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Lucid

Clay Kippen


Lucid Seeing as a Tool for Learning


This work was created by Clay Kippen as a component of the Master of Fine Arts Degree in Products of Design, at the School of Visual Arts, New York, New York. April 29th, 2014


Table of Contents Introduction - 6

Lenses - 86

Abstract Making Photographs Digital Devices Goals and Objectives Defining Lucid

Speculative Sketches Music Box Portrait Early Prototype Lucid Cameras Cybernetic Systems Science Dreams

Research - 32 Foundation Secondary Sources Subject Matter Experts

Audience & Market - 62 Audience 3D Printing 3D Modeling Analog Photography 3D printed Cameras

Workshop - 164 Audience 3D Printing 3D Modeling Analog Photography 3D printed Cameras

Back Matter- 184 End Notes Bibliography Image Reference Acknowledgments

Service Model - 74 Value Proposition Basic Financial Model Launch Strategy


Introduction


Abstract Lucid is a yearlong exploration in product and service design. It offers a digital platform and various artifacts that engender people to change their relationship with technology. Lucid aims to introduce elements of chance, customization, and difficulty into a suite of digital interfaces and material objects. These qualities keep our products openended, but are often removed as things are translated from analog to digital, and are most likely seen as obtrusive and inconvenient.1 While the technological ideal is to create the most efficient, and consistent products, it is also necessary to allow for people to grow through trial and error. With small difficulties, people have the chance to rely on their intuition, or on others to help them achieve desired results for the task at hand. However, when the chance for failure is removed from our technology, this greatly affects our mental models of how those systems work. As Richard Sennett argues in his book, The Craftsman, it is the imperfections in our tools allow for us to progress and tailor them to our personal needs.2 It is this type of intuition, recognized as tacit knowledge, which allows us to develop the problem-solving skills that we use in our daily lives.3 As a case study in considering the translation of systems from analog to digital, Lucid delves into the inner workings of cameras and images. Within the scope of this project, Lucid is defined by the appreciation of our environment and the education that is afforded through play with toys. Appreciation comes in the form of respect for the idiosyncrasies of the camera, such as light leaks and lens distortion, that the photographer can take advantage of as a means to create dramatic effects in his/her work. It also comes in the form of awareness in the environment and seeing things differently, like how a skateboarder sees a set of stairs as an opportunity for tricks rather than for walking. The educational component encompasses one’s acquired understanding of the technical aspects behind photography, from the mechanics of the camera itself to the chemistry behind the film processing. While anyone can pick up a camera and take photographs, it is through a practice that one learns to achieve the desired results. Play allows for the photographer to experiment by taking chances with each picture, and to have fun while making. Toy is a way of considering the camera as an experimental tool that allows for you to see the world differently through its lens. This series of objects and services points to the simultaneous engagement of the body and mind through tactile cues and physical experiences. Touch, sight, and the ability to physically manipulate things

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in our environment allows us to discover our passions and to engage ourselves with the surrounding world.4 Since digital technologies are becoming an increased presence in our daily lives, it is important to offer variety in the ways that these technologies can stimulate us both mentally and physically. Lucid’s main offering is a computer modeling service that changes the relationship between the camera and image. Traditionally, a camera records an image, which is enlarged as a photographic print. Lucid uses the photograph to generate a model for a 3D printed camera. First, a photograph is uploaded onto the Lucid Modeler’s interface. Then an algorithm analyzes the light and content of the image to generate a 3D model of a camera. Once the model of the camera is created, both the 3D model of the camera and the image are presented next to each other in the same window. Underneath are a series of adjustable sliders that are linked to the specific functions of the camera and the various aesthetic effects of the image. For instance, if you adjust the aperture setting underneath the camera, then you can see how this changes both the form of the camera, and the focus in the image. This is a type of reactive modeling, where adjustments in the parameters of one function affect the whole system. Once you are satisfied with the image and the resulting 3D model, you have the opportunity to either 3D print it yourself, or order a 3D print from our service. Then, the camera can be assembled and used to shoot pictures. So while the digital component of the Lucid Modeler teaches the mechanical functions of the camera, the 3D printed physical form allows for you to experiment with the camera as a creative tool. Lucid has been designed as a way to engage people in a process of physical and digital making that reflects how a camera works. This platform leverages new technologies such as the mobile device, and the 3D printer as a way to challenge people, and allow them to have input to the process of making. Being entrenched in a craft is instrumental in giving a greater understanding of the world around us. Scholars such as Frank Wilson recognize the hand as intrinsically linked to the development of the brain, and that activating the hand helps us see things differently.5 So while I set out to design cameras as offerings to teach other people about photography, I recognize that my process of experimentation and prototyping has afforded me a greater understanding of various aspects of the art, physics, and chemistry of photography.

