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6,1++Ï$ĈҤ,&ѬѪ1* 6,1++Ï$7Ƭ1+

1*8<ӈ11*Ӑ&&+Æ87K6 .KRD1{QJKӑF

1ăP

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1


0ӢĈҪ8

6LQKKyDKӑFOjPӝWQJjQKNKRDKӑFFKX\rQQJKLrQFӭXWKjQKSKҫQKyDKӑFFӫDVLQKYұW QyLFKXQJQKӳQJFKX\ӇQKyDFӫDFiFFKҩWYjTXiWUuQKFKX\ӇQKyDQăQJOѭӧQJWURQJKӑDW ÿӝQJVӕQJFӫDPӝWFѫWKӇVӕQJ 6LQKKyDKӑFJӗPSKҫQVLQKKyDWƭQKYjVLQKKyDÿӝQJ 6LQKKyDWƭQKQJKLrQFӭXFҩXWҥRKyDKӑFFӫD FiFYұWFKҩWWURQJPӝWFѫWKӇVӕQJ 6LQK KyD ÿӝQJ QJKLrQ FӭX QKӳQJ FKX\ӇQ KyD FӫD QKӳQJ YұW FKҩW WURQJ VXӕW TXi WUuQK VӕQJFӫDVLQKYұW 6LQKKyDWUӣWKjQKPӝWQJjQKNKRDKӑFÿӝFOұSQӱDVDXFӫDWKӃNӹEӣLYuVӵFӕJҳQJ OjP WăQJ QăQJ VXҩW Fk\ WUӗQJ Yj Vӱ GөQJ FiF WKӵF YұW NKiF QKDX ÿӇ OjP WKӭF ăQ OjP WKXӕFOjPFKҩWOLӋXPD\ÿmNKLӃQFRQQJѭӡLSKҧLQJKLrQFӭXFiFWKjQKSKҫQFҩXWҥRFӫD WKӵF YұW Yj Vӵ ҧQK KѭӣQJ FӫD FiF FKҩW NKiF QKDX ÿӃQ Vӵ SKiW WULӇQ Yj VLQK WUѭӣQJ FӫD FK~QJ ĈҩX WUDQK YӟL EӋQK WұW OjP FKR FRQ QJѭӡLSKҧL QJKLrQ FӭX FiF TXi WUuQK [ҧ\ UD WURQJFѫWKӇQJѭӡLNKӓHYjQJѭӡLEӋQKFNJQJQKѭҧQKKѭӣQJFӫDFiFWKXӕFOrQFѫWKӇFRQ QJѭӡL 6LQKKyDOjPӝWQJjQKNKRDKӑFWUҿVRYӟLFiFQJjQKNKRDKӑFNKiFQKѭQJQKӳQJQăP JҫQÿk\QyÿmYjÿDQJSKiWWULӇQYjFyQKLӅXӭQJGөQJFyKLӋXTXҧWURQJQKLӅXOƭQKYӵF QKѭQ{QJOkPQJKLӋSGѭӧFF{QJQJKLӋSEҧRTXҧQFKӃELӃQOѭѫQJWKӵFWKӵFSKҭPF{QJ QJKӋVLQKKӑFYjFiFOƭQKYӵFQJKLrQFӭXVLQKKӑF 1KLӋPYөFӫDVLQKKyDOjQJKLrQFӭXWuPKLӇXWKjQKSKҫQFҩX WҥRWtQKFKҩWFӫDFiFFKҩW WURQJFѫWKӇVӕQJYjÿӗQJWKӡLSKҧLQJKLrQFӭXFK~QJELӃQÿәLUDVDRWURQJVXӕWTXiWUuQK VӕQJÿyOjKDLTXiWUuQKÿӗQJKyDYjGӏKyDVRQJVRQJWӗQWҥLWURQJPӝWFѫWKӇVӕQJ&KӍ WUrQ Fѫ Vӣ KLӇX ELӃW VkX VҳF QKӳQJ GLӉQ ELӃQ ÿy FK~QJ WD PӟL Fy NKҧ QăQJ ÿLӅX NKLӇQ FK~QJ[ҧ\UDWKHRFKLӅXKѭӟQJFyOӧLQKҩW http://www.ebook.edu.vn

2


6LQKKyDJาณQOLำ…Q PาฑWWKLำƒWYำŸLQKLำ…X P{QKำ‘FNKiFQKัญVLQKOรชYLVLQKGLWUX\ำ…QEางR TXางQQKำณQJNLำƒQWKำญFVLQKKyDVำJL~SFKRVLQKYLrQWLำƒSWKXQKDQKFKyQJFiFP{QNKRD Kำ‘FFัซVำฃFวŠQJQKัญFiFP{QNKRDKำ‘FFKX\rQP{Q 'RรฟyWาฑSEjLJLางQJQj\VำรฟัญำงFSKkQOjPSKาซQ 3KาซQWKำญQKาฉW0{Wาง FาฉXWาฅRKyDKำ‘FFำซDWาฉWFางQKำณQJ FKาฉWFyWURQJ PำWFัซWKำ‡ Vำ•QJ 3KาซQWKำญKDL0{WางVำตWKRiLELำƒQ KzDQQJX\rQ YjVำตWiLWำ™QJKำงSQKำณQJYาฑW FKาฉWFำซDPำWFัซWKำ‡WURQJTXiWUuQKVำ•QJ

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GLUCIDE 1- *,Ӟ,7+,ӊ8&+81* : Glucide OjWKjQKSKҫQFҩXWҥRFKtQKӣWKӵFYұW  QyFzQOjWKjQKSKҫQGӵWUӳ1JRjL ra glucide Oj FKҩW FXQJ FҩS QăQJ OѭӧQJ FKtQK FKR FiF KRҥW ÿӝQJ VӕQJ FӫD VLQK YұW Glucide WKѭӡQJÿѭӧFJӑLOjFKҩWÿѭӡQJ Glucide ÿѭӧFWҥRWKjQKWӯTXiWUuQKTXDQJKӧSFӫDWKӵFYұW[DQK AÙNH SAÙNG

6CO2

6H2O

C6H12 O6

6O2

DIEÄP LUÏC TOÁ ( CAÂY XANH )

2- 3+Æ1/2Ҥ, : 'ӵDYjRNKӕLOѭӧQJSKkQWӱJOXFLGe FyQKӳQJGҥQJVDX ĈѭӡQJÿD WKѭӡQJÿѭӧFJӑLOjpolysaccharide FyNKӕLOѭӧQJSKkQWӱOӟQOjWKjQKSKҫQ FҩXWҥRYjFKҩWGӵWUӳӣVLQKYұWQKѭFHOOXORVHWLQKEӝWJO\FRJHQ ĈѭӡQJQKӓ WKѭӡQJÿѭӧFJӑLOjoligosaccharide FyNKӕLOѭӧQJSKkQWӱQKӓKѫQOjVҧQ SKҭPFӫDVӵSKkQFҳWFKѭDKRjQWRjQSRO\VDFFKDULGHĈyOjQKӳQJGҥQJWUXQJJLDQWURQJ TXiWUuQKWUDRÿәLFKҩW ĈѭӡQJÿѫQ WKѭӡQJ ÿѭӧFJӑLOj monosaccharide FyNKӕLOѭӧQJ SKkQWӱ QKӓQKҩW VҧQ SKҭPFӫDVӵSKkQFҳWKRjQWRjQSRO\VDFFKDULGHYtGөQKѭJOXFRVHIUXFWRVH« 3 - &Ҩ87Ҥ2+Ï$+Ӑ& 3.1± ĈѬӠ1*ĈѪ1 02126$&&+$5,'( : 3.1.1ĈӏQKQJKƭD : ĈѭӡQJÿѫQOjPӝWUѭӧXÿDFyFKӭDQKyPFDUERQ\O & 2 WKѭӡQJFyYӏQJӑWӣVLQKYұW ÿѭӡQJÿѫQWKѭӡQJFyWӯÿӃQÿѫQYӏFDUERQ

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4


H

H C

O

H

C

OH

H

C H

OH

H

H

C

OH

C

O

C

OH

H

3.1.2/ 7rQJӑL &yFiFKJӑLWrQ FKRÿѭӡQJÿѫQ D*ӑLWrQWKHRFKLӅXGjLGk\FDUERQ - 1ӃXFy&WKuJӑLOjtriose. - 1ӃXFy&WKuJӑLOjtetrose. - 1ӃXFy&WKuJӑLOjpentose. - 1ӃXFy&WKuJӑLOjhexose. - 1ӃXFy&WKuJӑLOjheptose. E*ӑLWrQWKHRFKӭFKRiKӑFFӫDQKyP& O. - 1ӃXOjFKӭFDOGHKLG &+2 WKuJӑLOjaldose. - 1ӃXOjFKӭFFHWRQ &2 WKuJӑLOjcetose. F*ӑLWrQWKHRFKLӅXGjLGk\FDUERQYjWKHRFKӭFKRiKӑFFӫDQKyP& 2 - 1ӃXFy&YjFKӭFDOGHKLG &+2 WKuJӑLOjaldotriose. - 1ӃXFy&YjFKӭFFHWRQ &2 WKuJӑLOjcetotriose. H H C

H

H

C

C

H

O

OH

H

OH

H

C

OH

C

O

C

OH

H CETOSE (CETOTRIOSE)

ALDOSE (ALDOTRIOSE)

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5


H H

H

H

C

O

C

OH

C

H

H

OH

H

C

OH

C

O

C

OH

H CETOSE (CETOTRIOSE)

ALDOSE (ALDOTRIOSE) 3.1.3'ҥQJ' /

ĈӗQJSKkQ' /FӫDÿѭӡQJÿѫQGӵDYjRYӏWUtQKyP2+FӫDFDUERQiSFKyW ÿiQKVӕWӯ QKyP& 2 WURQJF{QJWKӭFFKLӃX)LVFKHUFӫDSKkQWӱ. - 1ӃXӣErQSKҧLWKuJӑLOjGҥQJD. - 1ӃXӣErQWUiLWKuJӑLOjGҥQJL.

H C1 O

H

H C2 OH

HO C2 H

H C3 OH H

H

C1 O

C3 OH H

L - ALDOSE

D - ALDOSE

3.1.4/ 'ҥQJYzQJYjFҩXKuQKĮ ȕ /LrQNӃWJLӳDQKyP&2Yj2+WURQJSKkQWӱÿѭӡQJÿѫQWҥRWKjQKPӝWYzQJKHPLDFHWDO QӃXWҥRWKjQKYzQJFҥQKWKuJӑLOjGҥQJpyranoseQӃXWҥRWKjQKYzQJFҥQKWKuJӑLOj http://www.ebook.edu.vn

6


GҥQJfuranose. .KLWҥRWKjQKGҥQJYzQJWKu[XҩWKLӋQQKyP2+PӟLWҥL&FӫD&2EDQ ÿҫX JӑLOj2+RVLGHQӃXQKyP2+Qj\ӣErQGѭӟLPһWSKҷQJSKkQWӱWKuJӑLOjFҩXKuQK Į , QӃXӣErQWUrQPһWSKҷQJSKkQWӱWKuJӑLOjFҩXKuQKȕ

1 H C OH 2 H C OH 3 H C OH O 4 H C OH 5 H C

H H H H H

H C OH 6

H

H

C5

O

OH

C

3

OH

C

H

C

H

C

H

C

H

C

OH 2 3

OH OH

O

4 5 6

OH OH

H

C

OH C H 5

H 1 C

H

H

H

1 C

6 OH C H2

H C4

H

H

HO CH2 6 H

1 C O 2 C OH 3 C OH 4 C OH 5 C OH 6 C OH

2

OH

C4

OH (OH oside)

H

O

H C 1

H

H

C 3

C 2 OH (OH oside) OH

OH

Voøng 6 caïnh

Voøng 5 caïnh

(PYRANOSE)

(FURANOSE)

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7


6

6

HO H

c4 OH

cH2 5 c H H

c3 OH

HO OH

O H

c1

H

c2

cH2

H

c5

o

H

c4

H H

H

c1

OH

c3

c

OH

OH

OH

2

OH

Daïng voøngcoÚ caåu hÏnhD

DaĂŻng thaĂşng

HO

6

cH2

c5

o

c4

H H

H

H

c3

c2

H

OH

OH

c1 H

OH

Daïng voøng coÚ caåu hÏnh E

3.1.5/ &iFÿѭӥQJÿэQWKŃ­ÓĄQJJŇťSÓŁVLQK YŇąW : 3.1.5.1/ 5 carbon ( pentose ) : - Ribose & DesoxyriboseWKŃ­ÓĄQJKLÓ&#x2039;QGLÓ&#x2039;QÓŁDFLGHQXFOHLTXH $'1ARN ) - Arabinose: WKŃ­ÓĄQJ KLÓ&#x2039;Q GLÓ&#x2039;Q WURQJ FKŇŠW QKj\  JRPPH DUDELTXH  ÓŁWKkQ FÓŤD YjL ORŇĽL WKÓľFYŇąW - Xylose: WKŃ­ÓĄQJKLÓ&#x2039;QGLÓ&#x2039;QÓŁYÓ&#x201C;ÿҹXSKÓ&#x2018;QJFLEŇłSNK{QJFyJLiWUÓ?GLQKGŃ­ÓĽQJ

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8


H C O

H C O

HO C H

O

C

H C OH

C

H C OH

C

H C OH

OHCH2 C

C C

C

H C OH H

H

D - D - ARABINOSE D- ARABINOSE

H C O H C OH HO C H

H C O

OHCH2

C C

C

H C OH

C

H C OH

H C OH

H

O C C

C

H

D - D - XYLOSE ( furan )

D- XYLOSE

C

O

C

C C

C

D - D- XYLOSE ( pyran )

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9


3.1.5.2/ 6 carbon ( hexose ): - Glucose: Oj WKjQK SKҫQ FҩX WҥR FӫD QKLӅX ORҥL ÿѭӡQJ ÿD NKiF QKѭ ÿѭӡQJ PtD ÿѭӡQJ VӳDWLQKEӝWFHOOXORVH*OXFRVHWDQWURQJQѭӟFPHWKDQROQKѭQJNK{QJWDQWURQJHWDQRO - Manose KLӃPKѫQJOXFRVHWKѭӡQJӣGҥQJPDQDQHWuPWKҩ\WURQJJӛKҥW - Galactose: OjWKjQKSKҫQFҩXWҥRFӫD$JDU-DJDUWKѭӡQJӣGҥQJJDODFWDQH - Fructose: Oj WKjQK SKҫQ FKҩW QJӑW FKtQK FӫD WUiL Fy Yӏ QJӑW KѫQ ÿѭӡQJ PtD Oj WKjQK SKҫQFҩXWҥRFӫD,QXOLQHOjPӝWÿѭӡQJÿD)UXFWRVHFzQFyQKLӅXWURQJPұWRQJPұWKRD

H H HO H H H

HOCH2 6

1 C O 2 C OH 3 C H 4 C OH 5 C OH 6 C OH

H

OH

H 5

C4

O

H 3

1

2 H

H

H

OH OH

OH

OH

OH CH 5

HO HO

C2

D- D- GLUCOSE (pyran)

6 HOC H2

OH

4

1 C

H

OH 3 C H

D- GLUCOSE

6

H

H C4

H

H

O

C5

O

H C 1

OH

H

C 3

C 2

H

OH

OH

D - D- GLUCOSE (furan)

D- D- GLUCOSE (pyran)

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10


H HO HO H H H

1 C C C

2

H H

C4 OH

OH

OH 3 C

OH

H

H

OH OH

6 C H

OH

C 4

O

5

4

O

HO C H 5

6 HO

1

2 H

H

C 2

H

H

1 C

H

C

H

C

3 4

OH

OH

5

H

C4

OH

OH 3 C

OH

H

H

6 C H

4

OH

H 5

C 4

O

H

H HO

3

2 H

1

H

C2

OH

OH

O

HO C H 5

6

H

H 1 C

D- D- GALACOSE (pyran)

6 HOC H2

D- GALACTOSE OH

O

C5 H

H

C C

HOCH2 6

O 2

OH

D - D- MANOSE (furan)

OH

D- D- MANOSE (pyran)

H

C 1

OH

C 3

H

H

H

OH

H 3

HO

H

OH

OH

H

HO

C2

D- D- MANOSE (pyran)

6 HO C H2

D- MANOSE

HO

H 1 C

H

4 5

O

C5

H

3

C C

HOCH2 6

O

H C 1

OH

H

C 3

C 2

H

OH

OH

OH

H

OH

D - D- GALACTOSE (furan)

D- D- GALACOSE (pyran)

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11


H

H 1 C C

HO

OH 2

O

6 HOCH2

H

C5

3 C 4

H

OH

C H

C

H

C

5 6

H

OH OH

H

D- FRUCTOSE

1 CH2OH

O

C 2

H

OH

C 4

C3

OH

H

OH

D - D- FRUCTOSE (furan) 6 HOCH2 C5 H

O

OH C 2

H

OH

C 4

C3

OH

H

CH2OH 1

E - D- FRUCTOSE

(furan)

3.2 ± ĈѬӠ1*1+Ӓ OLIGOSACCHARIDE ): 3.2.1/ ĈӏQKQJKƭD: ĈѭӡQJQKӓOjGҥQJJOXFLGHFҩXWҥRJӗP± ÿѫQYӏÿѭӡQJÿѫQNӃWKӧSOҥLEӣLOLrQNӃW 26,'(QyWKѭӡQJOjFKҩWWUXQJJLDQPӝWYjLGҥQJ Wӯ-  ӣGҥQJWӵGRYjFyYӏQJӑW 3.2.2/LrQNӃWRVLGH: /LrQNӃWRVLGHOjOLrQNӃWHWHUJLӳDQKyP2+RVLGHFӫDÿѭӡQJÿѫQQj\YjFiFQKyP2+ FXҧÿѭӡQJÿѫQNӃFұQ

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12


H H H H H H

1

H

C OH

2

H

C OH

3

H

C OH

4

C OH

5

H O

H

C

6

H

C OH

H H H H H

1

O

C

2

C OH

3

HO

C OH

HO

4

C OH

5

C

O

HO H

6

C OH H

C

2

C

3

C

4

C

H

OH

H

OH

H

OH OH

5

H O H

C

6

C

H

OH

HO

1

C

2

C

3

C

4

C

H

H H

H

H

H H

5

H O H

C

6

C

H

H

1

C OH

H

2

C OH

3

H

C OH

H

4

C OH

5

H

O

C

H

6

C OH

H

H

H

H

H

1

C

2

C OH

HO

C OH

HO

4

C OH C

6

LIEÂN KEÁT OSIDE 1 - 1

1

C

2

3

OH

C

OH

C

OH

4

C

OH

5

O

C

6

C

OH

3

O

O

HO

OH

C

H

C

H

4

H

C OH H

H

H

5

C

2

H

1

3

1

C

H

5

O

C

6

C

H

H

LIEÂN KEÁT OSIDE 1 - 4

7\WKHRYӏWUtFӫDOLrQNӃWPjWDFy /LrQNӃW-1. /LrQNӃW-2. /LrQNӃW-3. /LrQNӃW-4 /LrQNӃW-6 3.2.3&iFORҥLÿѭӡQJQKӓWKѭӡQJJһSӣVLQKYұW 3.2.3.1ĈѭӡQJÿ{L GLVDFFKDULGH 

