling frozen food needs protective coldresistant gloves, which enables him to keep a grip on frozen foods, thereby facilitating to avoid numbness or freezer burns in the process. Gloves are also important in dishwashing and maintenance areas. Neoprene or nitrile-coated gloves can protect workers’ hands from puncture wounds, harsh cleaning ■ detergents, and chemicals.
Gloves Used in Kitchen Operations Non-Latex Gloves Non-latex gloves are generally made of super tough, cut-resistant nylon cord. These gloves are cut resistant but not cut-proof or point puncture resistant. Thus, they cannot be used while using serrated knives.
Flame Retardant Gloves Flame retardant gloves are made of hightech flame retardant fabric, which are resistant up to 800°Fahrenheit. They can be held to an open ﬂame for short periods, even at 600°Fahrenheit. They are fully insulated and provide great protection against heat and hot liquids.
Polythene Gloves Polythene gloves are used as all-purpose gloves. These disposable gloves can ﬁt easily on either hand. They offer good grip and have heat-sealed seams.
Silicone Oven/Freezer Long Gloves Silicone oven/freezer long gloves can be used while working on non-stick surface, for handling frozen food or cold containers.
Heavy Weight Terry Gloves A pair of heavy weight terry gloves offers extra protection up to 375° Fahrenheit. They are washable and reversible with knit wrist.
Vinyl Gloves Vinyl gloves are seamless gloves. They are soft, ﬂexible and strong. One has to sprinkle talcum powder before putting them on. Vinyl gloves are also used in laundry areas to protect hands from detergents, cleansers and other chemicals like bleach. The use of thin cotton gloves underneath the vinyl gloves is highly recommended during prolonged use, since they absorb excess perspiration. These cotton gloves should be washed frequently.
Latex Gloves Latex gloves are disposable gloves that are made of high quality latex. Before putting on these gloves one has to sprinkle talcum powder inside the gloves.
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Waste Disposal and Management Products
For the first time in India, Sheetal Group has introduced rickshaw bins with separate compartments for recyclable and non-recyclable waste. These rickshaws, which keep the waste segregated while transporting to the community bins, are available in two designs and they can also be custom-moulded. These products of the company are now seen as very important initiative towards effecting waste segregation and disposal. As the rickshaw bins keep the waste covered, they also ensure hygiene and safety. The durable and aesthetically designed bins of Sheetal Group can be tailor-made to suit the colour codes and other requirements of the clients. The bins come in plastic bodies with optional iron and stainless steel frames. Sheetal Group of Companies firstname.lastname@example.org
Cleaning Through Micro Fibers
Partek offers its Micro Fiber High Performance Cleaning Cloth, which can make a perceptible change in your cleaning process for the better. It can facilitate you to prevent cross-contamination in a much better way than a conventional cloth. The product has been designed to give you enormous cleaning power with just plain water. The micro fibers in this cleaning cloth are 200 times thinner than hair, which enables them to reach every micro pore of any surface that needs to be cleaned. And when you wash it, the cloth releases dirt really fast, unlike the conventional cotton cloth. With this cloth, you have no need to use soap or costly detergents, thereby making it an environment-friendly product also. Partek’s micro fiber cloth is available in two types — regular & life. The product comes in four colours; blue, green, red and yellow. Cleaning through this cloth leaves no room for lint, and even if you forget to wash it after use, there will be no bacterial build-up. Besides the utilitarian, hygienic and environmental aspects, the soft and plush feel of the cloth gives you a unique pleasure while cleaning; without the need for scratching even the delicate surfaces. The micro fiber cloth could last 300 -500 washes, which gives it a durable character. Nutech Jetting Equipments India Private Limited email@example.com
To reduce the adverse effects of manual mopping of big open massive areas, Aman Cleaning has brought a solution. The company has launched a new Ride-on type battery powered mopping machine.