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Making Photographs This body of work has been created to offer a counter point to the over simplification of the contemporary tools and interfaces that we interact with each day. Our digital products, like the cellular telephone, are shrouded in rectilinear forms that do not hint at their greater functions. With the absence of buttons, knobs, dials, and textures, this packaging attempts to conceal the way the object works as a means to make it less obtrusive to us.6 Though the smartphone camera is simple, and often enjoyable to use, I question how it affects our collective understanding of photography and other forms of media. While people are becoming more dependent on the device to perform on its own, they are also trading manual controls for a more passive user experience.7 When we pop our camera app open there is not much to do in order to capture an image. A poke of the screen will adjust focus and exposure, and a curt tap of a finger triggers the shutter release. In an instant, the photo that has just been taken appears on the screen in the clearest detail. While this interaction only takes a fraction of a second, many complicated functions are being performed at once. These are features that people used to have control over – things that create drama in each exposure. Firstly, the phone’s camera is taking a reading on the light and dark areas of the subject, a process that is called metering. This allows for the camera to take a properly exposed image by determining the aperture, shutter speed and sensor sensitivity settings. At the same time, the cell phone is analyzing the temperature of the light, indoor or outdoor, to achieve a proper color distribution in the image. When you tap the screen to capture the image, the phone sets off the shutter, records the image, and prepares the sensor for the next shot. Though several things are occurring within the device, there is no physical evidence of it. We do not feel clicks, vibrations, or movements when this occurs, and only know that the camera took the image because it appears on our screen afterward. These pictures are saved to the Camera Roll, something that the designers named as a reminder of its ancestor, the roll of film. A roll of film is a physical record. Each frame is the direct impression of light on the silver-halide crystals in the film’s emulsion. Standard rolls of 35mm film teach the photographer to consider the content and composition of every frame because there are a finite amount of shots available. This creates a moment of excitement in the act of taking the picture because the photographer knows that

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with each exposure, there is one less shot remaining on that roll of film. Since there is no instant feedback, after the picture is captured, the photographer can move on and start to think about the next shot. This thoughtful approach to each composition and the conservation of photographic films has been lost in translation between film and the digital sensor. Staff photographer at the Guardian, Eamonn McCabe, recalls bringing only two rolls of film with him on past assignments. Now, he considers his approach to rapid fire with the digital camera because he can take thousands of images in a session. His thought process is that “You snap away thinking, ‘One of these shots will work’, rather than concentrating on capturing the image.” The lesson here is that thinking through each composition is more effective than shooting through thousands of images, and then finding the right one.8 Manual photography offers various forms of physical and tactile engagement for the user. From adjusting the settings of the camera with our fingertips to holding the newly developed film up to the light, the entire process of shooting pictures engages us in a process of learning. With practice, we understand that certain clicks on the lens mean that the aperture is being changed, while we learn that the other, different clicks adjust the focus or shutter speed. There are subtle differences between each of the operations in the camera, which single out each component’s function, and create a checklist for the each setting within the system. As we adjust the exposure settings, the corresponding exposure needle in the viewfinder tells you when the settings allow for a proper amount of light to record an image on the film. After spending precious time setting up the exposure, it becomes time to act upon what we see and take an image. There is a sense of nervousness and tension the moment before an image is captured. As we apply pressure to the shutter button, we can feel the resistance that lets us know that the shutter is armed. Our finger keeps pressing downward, and the mechanism, which flips the shutter curtain open, is activated. There is a hefty, chunky movement that runs through the fingertips, and tells us that the exposure is complete. As we move our thumb over the film advance lever, we can feel the roll of film gently winding up within the camera. This sensory experience ties us into the process of making, and helps us internalize the decisions we made, so that we can respond to them in the future. As Hannah Arendt mentions in The Human Condition, that the things we use we become accustomed to, and “As such, they give rise to the familiarity of the world.”9 Now, imagine a group of photographers that have only used cell phones to take pictures. Their mental model of photography would be drastically different from a group of photographers who had exclusively practiced with 35mm SLRs. This is because experimenting with an analog camera is all about problem solving, while cell phones limit the