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13


- Maltose  ÄŽJOXcoside Âą ÄŽJOXFRVH FzQÿѭӧFJÓ&#x2018;LOjPŇĽFKQKDVҧQSKŇ­PWUXQJJLDQ FÓŤDVÓľSKkQKÓŤ\WLQKEÓ?WNKLKŇĽWQŇ­\PŇŤPWKŃ­ÓĄQJGQJOjPQJX\rQOLÓ&#x2039;XOrQPHQWURQJ VҧQ[XŇŠWELD - Cellobiose Č&#x2022; JOXFRVLGH Âą  Č&#x2022; JOXFRVH  Oj WKjQK SKŇŤQ FŇŠX WŇĽR FÓŤD FHOOXORVH Oj VҧQ pKŇ­PSKkQKÓŤ\FKŃ­DKRjQWRjQFHOOXORVH - Lactose Č&#x2022;JDODFWRVLGHÂą ÄŽJOXFRVH OjWKjQKSKŇŤQÿѭӥQJVÓłD - Gentiobiose Č&#x2022;JOXFRVLGHÂą 6 ÄŽ JOXFRVH FyWURQJQŇŠPPHQ - Melibiose ÄŽJDODFWRVLGHÂą 6 ÄŽ JOXFRVH FyWURQJFÓŤFҧLÿѭӥQJ SKkQKÓŤ\UDIILQRse ). - Saccharose ÄŽJOXFRVLGHÂą Č&#x2022;IUXFWRVLGH OjWKjQKSKŇŤQFKtQKFÓŤDÿѭӥQJPtD - Trehalose ÄŽJOXFRVLGHÂą ÄŽJOXFRVH FyÓŁURQJELÓ&#x2021;QYjQŇŠP 6

6

HOCH2

HOCH2 5

O

5

O

2

1

4

1

4

2

O

3

3

MALTOSE (Dglucosid - 4Dglucose)

6

6

HOCH2 5

HOCH2 O

4

5 1

O

1

4 2

2 3

O

3

CELLOBIOSE (Eglucoside - 4Eglucose)

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14


6

6

HOCH2

HOCH2

O

5

O

5

1

4

1

4

O

2

2 3

3

LACTOSE (Egalactoside - 4Dglucose)

6

6

HOCH2 5

CH2

O O

O

5

4

1

4

1

2

2 3

3

GENTIOBIOSE (Eglucoside - 6Dglucose)

6 CH2

6 HOCH2

5

O 1

4

5

O

O 1

4 2

2 3

3

MELIOBIOSE (Dgalactoside - 6Dglucose)

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15


6 HOCH2

O

5 4

1 2 3

6

O

HOCH2 O

2

5 4 3

CH2OH 1

SACCHAROSE (Dglucoside - 2Efructoside)

3.2.3.2Ä&#x2C6;Ń­ÓĄQJED WULVDFFKDULGH  - Raffiniose (1-ÄŽ-galactoside-6-ÄŽ-glucoside-2-Č&#x2022;-IUXFWRVLGH  Oj WKjQK SKŇŤQ FKtQK FÓŤD FÓŤ FҧLÿѭӥQJFyQKLÓ&#x2026;XÓŁKŇĽWE{QJO~DPuQŇ­\PŇŤPUÓ?ÿѭӥQJ 6 CH2

6 HOCH2

5

O 1

4

5

O

O 1

4 2

2 3

3 6

O

HOCH2 O

2

5 4 3

HOCH2 1

Raffinose (1-D-galactoside-6-D-glucoside-2-E-fructoside)

http://www.ebook.edu.vn

16


3.2.3.3Ä&#x2C6;Ń­ÓĄQJEÓ&#x2022;Q WHWUDVDFFKDULGH  - Stachyose (1-ÄŽ-galactoside-6-ÄŽ-galactoside-6-ÄŽ-glucoside-2-Č&#x2022;-IUXFWRVLGH  Fy QKLÓ&#x2026;X ÓŁ Fk\KÓ&#x2018;ÿҹX

5

6

6

6

HOCH2

O

5

O 1

4

CH2

CH2

1

4

2 3

O

O

O

5 4

1

2

2

3

3

6

O

HOCH2 O

2

5 4 3

HOCH 2

1

Stachyose (1-D-galactoside-6-D-galactoside-6-Dglucoside-2-Efructoside)

3.3 - Ä&#x2C6;ŃŹÓ 1*Ä&#x2C6;$ 32/<6$&&+$5,'( ): FŇŠXWŇĽRJÓ&#x2014;PQKLÓ&#x2026;XÿѭӥQJÿэQNÓ&#x192;WKÓ§SOŇĽi EŇľQJOLrQNÓ&#x192;WRVLGHWKŃ­ÓĄQJOjWKjQKSKŇŤQFŇŠXWŇĽRYjGÓľWUÓł 3.3.1&iFGŇĽQJÿѭӥQJĂżDWKŃ­ÓĄQJJŇťS &yORŇĽL+RPRSRO\VDFFKDULGH +HWHURSRO\VDFFKDULGH - +RPRSRO\VDFFKDULGHFŇŠXWŇĽREÓŁLPÓ?WORŇĽLPRQRVDFFKDULGH - +HWHURSRO\VDFFKDULGHFŇŠXWŇĽREÓŁLQKLÓ&#x2026;X ORŇĽLPRQRVDFFKDULGH 3.3.1.1/7LQKEÓ?W (Amidon) : &ŇŠXWŇĽREÓŁLWKjPKSKŇŤQ$P\ORVHYj$P\ORVHSHFWLQH - Amylose OjPÓ?WFKXÓ&#x2122;LGjLNK{QJSKkQQKiQKFyWÓŻÂą ÿэQYÓ?JOXFRVHNÓ&#x192;WKÓ§S EÓŁLOLrQNÓ&#x192;WRVLGHÄŽ-NKÓ&#x2022;LOŃ­Ó§QJSKkQWÓąWÓŻ Âą 100000, cĂł FŇŠXWU~FYzQJ[RŇłQ http://www.ebook.edu.vn

17


Pำ›L YzQJ [RาณQ Oj  รฟัซQ Yำ JOXFRVH Yj FKR PjX [DQK YำŸL ,RG $P\ORVH WDQ WURQJ QัญำŸF nรณng (70 ยฑ 800C ) - Amylosepectine Oj PำW FKXำ™L GjL Fy SKkQ QKiQK Gk\ QKiQK Fy Wำฏ  ยฑ  รฟัซQ Yำ JOXFRVHGk\QKiQKJาณQYjRGk\FKiQKEาตQJOLrQNำƒWRVLG1-FKRPjXรฟำ“ WtPรฟำ“ YำŸL ,RG$P\ORVHSHFWLQHWKuNK{QJWDQWURQJQัญำŸFQyQJ 7URQJKาฅWWLQKEำW$P\ORVHFKLำƒP-$P\ORVHSHFWLQHFKLำƒP-90%.

6

6

5

O 2

3

HOCH2 O

5 1

4

O

2 3

2 3

6

HOCH2 5

1

O

3

6

O

4

2

O

3

5 1

4

2

O

O

5 1

4

1

4

HOCH2

HOCH2 O

5

6

6

HOCH2

HOCH2

O 1

4

O

2 3

O

n Amylose (1-D-glucoside-4-D-glucoside) n

http://www.ebook.edu.vn

18


HOCH2

HOCH2 O

5

4

1 2

O

O

5

4

1 2

O

3

3

O 6

HOCH2

HOCH2 5

6

6

O

4

O

5

4

2

O

2

O

5

4

1 2

O

3

O

5

4

1

1 3

6

HOCH2

CH2

O

3

1 2 3

O 6

6

5

O

4

5

3

HOCH2 O

4

1 2

O

6

6

HOCH2

HOCH2

5

3

O

4

1 2

CH2

O

5

4

1 2 3

O 1 2

O

3

n

AMYLOSEPECTINE

3.3.1.2/ Glycogen: OjPӝWSRO\VDFFKDULGHGӵWUӳӣÿӝQJYұWYjQJѭӡLSKkQWӱJO\FRJHQ FyFҩXWҥRSKkQQKiQKWѭѫQJWӵ$P\ORVHSHFWLQHQKѭQJPӭFÿӝSKkQQKiQKQKLӅXKѫQ  10-ÿѫQYӏJOXFRVHWKuFyPӝWQKiQK *O\FRJHQKzDWDQWURQJQѭӟFQyQJFKRPjXWtP ÿӓKRһFÿӓQkXYӟL,RG 3.3.1.3/ Cellulose: OjPӝWFKXәLGjL NKRҧQJ JOXFRVHNӃWKӧSEӣLOLrQNӃWȕ-4 là WKjQKSKҫQFKtQKFӫDYiFKWӃEjRWKӵFYұW

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19


HOCH2

HOCH2 O O

O

4

1

O

4

1

O

n CELLULOSE ( 1-E-glucoside- 4- E - glucoside ) n

3.3.1.4/ Galactane: JÓ&#x2014;PQKLÓ&#x2026;XJDODFWRVHQÓ&#x2022;LYÓ&#x;LQKDXEÓŁLOLrQNÓ&#x192;W-Č&#x2022;OjPÓ?WWKjQK SKŇŤQGÓľWUÓł

HOCH2 1

O

HOCH2 O

4

1 3

O

O 4

O

4

1

3

n GALACTANE(1-E- galactoside-4-E- galactoside )n 3.3.1.5/ Araban ( n arabinose ): JÓ&#x2014;PQKLÓ&#x2026;XDUDELQRVHÓŁGŇĽQJIXUDQOLrQNÓ&#x192;WEÓŁLOLrQNÓ&#x192;W oside 1-QJRjLUDPÓ&#x203A;LDUDELQRVHFzQOLrQNÓ&#x192;WYÓ&#x;LPÓ?WJÓ&#x2022;FDUDELQRVHWKÓ­KDLEÓŁLOLrQNÓ&#x192;W oside 1-3. http://www.ebook.edu.vn

20


3.3.1.6/ Xylan ( n xylose ) QKLÓ&#x2026;X[\ORVHÓŁGŇĽQJS\UDQQÓ&#x2022;LYÓ&#x;LQKDXEŇľQJOLrQNÓ&#x192;W-4. 3.3.1.7/ Hemicellulose : JÓ&#x2014;PFyJOXFRVHJDODFWRVHIUXFWRVHPDQRVHDUDELQRVH[\ORVH 7\WKHRORjLWKÓľFYŇąWPjORŇĽLÿѭӥQJÿэQQjRĂżyFKLÓ&#x192;PŃ­XWKÓ&#x192;QyFyQKLÓ&#x2026;XWURQJYÓ&#x201C;WUŇŠX UŃŤPÂŤ 3.3.1.8/ Agar- agar (n galactosepyranose ): Fy ÓŁ URQJ ELÓ&#x2021;Q  FKÓ? WDQ ÓŁ QŃ­Ó&#x;F QyQJ Yj Ăż{QJOŇĽLNKLQJXÓ?LQyJÓ&#x2014;PWKjQKSKŇŤQOjDJDURVHYjDJDURVHSHFWLQHDJDURVH Č&#x2022;- D&L JDODFWRVHOLrQNÓ&#x192;WQKDXEÓŁL-4 hay 1- FzQDJDURVHSHFWLQHWKuPÓ?WVÓ&#x2022;JÓ&#x2022;FJDODFWRVHEÓ? HVWHUKyDEÓŁLDFLGVXOIXULF 3.3.1.9/ Inuline ( n fructose ) KLÓ&#x2039;QGLÓ&#x2039;QQKLÓ&#x2026;XÓŁFÓŤPŇŻXÿэQ

1

O

O

O 4

1 3

4

O

1

2

3

CH2

O

2

CH2

5

5

5

n O O 4

1 3

2

HOCH2 5

ARABANE ( 1 E- arabinoside -5- E-arabinoside )n

http://www.ebook.edu.vn

21


HOCH2 1

O

HOCH2 O

4

O

O 4

1

O

4

1

O 3

3

3

n AGAROSE ( 1-E-galactoside- 4(3)- E - galactoside) n

O

1

O

4

O 1

4

1

O 3

O 4

n XYLANE(1-E- xyloside- 4-E- xyloside )n

3.3.1.10/ Pectine: FyWURQJWUiLFÓŤÿҝFELÓ&#x2039;WOjWURQJFLWUŇłQJFÓŤDWUiLEŃ­ÓŁLFDPFKDQK FŇŠXWŇĽREÓŁLFiFDFLGÄŽJDODFWXURQLFNÓ&#x192;WKÓ§SEÓŁLOLrQNÓ&#x192;W-YjPÓ?WVÓ&#x2022;ÿѭӧFPHW\OKyDÓŁ C6. 3.3.1.11/ Chitine: Fy ÓŁ QŇŠP, FŇŠX WŇĽR EÓŁL QKLÓ&#x2026;X ÿэQ YÓ? 1-DFHW\OJOXFRVDPLQ GŇĽQJ Č&#x2022; QÓ&#x2022;L QKDXEÓŁLQÓ&#x2022;L-4.

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22


COOH

COOH O

O

4

O 4

O

1

O

1

n

ACID PECTIC ( 1-D-galacturonide- 4- D - galacturonide ) n ( acid polygalacturonic) COOCH3

COOCH3 O

4

O

O 4

O

1

O

1

n

ester metyl ACID PECTIC ( ester metyl galacturonide ) n ( polygalacturonatmetyl)

HOCH2

HOCH2 O

1

O

4

O 1

4

1

O

4

3

H3CONH

O

H3CONH

n CHITINE (1-E- acetylglucosamin- 4-E- acetylglucosamin )n

4 Âą 7tQKFKŇŠW: 4.17tQKNKÓą: 6ÓľKLÓ&#x2039;QGLÓ&#x2039;QFÓŤDQKyP& 2WURQJF{QJWKÓ­FFŇŠXWŇĽROjPFKRJOXFLGHFyWtQKNKÓąWŇŠLFҧ ÿѭӥQJ ÿэQ ĂżÓ&#x2026;X WKÓ&#x2021; KLÓ&#x2039;Q WtQK NKÓą .KL NKÓą WKu JOXFLGH EÓ? R[\G KyD  WKjQK DFLG QÓ&#x192;X EÓ? http://www.ebook.edu.vn

23


oxyd hรณDรฟาซX&+2WKuWาฅRWKjQKDFLGDOGRQLFFzQQำƒXEำR[\GKyDรฟาซX2+WKuWาฅRWKjQK acid uronic. CHO H

COOH H

OH

H

OH

OH

H

(O)

OH

H

OH

H

OH

H

OH

H

OH

CH2OH

CH2OH Acid aldonic CHO H

OH

H

OH

H

OH

H

OH COOH Acid uronic

4.2/ 7tQKFKฬญWFอฏDUหฑอซXรฟD: 4.2.1/ Polyester: *OXFLGHFyQKLำ…XQKyP2+QrQVำWาฅRSRO\HVWHUYำŸLDFLGWาฅL& 7KัญำกQJQJัญำกLWDFKRJOXFLGSKางQำญQJYำŸLDFLGDFHWLFWาฅRQrQFiFDFHWDWHNK{QJWDQWURQJ QัญำŸFGำตDYjRWtQKFKาฉWQj\รฟำ‡O\WUtFKFiFJOXFLGHUDNKำ“LGXQJGำFK 4.2.2/ Polyether: *OXFLGHFyQKLำ…XQKyP2+QrQVำWาฅRSRO\HWKHUYำŸLUัญำงXWาฅL&QำƒXHWKer KyDWาฅLQKyP2+RVLGWKuWาฅRQrQVางQSKาญPJำ‘LOjJO\FRVLGHQKyPUัญำงXOLrQNำƒWWURQJVางQ SKาญPQj\Jำ‘LOjDJO\FRQ 4.2.37าฅRWKjQKWLQKWKำ‡: 1KyP& 2FyWKำ‡WาฅRSKางQำญQJWKำƒYำŸLPำWED]1QKัญK\GUD]LQH +2N ยฑ NH2 รฟำ‡WาฅR RVD]RQHFyFาฉXWาฅRWLQKWKำ‡รฟาปF WUัญQJFKRWำฏQJORาฅLPRQRVDFFKDULGH

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24


PROTEINE 1 - *,Ӟ,7+,ӊ8&+81* Proteine là thành SKҫQFҩXWҥRFKtQKFӫDFiFP{ÿӝQJYұW ± WUӑQJOѭӧQJ NK{ ӣWKӵFYұW -WUӑQJOѭӧQJNK{ FKҩWGӵWUӳӣPӝWVӕORjLWKӵFYұWQKѭKҥW ÿұX QjQK 25 ±   /j PӝW WKjQK SKҫQ NK{QJ WKӇ WKLӃX WURQJ VLQK YұW VӕQJ QrQ 3URWHLQHFyQKLӅXFKӭFQăQJTXDQWUӑQJYjQKLӅXÿһFÿLӇPQKѭ -

ĈDGҥQJYӅFҩXWҥR

-

7tQKÿһFKLӋXYӅORjLUҩWFDR

-

&yKRҥWWtQKVLQKKӑF

3URWHLQHFyQKӳQJFKӭFQăQJFKtQKVDX -

Xúc WiFWKjQKSKҫQFҩXWҥRFӫDFiFHQ]\PH

-

%ҧRYӋWKjQKSKҫQFҩXWҥRFӫDFiFNKiQJWKӇ

-

+RUPRQHWKjQKSKҫQFҩXWҥRFӫDFiFNtFKWKtFKYjFKҩWӭFFKӃ

-

'ӵWUӳOjFKҩWGLQKGѭӥQJFKRSK{LSKiWWULӇQ ĈӏQKQJKƭD3URWHLQHOjFKҩWKӳXFѫFyNKӕLOѭӧQJSKkQWӱFDRFyFKӭD1  

WҥRWKjQKEӣLFiFDFLGe amine. 2 - 3+Æ1/2Ҥ, 'ӵDYjROêKyDWtQKFKӫ \ӃXOjWtQKKRjWDQYjNKӕLOѭӧQJSKkQWӱPjFKLDOjP ORҥL 3URWHLQHÿ˯QJL̫QGӵDYjRWtQKKzDWDQNKiFQKDXFӫDFK~QJ -

Albumine : tDQWURQJQѭӟFNKӕLOѭӧQJSKkQWӱQKӓYtGөQKѭDOEXPLQe FӫDWUӭQJ ӣWKӵFYұWWKѭӡQJFyӣKҥW ±  QKѭ/HXFRVLQH O~DPuO~DPҥFKO~DÿҥL PҥFK /HJXPHOLQH ÿұXQjQK 5LFLQLQH KҥWWKҫXGҫX 

-

*OREXOLQHFKӍWDQWURQJGXQJGӏFKORmQJPXӕLWUXQJWtQK .&O1D&O- 10% )có QKLӅXӣWKӵFYұWFKӫ\ӃXWURQJKҥWFk\KӑÿұXNKӕLOѭӧQJSKkQWӱ0 ± 300.000.

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25


-

3URODPLQHFKÓ?WDQWURQJUŃ­Ó§XHWK\OLF-YjFyQKLÓ&#x2026;XÓŁFk\WKkQWKҧR FKÓ­D QKLÓ&#x2026;X SUROLQ FiF DPLG  DFLGe glutamique  ÓŁ O~D Pu Yj O~D PŇĽFK ĂżHQ FKÓ­D prolamine cĂł tĂŞn lĂ  gliadine NKÓ&#x2022;L OŃ­Ó§QJ SKkQ WÓą FÓŤD SURODPLQe M = 26.000 Âą 40.000.

-

*OXWHOLQHFKÓ?WDQWURQJGXQJGÓ?FKDFLGKD\NLÓ&#x2026;PORmQJ -  FyÓŁKŇĽW -3% WUÓ&#x2018;QJOӾэQJKŇĽW 

-

3URWDPLQHNKÓ&#x2022;LOŃ­Ó§QJSKkQWÓąQKÓ&#x201C;0= 8.000 Âą FyWtQKED]UŇŠWU}YuKjP OŃ­Ó§QJDUJLQLQHNKiOÓ&#x;QKLÓ&#x2039;QGLÓ&#x2039;QQKLÓ&#x2026;XÓŁSKŇŠQKRD SURWDPLQHWDQWURQJQŃ­Ó&#x;FYj baz.