After a ‘one full charge of battery’ it is now easy to mop large floor areas. The machine operates at 35 - 40 km speed control option just to make sure of the efficiency of the speed mopping job. The seat can also be adjusted like a car seat as per the user‘s body physique. It offers an opportunity to save money as well as manpower with mopping machine model scooty. Aman Cleaning Equipments Pvt. Ltd. firstname.lastname@example.org
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Going Beyond Brooms and Mops By Sharmila Chand
A young and dynamic Juanita Datta Madan heads the housekeeping team at Crown Plaza New Delhi Rohini, as the property’s Executive Housekeeper. With over six years experience of working in places like Taj Banjara, Hyderabad; Mosaic Hotels, Noida; Radisson MBD Hotel, Noida, and The Park New Delhi, she has a very serious, responsible and creative approach towards her work. Her perfectionist work mantra has induced her to keep her glued to her job, which she wants to execute in a perfect manner. The excerpts of the interview follow: How important in your opinion is housekeeping to hospitality? Housekeeping is the backbone of the hospitality industry. It plays a crucial role in providing a seamless experience to the guest. Hygienic, prompt and state-of-the-art service is an integral part of housekeeping. Housekeeping is not only about beautiful lobby and rooms; it is also about taking the standard of hospitality to the next level. What is the method of housekeeping operations at your hotel? We endeavour to be extra observant, and try exceeding the guests’ expectations. We also believe in breaking away from the traditional style of working. What are the new trends in housekeeping? Please comment on the latest housekeeping scenario in India. Housekeeping has really grown in importance in the Indian hospitality and services industry, in the last couple of years. As a consequence, the usual dusters have been replaced with microﬁbres; using nano technology for fabric protection. Digital linen chute have replaced the manual ones. These are only some of the trendy developments. Manning styles have changed, and new machineries are being introduced in the market virtually every day. Please name any one tool which has eased the housekeeping operations to some extent? I believe full credit goes to the microﬁbre duster that we use. It lasts longer, is more hygienic, and saves chemical cost. Its use is also the way forward for contributing towards the environment. Housekeeping requires rigorous training. How much of an emphasis does the hotel place on this? In order to upgrade ourselves with the latest housekeeping trends and changing scenarios in the market, we focus on providing training to the staff. Also, we have been continually endeavouring to make them more sensitive to the growing customer needs. Training of our housekeeping staff plays a signiﬁcant role as I feel that if the staff is well trained then the work efﬁciency goes
up, thereby contributing to reduced cost.
What elements you take into account to recruit staff in the housekeeping department? Attitude, integrity, good communication skills and well groomed look are some of the attributes we consider in a potential candidate, who are aspiring to join our housekeeping department. What is the role of the housekeeping staff in the context of security? We are the eyes and ears of security and we can of great help by being extra vigilant on the ﬂoors and public areas. What are the challenges you have to face while undertaking your day-to-day job responsibilities? People often think that housekeeping can be done by anyone and that there is no need for any education for it. However, this is far from reality and there is scarcity of educated human resource in the ﬁeld of housekeeping. Paucity of quality trained staff and unavailability of skilled manpower through outsource agencies is an important challenge which we have to counter. The contractual staff, which we often get, are not that educated, and training and guiding them is the biggest challenge I face. I have to work really hard to put across my point to them. Also, continual sensitivity towards cleaning and hygiene is another challenge. What do you like about your job? Getting the opportunity to interact with different people and learning new concepts for taking the housekeeping department to the next level are facets which I like most about my job. And what do you dislike about your job? On an average, the quality of products available in the Indian market is low as compared to the international market, and this fact disturbs me. Finally, what do you think is the general public’s perception towards housekeeping? I feel that people need to change their perception about housekeeping. Housekeeping is not just about brooms and mops, but goes much beyond. We are remembered only when things go wrong but one must know that housekeeping is still working hard, when things are running smoothly.
Sept-Oct July-Aug ’10 ’11
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offers TURNKEY SOLUTIONS for any kind of Laundry projects. It represents worldâ€™s leading brands
specialising in Laundry and Drycleaning equipments. The company has pan-Indian presence to provide quality services and spares as per the requirements of the clients. The list of our clients range from the best in Hospitality Industry - Oberoi, Taj, Hyatt, Sheraton, Le Meridien, Radissons, Marriots, Leela etc., Healthcare Industry - Apollo, Escorts, Medanta - The Medicity, Bombay Hospital, AIIMS, etc., Defence - Major Hospitals, AFMC, various establishments and units of Army, Navy, Air Force & Assam Rifles and Garment Exporters & Commercial Laundries.
SUPERSHINE LAUNDRY SYSTEMS PVT. LTD H.O.: 3, G.F., Padma Tower-II, Rajendra Place, New Delhi-110008 Phone: +91-11-45142222 â€˘ Fax: +91-11-45142255 Mumbai: 022-28805617, 32959681 Bangalore: 080-65835148, 09916357921 Chennai: 09003180088 Kolkata: 033-40011975, 09903120095 Goa: 07738377505 E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com Website: www.supershine.in