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amount of possible failures by automatically exposing every image. In learning the specific functions of an analog camera, we need to make real-time adjustments to take a properly exposed picture. So while there is a slight chance that one might pick up analog photography right away, it is more likely than not that it will take time. My first experiences shooting were challenging. All of my images were either too dark, too light, or out of focus. This meant that the next time I went out to take pictures, I paid closer attention to the settings and recording them in a book. When I got the photos back from the pharmacy, I then compared the results with the settings as a way to understand what the best settings were for each situation.

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Digital Devices In his book, Shop Class as Soul Craft, author Matthew B. Crawford investigates how humans understand the world by having a literal, active, or engaged experience. In thinking about the constantly evolving designs of cameras, or the design of any technological device, it is evident that they become increasingly simplified. So while the smartphone camera operates under the guise of simplicity, or unobtrusiveness, the technology is actually becoming increasingly complicated.10 This has implications regarding those who use these devices, but it also affects those who work or repair these tools. In Crawford’s example, he talks about the Mercedes Benz engine that has been designed without a dipstick to check the engine’s oil level. While the driver might not want to change the car’s oil, this design has completely altered the experience around giving the car a basic tune up. No longer does the Mercedes owner need to know that the engine needs lubricant, because an oil change is packaged under the guise of “service.” And while the customer is further from understanding how his machine works, the repairman needs to be educated in the specifics of this particular engine configuration. This creates a problem around the ideas of work. What is at question here is both parties’ agency, and to what degree do the customer and mechanic have a grasp, or need to have a grasp on what is happening technically? Matthew B. Crawford states that, “There seems to be an ideology of freedom at the heart of consumerist material culture; a promise to disburden us of mental and bodily involvement with our own stuff so we can pursue ends we have freely chosen. Yet this disburdening gives us fewer occasions for the experience of direct responsibility.”11 With the advent of the cell phone camera, and the myriad applications that accompany it, by gaining freedom from the difficulties of operating the device, we lose the mastery that we have over it. There is an opportunity to bring something alive through technology as a way to activate the hand, rather than through passive methods. Juhani Pallasmaa mentions in her book, The Thinking Hand, “It is tragic indeed in a time which our technologies offer a multidimensional perception of the world and ourselves we should throw our consciousness and capability back to a Euclidean world.”12 Operating within this space, Lucid has an opportunity to bridge the gap between the hand and the interface, where there is an interaction that shows how things work. So while the computer acts as a tool to illustrate the mechanics of the camera, the camera itself is a physical product that helps show the photographer ways of seeing. 3D printing

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can act as a way to engage the hand with physical and sensorial interfaces. In his Brief Rant on the Future of Interaction Design, Bret Victor talks about the need to experiment with new hardware that activates the various grips, and positions that our hands can take.13

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inFORM is a tangible user interface designed by Daniel Leithinger and Sean Folmer at the MIT Media Lab.