3URWHLQSKÍąFWĚŠS FzQÿѭӧFJÓ&#x2018;LOj3URWHLGHFyFŇŠXWŇĽRQJRjLWKjQKSKŇŤQDFLGDPLQFzQ FyPÓ?WQKyPNK{QJSKҧLSURWHLQ -

Phosphoproteide: proteine DFLGSKRVSKRULFYtGÓŠ&DVHLQFyWURQJVÓłDĂżÓ?QJYŇąW

-

Lipoproteide : proteine GŇŻQ[XŇŠWFÓŤD/HFLWKLQHFHSKDOLQHYjQKÓłQJOLSLGNKiF

-

*OXFRSURWHLGHFzQJÓ&#x2018;LOjPXFRSURWHLGHJÓ&#x2014;PSURWHLQJOXFLG

-

Metalloproteide : proteine + kim lRŇĽL Ăżk\ Oj FŇŠX WŇĽR FÓŤD HQ]\PH Yt GÓŠ QKŃ­ Catalase, Peroxydase, Cytochrome Fy FKÓ­D )H  DVFRUEDWR[\GDVH  Yj  pGLSKHQROR[\GDVHFyFKÓ­D&X

-

Cromoproteide : proteine + nhĂłm phi proteine EŇŠW NǤ Yt GÓŠ QKŃ­ KÓ§S FKŇŠW FKORURSK\OOWURQJTXDQJKÓ§SWKŃ­ÓĄQJNÓ&#x192;WKÓ§SYÓ&#x;LPÓ?WSURWHLQe.

-

Nucleoproteide : proteine + acid nucleic.

3 - &Ҩ87Ҥ2+Ă?$+Ó?& : 3.1- Acid amin : $FLGDPLQOjÿэQYÓ?FŇŠXWŇĽRFŃŤEҧQFÓŤDSURWHLQe DFLGDPLQOjGŇŻQ[XŇŠWFÓŤDDFLGKÓłXFŃŤ ĂżÓ&#x2014;QJWKÓĄLFyFKÓ­FDFLG &22+ YjFKÓ­FNLÓ&#x2026;P 1+2 ). Acid amin cĂł F{QJWKÓ­FWÓ&#x2122;QJ quĂĄt lĂ :

http://www.ebook.edu.vn

26


H2N

COOH

CH

R

&iFDFLGDPLQFyWKÓ&#x2021;FyQKyP1+2 KRŇťFQKyP&22+ QKyP5FyWKÓ&#x2021;OjQKyPDON\O DU\OÂŤvv. &iFDFLGDPLQÿҍXWLrQOj$VSDUDULQYj&\VWLQÿѭӧFSKiWKLÓ&#x2039;QYjRQÄ&#x192;PYjYjR WKÓ&#x192;NÓšQj\QJŃ­ÓĄLWDELÓ&#x192;WÿѭӧFJŇŤQDFLGDPLQFÄ&#x192;QEҧQFyPŇťWWURQJWKjQKSKŇŤQFÓŤDFiF SKkQWÓąSURWHLQYjĂżÓ&#x192;QFXÓ&#x2022;LQKÓłQJQÄ&#x192;PFÓŤDWKÓ&#x192;NÓšQj\QJŃ­Ó&#x;LWDELÓ&#x192;WÿѭӧFJŇŤQDFLG amin thiĂŞn nhiĂŞn. 3.1.1Âą &iFDFLGDPLQWKŃ­ÓĄQJJŇťSWURQJSURWHLQe : 3.1.1.1/ Acid amin trung tĂ­nh : nhĂłm R lĂ  nhĂłm trung tĂ­nh.

O H2N CH C OH H Glycine (Gly) (G )

O H2N CH C OH CH2 SH Cysteine (CysSH) (CSH)

O H2N CH C OH CH3 Alanine (Ala) (A)

O H2N CH C OH CH2 OH Serine (Ser) (S)

O H2N CH C OH CH2 S

O H2N CH C OH CH2 S

Cystine (CysS-S) (CS-S)

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27


O H2N CH C OH CHOH CH3 Threonine (Thr) (T)

O H2N CH C OH CH2 CH2 S CH3 Methionine (Met) (M)

O H2N CH C OH CH CH3 CH2 CH3 Isoleucine (ILeu) ( IL)

O H2N CH C OH CHCH3 CH3 Valine (Val) (V)

O H2N CH C OH CH2 CHCH3 CH3 Leucine (Leu) (L)

O H2N CH C OH CH2

Phenylalanine (Phe) (F)

O H2N CH C OH CH2 CH2 CH3 Nor-Valine (N-Val) (N-V)

O H2N CH C OH CH2 3 CH3 Nor- Leucine (N- Leu) (N-L)

O H2N CH C OH CH2

OH Tyrosine (Tyr) (Y)

O H2N CH C OH CH2 HN Tryptophane (Try) (W)

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28


3.1.1.2/ Acid amin acid : nhóm R có tính acid .

O H2N CH C OH CH2 CH2 C O OH

O H2N CH C OH CH2 C O OH

ACIDE GLUTAMIQUE (Glu) (E)

ACIDE ASPARTIQUE (Asp) (D)

3.1.1.3$FLGDPLQNLӅPnhóm 5FyWtQKNLӅP

O H2N CH C OH CH2 CH2 CH2 NH C NH NH2

O H2N CH C OH CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 NH2 LYSINE (Lys) (K)

ARGININE (Arg) (R)

O H2N CH C OH CH2 N NH HISTIDINE (His) (H)

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29


3.1.1.4/ CĂĄc acid amin khĂĄc : imino acid

O C OH

O C OH

HN

HN

OH

PROLINE (Pro) (P)

HYDROXYPROLINE (ProOH) (POH)

$FLGDPLQFŇŤQWKLÓ&#x192;WOjQKÓłQJDFLGDPLQPjFŃŤWKÓ&#x2021;NK{QJWÓľWÓ&#x2122;QJKÓ§SÿѭӧFSKҧLÿѭDWÓŻ ErQ QJRjL YjR &K~QJ JÓ&#x2014;P  Valine, Leucine, Isoleucine, Methionine, Threonine, Phenylalanine, Tryptophane, Lysine, Histidine 3.1.1.5- 'ŇĽQJ' /FÓŤDDFLGDPLQ 3.1.1.5.17UŃ­ÓĄQJKÓ§SFyPÓ?W&  &ÄŽ QJŃ­ÓĄLWDFKÓ&#x2018;Q6HULQHOjPFKŇŠWĂżÓ&#x2021;TXLŃ­Ó&#x;F QÓ&#x192;XQKyP1+2 ÓŁErQSKҧLOjGŇĽQJ'QÓ&#x192;XÓŁErQWUiLOjGŇĽQJ/

COOH

H

C

COOH

NH2

2HN

CH2OH

C

H

CH2OH

D- serine

L- serine

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30


3.1.1.5.27UѭӡQJKӧSFy&  &ĮYj&ȕ WKuTXLѭӟFQKѭVDX -

1ӃX&ĮGҥQJ'Yj&ȕGҥQJ'WKuJӑLOj'

-

1ӃX&ĮGҥQJ/Yj&ȕGҥQJ/WKuJӑLOj/

-

1ӃX&ĮGҥQJ'Yj&ȕGҥQJ/WKuJӑLOj'- allo.

-

1ӃX&ĮGҥQJ /Yj&ȕGҥQJ'WKuJӑLOj/ - allo. COOH H2N H3C

COOH

CD H

H

CD NH2

CE

H

CE CH3

H

CH2CH3 L- isoleucine

CH2CH3 D- isoleucine

COOH COOH H C

H2N

D

H H3C

C

E

C

D

C

E

NH2

H

CH3

H

C2H5 C2H5 D- allo-isoleucine

L- allo-isoleucine

3.1.1.67tQKOѭӥQJWtQKFӫDDFLGDPLQ 6ӵKLӋQGLӋQÿӗQJWKӡLFӫDFKӭFDFLGYjNLӅPWURQJFҩXWҥRFӫDDFLGDPLQOjPFKRQy YӯDFyWtQKDFLGYӯDFyWtQKED]

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31


H3N

CH

COOH

H2N

H

CH

H2N

COOH H

R

R

CH

COO

R ANION ( )

CATION ( )

H3N

CH

COO

R ION löôõng cöïc (

)

Chú thích : Equivalents of OH¯ WUӏVӕWѭѫQJÿѭѫQJFӫD2+¯ . =ZLWWHULRQVLRQOѭӥQJFӵF S,ÿLӇPÿӗQJÿLӋQWtFK http://www.ebook.edu.vn

32


3.2- Proteine 3URWHLQH Oj Vӵ WUQJ KӧS FӫD QKLӅX DFLG DPLQ EӣL OLrQ NӃW 3HSWLGH QrQ FzQ ÿѭӧF JӑL Oj polypeptide. 3.2./LrQNӃWSHSWLGH: /LrQ NӃW SHSWLGH Oj OLrQ NӃW DPLGH JLӳD QKyP &22+ Yj QKyP 1+2 FXҧ  DFLG amin NӅ nhau 1ӃXDFLGDPLQOLrQNӃWQKDXWKuWҥRWKjQKGLSHSWLG 1ӃXDFLGDPLQOLrQNӃWQKDXWKuWҥRWKjQKWULpeptid 1ӃXDFLGDPLQOLrQNӃWQKDXWKuWҥRWKjQKWHWUDSHSWLG 1ӃXDFLGDPLQOLrQNӃWQKDXWKuWҥRWKjQKSHQWDSHSWLG 1ӃXQKLӅXDFLGDPLQOLrQNӃWQKDXWKuWҥRWKjQKSRO\SHSWLG.

O H2N

CH

C

O OH

H

R1

N

CH

H

R2

CH R1

C

OH

O

O H2N

C

N H

http://www.ebook.edu.vn

CH

C

OH

R2

33


O H2N CH C OH R1

H2N CH C R1 O

O H2N CH C OH R2

H N CH C R2 O

O H2N CH C OH Rn

O H2N CH C OH R3

H

H

N CH R3

N

C O

H

O N CH C OH Rn

POLYPEPTIDE

Tên gӑL FӫD SHSWLGH WҥR WKjQK JӗP WrQ FӫD FiF DFLG DPLQWKjQK SKҫQ WURQJ ÿy WrQ DFLG DPLQFXӕLFQJ FzQQKyP&22+ YүQJLӳQJX\rQFzQWrQFiFDFLGDPLQNKiFWKuFyWkQ FXQJ Oj ³ ±LO´ 9t Gө $ODQLQ ± Serin ± Aspartic ± Glycin, thì có tên là Alanilserilaspartilglycine. 3.2.2/LrQNӃWSKө: 1JRjLOLrQNӃWFKtQKSHSWLGHSKkQWӱSURWHLQHFzQFyQKӳQJOLrQNӃWSKөNKiFQKѭ -

/LrQN͇W6B6:

/LrQNӃWQj\FzQJӑLOjOLrQNӃWGLVXOSKXU[XҩWKLӋQNKLQKyP6+FӫD F\VWHLQHӣJҫQ QKDXFӫDFQJPӝWPҥFKKD\PҥFKpolypeptide. -

/LrQN͇WKLGUR :

/jOLrQNӃWEәVXQJKuQKWKjQKJLӳDQJX\rQWӱKLGURӣWUҥQJWKiLÿӗQJKyDWUӏ FyÿLӋQ WtFKGѭѫQJ YӟLQJX\rQWӱQKұQQjRÿyFNJQJӣWUҥQJWKiLÿӗQJKyDWUӏ QKѭQJWtFKÿLӋQ âm ). -

/LrQN͇WPX͙L :

/LrQNӃWQj\OjGROӵFK~WWƭQKÿLӋQJLӳDFiFQKyPDFLGYjED]YtGөJLӳDQKyP1+3+ FӫD các acid diamino monocarboxylic ( Lysine, AUJLQLQ  Yj &22 Ā FӫD FiF DFLG monoaminodicarboxylic (acLGJOXWDPLFDFLGDVSDUWLF ĈһFÿLӇPWURQJFҩXWҥRFӫDPҥFK SRO\SHSWLGHOjFiFQJX\rQWӱ&Yj1WURQJPҥFKÿѭӧFSKkQEӕJҫQQKѭOjWUrQFQJPһW SKҷQJWURQJNKLFiFQJX\rQWӱ+YjFiFQKyP&+-5WҥRYӟLPһWSKҷQJÿyPӝWJyF0 28/. http://www.ebook.edu.vn

34


3.2.6ӵSKkQJLҧLOLrQNӃWSHSWLGH: 6ӵSKkQJLҧLOLrQNӃWSHSWLGHVӁJLҧLSKyQJFiFDFLGDPLQWӵGR 3.2.3.1/ 3KkQJLҧLEҵQJDFLG : 'QJDFLGFKORUK\GULF1  ӣ0& WURQJÿLӅXNLӋQFKkQNK{QJQӃXNK{QJWKu WU\SWRSKDQEӏSKkQKӫ\KRjQWRjQ3KѭѫQJSKiSQj\ÿѭӧFVӱGөQJÿӇOjPQѭӟFWѭѫQJ 3.2.3.23KkQJLҧLEҵQJNLӅP: ĈXQQyQJSURWHLQHYӟLFiFGXQJGӏFK NLӅPORmQJӣ0&KLӋXQăQJFDRKѫQNKLGQJ DFLGQKѭQJKjQJORҥWDFLGDPLQEӏSKkQKӫ\ 3.2.3.33KkQJLҧLEҵQJHQ]\PH: 6ӵ SKkQ JLҧL Qj\ ÿѭӧF WKӵF KLӋQ ӣ 0& EӣL FiF HQ]\PH WKӫ\ SKkQ 6ӵ SKkQ JLҧL Qj\ WKѭӡQJ GQJ ÿӇ ÿLӅX FKӃ FiF SHSWLGH Oj QKӳQJ VҧQ SKҭP SKkQ FҳW FKѭD KRjQ WRjQ FiF proteine. 4 - &Ҩ875Ò&&Ӫ$3527(,1( 3KkQWӱSURWHLQÿѭӧFVҳS[ӃSPӝWFiFKKRjQFKӍQKQKӡFiFOLrQNӃWÿӇKuQKWKjQK QrQFiFFҩXWU~FQKҩWÿӏQK 4.&ҩXWU~FEұFPӝW &ҩXWU~FEұFPӝWOjWKjQKSKҫQYjWUұWWӵVҳS[ӃSFӫDFiFDFLGDPLQWURQJSKkQWӱ7tQK FKҩW FӫD SURWHLQH SKө WKXӝF YjR FҩX WU~F EұF QKҩW FӫD Qy 3KkQ Wӱ SURWHLQH VӁ WKD\ ÿәL KRjQWRjQWtQKFKҩWFӫDQyQӃXDFLGDPLQQjRÿyWURQJSKkQWӱEӏVҳS[ӃSNK{QJÿ~QJYӏ WUtKRһFEӏWKD\WKӃEҵQJDFLGDPLQNKiF7uQKWUҥQJQKҫPOүQQj\ÿ{LNKLOjP[iRWUӝQ WRjQEӝKRҥWÿӝQJFӫDFѫWKӇYjJk\UDQKӳQJEӋQKKLӇPQJKqRÿѭӧFJӑLFKXQJOj´EӋQK SKkQWӱ´ 'DQKWӯ³EӋQKSKkQWӱ´iPFKӍQKӳQJUӕLORҥQKRҥWÿӝQJVӕQJGRVӵELӃQÿәLWURQJFҩX WU~FFӫDQKӳQJSKkQWӱQjRÿyWURQJFѫWKӇ 9tGөEӋQKWKLӃXPiXKӗQJFҫXKuQKOѭӥLOLӅPKӗQJFҫXFӫDQKӳQJQJѭӡLPҳFEӋQKQj\ NK{QJFyGҥQJKuQKFҫXPjFyGҥQJKuQKOѭӥLOLӅP+E6OjKHPRJORELQFӫDQJѭӡLEӋQK NKiF+E$OjKHPRJORELQFӫDQJѭӡLNKӓHOjFyÿӝKzDWDQWKҩSGRÿyNӃWWLQKWURQJKӗQJ FҫXOjPFKRKӗQJFҫXFyGҥQJOѭӥLOLӅP Nguyên nhân: http://www.ebook.edu.vn

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HbA : His ± Val ± Leu ± Thr ± Pro ± Val ± Glu ± Lys - «« HbS : His ± Val ± Leu ± Thr ± Pro ± Val ± Val ± Lys - «« 4.&ҩXWU~FEұFKDL &ҩXWU~FEұFKDLOjFҩXKuQKÿһFWUѭQJFӫDPӝWKRһFPӝWVӕPҥFKSRO\SHSWLGHWKDPJLD WURQJWKjQKSKҫQFҩXWҥRFӫDSKkQWӱSURWHLQ /LrQNӃWKLGUROjOLrQNӃWFKtQKWURQJYLӋFKuQKWKjQKFҩXWU~FEұFKDLFiFQKyP&2Yj 1+WUrQFQJPҥFKSRO\SHSWLGHFyWKӇKuQKWKjQKFiFOLrQNӃWKLGURPһFGQăQJOѭӧQJ FӫDQӕLQj\NK{QJOӟQQKѭQJY{VӕFiFQӕLK\GURÿyFyWiFGөQJQKѭPӝWOӵFNpROjPFKR FiFPҥFKSRO\SHSWLGHÿyFXӝQOҥLWKjQKQKӳQJYzQJ[RҳQӕF Oz[R EӅQYӳQJ&ҩXKuQK [RҳQOz[RQj\JӑLOjFҩXWU~FĮ 1ӃXOLrQ NӃWKLGURKuQKWKjQK JLӳDQKӳQJ PҥFKSRO\SHSWLGHNӃFұQWҥRWKjQKWUҥQJWKiL GXәLWKҷQJFӫDFiFPҥFK&ҩXKuQKWKҷQJQj\JӑLOjFҩXWU~Fȕ 1KӳQJTXDQViWYjWtQKWRiQFKLWLӃWFKRWKҩ\PӛLYzQJ[RҳQJӗPJӕFDFLGDPLQQJKƭD OjJӕFDFLGDPLQVӁWҥRQrQYzQJ[RҳQWUӑQYҽQFiFÿX{LDFLGDPLQ QKyP5 ÿӅX KѭӟQJUDQJRjLYjKѫLFKӃFKYӅÿҫXDFLGDPLQWұQFQJ QѫLEҳWÿҫXFӫDSKkQWӱ 0ҥFK [RҳQ Fy KѭӟQJ TXD\ SKҧL 1ӃX QKuQ YjR PһW FҳW QJDQJ FӫD PҥFK Wӯ ÿҫX 1 WұQ FQJ VӁ WKҩ\PҥFK[RD\WKHRFKLӅXNLPÿӗQJKӗ0ӛLEѭӟF FӫDPҥFK[RҳQ NKRҧQJFiFKJLӳDFiF YzQJ[RҳQ EҵQJǖYұ\FKLӅXGjLPӛLJӕFDFLGDPLQEҵQJ ǖJyFGӕF FӫDPӛLYzQJ[RҳQOj0KҫXQKѭWҩWFҧSURWHLQHGӉWDQFNJQJQKѭNKyWDQÿӅXFyFҩXWU~F Į7X\QKLrQNK{QJSKҧLWҩWFҧSURWHLQHÿӅX[RҳQWUrQWRjQEӝPҥFKSRO\SHSWLGH 4.&ҩXWU~FEұFED 6ӵKLӋQGLӋQFӫDFiFOLrQNӃWSKө KLGUR6- 6LRQHVWHU« OjPFKRFiFFҩXKuQK[RҳQ Oz[RĮYjGXәLWKҷQJȕVҳS[ӃSWKjQKPӝWFҩXKuQKQKҩWÿӏQKQjRÿyWURQJNK{QJJLDQ &ҩXKuQKQj\JӑLOjFҩXWU~FEұFEDFҩXWU~FEұFEDFKRWDNKiLQLӋPKRjQFKӍQKYӅKuQK GҥQJ WKӇ WtFK Yj Vӵ VҳS [ӃS WѭѫQJ Kӛ JLӳD FiF NKX YӵF [RҳQ KRһF WKҷQJ FӫD PҥFK SRO\SHSWLGH&ҩXWU~FEұFEDÿѭӧF[iFÿӏQKQKӡFҩXWU~FEұFPӝWFӫDQyEӣLYuVӵWѭѫQJ WiFJLӳDFiFJӕFDcLGDPLQYӟLQKDXFyYDLWUzTX\ӃWÿӏQKWURQJYLӋFJLӳYӳQJYӏWUtFӫD PҥFKSRO\SHSWLGHWURQJNK{QJJLDQ 4.&ҩXWU~FEұFEӕQ http://www.ebook.edu.vn