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Goals and Objectives The goal of Lucid is to inspire its participants to be curious and ask questions about how our media works, and where our digital artifacts come from. As perceptive beings, it is understood that we learn through touch, sight, and physical experience.14 So while Lucid is a platform that works with digital technology, it offers its audience the ability to look inside the inner workings of the camera and photographs, so that they have an accurate mental model of what is happening inside the devices that they use each day. Lucid is intended to offer a choice to its audiences, to allow them to pursue photography in ways that show them how the image works. With the advent of applications like Instagram, there is an increasing amount of interest and access to photography. Lucid aims to reach those who would like to learn more about the origins of this technology, and how photography actually works. At the same time, Lucid calls into question the importance of play, and physical engagement in the learning process. We need to consider how giving people opportunities to navigate the world is paramount in terms of cognitive development, especially when thinking about the ways that people apply these skills sets to traditional subject matter. The sciences and math do require creativity.15 When the child, or really anyone partakes in a form of imaginative play, it has many benefits in a psychological and social sense that can be applied to various aspects of life. When someone has the ability to initiate or reenact a situation, this allows for them to try a variety of approaches, thus giving practice to reality or speculative realities.16

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Nikon F2 schematics from 1971.

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Defining Lucid Within the broader scope of this body of work, the title “Lucid” is defined by education and appreciation through play - to have the hand involved in the process of making or doing something. While it is commonly believed that learning happens in a perceptive, or factual way, new philosophers of education question that notion, and promote the idea that the involvement of the body is directly related to the stimulation of the mind.17 In John Napier’s book, Hands, the author describes a scene of children on a trip to the natural history museum, “How much more telling it would be for children to use their hands to feel the thickness of the fur or the texture of the skin of a mounted exhibit in a natural history museum, than to simply stand and stare.”18 Lucid is steppingstone to a new type of interaction that people can have with their digital technologies, one where the body is engaged, along with the eye as a form of active participation. In his Brief Rant on the Future of Interaction Design, Bret Victor talks about engaging the body and the design of tools for human capabilities.19 Lucid allows for the participant to manipulate, change, and distort models of things as a means to see them. Once they are done building, making, constructing, or deconstructing, they can 3D print the parts to have a physical interaction with what they just built. This building process is digital, where the changes you are making affect both the image and the model in real time. Each decision changes the camera as a system. So while the modeling is a type of technical instruction, the learning—of how to read the light in a scene, of how to time an exposure properly, of how to create a dynamic composition—occurs through experience. This form of play happens in the hands. You have the ability to put the camera together, and then go out and make pictures. The Lucid Modeler uses a digital image to make the components of a camera. The user, through a manual process, has to assemble the parts of the camera in order to use it as an analog tool. What do I mean by a manual process? From the Latin, “Manus” for hand, manual has two definitions relevant to Lucid: analog, and instructional. The Oxford English Dictionary refers to manual as “work, an action, a skill: of or relating to the hand or hands.” In this instance, manual is recognized as a type of activity that emphasizes the activation of hands. So while it might be thought that manual work does not always stimulate the mind, Matthew B. Crawford would argue that craft is a type of experiential learning, which we can internalize because of the tangible outcomes.20

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The OED also defines manual as, “A handbook or textbook, esp. a small or compendious one.” So from a root meaning “hand” the word has evolved to also mean an object of instruction. Manuals have a history of being written by individuals who had an intimate knowledge about the items that they described. Often they had faced the same setbacks that any customer would face, and would use their skills to and intuition to know how to fix them.21