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3KkQWӱFӫDQKLӅXORҥLSURWHLQHÿѭӧFFҩXWҥREӣLQKLӅXPҥFKSRO\SHSWLGHFK~QJQӕLYӟL QKDXEӣLFiFOLrQNӃWQKѭOjKLGURLRQOLrQNӃWOLrQSKkQWӱ«1KѭYұ\PӛLSKkQWӱORҥL Qj\ÿѭӧFFҩXWҥREӣLQKLӅXÿѫQYӏ  PӛLÿѫQYӏOjPӝW PҥFKSRO\SHSWLGH 6ӵVҳS[ӃS WѭѫQJKӛ WURQJ NK{QJ JLDQ FӫD QKӳQJ ÿѫQYӏ Qj\ WKjQK PӝW FҩX KuQK QKҩW ÿӏQK QjR ÿy ÿѭӧFJӑLOjFҩXWU~FEұFEӕQ FӫDSURWHLQH 9tGө+HPRJORELQH 0   +EÿѭӧFFҩXWҥREӣLPҥFKSRO\SHS\LGH ÿѫQYӏ FҩXWU~FEұF,,,,,,,9FӫDQKӳQJ ÿѫQYӏÿyÿmÿѭӧF[iFÿӏQKKRjQWRjQFK~QJJLӕQJQKDXWӯQJÿ{LPӝWYuYұ\ÿѭӧFFKLD OjPORҥLÿѫQYӏĮYjÿѫQYӏȕPӛLÿѫQYӏJҳQYӟLPӝWSKkQWӱ+HP KӧSFKҩWFKӭD VҳW FҧÿѫQYӏQj\VҳS[ӃSWѭѫQJKӛYӟLQKDXWKHRTXLOXұWKRjQWRjQ[iFÿӏQKOjPFKR SKkQWӱ+HPRJORELQHFyGҥQJJҫQQKѭKuQKFҫXYӟLFiFNtFKWKѭӟF[[ǖ &iFWtQKFKҩWVLQKKӑFFӫDSURWHLQHSKөWKXӝFUҩWQKLӅXYjRFҩXWU~FEұF,WӭFWKjQKSKҫQ DFLGDPLQYjWUұWWӵVҳS[ӃSFNJQJQKѭFҩXWU~FEұF,,WӭFPӭFÿӝ[RҳQYjFҩXWU~FEұF ,,,WӭFKuQKGҥQJWURQJNK{QJJLDQFӫDPҥFKSRO\SHSWLGH %ҩWNǤVӵWKD\ÿәLQjRWURQJFҩXWU~FQj\ÿӅXOjPWKD\ÿәLFiFWtQKFKҩWVLQKKӑFFӫD proteine. 5 ± 6Ӵ%,ӂ17Ë1+&ӪA PROTEINE : 'ѭӟLҧQKKѭӣQJFӫDQKӳQJWiFQKkQQKѭQKLӋWKyDFKҩWWLDSKyQJ[ҥSURWHLQHVӁ PҩWÿLWҩWFҧQKӳQJOêKyDWtQKYjWtQKFKҩWVLQKKӑFFӫDQyGRVӵSKiYӥFiFFiFFѫFҩX NK{QJJLDQFӫDQy FiFFҩXWU~F  9tGө$OEXPLQHWKѭӡQJWDQWURQJQѭӟFQKѭQJNKLÿXQQyQJWKuEӏELӃQWtQKYjVӁNK{QJ WDQYjEӏWӫD (Q]\PHNKLEӏELӃQWtQKVӁNK{QJFzQNKҧQăQJKӑDWÿӝQJÿѭӧFQӳD

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Chú thích : 3ULPDU\VWUXFWXUHFҩXWU~FEұF PӝW

DOSKDKHWL[FҩXWU~F[RҳQĮ

6HFRQGDU\VWUXFWXUHFҩXWU~FEұFKDL

ȕSOHDWHGVKHHWFҩXWU~FWKҷQJȕ

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38


7HUWLDU\VWUXFWXUHFҩXWU~FEұFED

4XDWHUQDU\VWUFWXUHFҩXWU~FEұFEӕQ

6 ± &È&3+Ҧ1Ӭ1*+Ï$+Ӑ& ĈҺ&%,ӊT: 6.1/ CӫDDFLGDPLQ : 6.1.1/ 3KҧQ ӭQJ YӟL QLQKLGULQ  GR  FKӭF DFLG  &22+  Yj  1+2 ) mà acid DPLQWiFGөQJYӟLWKXӕFWKӱQKLGULQWҥRWKjQKVҧQSKҭPPjXWtP'QJSKҧQӭQJQj\ÿӇ SKiWKLӋQDFLGDPLQ

1/

O O H2N CHC OH R acide amine

H2O

O O ninhidrin O H

RCHO

NH3

CO2 OH O dicetooxyhydrinden 2/ O

O H

O

NH3

OH

O

O O

O

NH3

N O

O

O N

2H2O O

O

NH4

O

Saûn phaåm maøu tím ñoû

ĈӕLYӟLSUROLQWKuFKRPjXYjQJ 6.1.2/ Hóa tính : 6.1.2.1/ Do nhóm NH2 http://www.ebook.edu.vn

39


7tQKNLÓ&#x2026;PWŇĽRWKjQKPÓ?WPXÓ&#x2022;L H2N-CHR-&22++&OÄş&OÂŻ 3HN+- CHR Âą COOH 3KҧQÓ­QJDON\OYjDU\OKyDWŇĽRWKjQKPÓ?WDPLQEŇąF 9tGÓŠ &+3 )3 N+- CH-R ÂąCOOH 6.1.2.2/ Do nhĂłm CO2 Acid amin + CO2 Äş1FDUER[\DFLGDPLQ FKŇŠWQj\WKŇŠ\ÓŁSURWHLQFÓŤDPiXĂżÓ?QJYŇąW

6.&ÓŤDSURWHLQ : 3KҧQÓ­QJ%LXUHWGQJSKiWKLÓ&#x2039;QSURWHLQSURWHLQHWiFGÓŠQJYÓ&#x;L&X624 WURQJP{LWUŃ­ÓĄQJ NLÓ&#x2021;P1D2+VÓ WŇĽRSKÓ­FFKŇŠWPjXWtP O H2N CH C N CH C N CH C N CH C OH R3 OH R1 OH R2 OH R4

2NaOH Cu(OH)2

R2 C

N

R1 CH O

CH O

Cu

C N CH R3

NH2

C O

C

CH NH2

O

R4

2Na

4OH

O

PHĂ&#x2013;Ă&#x2122;C CHAĂ T BIURET (xanh tĂ­m )

7 Âą &Ă&#x2C6;&3+ŇŚ1ÓŹ1*0ÂŹ8Ä&#x2C6;Ňş&75ŃŹ1*&ÓŞ$$&,'$0,1 : 3KĚŤQ ÍąQJ XANTHOPROTEIC : 3KiW KLÓ&#x2039;Q acide amine cĂł nhân benzen nhŃ­ Phe, Tyr, Try. Proteine + HNO3 ÿҹPÿҝF cho WÓŤDPjXYjQJ 3KĚŤQÍąQJ MILLON : 3KiWKLÓ&#x2039;Q Tyr : Proteine + Hg(NO3)2 & Hg NO2 cho WÓŤD mĂ u KÓ&#x2014;QJ hay ĂżÓ&#x201C;. 3KĚŤQÍąQJADAMKIEVIC : 3KiWKLÓ&#x2039;Q Try. Proteine + CHO-COOH (acid glyoxylic) trong H2SO4 cho mĂ u tĂ­m xanh http://www.ebook.edu.vn

40


3K̫QͱQJSAKAGUCHI : 3KiWKLӋQ Arg. Proteine +NaClO ( hypochlorit Na) trong P{LWUѭӡQJFy Į naptol cho WӫD PjXÿӓ . 3K̫Q ͱQJ FOLIN : 3KiW KLӋQ Tyr, Try : Proteine + acid phosphomolybdotungstic cho WӫDPjX xanh. 3K̫QͱQJYͣLacetat chì : 3KiWKLӋQCysSH, CysSS. Met : Proteine + CH3(COO)2Pb cho WӫD PbS màu nâu. 3K̫QͱQJNITROPRUSSIADE : 3KiWKLӋQ acid amin có S : Proteine + NH4OH cho PjXÿӓ 3K̫QͱQJPAULY : 3KiWKLӋQ His: Proteine + acid diazosulfanilic trong môi WUѭӡQJ NLӅP cho PjXÿӓ cam

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41


ENZYME

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3.2.6 ̪QKK˱ͧQJFͯDFK̭WNtFKWKtFKYjFK̭WͱFFK͇ +ӑDW WtQK FӫD HQ]\PH SKө WKXӝF YjR Vӵ Fy PһW FӫD PӝW Vӕ FKҩW KyD KӑF Fy WURQJ P{L WUѭӡQJSKҧQӭQJ7URQJVӕQKӳQJFKҩWQj\PӝWVӕFKҩWFyWiFGөQJOjPWăQJKӑDWWtQKFӫD HQ]\PHÿѭӧFJӑLOjFKҩWNtFKWKtFKFzQPӝWVӕFKҩWNKiFOjPJLҧPKRһFOjPPҩWKӑDWWtQK FӫDHQ]\PHYjÿѭӧFJӑLOjFKҩWӭFFKӃ &iFFKҩWNtFKWKtFKKӑDWWtQKFӫDHQ]\PHWKѭӡQJOjFiFLRQNLPOӑDLQKѭlà Mg 2+, Mn 2+, Zn 2+, K +, Co 2+, Fe 2+««YYYj&OĀ

7iFGөQJNtFKWKtFKFӫDFK~QJFy

QKLӅXQJX\rQQKkQNKiFQKDX - 7KDPJLDWKjQKSKҫQQKyPWKrP( Co, Fe, Mg, Mn, Zn.. ) - 7ҥRÿLӅXNLӋQFKRVӵKuQKWKjQKSKӭFKӋHQ]\PH- FѫFKҩW - *L~SVӭFWURQJOLrQNӃWJLӳDDSRHQ]\PHYjFRHQ]\PH - ĈҧPEҧRVӵKuQKWKjQKFҩXWU~FEұFEӕQFӫDHQ]\PH &iFFKҩWӭFFKӃKӑDWWtQKFӫDHQ]\PHWKѭӡQJOjFiFLRQNLPOӑDLQһQJQKѭOj Ag +, Hg

2+

, Pb

2+

««&K~QJWiFÿӝQJQKѭFKҩWEDRYk\FiFWUXQJNKXKӑDWÿӝQJFӫD

enzyme OLrQ NӃW YӟL FiF QKyP KӑDW ÿ{QJ FӫD HQ]\PH  -NH2 , - SH ) làm cho chúng NK{QJFzQNKҧQăQJKӑDWÿӝQJÿѭӧFQӳDKRһFQӗQJÿӝFDRVӁOjPFKRSURWHLQHQ]\PHEӏ ELӃQWtQK7X\QKLrQFyQKLӅXFKҩWFyWiFGөQJNtFKWKtFKÿӕLYӟLHQ]\PHQj\QKѭQJOҥL ӭFFKӃKӑDWÿӝQJFӫDHQ]\PHNKiF *ҫQÿk\QJѭӡLWDÿѭDUDNKiLQLӋPGӏOұSWKӇKD\KLӋXӭQJFҥQKWUDQK7KHRNKiLQLӋP Qj\PӛLHQ]\PHQJzDLWUXQJWkPKӑDWÿӝQJGQJÿӇJҳQYӟLFѫFKҩWFzQFyKD\WUXQJ WkPJӑLOjWUXQJWkPGӏOұSWKӇ.KLFKҩWQjRÿy NtFKWKtFK FyKuQKGiQJSKKӧSYӟL WUXQJWkPGӏOұSWKӇQj\YjJҳQÿѭӧFYjRÿyVӁFyWiFGөQJOjPFKRKuQKGҥQJFӫDWUXQJ WkPKӑDWÿӝQJSKKӧSYӟLKuQKGҥQJFѫFKҩWGRÿyWҥRÿLӅXNLӋQWKXұQOӧLFKRYLӋFWLӃS [~FJLӳDHQ]\PHYjFѫFKҩWYjQKѭWKӃOjPWăQJKӑDWWtQK[~FWiFFӫDHQ]\PHQJѭӧFOҥL FyQKӳQJFKҩWNKL JҳQYjRWUXQJWkP GӏOұSWKӇÿyVӁOjPFKRKuQKGҥQJFӫDWUXQJWkP KӑDWÿӝQJNK{QJFzQSKKӧSFѫFKҩW

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49


4 Âą 3+Ă&#x2020;1/Ó?$,(1=<0( 1JzDL FiFK JÓ&#x2018;L WrQ WKHR T~D WUuQK WiF ĂżÓ?QJ FÓŤD HQ]\PH KD\ FKŇŠW FKÓ?X WiF ĂżÓ?QJ FÓŤD HQ]\PHYjQJzDLQKÓłQJWrQTXHQWKXÓ?FQKŃ­3HSVLQ7U\SVLQÂŤYYPÓ?WKÓ?LQJKÓ?KyDVLQK TXÓ&#x2022;FWÓ&#x192;QÄ&#x192;PFKLDHQ]\PHWKjQKQKyP NhĂłm 1: Oxydoreductase OjQKyPHQ]\PHR[\GKyDNKÓą NhĂłm 2 : Transferase OjQKyPHQ]\PHYŇąQFKX\Ó&#x2021;QQKyP NhĂłm 3 : Hydrolase OjQKyPHQ]\PHWKÓŤ\SKkQ SKkQKÓŤ\FŇŤQQŃ­Ó&#x;F  NhĂłm 4 : Liase OjQKyPHQ]\PHSKkQJLҧLNK{QJFŇŤQQŃ­Ó&#x;F NhĂłm 5 : Isomerase OjQKyPHQ]\PHĂżÓ&#x2014;QJSKkQKyD NhĂłm 6 : Lygase hay Synthetase OjHQ]\PHWÓ&#x2122;QJKÓ§S

Oxydoreductase :(ÄŽ-D-glucose + oxygen

D-glucono-1,5-lactone + hydrogen

peroxide )

http://www.ebook.edu.vn

50


Transferase : (L-aspartate + 2-oxoglutarate

Hydrolase :(casein + water

Lyase : (L-histidine

oxaloacetate + L-glutamate )

para-casein + caseino macropeptide)

urocanate + ammonia )

http://www.ebook.edu.vn

51


Isomerase: Į-D-glucopyranose

Į-D-fructofuranose )

Lygase :(ATP + -L-glutamyl-L-cysteine + glycine

ADP + phosphate +

glutathione ) 9jQKѭWKӃPӝWHQ]\PHVӁÿѭӧFJӑLWrQEҵQJFKӳVӕFiFKQKDXEҵQJGҩXFKҩP9tGө enzyme 1.2.3.4 &KӳVӕÿҫXWLrQFKRELӃWHQ]\PHWKXӝFYjRWURQJQKyPNӇWUrQ &KӳVӕWKӭKDLFKRELӃWEҧQFKҩWFӫDFѫFKҩW WLӇXQKyPFӫDVӕWKӭQKҩW 9tGөQKyP R[\GRUHGXFWDVHFKӳVӕWKӭQKuFKRELӃWEҧQFKҩWFӫDFKҩWEӏR[\KyD VӕFKӍQKyP ± &+2+VӕFKӍQKyP±&+2KRһF±&2 ĈӕLYӟLQKyPWUDQVIHUDVHWKuFKӳVӕWKӭQKu FKRELӃW EҧQFKҩWFӫD QKyPEӏYұQFKX\ӇQ  VӕOj FiFQKyP &DUERQVӕOj ±CHO KRһF±&2 ĈӕLYӟLQKyPK\GURODVHFKRELӃWNLӇXOLrQNӃWEӏWKӫ\SKkQĈӕLYӟLQKyP 4 lyase cho biӃWNLӇXOLrQNӃWEӏSKiYӥĈӕLYӟLQKyPLVRPHUDVHFKRELӃWNLӇXSKҧQӭQJ ÿӗQJSKkQĈӕLYӟLQKyPFKRELӃWEҧQFKҩWFӫDFKҩWÿѭӧFWәQJKӧS http://www.ebook.edu.vn

52


&KӳVӕWKӭEDFKRELӃWEҧQFKҩWFӫDFKҩWQKұQWKDPJLDYjRSKҧQӭQJ QKyPQKӓFӫD FKӳ Vӕ WKӭ KDL  9t Gө ÿӕL YӟL R[\GR UHGXFWDVH Vӕ  FRHQ]\P QLFRWLQDPLG Vӕ  F\WRFKURPVӕR[\SKkQWӱĈӕLYӟLWUDQIHUDVHFKRELӃWU}KѫQNLӇXQKyPEӏWKӫ\SKkQ ĈӕLYӟLO\DVHFKRELӃWEҧQFKҩWFӫDFѫFKҩWEӏSKkQJLҧLÿӕLYӟLLVRPHUDVHFKRELӃWEҧQ FKҩWFӫDFKҩWEӏFKX\ӇQKyDĈӕLYӟLO\JDVHFKRELӃWEҧQFKҩWFӫDFKҩWÿѭӧFWәQJKӧS &KӳVӕWKӭWѭOjVӕWKӭWӵFӫDHQ]\PHWURQJWӯQJQKyP 9tGөHQ]\PHSRO\SKHQROR[\GDVHFyVӕKLӋXOjFyQJKƭDOjHQ]\PR[\GNKӱ VӕÿҫXWLrQ FKҩWQKѭӡQJ+OjR- diphenol, diphenol vjPRQRSKHQRO Vӕ FKҩWQKұQ +Oj2SKkQWӱ Vӕ VӕVDXFQJFKRELӃWHQ]\PHSRO\SKHQROR[\GDVHOjHQ]\PHÿҫX WLrQWKXӝFQKyP 0ӝWYjLYtGө 1.1 R[\GRUHGXFWDVHWiFÿӝQJWUrQQKyP±CHOH. 1.2 :-------------------------------------------------- -CHO hay - COWUDQVIHUDVHYұQFKX\ӇQQKyPFDUERQ 2.2 : ----------------------------------------- -CHO hay ± CO-. K\GURODVHWiFÿӝQJWUrQQӕLHVWHU 3.2 : -------------------------------- KӧSFKҩWJO\FRV\O O\DVHSKkQJLҧLQӕL&± C. 4.2 :---------------------------- C ±O. LVRPHUDVHWiFÿӝQJQKѭPӝWUDFHPDVHYjHSLPHUDVH 5.2 : ---------------------------------------- cis ± trans isomerase. O\DVHOұSQӕL&-O. OLDVHOұSQӕL&-S. FKҩWQKұQOj1$'KD\NADP. YұQFKX\ӇQQKyPPHWK\O WKӫ\SKkQQӕLHVWHUFDUER[\OLF SKkQKӫ\QӕL&-C. ÿӗQJSKkQKyDDFLGDPLQ http://www.ebook.edu.vn

53


WҥRQӕL&-2FӫDDFLGDPLQ±RNA. 5 ± 6Ӵ0Ҩ7+Ӑ$77,1+&Ӫ$ ENZYME: ȝP

t (Q]\PHEӏPҩWKӑDWWtQKVӁÿәLÿѭӡQJELӇXGLӇQSKkQJLҧL KӑDWÿӝQJ WKjQKGҥQJÿѭӡQJ cong. 1JX\rQQKkQFӫDVӵPҩWKӑDWWtQKOj 1/ 'RV͹WKD\ÿ͝LF˯F̭XFͯDSURWHLQ-enzymeVӵWKD\ÿәLÿyFyWKӇOjVӵELӃQWtQK FӫDSURWHLQFҩXWҥRGѭӟLҧQKKѭӣQJFӫDQKLӋWÿӝS+iSVXҩWFiFWLDSKyQJ[ҥ 2/ 7UXQJWkPK͕DWÿ͡QJE͓P̭WWiFGͭQJ 7UXQJWkPKӑDWÿӝQJFӫDHQ]\PHEӏJҳQ EӣLPӝWFKҩWNKiFOjPFKRHQ]\PHNK{QJWKӇKӑDWÿӝQJÿѭӧF 3/ Không còn coenz\PHÿLNqP ĈӕLYӟLHQ]\PHWKjQKSKҫQWKuWUXQJWkPKӑDW ÿӝQJQҵPӣFRHQ]\PHGRÿyEӏPҩWFRHQ]\PHWKuHQ]\PHNK{QJKӑDWÿӝQJ 4/ (Q]\PH WKL͇X QKͷQJ FK̭W NtFK WKtFK  &y QKӳQJ HQ]\PH ÿѭӧF NtFK WKtFK EӣL QKӳQJQJX\rQWӕNLPOӑDLQKѭ&R=Q«WKuQKӳQJHQ]\PHQj\FҫQSKҧLFyQKӳQJNLP OӑDL ÿy QӃX Eӏ OjP PҩW QKӳQJ NLP OӑDL Qj\ WURQJ FҩX WҥR FӫD FK~QJ WKuHQ]\PH NK{QJ KӑDWÿӝQJ 5/ 'RV͹F̩QKWUDQKYͣLF˯FK̭W &yQKӳQJFKҩWNKiFFyWKӇFҥQKWUDQKYӟLFѫFKҩW FӫDHQ]\PH1ӃXFyVӵKLӋQGLӋQFӫDFK~QJWURQJP{LWUѭӡQJSKҧQӭQJWKuHQ]\PHNK{QJ KӑDW ÿӝQJ KӳX KLӋX WUrQ Fѫ FKҩW 9t Gө HQ]\PH VXFFLQRGHVK\GURJHQDVH NKӱ KLGUR FӫD acid succinic . COOH - CH2 - CH2 ± COOH

COOH ± CH = CH ± COOH

http://www.ebook.edu.vn

54


&yPӝWVӵFҥQKWUDQKJLӳDDFLGVXFFLQLF&22+± CH2 ± CH2 ± COOH và acid malonic COOH ± CH2 ± &22+ 9u WKӃ QӃX DFLG PDORQLF KLӋQ GLӋQ WKu HQ]\PH VӁ WiF ÿӝQJ OrQ DFLG PDORQLF  PDORQLF JҳQ YjR WUXQJ WkP KӑDW ÿӝQJ  OjP FKR HQ]\P NK{QJ FzQ NKӱ KLGURFӫDDFLGVXFFLQLFQӳD COENZYME &RHQ]\PHOjWKjQKSKҫQWKӭFӫDHQ]\PHWKjQKSKҫQQyJLӳYDLWUzKӑDWÿӝQJFKtQK FӫDHQ]\PHOӑDLQj\YjWKѭӡQJQyNK{QJWKӇWiFKUӡLNKӓLHQ]\PH 1 ± 1+Ӳ1*&2(1=<0(/,Ç148$1Ĉӂ1&È&3+Ҧ1Ӭ1*2;,'+Ï$.+Ӱ: 1.1/ NAD ( nicotinamide adenine dicluneotide )

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55


NAD + H2

NADH2 ( NADH + H+ )

Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate (NADP+)

http://www.ebook.edu.vn

56


1.2/ FMN ( flavin adenine mononucleotide ) và FAD ( flavine adenine dinucleotide )

FMN

FAD

O H C

N

CH3 C

C

C

C

CH3

C H

O H C

C C

NH

C

C

N

O

CH3

C

CH3

C

N

C

C C H

C

N

NH

C C

N

C

N

O

CH2 HCOH

CH2

HCOH

HCOH

HCOH

HCOH

CH2 _ O

HCOH CH2

_ O

O

O P

O

NH2

O P

N

O

HC

O

_ O P O O

H

http://www.ebook.edu.vn

N

O

CH2 H

H

OH

OH

C C

C

N CH

N

H

57


FADH2

FADH2

FAD + H2

2 - &2(1=<0(9Ұ1&+8<ӆ1 : 2.1/ COENZYME A : 9ұQFKX\ӇQQKyPFDUERQ&+3CO-

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58


+ CH3CO

- SCOCH3

2.2/ ACID FOLIC : 9ұQFKX\ӇQQKyPFDUERQ+&+2 http://www.ebook.edu.vn

59


+HCHO

( CHO )

http://www.ebook.edu.vn

60


LIPIDE 1 -*,Ӟ,7+,ӊ8&+81* : /LSLGHOjGҥQJYұWFKҩWKӳXFѫJLӳYDLWUzFҩXWҥRYjSKҫQOӟQOjFKҩWGӵWUӳQyOj VҧQSKҭPHVWHUFӫDPӝWUѭӧXÿѫQJLҧQKD\SKӭFWҥSYjFiFDFLGHEpRFKӍWDQWURQJGXQJ P{L KӳX FѫY{ FӵF QKѭ EHQ]HQ DFHWRQ  FKORURIRUP Yj NK{QJ WDQ WURQJ QѭӟF QJRjL UD OLSLGHFzQOjFKҩWFXQJFҩSQăQJOѭӧQJ FDRKѫQOҫQVRYӟLJOXFLGSURWLG FKRFiFKRҥW ÿ{QJ VӕQJ FӫD VLQK YұW KjP OѭӧQJOLSLGH ӣWKӵF YұW FKLӃP NKRҧQJ Wӯ  - 0,15% tính WKHRWUӑQJOѭӧQJWѭѫL 2 - 3+Æ1/2Ҥ, : 'ӵDYjRFҩXWҥRQJѭӡLWDFKLDOLSLGHUDOjPORҥL /LSLGH ÿ˯Q JL̫Q: CҩX WҥR EӣL & + 2 Yj WKѭӡQJ Oj WKjQK SKҫQ Gӵ WUӳ ӣ VLQK YұW FKӭD QKLӅXQăQJOѭӧQJ /LSLGH SKͱF W̩S CҩX WҥR EӣL QJRjL &+ 2 FzQ Fy WKrP 1 3 6«Yj WKѭӡQJ Oj WKjQK SKҫQFҩXWҥR 3 - &Ҩ87Ҥ2+Ï$+Ӑ&: 3.1/ /LSLGHÿѫQJLҧQ: 3.1.1 / Glyceride: 'ҥQJQj\ӣWKӵFYұWJӑLOjGҫXӣÿӝQJYұWJӑLOjPӥQyOjVҧQSKҭPHVWHUFӫDPӝW UѭӧXEDJO\FHUROYjFiFDFLGEpR&{QJWKӭFWәQJTXiWOj

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61


5 5Âś 5œœ Oj QKÓłQJ JÓ&#x2022;F DFLG EpR 1yL FiFK NKiF JO\FHULGH Oj PÓ?W KÓ&#x203A;Q KÓ§S FiF triglyceride. * Acide bĂŠo $FLGHEpRFyWURQJWKjQKSKŇŤQJO\FHULGHFyWKÓ&#x2021;OjFyVÓ&#x2022;FKҡQVÓ&#x2022;OŇżFDUERQFyWKÓ&#x2021; EҧRKzDKD\FKŃ­DEҧRKzDFyWKÓ&#x2021;OjGk\ WKҡQJKD\FyYzQJ$FLGH EpROjDFLGHKÓłXFŃŤ QKLÓ&#x2026;X FDUERQ WURQJ WKLrQ QKLrQ WKŃ­ÓĄQJ Fy PÓ?W FKÓ­F DFLGH  $FLGH EpR WK{QJ WKŃ­ÓĄQJ WKŃ­ÓĄQJJŇťSJÓ&#x2014;P x $FLGHEpREĚŤRKzDFyVÍ&#x2122;FKĚťQFDUERQ

6Ó&#x2022;

TĂŞn

carbon

WKŃ­ÓĄQJ

4:0

Butyric

thĂ´ng

7rQKyDKÓ&#x2018;F

&{QJWKÓ­F

butanoic acid

CH3(CH2)2COOH

acid 6:0

Caproic

hexanoic acid

CH3(CH2)4COOH

octanoic acid

CH3(CH2)6COOH

decanoic acid

CH3(CH2)8COOH

dodecanoic

CH3(CH2)10COOH

acid 8:0

Caprilic acid

10:0

Caprinic acid

12:0

Lauric acid

acid 14:0

16:0

18:0

Myristic

tetradecanoic

CH3(CH2)12COOH

acid

acid

Palmitic

Hexadecanoic

CH3(CH2)14

acid

acid

COOH

Stearic acid

Octadecanoic

CH3(CH2)16COOH

acid

http://www.ebook.edu.vn

62


20:0

Eicosanoic acid

CH3(CH2)18COOH

docosanoic acid

CH3(CH2)20COOH

Lignoceric

tetracosanoic

CH3(CH2)22COOH

acid

acid

Arachidic aicd

22:0

Behenic acid

24:0

&KLำ…XGjLWำฏ&DUERQยฑ &DUERQWKuDFLGHEpRำฃWUาฅQJWKiLOำ“QJ &KLำ…XGjLWำฏ&DUERQWUำฃOrQWKuDFLGHEpRำฃWUาฅQJWKiLUาณQ ฤˆLำ‡PQyQJFKาง\ PHOWLQJSRLQW FำซDDFLGHEpRW\WKXำFFKLำ…XGjLGk\FDUERQYjPำญFรฟำ FKัญDEางRKzDFำซDQyPำWDFLGHEpRFyVำ•OาฟFDUERQ [ VำFyรฟLำ‡PQyQJFKาง\WKาฉSKัซQ PำWDFLGHEpRFyVำ•FKาทQFDUERQOj[

ฤˆLำ‡PQyQJFKาง\FำซDDFLGHEpR รฟำ&

ฤˆLำ‡PQyQJFKาง\

100 80 60 40 20 0 -20 -40 -60

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

6ำ•FDUERQ

http://www.ebook.edu.vn

63


$FLGHEpREĚ­WEĚŤRKzDFyVÍ&#x2122;FKĚťQFDUERQ 6Ó&#x2022;FDUERQYjYÓ? TĂŞn

thĂ´ng 7rQKyDKÓ&#x2018;F

WUtQÓ&#x2022;LĂż{L

WKŃ­ÓĄQJ

16:1¨9

Palmitoleic

Hexadecenoic

acid

acid

18:1¨9

18:2¨12

Oleic

acid 9-Octadecenoic

ČŚ- 9 )

acid

Linoleic

9,12

DFLG ČŚ- 6)

Octadecadienoic

&{QJWKÓ­FFŇŠXWŇĽo

CH3(CH2)5CH=CH-(CH2)7COOH

CH3(CH2)7CH=CH-(CH2)7COOH

CH3(CH2)4(CH=CHCH2)2(CH2)6COOH

acid 18:3¨9, 12, 15

ÄŽLinolenic

9,12,15

DFLG ČŚ- 3)

Octadecatrienoic

CH3CH2(CH=CHCH2)3(CH2)6COOH

acid 20:4 ¨5,8,11,14

Arachidonic 5,8,11,14 acid

CH3(CH2)4(CH=CHCH2)4(CH2)2COOH

Eicosatetraenoic acid

20:5 ¨5,8,11,14,17

EPA

5,8,11,14,17

CH3CH2(CH=CHCH2)5(CH2)2COOH

Eicosapentaenoic acid 22:6 ¨4,7,10,13,16,19 DHA

Docosohexaenoic 22:6 ČŚ acid

Acide omega 3 lĂ  acide ÄŽ linolenic. ( carbon ČŚ OjFDUERQFÓŤDQKyP&+3 ) Acide omega 6 lĂ  acide linoleic. http://www.ebook.edu.vn

64


Acide omega 9 là acide oleic. -

Acide béo có vòng

(CH2 )n

COOH

n= 10 : acid hydrocarpic n= 12: acid chaulmoogric

*O\FHULGHOjWKjQKSKҫQFKtQKFӫDGҫXPӥ7\WKHRGҥQJDFLGHEpRFyWURQJFҩXWҥRPj JO\FHULGHFyWUҥQJWKiLOӓQJKD\UҳQ -

1ӃXÿDVӕOjDFLGHEpREҩWEҧRKzDKD\Gk\FDUERQQJҳQ -8 C) WKuJO\FHULGHӣ WUҥQJWKiLOӓQJJӑLOjGҫX

-

1ӃXÿDVӕOjDFLGHEpREҧRKzDKD\Gk\FDUERQGjLWKuJO\FHULGHӣWUҥQJWKiLUҳQ JӑLOjPӥ

+yDWtQKFӫDJO\FHULGH 6ӵSKkQJLҧL .KLEӏSKkQJLҧLJO\FHULGHVӁSKyQJWKtFKJO\FHUROHYjDFLGHEpRVӵSKkQJLҧLFyWKӇ WKӵFKLӋQYӟL+2O, acide, baz hay enzyme. PKkQJLҧLEҵQJ+22 WKӫ\JLҧL  &ҫQ+22ӣiSVXҩWYjQKLӋWÿӝFDRJLҧLSKyQJJO\FHUROHYjDFLGHEpR 3KkQJLҧLEҵQJDFLGH 'QJ PӝW DFLGH PҥQK +&O KD\  DFLGH KӳX Fѫ  DFLGH QDSKWDOHQ VXOSKRQLF  FKR glycerol và acide béo. CH2

O

COR1

CH2

OH

R1COOH

CH

O

COR2

CH

OH

R2COOH

COR3

CH2

CH2

O

OH

Glycerole

http://www.ebook.edu.vn

R3COOH Acid beùo

65


3KkQJLҧLEҵQJNLӅP 'QJ1D2+KD\.2+WҥRUDJO\FHUROHYjPXӕLNLӅPFӫDDFLGHEpRJӑLOj[jE{QJ CH2

O

COR1

CH2

OH

R1COONa

COR2

CH

OH

R2COONa

COR3

CH2

NaOH

CH CH2

O O

OH

Glycerole

R3COONa Savon

3KkQJLҧLEҵQJHQ]\PH Dùng lipase thì cho diglyceride, monoglyceride, glycerole, và acide béo. x &iFFKӍVӕÿһFWUѭQJFӫDJO\FHULGH &K͑V͙DFLG : 6ӕPJ.2+FҫQWKLӃWÿӇWUXQJKzDDFLGEpRWӵGRFyWURQJJDPJO\FHULG&KӍVӕ Qj\FKRELӃW³ÿӝWѭѫL´FӫDJO\FHULGYuWURQJTXiWUuQKEҧRTXҧQOѭӧQJDFLGEpRWӵGRQJj\ FjQJWăQJ FKӍVӕDFLGFӫDJO\FHULGGQJOjPWKӵFSKҭPNK{QJÿѭӧFTXi

&K͑V͙VDYRQ : 6ӕPJ.2+FҫQÿӇWUXQJKzDWҩWFҧDFLGEpRFyWURQJJDPJO\FHULG&KӍVӕVDYRQVDX NKLWUӯFKӍVӕDFLGVӁFKRWDWtQKÿѭӧFNKӕLOѭӧQJSKkQWӱWUXQJEuQKFӫDJO\FHULG &K͑V͙,RG : 6ӕJDP,RGFyWKӇOLrQNӃWYӟLJDPJO\FHULG&KӍVӕ,RGFKRELӃWPӭFÿӝFKѭD EҧRKzDFӫDFiFDFLGEpRFyWURQJWKjQKSKҫQJO\FHULG&KӍVӕQj\FjQJFDRWKuJO\FHULG FjQJGӉEӏKѭWURQJTXiWUuQJEҧRTXҧQYuFiFDFLGEpRFyQӕLÿ{LEӏR[LGKyDWҥRQrQPL K{L9tGөFKӍVӕ,RGFӫDÿұXQjQKOjGҫXE{QJOjPӥKHROjEѫOj-35. 6͹{LKyDFͯDDFLGEpR : 2[\NӃWKӧSYӟLFiFFDUERQFӫDQӕLÿ{LÿӇWҥRQrQSHUR[LGYjVDXÿySKkQKӫ\WKjQK GҥQJ aldehide có mùi hôi.

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- CH2 -CH - CH - CH2-

+ O2

R - CH2 - CH = CH - CH2 -

O O peroxid -CH2 - CHO + - CH2- CHO

&K͑ V͙ 5HLFKHUW ± Meissl GQJ [iF ÿӏQK Vӵ KLӋQ KӳX FӫD DFLG EpR GӉ ED\ KѫL Fy NKӕL OѭӧQJSKkQWӱQKӓ DFLGEXW\ULF & DFLG FDSURLF & DFLGFDSULOLF & WURQJWKjQK SKҫQJO\FHULG1yÿѭӧFELӇXWKӏEҵQJVӕPO1D2+1GQJWUXQJKzDFiFDFLGEpRGӉ ED\KѫLFyWURQJJDPJO\FHULG &K͑V͙DFHW\O 6ӕ PJ .2+ GQJ ÿӇ WUXQJ KzD DFLG DFHWLF WKX ÿѭӧF Wӯ Vӵ WKӫ\ SKkQ  JDP JO\FHULGÿѭӧFDFHW\OKyDYuPӝWDFLGEpRFKӭDQKyP2+FyWKӇSKҧQӭQJYӟLDQhydric DFHWLFÿӇFKRUDKӧSFKҩWDFHW\O 9tGө&DVWRURLOFKӭDPӝWDFLGEpRFKѭDEҧRKzDFyQKyP2+ DFLGULFLQROHLF VӁFKR PӝWFKӍVӕDFHW\OFDR± 150. 3.1.2 / Steride ( steroide). 6WHULGOjHVWHUFӫDPӝWUѭӧXYzQJVWHUROYjFiFDFLGEpRFDRSKkQWӱVWHULGOjPӝWQKyP OӟQFӫDOLSLGÿѫQJLҧQQyOjWKjQKSKҫQOLSLGFyӣP{WKҫQNLQKPiXWLQKWUQJӣWKӵF YұWWKuVWHULGFyӣSKҩQKRDKҥW 6WHUROOjP{WUѭӧXGүQVXҩWWӯFLFORSHQWDQRSHUKLGURSKHQDQWKUHQ

20

18 12 19

11

2

10

8

5 4

17

13 9

1

3

21

23

16

14

24

15

7 6

22

26

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67


CiFVWHUROWKѭӡQJJһSӣWKLrQQKLrQ

OH

OH

Ergosterol

Cholesterol

C2H5 OH

OH

Sitosterol

Stigmasterol

CH=CH2 OH Eucosterol

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&KROHVWHUROOjVWHUROFKӫ\ӃXӣPұW (UJRVWHUROOjVWHUROFӫDFiFOӑDLQҩP 6LWRVWHURO 6WLJPDVWHUROOjVWHUROFӫDWKӵFYұW (XFRVWHUROOjVWHUROFӫDWҧR[iP &iFVWHUROOjQKӳQJFKҩWGӉNӃWWLQKGӉKzDWDQWURQJFKORURIRUPUѭӧXQyQJ7URQJFѫ WKӇÿӝQJYұWFiFVWHUROEӏR[\GKyDWKjQKQKLӅXGүQVXҩWNKiFQKDXQKѭDFLGFKROLFDFLG7-GHK\GURFKROLF«YY &iFDFLGEpRFDRSKkQWӱWURQJVWHULGWKѭӡQJOjDFLGSDOPLWLFDFLGVWHDULFDFLGROHLFVai WUzVLQKKӑFTXDQWUӑQJFӫDVWHUROOjFK~QJFyWKӇFKX\ӇQKyDWKjQKFiFFKҩWÿLӅXKzDVLQK KӑFNKiFQKDXQKѭOjFiFKRUPRQVLQKGөFKRUPRQFRUWLFRLGYLWDPLQ'«YY OH

COOH OH

OH

acid cholic

3.1.3/ Sáp: 6iSÿѭӧFWҥRWKjQKFKӫ\ӃXWӯHVWHUFӫDUѭӧXPӝWYjDFLGEpRFDRSKkQWӱ6iSJLӳYDLWUz qXDQWUӑQJWURQJWKӵFYұWFKӫ\ӃXOjFKӭFQăQJEҧRYӋEҵQJFiFKWҥRPӝWOӟSPӓQJSKӫ WUrQPһWOiWUiLWKkQViSJLӳFKRFk\NKӓLEӏQKLӉPEӋQKNK{QJEӏFiFOӑDLVkXEӑSKi KҥLYjWUiQKFKRFk\NKӓLPҩWQѭӟFTXiQKLӅX6iSFyUҩWtWWURQJKҥW ± 0,03%). Sáp WKLrQQKLrQQJzDLFiFHVWHUÿmQyLWUrQFzQFyPӝWtWUѭӧXFDRSKkQWӱYjDFLGEұFFDRӣ GҥQJWӵGRFNJQJQKѭPӝWtWK\GURFDUERQOX{QFyVӕQJX\rQWӱOҿ - FiFFKҩWPjXYj FiFFKҩWWKѫP7URQJViSWKLrQQKLrQWDWKѭӡQJJһSFiFOӑDLUѭӧXFy SKkQWӱOӟQYjFiF DFLGEpREұFFDRVDXÿk\

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Acid béo

Acid palmitic CH3-(CH2)14-COOH ( sáp ong ). Acid cerotic CH3-(CH2)24- &22+ ViSӣOiYjWUiL

Acid moltanic CH3-(CH2)26- &22+ ViSӣOiYjWUiL

Acid melissic CH3-(CH2)28- &22+ ViSӣOiYjWUiL) 5ѭӧX 5ѭӧXFHULOLF&+3-(CH2)24CH2OH ( sápp ong ). 5ѭӧXFHULOLF&+3-(CH2)24CH22+ ViSӣOiYjWUiL

Acid moltanilic CH3-(CH2)26- CH22+ ViSӣOiYjWUiL

Acid merisilic CH3-(CH2)28- CH22+ ViSӣOiYjWUiL

&ăQFӭWKHRQJXӗQJӕFQJѭӡLWDFKLDViSUDOjPOӑDLViSÿӝQJYұWViSWKӵFYұWYjViS NKyDQJ 6iS WKѭӡQJ Fy PӝW OѭӧQJ NK{QJ OӟQ OҳP ӣ WKӵF YұW WUrQ EӅ PһW Oi WUiL WKkQ FjQK«YY0ӝWSKҫQÿiQJNӇFӫDOӟSViSQj\OjKLGURFDUERQYtGөQKѭOӟSViSWUrQOiEҳS FҧLFKӫ\ӃXWҥRQrQWӯKLGURFDUERQGãy parafin nonacosan C29H60 YjGүQ[XҩWFӫDQyFy nhóm ±& 2 WӭF Oj QRQDFRVDQRQ Ӣ Fk\ WKXӕF Oi WuP WKҩ\ KHSWRFRVDQ &27H56) và untriacontan (C31H64  7URQJ WKjQK SKҫQ FӫD OӟS ViS ӣ WUiL QKR Fy DFLG SDOPLWLF Wӵ GR (CH3(CH2)14&22+ YjHVWHUFӫDQyYӟLUѭӧXFySKkQWӱOӟQQKѭFHULOLFPLULFLOLF 3./LSLGHSKӭFWҥS: /LSLG SKӭF WҥS NKiF OLSLG ÿѫQ JLҧQ ӣ FKә Oj WURQJ WKjQK SKҫQ FӫD FK~QJ FzQ Fy DFLG SKRVSKRULFYjFiFKӧSFKҩWNKiFWKѭӡQJOjKӧSFKҩWFKӭDQLWURJHQ http://www.ebook.edu.vn

70


3.2.1/ PhosphatideFzQJӑLOjSKRVSKROLSLGH. 3KRVSKDWLGH Oj HVWHU FӫD JO\FHUROH Yj DFLG EpR Pj WURQJ ÿy PӝW QKyP 2+ FӫD JO\FHUROHWҥRHVWHUYӟLDFLGSKRVSKRULFÿһFWtQKFKXQJOjNK{QJWDQWURQJDFHWRQ

3KRVSKDWLGHFyWURQJWҩWFҧWӃEjRWKӵFYұWQKLӅXQKҩWӣKҥWÿһFELӋWOjKҥWFӫDFk\FyGҫX YjFk\KӑÿұX7\WKHRWtQKFKҩWFӫDQKyP;KLӋQGLӋQӣWKjQKSKҫQFӫDSKRVSKDWLGHWD có : /HFLWKLQH Fy QKLӅX WURQJ P{ WKҫQ NLQK FKҩW EpR WKӵF YұW  ÿұX QjQK  OzQJ ÿӓ WUӭQJO\WUtFKEҵQJDFHWRQW\YӏWUtFӫDJӕFSKRVSKDWSKkQEӕӣYӏWUtĮKD\ȕPjWDFyĮ KD\ ȕ OHFLWKLQH /HFLWKLQH Fy WKӇ Eӏ SKkQ JLҧL EӣL DFLG ED] KD\ HQ]\PH QӃX SKkQ JLҧL EҵQJHQ]\PHWDGQJHQ]\PHSKRVSKDWLGDVH$%&'SKRVSKDWLGDVH$FҳWQӕLHVWHUWҥLYӏ WUtȕÿӇWҥRWKjQKO\VROHFLWKLQHOjPӝWFKҩWÿӝFOjPKӫ\KӑDLKӗQJFҫXSKRVSKDWLGDVH% FҳW QӕL HVWHU ӣ Yӏ WUt Į SKRVSKDWLGDVH & FҳW QӕL HVWHU ӣ QKyP 2+ Yj + 3PO4 , SKRVSKDWLGDVH'FҳWQӕLHVWHUӣYӏWUtȖ CH2

O

COR1

CH

O

COR2 O O P

CH2

O

CH2

N 2

CH3

3

OH Phosphatidylcholin (Lecithin)

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CH2

O

COR1

CH

O

COR2 O O P

CH2

O

CH2

NH3

2

OH Phosphatidyletanolamin (Colamin)

CH2

O

COR1

CH

O

CH2

O

COR2 O O P

OH Phosphoinositol

CH2

O

COR1

CH

O

CH2

O

COR2 O O P

COOH CH2

CH

NH2

OH Phosphatidylserine

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3.2.2 / Sphingolipide: Ĉk\ Oj HVWHU FӫD PӝW DPLQ UѭӧXVSKLQJRVLQH YӟLDFLG EpR FDR SKkQ Wӱ .KiF YӟL SKRVSKROLSLGH JӕF DFLG EpR WURQJ SKkQ Wӱ VSKLQJROLSLGH ÿѭӧF NӃW KӧS YӟL DPLQ UѭӧX EҵQJOLrQNӃWSHSWLGHӢWKӵFYұWDPLQUѭӧXWKѭӡQJOjSK\WRVSKLQJRVLQH

Sphingosine CH3-( CH2)13-CHOH-CHOH-CH (NH2)-CH2OH phytosphingosine

sphingomyelin

6SKLQJRP\HOLQHFyQKLӅXWURQJFKҩWWUҳQJFӫDQmRP{WKҫQNLQK, ngòaLUDFNJQJFyWURQJ JDQWKұQSKәLӣÿӝQJYұWNK{QJ[ѭѫQJVӕQJNK{QJFyFKҩWQj\ 1JRjLUDFzQFyFiFOLSLGSKӭFWҥSNKiFQKѭ 3.2.3 / Glycolipide FҩX WҥR EӣL UѭӧX VSKLQJRVLQH YӟL DFLG EpRYj JOXFLGGH WKѭӡQJ Oj JDODFWRVHGүQ[XҩWQLWѫFӫDJDODFWRVHNK{QJFyQKyPSKRVSKDW  3.2.4/ Lipoproteid FҩXWҥRJӗPOLSLGYjSURWHLQHFyWURQJFҩXWҥRPjQJWӃEjR

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ACIDE NUCLEIQUE 1/ *,Ӟ,7+,ӊ8&+81* : 1.1/ ĈҥLFѭѫQJ : Acide nucleique ÿѭӧFSKiWKLӋQWURQJFiFFҩXWU~FNKiFQKDXFӫDWӃEjRQKkQWL WKӇULERVRPe YjWURQJQKӳQJSKҫQKzDWDQFӫDWӃEjR&K~QJWӗQWҥLQKLӅXQKҩWWURQJFiF Fѫ TXDQ Yj FiF P{ QKLӅX QKkQ Yj Fy FѭӡQJ ÿӝ WәQJ KӧS SURWHLQ FDR Yt Gө WURQJ SK{L PҫPOiQRQKD\ӣÿӍQKVLQKWUѭӣQJFӫDFk\EDRJLӡKjPOѭӧQJDFLGe nucleique FNJQJFDR KѫQWURQJOiJLjYjFjQK &iFTXiWUuQKFѫEҧQQKҩWFӫDKӑDWÿӝQJVӕQJQKѭWәQJKӧSSURWeine VLQKWUѭӣQJ YjSKiWWULӇQVӵWUX\ӅQOҥLFiFWtQKFKҩWGLWUX\ӅQYY«ÿӅX[ҧ\UDYӟLVӵWKDPJLDFӫD acide nucleique. 7URQJWӃEjRVӕQJDFLGe nucleique OLrQNӃWYӟLSURWHLQe YjWҥRUDFiFSURWHLQe SKӭF WҥSQXFOHRSURWHLGe. 1.2/ ĈӏQKQJKƭD : Acide nucleique OjQKӳQJFKҩWWUQJKӧSFDRSKkQWӱY{FQJSKӭFWҥSYjFyYDL WUzUҩWTXDQWUӑQJWURQJKӑDWÿӝQJVӕQJFӫDVLQKYұW Acide nucleique ÿmÿѭӧFQKjEiFKӑF)LVFKHU0LHVFKHUSKiWKLӋQKѫQQăPYӅ WUѭӟF - QKѭQJFKӍWURQJYzQJ-QăPJҫQÿk\NKLVLQKKyDKӑFӭQJGөQJ FiFQJKLrQFӭXKLӋQÿҥLWKuWtQKFKҩWYjYDLWUzVLQKKӑFFӫDQyPӟLÿѭӧFQJKLrQFӭX 7URQJ Fѫ WKӇ VӕQJ Fy  OӑDL DFLGe nucleique FKӫ \ӃX ÿy Oj DFLGe ribonucleique (ARN) và acide desoyribonucleique (ADN). ADN (DNA) có khӕLOѭӧQJSKkQWӱWӯYjLFKөFÿӃQYjLWUăPWULӋXFK~QJFKӫ\ӃX WtFKONJ\WURQJQKkQWӃEjRQKѭQJPӝWVӕOӑDL$'1FzQÿѭӧFSKiWKLӋQWURQJFiFFҩXWU~F FӫDWӃEjRFKҩWQKѭOҥSWKӇWLWKӇ $51 51$ WURQJFѫWKӇFyQKLӅXOӑDL $51V $51KzDWDQ FyNKӕLOѭӧQJSKkQWӱQKӓ ± 35.000 ) $51U $51ULERWKӇ FyNKӕLOѭӧQJSKkQWӱWӯÿӃQWULӋX http://www.ebook.edu.vn

74


$51P $51WK{QJWLQ FyNKӕLOѭӧQJSKkQWӱWӯ± WULӋX 2/ 7+¬1+3+Ҫ1+Ï$+Ӑ&: .KLWKӫ\SKkQKzDQWzDQDFLGe nucleique phóng thích : Baz nLWѫ JӗPED]SXULQHYjED]SLULPLGLQH

3HQWRVH JӗPULERVHYjGHVR[\ULERVH

Acid phosphoric ( H3PO4 ) %D]QLWѫ EDVHQLWURJHQLTXH

2.1.1/ Baz purin

Adenine ( 6-aminopurine )

Guanine ( 2-amino-6-hidroxypurine)

2.1.2 / Baz pirimidin

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Cytocine

Thymine

(2-oxy-6 Âąaminopirimidine )

( 5-metiluracin )

Uracine ( 2,6- dioxypirimidine ) Ä&#x2C6;ŇťFĂżLÓ&#x2021;PTXDQWUÓ&#x2018;QJFÓŤDFiFGŇŻQVXŇŠWFKÓ­DR[\FÓŤDSLULPLGLQe vĂ  purine OjFK~QJFyNKҧ QÄ&#x192;QJKÓ&#x203A;ELÓ&#x192;Q WDXWRPHULVDWLRQ QKÓĄĂżyFK~QJFyWKÓ&#x2021;WÓ&#x2014;QWŇĽLÓŁGŇĽQJHQROKRŇťFFHWRQ Baz pirimidine Oj GŇŻQ VXŇŠW FÓŤD SLULPLGLQe JÓ&#x2014;P cytocine, uracine WK\PLQ WÓ&#x2014;Q WŇĽL WURQJ DFLGQXFOHLFYÓ&#x;LOŃ­Ó§QJĂżiQJNÓ&#x2021;FK~QJÿѭӧFJÓ&#x2018;LOjQKyPED]FKÓŤ\Ó&#x192;XErQFŇĽQKQKÓłQJED] NKiF Fy WURQJ DFLG QXFOHLF YÓ&#x;L OŃ­Ó§QJ tW QKŃ­ -oxymetilcytocin, pseuduracin vĂ  dihidrouracin. /Ń­X ĂŞ XUDFLQ FKÓ? Fy WURQJ $51 WKLPLQ FKÓ? Fy WURQJ $'1 F\WRFLQ Fy WURQJ $'1 Yj ARN.

2.2/ Pentose :

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&yOÓ&#x2018;DL'- ribose ( trong ARN ) vĂ  2-D- desoxyribose (trong ADN ) CH2OH

CH2OH O H

H

H

H

H

H

OH OH

OH

H

O

H

OH H

OH

Desoxyribose

Ribose

7yPOŇĽLDFLGQXFOHLFFyWKjQKSKŇŤQ KyDKÓ&#x2018;FQKŃ­VDX $51JÓ&#x2014;PDGHQLQJXDQLQXUDFLQF\WRFLQULERVH+3PO4 $'1JÓ&#x2014;PDGHQLQJXDQLQWKLPLQF\WRFLQGHVR[\ULERVH+3PO4. 2.3/ Nucleoside : /j VҧQ SKŇ­P OLrQ NÓ&#x192;W JLÓłD ED] QLWŃŤYÓ&#x;LSHQWRVH EÓŁLOLrQ NÓ&#x192;W JLÓłD & VÓ&#x2022;  FÓŤD ULERVH KD\ desoxyribRVHYÓ&#x;L1VÓ&#x2022;FÓŤDED]SXULQKRŇťF1VÓ&#x2022;FÓŤDED]SLULPLGLQ NH2

NH2 6

6

N

7N

1

2

2 3

4

8

9

CH2OH

CH2OH

4'

H

O

H

H

3'

1'

H

2'

OH

N

5'

5'

4 3

O

N

N

4'

5

N1

4

O

H 3'

OH

H

1'

2'

OH

OH

Adenosine

Citidine

7rQJÓ&#x2018;LFÓŤDQXFOHRVLGQKŃ­VDX http://www.ebook.edu.vn

77


1ӃXOjULERVH - Adenine + Ribose = Adenosine - Guanine + Ribose = Guanosine - Cytocine + Ribose = Citidine - Uracine + Ribose =Uridine - Thimine + Ribose = Ribothimidine 1ӃXOjGHVR[\ULERVH - Adenine + Desoxyribose = Desoxyadenosine - Guanine + Desoxyribose = Desoxyguanosine - Cytocine + Desoxyribose = Desoxycitidine - Uracine + Desoxyribose =Desoxyuridine - Thimine + Desoxyribose = Thimidine 2.4/ Nucleotide : /j HVWHU FӫD QXFOHVLG YӟL DFLG SKRVSKRULF WҥL Yӏ WUt & Vӕ  FӫD SHQWRVH 7rQ JӑL FӫD QXFOHRWLG GӵD YjR WrQ JӑL FӫD ED] QLWѫ Fy WURQJ WKjQK SKҫQ FӫD FK~QJ &iF QXFOHRWLG WURQJ $51 FKӭD ULERVH ÿѭӧF JӑL Oj ULERQXFOHRWLG FiF QXFOHRWLG WURQJ $'1 FKӭD GHVR[\ULERVHÿѭӧFJӑLOjGHVR[\ULERQXFOHRWLG Ribonucleotid - Adenosine + H3PO4 = acid adenilic (A) hay (AMP) - Guanosine + H3PO4 = acid guanilic ( G) hay ( GMP) - Cytidine + H3PO4 = acid citidilic ( C ) hay (CMP) - Uridine + H3PO4 = acid uridilic ( U ) hay (UMP) Desoxyribonucleotid -Desoxyadenosine + H3PO4 = acid desoxyadenilic (dA ) hay (dAMP) - Desoxyguanosine + H3PO4 = acid desoxyguanilic (dG ) hay (dGMP) - Desoxycitidine + H3PO4 = acid desoxycitidilic (dC ) hay (dCMP) - Desoxyuridine + H3PO4 = acid desoxyuridilic (dU ) hay (dUMP) - Thimidine + H3PO4 = acid desoxythimidilic ( T ) hay ( dTMP)

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1JzDL FiFK JӑL WrQ WUrQ ÿk\ FiF QXFOHRWLG FzQ ÿѭӧF JӑL WKHR FiFK NKiF Yt Gө DFLG DGHQLOLFFzQÿѭӧFJӑLOjDGHQRVLQPRQRSKRVSKDW $03 DFLGJXDQLOLFFzQÿѭӧFJӑLOj JXDQRVLQPRQRSKRVSKDW *03 «««YY NH2

NH2

6

6 4

N

7N

1

2

3

4

N

O

8

9

P OH

2

O

N

5'

O

HO

CH2 4'

H

O

H 3'

OH

P

O

OH H

CH2

O

H

4'

4 3

O

N

5'

HO

5

N1

H

1'

1'

3'

H

2'

OH OH

Acid adenilic ( adenosine monophosphat )

2'

OH

Acid citidilic ( cytidine monophosphat )

(AMP)

(CMP )

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hay

A / T =1

G=C

hay G / C =1.

7ӯÿyVX\UD A+G = T+C

hay (A+G) / (T+C) = 1.

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3.1.2- Vitamine D ( Calciferole ) /jQKyPYLWDPLQFKÓ&#x2022;QJEÓ&#x2039;QKFzL[Ń­ŃŤQJÓŁWUŇżHPFKŇąPPÓ&#x2018;FUÄ&#x192;QJ[Ń­ŃŤQJEÓ?PÓ&#x2026;P YLWDPLQH'WKDPJLDYjRTXiWUuQKĂżLÓ&#x2026;XKzDWUDRĂżÓ&#x2122;LFDOFLYjSKRVSKRYLWDPLQH'UŇŠWEÓ&#x2026;Q ÓŁ QKLÓ&#x2039;W ĂżÓ? FDR 7URQJ WKÓľF SKŇ­P YLWDPLQH ' WKŃ­ÓĄQJ Fy ÓŁ Fi ELÓ&#x2021;Q GŇŤX JDQ Fi WKX GŇŤX GÓŻDVÓłDOzQJĂżÓ&#x201C;WUÓ­QJÂŤ7URQJFiFP{WKÓľFYŇąWWKŃ­ÓĄQJNK{QJFyKRŇťFUŇŠWtWPjFKÓ?Fy WLÓ&#x2026;QYLWDPLQH'ĂżyOjFiFVWHUROHQKyPVWHUROHQj\FzQOjWLÓ&#x2026;QFKŇŠWFÓŤDQKLÓ&#x2026;XFKŇŠWNKiF QKŃ­ KRUPRQH ĂżÓ?QJ YŇąW 'Ń­Ó&#x;L WiF GÓŠQJ FÓŤD WLD WÓą QJÓ&#x2018;DL FiF VWHURO VÓ  FKX\Ó&#x2021;Q KyD WKjQK vitamine D

U.V

ergosterol (vitamin D1) vitamin D2

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aa

7-dehidrocholesterol

vitamin D3

http://www.ebook.edu.vn

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CH3

vitamin D4 3.1.3- Vitamine E (Tocopherole ) /jQKyPYLWDPLQHFҫQWKLӃWFKRTXiWUuQKVLQKVҧQEuQKWKѭӡQJFӫDÿӝQJYұWÿѭӧF WuPWKҩ\WURQJQKӳQJSKҫQ[DQKFӫDWKӵFYұWWURQJSK{LKҥWFӫDPӝWVӕWKӵFYұWQyÿѭӧF WәQJKӧSPҥQKYjRO~FKҥWQҭ\ PҫPQKҩWOjNKLQҭ\ PҫPQJzDL ViQJQyWKDPJLDYұQ FKX\ӇQÿLӋQWӱWURQJSKҧQӭQJR[\GNKӱFҫQWKLӃWFKRTXiWUuQKSKRVSKRU\OR[\KyDӣ P{FѫÿӇFKX\ӇQKyDJOXFLGOLSLG

http://www.ebook.edu.vn

92


3.1.4- Vitamine K ( Phylloquinone )

&ҫQWKLӃWFKRVӵÿ{QJPiXӣÿӝQJYұWӢWKӵFYұWWKuSKҫQ[DQKFKӭDQKLӅXYLWDPLQH. KѫQQyOjFKҩWYұQFKX\ӇQÿLӋQWӱWURQJTXiWUuQKTXDQJKӧSTXiWUuQKSKRVSKRU\OKyD R[\ KyD NqP WKHR WtFK ONJ\ QăQJ OѭӧQJ ӣ ÿӝQJ YұW WKDP JLD TXi WUuQK WәQJ KӧS \ӃX Wӕ ÿ{QJPiXWKURPELQFKX\ӇQKyDILEULQRJHQWKjQKILEULQ 3.1.5- Vitamine Q ( Ubiquinone ) &yFKӭFQăQJJҫQJLӕQJQKѭYLWDPLQH(.QyFy EҧQFKҩWOjFRHQ]\PH FӫD HQ]\PH4 OjPӝWHQ]\PHR[\KyDNKӱWURQJFKXәLK{KҩSYLWDPLQH4FzQWKDPJLDYұQ FKX\ӇQQKyPSKRVSKDWWURQJFKXәLR[\KyDNKӱ9LWDPLQH4FyQKLӅXWURQJFiFP{ÿӝQJ YұWWKӵFYұWPjӣÿyWLӃQKjQKTXiWUuQKR[\GKyDNKӱӣFѭӡQJÿӝFDR

http://www.ebook.edu.vn

93


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3.9LWDPLQHWDQWURQJQŃ­Ó&#x;F 3.2.1- Vitamine B1 ( Thiamine, Aneurine ) &ŇŤQWKLÓ&#x192;WFKÓ&#x2022;QJEÓ&#x2039;QKYLrWKŇŤQNLQKÓŁĂżÓ?QJYŇąW%1 OjWKjQKSKŇŤQFÓŤDQKLÓ&#x2026;XHQ]\PHQKŃ­ GHFDUER[\ODVH S\UXYDWGHVK\GURJHQDVH [~F WiF VÓľ NKÓą FDUER[\ FÓŤD DFLG S\UXYLF DFLG ÄŽ cetoglutaric B1 FyQKLÓ&#x2026;XÓŁFiPJŇĽRQŇŠPPHQ%1 EÓ&#x2026;QWURQJP{LWUŃ­ÓĄQJDFLGNK{QJEÓ&#x2026;Q WURQJP{LWUŃ­ÓĄQJNLÓ&#x2026;P

http://www.ebook.edu.vn

95


Vitamine B1 3.2.2- Vitamine B2 ( Riboflavine ) /jWKjQKSKŇŤQFÓŤDFRHQ]\PH)01)$'WKDPJLDYjRVÓľR[\GKyDFiFDFLGDPLQDFLG KÓłXFŃŤYjFiFKÓ§SFKŇŠWNKiF%2 OjWLQKWKÓ&#x2021;PjXYjQJFyYÓ?ÿҳQJWDQWURQJQŃ­Ó&#x;FEÓ&#x2026;QYÓ&#x;L QKLÓ&#x2039;WĂżÓ?YjDFLG%2 FyQKLÓ&#x2026;XWURQJQJÇ&#x160;FÓ&#x2022;FWUiLFk\WUÓ­QJQŇŠPPHQEiKPuQŇŠPHQELD

Vitamin B2 3.2.3- Vitamine B6 ( Pyridoxine ) /jWKjQKSKŇŤQFÓŤDHQ]\PH[~FWiFVÓľFKX\Ó&#x2021;QDPLQFiFDFLGDPLQNKÓąFDUER[\FyQKLÓ&#x2026;X ÓŁQŇŠPPHQFiPJŇĽR

http://www.ebook.edu.vn

96


Vitamine B6 3.2.4- Vitamine B12 ( Cyanocobalamine ) &KÓ?WÓ&#x2122;QJKÓ§SÿѭӧFÓŁQŇŠPPÓ&#x2022;FYjYLVLQKYŇąWӢÿÓ?QJYŇąW%12 FŇŤQWKLÓ&#x192;WFKRVӾÿÓ&#x2014;QJKyD WKÓ­FÄ&#x192;QVÓľWUDRĂżÓ&#x2122;LSURWHLQHOLSLGHJOXFLGH%12 FyWiFGÓŠQJNtFKWKtFKVÓľWŇĽRPiXÓŁWÓŤ\ [Ń­ŃŤQJ

3.2.5- Vitamine PP ( acid nicotinic , B5 ) Ó˘WKÓľFYŇąW33ÿѭӧFWÓ&#x2122;QJKÓ§SPŇĽQKNKLFk\QŇ­\PŇŤPOjWKjQKSKŇŤQFÓŤDHQ]\PHR[\GKyD NKÓą 1$' KD\ 1$'3 1JzDL UD ÓŁ WKÓľF YŇąW 33 ÿѭӧF WÓ&#x2122;QJ KÓ§S WÓŻ WU\SWRSKDQ 7KLÓ&#x192;X 33 ĂżÓ?QJYŇąWVÓ EÓ?EÓ&#x2039;QKGDVŇŤQVL33FyQKLÓ&#x2026;XWURQJWKÓ?WJDQPHQUŃ­Ó§X

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Vitamine PP 3.2.6- Vitamine C ( acid ascorbic ) /jFKŇŠWYŇąQFKX\Ó&#x2021;Q+LGURÓ˘WKÓľFYŇąWYLWDPLQ&ÿѭӧFWÓ&#x2122;QJKÓ§SWÓŻJOXFLGHWKLÓ&#x192;XYLWDPLQH & ĂżÓ?QJ YŇąW VÓ  EÓ? EÓ&#x2039;QK KÓ&#x2018;DL KX\Ó&#x192;WYLWDPLQH & Fy QKLÓ&#x2026;X ÓŁ FDP FKDQK EŃ­ÓŁL UDX [DQK 9LWDPLQH&FKÓ?XÿѭӧFQKLÓ&#x2039;WĂżÓ?FDRÓŁS+WUXQJWtQKKD\DFLG

Vitamine C 3.2.7- Vitamine H ( Biotine, B8 ) LĂ  chŇŠWWKDPJLDYjRTXiWUuQKNKÓą&22 YjLDFLGDPLQH&yQKLÓ&#x2026;XÓŁJDQĂżÓ?QJYŇąWVÓłD QŇŠPPHQÿҹXQjQK7KLÓ&#x192;XYLWDPLQH+VÓľVLQKWUŃ­ÓŁQJFÓŤDĂżÓ?QJYŇąWVÓ FKŇąPOŇĽLYLrPGD WKLÓ&#x192;XPiXWX\Ó&#x192;QPÓĽGDWLÓ&#x192;WQKLÓ&#x2026;XPÓĽ7iFGÓŠQJFKtQKFÓŤDYLWDPLQ+OjWKDPJLDFKX\Ó&#x2021;Q hĂłDPÓĽ

Vitamine H http://www.ebook.edu.vn

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3.2.8 ± Acid folic ( vitamine Bc ) 9LWDPLQH %F WKDP JLD YұQ FKX\ӇQ QKyP IRUPDOGHKLG PHWLO WKDP JLD WәQJ KӧS QKkQ SXULQOjWKjQKSKҫQ$'17KLӃXDFLGIROLFVӁҧQKKѭӣQJVӵWҥRKӗQJFҫX$FLGIROLFFy QKLӅXWURQJOiPHQELDQҩPQJNJFӕF

Acid folic 4 ± Kháng vitamine ( antivitamine ) : .KiQJYLWDPLQHOjFKҩWFyNKҧQăQJOjPPҩWWiFGөQJFӫDYLWDPLQYjFyWiFGөQJFKӕQJ OҥLFK~QJ$QWLYLWDPLQHWKѭӡQJJk\UDFiFFKӭQJEӋQKWKLӃXYLWDPLQHӣQJѭӡLÿӝQJYұW WKӵFYұWYjYLVLQKYұW&ҩXWҥRKyDKӑFFӫDDQWLYLWDPLQHJҫQJLӕQJYӟLYLWDPLQHQJKƭDOj NKXQJFѫEҧQNK{QJWKD\ÿәLFKӍWKD\ÿәLFiFQKyPErQ7iFGөQJOjPY{KӑDWWtQKFӫD YLWDPLQHOjGRDQWLYLWDPLQHFyNKҧQăQJFKLӃPOҩ\YӏWUtFӫD&RHQ]\PH9jLYtGө * Piridin -3- VXOIRDFLGOjDQWLYLWDPLQHFӫDYLWDPLQH33

SO3H

N piridin- 3- sunfo acid Acid nicotinic ( vitamine PP ) $FLG JOXFRDVFRUELF WURQJ FҩX WҥR FKӍ NKiF YLWDPLQH & Oj WăQJ WKrP  QKyP &+2+ QJKƭDOjFyFDUERQWKuWUӣWKjQKDQWLYLWDPLQH&

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+Ӧ3&+Ҩ77+Ӭ&Ҩ3. &QJ YӟL SURWHLQH DFLGH QXFOHLF JOXFLGH OLSLGH Yj YLWDPLQH WURQJ WKӵF YұW còn có các FKҩWNKiFQKDXWKѭӡQJÿѭӧFJӑLOjQKӳQJKӧSFKҩWFyQJXӗQJӕFWKӭFҩSWX\UҵQJWURQJ WKӵFYұWFiFFKҩWQj\FyPӝWOѭӧQJNK{QJQKLӅXQKѭQJFK~QJFyPӝWYDLWUzTXDQWUӑQJ WURQJVӵFKX\ӇQKyDӣWKӵFYұWQKLӅXFKҩWWURQJVӕQj\YtGөQKѭQKӳQJDFLGKӳXFѫNKL WҥRWKjQKVӁ ÿѭӧFVӱGөQJFKRFiFTXiWUuQK WәQJKӧSNKiFFKtQK YuWKӃFK~QJ NK{QJ ÿѭӧF WtFK ONJ\ QKLӅX Yj ÿӅX Oj VҧQ SKҭP WUXQJ JLDQ FӫD Vӵ FKX\ӇQ KyD 0ӝW Vӕ FKҩW OҥL ÿѭӧFWtFKONJ\QKLӅXKѫQ DONDORLGHFDRVXWLQKGҫX« YjFK~QJTXLÿӏQKWtQKÿһFWK FӫD Vӵ FKX\ӇQ KyD ӣ WKӵF YұW Qj\ 1KLӅX FKҩW WURQJ Vӕ Qj\ Fy ӣ PӝW PӭF ÿӝ ÿiQJ NӇ FK~QJTXLÿӏQKJLiWUӏWKӵFSKҭPYjJLiWUӏPLYӏFӫDQKLӅXVҧQSKҭPNKiFQKDX 7ҩWFҧFiFFKҩWFyQJXӗQJӕFWKӭFҩSFyWKӇFKLDWKjQKFiFQKyPVDXÿk\ : 1 ± $FLGKӳXFѫ 2 ± 7LQKGҫX 3 ± Alkaloide. 4 ± Cao su 5 ± &iFFKҩWÿLӅXKzDVLQKWUѭӣQJWKӵFYұW $&,'+Ӳ8&Ѫ &iFDFLGKӳXFѫÿӅXOjQKӳQJKӧSFKҩWWUXQJJLDQWURQJWLӃQWUuQKR[LGKyDJOXFLGH OLSLGHDFLGHDPLQH&K~QJÿѭӧFGQJWURQJVӵWәQJKӧSDFLGHDPLQHDONDORLGHYjQKLӅX KӧSFKҩWNKiF$FLGHKӳXFѫFyP{WYDLWUzTXDQWUӑQJWURQJVӵFKX\ӇQKyDYjFyPӝWê QJKƭDWKӵFWLӇQYuFK~QJÿӅXOjQKӳQJFKҩWTXLÿӏQKPLYӏFӫDQKLӅXORҥLWKӵFSKҭP&iF HVWHUFӫDDFLGKӳXFѫÿӅXWҥRQrQPLYӏÿһFWUѭQJFӫDFiFORҥLWUiL Acetate amil : CH3COO(CH2)4CH3 PLFKXӕL Acetate octil : CH3COO(CH2)7CH3 : mùi cam. Butyrate metil : CH3(CH2)2COO CH3 :mùi dâu Butyrate isoamil : CH3(CH2)2 COO(CH2)4 CH3 :mùi lê. http://www.ebook.edu.vn

100


Butyrate etil : CH3 (CH2)2 COO C2H5PLGÓ­D Isovalerate isoamil (CH3)2CH CH2 COOCH2CH (CH3)2: mĂši tĂĄo. &iFGŇĽQJDFLGKÓłXFŃŤÓŁWKÓľFYŇąW

Acide formique :

H - COOH.

Acide acetique :

CH3- COOH.

Acide glyoxilique :

CH2 -OH COOH.

Acide propionique :

CH3- CH2-COOH.

Acide lactique :

CH3- CHOH - COOH.

Acide pyruvique :

CH3 ÂąCO- COOH.

Acide glycerique :

CH2OH- CHOH- COOH.

Acide n butyrique :

CH3 -CH2-CH2 COOH.

Acide isovalerique : (CH3)2 (CH) CH2 COOH Acide oxalique :

HOOC- COOH.

Acide malonique : HOOC -CH2 -COOH. Acide succinique : HOOC-CH2- CH2-COOH. Acide fumarique : HOOC- CH=CH- COOH. HOOC- CHOH- CH2- COOH.

Acide malique :

Acide oxaloacetique : HOOC-CO- CH2 -COOH. Acide tartrique :

HOOC- CHOH- CHOH- COOH.

Acide citrique :

HOOC- CH2 HO(C)COOH- CHOH COOH.

Acide isocitrique :

HOOC- CH2(CH)COOH-CHOH-COOH.

Acide cis aconitique : HOOC-CH2(CH)COOH- CH2- COOH. Acide gluconique :

CH2OH(CHOH)4 COOH.

$FLG FLWULF Yj DFLG PDOLF Oj VҧQ SKŇ­P WUXQJ JLDQ FÓŤD TXi WUuQK WUDR ĂżÓ&#x2122;L JOXFLG  DFLGDPLQQyKLÓ&#x2039;QGLÓ&#x2039;QQKLÓ&#x2026;XÓŁWUiLQKŇŠWOjFDPFKDQKGkXFjFKXDFKHUU\

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Acid oxalic & acid Į ± FHWRJOXWDULFKLӋQGLӋQӣWKӵFYұWUҩWtWYuFK~QJVӁFKX\ӇQ KyDWKjQKFKҩWNKiFYtGөQKѭDFLGDPLQ Acid Į ± cetRJOXWDULFFKX\ӇQKyDWKjQKDFLGJOXWDPLFDODQLQ $FLGR[DOLFFyWKӇӣGҥQJWӵGRKD\PXӕLR[DODWFDOFL $FLGDFRQLWLFKLӋQGLӋQYӟLOѭӧQJÿiQJNӇӣFk\PtDOjVҧQSKҭPWUXQJJLDQFӫDTXiWUuQK FKX\ӇQKyDJOXFLGH $FLGDFHWLFOjVҧQSKҭPOrQPHQGҩP $FLGEXW\ULFKLӋQGLӋQUҩWtWӣWKӵFYұWGҥQJWӵGRFyPLKҳFUҩWNKyFKӏXQKѭQJ ӣGҥQJHVWHUWKuFyPLWKѫPÿһFWUѭQJQrQFiFHVWHUFӫDDFLGEXW\ULFÿѭӧFVӱGөQJUӝQJ UmLWURQJNӻQJKӋEiQKNҽRYtGөQKѭEXW\UDWPHWKLOFyPLWiREXW\UDWHWKLOFyPLGӭD $FLGODFWLFOjVҧQSKҭPFӫDT~DWUuQKOrQPHQODFWLFӣWKӵFYұWӭQJGөQJFӫDOrQ PHQQj\WURQJPXӕLGѭD $FLG S\UXYLF Oj VҧQ SKҭP WUXQJ JLDQ WURQJ TXi WUuQK WUDR ÿәL JOXFLG OLSLG DFLG amin. &iFDFLGKӳXFѫOLrQTXDQÿӃQFiFTXiWUuQKVӕQJFӫDWKӵFYұWQKѭ 7ҥRQrQPLYӏÿһFWUѭQJ 6ҧQSKҭPWUXQJJLDQFӫDFiFTXiWUuQKWәQJKӧSDFLGDPLQJOXFLGOLSLG 7,1+'Ҫ8 1KLӅXORҥLFk\FyPLÿһFWUѭQJEӣLVӵFyPһWFӫDFiFWHUSHQHYjFiFGүQVXҩWFӫD FK~QJ&iFWHUSHQYjFiFVҧQSKҭPR[LGKyDFӫDFK~QJÿӅXWҥRWKjQKWLQKGҫX 7HUSHQ Oj QKӳQJ K\GURFDUERQ Fy Vӕ QJX\rQ Wӱ FDUERQ Oj EӝL Vӕ FӫD  QyL FiFK NKiFWHUSHQOjFKҩWWUQJKӧSFӫDLVRSUHQ &5 H8 )

CH2

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CH3

CH3

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Isopren

0RQRWHUSHQQ OjWKjQKSKҫQFҩXWҥRFKtQKFӫDWLQKGҫXWKӵFYұW 'ҥQJKLGURFDUERQJӗPFy http://www.ebook.edu.vn

102


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CH3 CH2

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103


&LWURQHOOROFyWURQJWLQKGŇŤXKRDKÓ&#x2014;QJ

CH3

CH3 C

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CH3 Citronellol ( tinh daĂ u hoa hoĂ ng) (C10H20O) 1KyPQj\FyWKÓ&#x2021;ELÓ&#x192;QĂżÓ&#x2122;LWKjQKGŇĽQJYzQJGÓ&#x2030;GjQJYtGÓŠ*HUDQLROWKjQK/LPRQHQH

geraniol

limonene

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CH3 Citral ( tinh daĂ u cam, chanh) (C10H16O )

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CH2

CH3 C

CH2 CH2

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CH3 Citronellal ( tinh daàu chanh, quyùt) (C10H18O ) 'ҥQJFHWRQJӗPFy 0HQWKRQFyWURQJWLQKGҫXEҥFKj

O

Menthon (tinh daàu baïc haø)

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O

Carvon (tinh daàu caây hoài, thìa laø)

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105


&DPSKRUFyUҩWQKLӅXWURQJFiFWLQKGҫXNKiFQKDXQKLӅXQKҩWWURQJWKkQJӛYjOiFk\ ORQJQmRQJj\QD\FDPSKRUÿѭӧFWUtFKFKӫ\ӃXWӯKѭѫQJQKX DUWHPLQLDDVWUDFKDPLFD

O

Camphor (tinh daàu caây long naõo, höông nhu) 3 / CAO SU : 9jLORҥLFk\WURQJKӋWKӕQJPҥFKFyQKӳQJWӃEjRFKӭDQKӵD ODWH[ YjWURQJQKӵD Qj\WKjQKSKҫQFKtQKOjFDRVXPjXWUҳQJVӳDQJRjLFDRVXFzQFyQKӳQJFKҩWNKiFEDR EӑFSKkQWӱFDRVXYjFKHFKӣQKӳQJSKkQWӱQj\QKѭSURWHLQHJOXFLGHSKRVSKROLSLGH PXӕLNKRiQJ QKLӅXQKҩWOj.&O TXHEUDFKLWRO HVWHUPHWLOFӫDLQRVLWRO DFLGEpRViS &DRVXNK{QJFyӣÿѫQWӱGLӋSYjO}DWӱӣVRQJWӱGLӋSVDRVXKLӋQGLӋQӣYjLKӑ QKѭ0RUDFHDH$VFOHpiadaceae,Apocynaceae,Euphorbiaceae Papaveraceae, Compotaceae. 7KjQKSKҫQFDRVXӣQKӵD ODWH[ WӍOӋQJKӏFKYӟLWLQKGҫXYjUHVLQHWӍOӋQj\WKD\ÿәL WKHRVӵSKiWWULӇQFӫDFk\YuFQJWLӅQFKҩWQrQÿLӅXNLӋQWKtFKKӧSFKRFKҩWQjRWKuVӁ WәQJKӧSQrQFKҩWÿy &DRVXOjFKҩWWUQJKӧSFӫDQKLӅXÿѫQYӏLVRSUHQe (C5H8 QOjPӝWSRO\LVRSUHQRLG FDRVXFӫDFk\+DYHDEUDVLOLHQVLVJӗm 500 ± KD\KѫQQӳDJӕFLVRSUHQH /DWH[OjWrQGQJÿӇFKӍQKӳQJQKӵDJLӕQJQKѭVӳD 5HVLQH Oj WrQ ÿӇ FKӍ QKӳQJ KӛQ KӧS SKӭF WҥS FӫD QKӳQJ FKҩW R[LG KyD FӫD K\GURFDUERQWKѭӡQJWDQWURQJQѭӟFYjGXQJP{LFӫDFKҩWEpR

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106


Isoprene

Cao su &KXәLLVRSUHQH Qj\ GjL KD\ QJҳQ W\ WKHR WXәL FӫD Fk\ Fk\ FjQJ JLj WKuFKXәL LVRSUHQH Qj\FjQJGjLQKӳQJFKXәLQj\FyWKӇ[RҳQOҥLWҥRPӝWFҩXWU~FFKLӅXWKHRNLӇXFѫFҩX FӫDSURWHLQHYjWҥRQrQWtQKÿjQKӗLFӫDcao su 4 / ALKALOIDE : $ONDORLGOjQKӳQJKӧSFKҩWFKӭD1LWUR 1 FӫDWKӵFYұWFyWtQKÿӝF tWKD\QKLӅX

YuFK~QJWiFÿӝQJYjRKӋWKҫQNLQKWUXQJѭѫQJQKӳQJFKҩWQj\WKѭӡQJJһSӣVRQJWӱ GLӋSWURQJPӛLORҥLFk\FyFKӭDDONDORLGHWKѭӡQJFyDONDORLGHFKӫ\ӃXYjYjLDONDORLGH ӣQӗQJÿӝtWKѫQ 9tGө7KXӕFOiFy1LFRWLQH FKtQK và Nornicotine 7KXӕFSKLӋQFy0RUSKLQH FKtQK Yj&RGHLQH7KHOVDYLQH &iFORҥLDONDORLGH A/ Alkaloide nhóm piridine 1LFRWLQHFӫDWKXӕFOi QLFRWLDQDWDEDFXP

$UHROLQHFӫDWUiLFDX $UHFDFDWDFKX

3LSHULQHFӫDKҥWWLrX SLSHUQLJUD NK{QJÿӝFJk\FҧPJLiFQyQJ 5LFLQLQHFӫDFk\WKҫXGҫX ULFLQXVFRPPXQLV UҩWÿӝF

http://www.ebook.edu.vn

107


nhân piridine

ricinine

Piperine

Nicotine B/ Alkaloide nhĂłm tropane 7KXÓ?FQKyPQj\Fy $WURSLQH $WURSDEHOODGRQD WiFĂżÓ?QJOrQKÓ&#x2039;WKŇŤQNLQKFKÓŤ\Ó&#x192;XOjPco GmQFRQQJŃ­ŃŤL FyWKÓ&#x2021;GQJOjPFKŇŠWJLҧLĂżÓ?F &RFDLQHOjPWrOLÓ&#x2039;WÿҍXGk\WKŇŤQNLQKGQJĂżÓ&#x2021;Jk\WrEÓ?SKŇąQ

Atropine nhân tropan http://www.ebook.edu.vn

108


Cocaine C / Alkaloide nhĂłm isoquinoleine Ä&#x2C6;k\OjQKyPDONDORLGHFÓŤDWKXÓ&#x2022;FSKLÓ&#x2039;Q 0RUSKLQHWiFGÓŠQJOrQKÓ&#x2039;WKŇŤQNLQKWUXQJŃ­ŃŤQJYjQJÓ&#x2018;DLYLQyOjFKŇŠWDQWKŇŤQ JLҧPĂżDX &RGHLQHGQJOjPWKXÓ&#x2022;FKRNK{QJFyWiFGÓŠQJJk\Pr 4XLQLQHGQJOjPWKXÓ&#x2022;FFKÓłDEÓ&#x2039;QKVÓ&#x2022;WUpW

morphine

codeine

Quinine

'$ONDORLGHGŇŻQVXŇŠWWÓŻ,QGROH 1KyPQj\FyWURQJKŇĽWOzDL6WU\FKQRVPX[YRPLFDKÓ&#x2018;/RJDQLDFHDHFyWrQFKXQJOj&XUDUH

http://www.ebook.edu.vn

109


Strychnine nhân Indol

($ONDORLGHGүQVXҩWWӯSXULQH &DIHLQHNtFKWKtFKKӋWKҫQNLQKWUXQJѭѫQJYjKӑDWÿӝQJFӫDWLP7iFGөQJFӫDFDIHLQH OjPPҥFKPiXEӏFRYjWăQJKX\ӃWiS 7KHREURPLQHFyWURQJKҥWFjShê

nhân Purine

Cafeine

Theobromine 6LQKWәQJKӧS$ONDORLGH %ҵQJQKLӅXWKtQJKLӋP WKiSWKkQFjFKXDYjRUӉWKXӕFOi QJѭӡLWDFKӭQJPLQKÿѭӧF QLFRWLQHFӫDWKXӕFOiÿѭӧFWәQJKӧSӣUӉWӯJOXFLGHӣOiFKX\ӇQ[XӕQJFQJYӟLQLWѫY{Fѫ KҩSWKөÿѭӧFӣUӉVDXÿyFKX\ӇQÿӃQOiYjWtFKWөӣÿy7LӅQFKҩWÿӇWәQJKӧSDONDORLGH WKѭӡQJOjDFLGDPLQHQKҩWOjQKӳQJGLDPLQRDFLGHYjQKӳQJFKX\ӇQKyDSKHQ\OSURSDQH http://www.ebook.edu.vn

110


6Ҳ&7Ӕ7+Ӵ&9Æ7 $QWKRF\DQLQHYjQKӳQJKӧSFKҩWOLrQTXDQ

1 ĈҥLFѭѫQJ 0һFGDQWKRF\DQLQHYjQKӳQJKӧSFKҩWOLrQKӋNK{QJSKҧLOjOLSLGHQKѭQJWKѭӡQJ FK~QJÿѭӧF[ӃSFQJYӟLFDURWHQRLGHYjFKORURSK\OOjQKyPVҳFWӕFKtQKFӫDWKӵFYұWӢ Fk\ [DQK FKORURSK\O KLӋQ GLӋQ ӣ KҥW JUDQD FӫD GLӋS OҥS FKORURSODVW  FQJ YӟL FDURWHQRLGH&zQQKӳQJVҳFWӕNKiFWKѭӡQJWKuWDQWӵGRWURQJQѭӟFYjWKѭӡQJWuPWKҩ\ӣ GӏFK NK{QJ EjR FӫD WӃ EjR WKӵF YұW 1KӳQJ PjX ÿӓ [DQK ODP  EOXH  Yj WtP Oj QKӳQJ JOXFRVLGH FKӭD  KD\  ÿѫQ Yӏ JOXFLGH YӟL  DJO\FRQH JӑL Oj DQWKRF\DQLGLQH $QWKRF\DQLGLQHOjGүQVXҩWFӫD± trihydroxyflavilyum hydroxide (2 ± phenyl ± 3, 5, 7 trihydroxybenzopyrylium hydroxide )

B

A

Anthocyanidine %D QKyP FKtQK FӫD DQWKRF\DQLGLQH ÿѭӧF SKkQ FKLD GӵD WUrQ QKyP WKrP FӫD QKkQ %  3KҫQOӟQDQWKRF\DQLGLQHFyWKӇFKӭDWӯÿӃQQKyP2+YjPӝWYjLQKyP2+Qj\Fy WKӇÿѭӧFWKD\WKӃEҵQJ&+3 YjVӕÿѫQYӏJOXFLGFyWKӇWKD\ÿәLWӯÿӃQ ӣYӏWUtYj FӫDDJO\FRQH  0jXVҳFFӫD VҳFWӕW\ WKXӝFYjR VӕQKyP 2+YjFKLӅXGjLFӫDQKyP PHWKR[\O WKD\WKӃQKyP2+ &+3 O ) http://www.ebook.edu.vn

111


1JzDLUDPjXFӫDVҳFWӕFzQW\WKXӝFS+ӣS+DFLGWKuPjXÿӓS+WUXQJWtQKWKu PjXWtP KRһFÿӓWKҭP S+NLӅPWKu[DQKOѫ EOXH

23+Æ1/Ӑ$,6Ҳ&7Ӕ $QWKRF\DQLQHOjVҳFWӕFKtQKFӫDKRDYjWUiL )ODYRQHOjVҳFWӕSKөFӫDKRDWUiLYjOi 3/ Flavonoide ( Chalcone & Aurones ) 2.1/ Anthocyanine /jVҳFWӕFKtQKFӫDKRDYjWUiLFK~QJOjPFKRKRDYjWUiLFyPjX[DQKÿӓYjFiFVҳFWӕ NKiF &K~QJ Fy WKӇ Oj  JOXFRVLGH FӫD DQWKRF\DQLGLQH 6ӵ KLӋQ GLӋQ FӫD QKyP PHWR[\ OCH3 làm FKRÿӓKѫQ&iFQKyP2+FӫDYzQJ%FNJQJOj\ӃXWӕÿLӅXKzDPjXVҳFQӃX QKyP2+WăQJWKuPjXÿӓJLҧPPjX[DQKWăQg

2.2/ Flavone & Flavonol /jPӝWQKyPVҳFWӕKLӋQGLӋQSKәELӃQӣWKӵFYұWOLrQKӋÿӃQDQWKRF\DQLGLQHFK~QJFy PjX YjQJ Yj SKҫQ OӟQ QKӳQJ FKX\ӇQ KyD K\GUR[\ FӫD Qy QKѭ IODYRQH IODYRQRO Yj flavanone có màu vàng

OH

Flavone

Flavonol http://www.ebook.edu.vn

112


2.3/ Chalcone & Aurone 7KŃ­ÓĄQJFyPjXYjQJÓŁGŇĽQJWÓľGRKD\OLrQNÓ&#x192;WYÓ&#x;LPÓ?WJOXFLGH

Chalcone

Aurone

6LQKWÓ&#x2122;QJKÓ§S $JO\FRQHFÓŤDQKÓłQJVŇłFWÓ&#x2022;WKÓľFYŇąWĂżÓ&#x2026;XFyPÓ?WVŃ­ÓĄQFÄ&#x192;QEҧQOj C6 Âą C3 Âą C6 QrQWKHR6HVKDGULYj3HDFKQrQFyWKÓ&#x2021;VŃ­ÓĄQSKHQ\OSURSDQNÓ&#x192;WKÓ§S YÓ&#x;L SRO\SKHQROĂżÓ&#x2021;FKRUDVŃ­ÓĄQ&6 Âą C3 Âą C6 SKHQ\OSURSDQFyWKÓ&#x2021;OjDFLGHÂąp- coumarique vĂ  acide caffeique

HOOC - CH = CH-

Acid -p-coumaric

- OH

HOOC - CH = CH-

Acid caffeic

http://www.ebook.edu.vn

- OH OH

113


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/jQKӳQJFKҩWFyNKҧ QăQJNtFKWKtFKVӵGmQFӫDWӃEjR ÿѭӧFWKjQKOұS ӣQKӳQJSKҫQ FXӕLFQJFӫDWKӵFYұWÿһFELӋWOjӣQKӳQJGLӋSWLrX ÿҫXEDROiPҫP FӫDQKӳQJFk\ FRQYjFK~QJWiFÿӝQJÿӃQQKӳQJWӃEjRErQGѭӟLQy7KXӝFQKyPQj\OjQKӳQJDX[LQH QKѭ,$$ LQGRO\O± 3 ± acetic acid ). ,$$ÿѭӧFSKkQEӕNKҳSQѫLWURQJFk\ ÿҫXEDROiPҫPFKӗLQJӑQOiQRQÿҫXUӉ«YY  ,$$ÿѭӧFWKӵFYұWWәQJKӧSWӯWU\SWRSKDQH 7iF GөQJ FӫD DX[LQH JLҧL WKtFK KLӋQ WѭӧQJ TXDQJ KѭӟQJ  ÿӝQJ (phototropisme ), ÿӏDKѭӟQJÿӝQJ JHRWURSLVPH).+LӋQWѭӧQJÿӏDKѭӟQJÿӝQJQJKӏFK negative geotropisme) FӫD PӝW FKӗL TXD\ KѭӟQJ YӅ SKtD WUrQ Oj NӃW TXҧ FӫD PӝW Vӵ WұS WUXQJ QӗQJ ÿӝ DX[LQH WURQJQKӳQJWӃEjRӣFҥQKErQGѭӟLFӫDFKӗLOjPFKRQKӳQJWӃEjRӣFҥQKGѭӟLFӫDFKӗL GmQGjLQKDQKKѫQQKӳQJWӃEjRӣFҥQKWUrQGRÿyFKӗLVӁKѭӟQJOrQWUrQ7ѭѫQJWӵQKѭ Yұ\ NKL PӝW UӉ Fk\ ÿӇ ӣWѭ WKӃ QҵP QJDQJ WKu QKӳQJ WӃ EjR ӣ FҥQK GѭӟLWtFK Wө DX[LQH FQJYӟLFiFKҥW&DOFLQJăQFҧQVӵGmQGjLQKӳQJWӃEjRӣFҥQKQj\OjPFKRUӉKѭӟQJÿӏD WKXұQ SRVLWLYH JHRWURSLVPH  ,$$ FzQ Oj FKR UӉ VLQK UD QKDQK FKyQJ ӣ FiF FjQK JLkP ÿѭӧFJLҧL WKtFK QKѭ Oj Vӵ GL FKX\ӇQ ,$$ Wӯ FKӗL QJӑQ [XӕQJ WұS WUXQJ ӣYQJ JӕF FӫD FjQKEӏFҳW 7ӃEjRWKӵFYұWFyFKӭDLQGRO\O± 3 ± DFHWDOGHKLGHFyWiFÿӝQJDX[LQH\ӃXQKѭQJ FK~QJVҷQVjQJEӏR[\GKyDWKjQK,$$1JzDLUDFzQFyLQGRO\O± 3 ± acetonitril ( - CH 2 &1 KLӋQGLӋQQKLӅXӣWKӵFYұWKӳXKLӋXKѫQ,$A. http://www.ebook.edu.vn

114


IAA

.tFKWKtFKSKkQFKLDWӃEjR FHOOGLYLVLRQKRUPRQH

.KLPӝWYӃWWKѭѫQJÿѭӧFJk\UDFKRPӝWP{WKӵFYұWWKuOұSWӭFӣYӃWWKѭѫQJÿyFyVӵ KuQKWKjQK PӝW P{VҽR ZRXQGFDOOXV 6ӵKuQKWKjQK P{VҽRQj\ OjGRVӵNtFKWKtFK SKkQFKLDQKӳQJWӃEjRÿmWUѭӣQJWKjQKӣYQJEӏWKѭѫQJGѭӟLWiFÿӝQJFӫDKRUPRQH ; PӝWOjDX[LQHKDLOjNtFKWKtFKWӕWKѭѫQJWtFK ÿyOjDFLGWUDXPDWLFO\WUtFKÿѭӧFWӯWӃEjR EӏWKѭѫQJ+22&± CH = CH ± ( CH 2)8 ± COOH. 0ӝWVӕGLFDUER[\OLFDFLGWѭѫQJWӵQKѭ FҩXWU~FFӫDWUDXPDWLFDFLGFNJQJFyWiFGөQJWѭѫQJWӵ QJzDLUDWURQJQѭӟFGӯDFyFKӭD PӝW FKҩW Fy NKҧ QăQJ NtFK WKtFK SKkQ FKLD WӃ EjR Oj  ± diphenylurea

C 6 H5

NHCONHC6 H5. 2.3/ Kích thích ra hoa ( flower forming hormone ) $FLGJLEEHUHOOLFFNJQJWiFÿӝQJJLӕQJQKѭDX[LQHQJKƭDOjNtFKWKtFKVӵGmQGjLFӫDWӃEjR QKѭQJQyFNJQJNtFKWKtFKVӵUa hoa VӵQҭ\PҫPFӫDNKRDLWk\

http://www.ebook.edu.vn

115


2.4/ Cytokinin 1KyPQj\NtFKWKtFKVӵSKkQFKLDWӃEjR ÿһFELӋWNtFKWKtFKVӵSKiWVLQKFKӗL WiFÿӝQJ WUiLQJӵӧFYӟLDX[LQH 7KXӝFQKyPQj\Fy.LQHWLQH

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http://www.ebook.edu.vn

116


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