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Research


Foundation During the early stages of this project, I looked at the sociopolitical, philosophical, and scientific trends related to the history of the camera and visual media. This survey started with Galileo’s discoveries and his use of the telescope during the Age of Reason, and ended with today’s culture of social media and information technology. While there are countless advancements in optics and image creation, I have chosen to investigate the three visual innovations that I believe caused the greatest shift in paradigms around human thought, and how people relate to the world. The telescope, the camera, and the cell phone have shaped discourse around the philosophy of human perception, specifically at the scale in which they help people reflect on their place in society. The origins of these three technologies fall along a continuum that spans approximately four hundred years, so it’s understandable that the ways people perceive the world has changed drastically during that time. With this in mind, and the idea that history will repeat itself, the following thoughts hint at the potential for the scales to shift back outward, to consider the implications of human action. The telescope was one of the most important technical innovations in terms of the way that philosophers perceived the world around them. Simplified by Galileo in 1611, this object assisted Johannes Kepler in proving the Copernican-heliocentric model of the universe.24 It began a new way of thinking that took people beyond their normal vision, and hinted at them imagining what it would be like to escape the confines of this planet. In her book, The Human Condition, Hannah Arendt evaluates the successful 1957 launch of the Sputnik Satellite. Though this occurred hundreds of years after Galileo’s discoveries, it marks a similar period of simultaneous relief and panic within Western societies. Graham MacPhee argues in Architecture of the Visible, that this idea, or this sense of escaping the Earth was actually set forth by the invention of the telescope. He mentions that, “The broader significance of this drive to escape the earth is understood by Arendt in terms of a fundamental rearrangement of human vision.” What the telescope does is it proves that our sense of sight deceives us.25 What this moment of clarity did was change the way that humans felt about their existence on the planet. In his book, Age of Reason, Leo Weinstein marks the way in which the telescope was a major influence,

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“The belief in the universality of reason led to an interest in universal problems, in universal man, rather than in the private experiences of an individual.26 It created a radically new vision of humanity, and aligned with the scientific ideals of the Age of Reason, and the following period of the Enlightenment. The Camera was invented in the mid 1820’s by the French inventor Joseph Nicéphore Niépce. It was the first time that a mechanical device could capture an image rendered from the visible light of a scene. 27 What it did was completely change the role of painting and the artist. It transformed the image from something that was a static symbol of social class, and made it something that was consumable, dynamic, and could reach a mass audience. As John Berger explains in Ways of Seeing, “What the modern means of reproduction have done is to destroy the The authenticity of art and to remove it – or – rather, to sever its images from which they reproduce from any preserve. For the first time ever, images of art have become ephemeral, ubiquitous, available, valueless, free.”28 In making art accessible and consumable for the masses, the photography nullified the importance of the image being something that was used for political control by the upper class. As a vehicle for photography, the invention of the camera lead to the democratization of visual media. 29 In this way, the role of the artist drastically shifted, from being about realism and representation, and it started to direct their focus inward. Art became about how the artist interpreted the things that they saw, and how they felt in their minds. This freed the work from the constraints of classical oil painting and pushed the philosophy into the Modern era. Now, with the cell phone and different forms of social media, the image and the mode of self expression has shifted from being about the artist’s or philosopher’s perception, and it is about the way that people choose to express themselves through their digital devices. Social media has directed the focus inward, and the product of all of this is the “selfie” as way to prove one’s existence in time. In 2013, the selfie has become the Oxford Dictionary’s word of the year, showing the ubiquity and significance of this form of expression.30 Though the selfie is just a social media trend, it does start to speak to the ways that people reflect on themselves through the lens of their cell phone camera. The present is a perfect time for Lucid’s intervention. With social media and the popularity of the mobile phone camera, it is

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critical to analyze whether these objects are going to help or hurt future generations. The work of the critic, Bret Victor, points out that this type of device-to-person interaction is actually harmful for our bodies and senses.31 Looking toward the future, Lucid hopes to engender those that use it to use their hands, see how things work, and to play. At the same time Lucid asks product designers to create more meaningful interactions for physical hardware. This means to create devices that speak the same language as our innate senses. More tactile, and sensory interfaces will facilitate the ease of use, and create an intuitive connection with the object. The groundbreaking work of Ramesh Rashkar from the MIT Media Lab is going to open the possibilities of photography in the future. His femto camera, a device that can record the paths of individual photons, has the potential to be used in a variety of applications, most importantly in the advancements of medical imaging. Yet, in his TED talk, he downplays the significance of this technology by stating that this camera could help someone determine whether a vegetable was ripe or not. They could do this by simply holding their phone up to it, and snapping a photo.32 This idea seems foreboding and rather than learning more from the technology, that takes another simple action from the user and gives it to the device. Instead of helping future generations, it will deprive them of the ability to determine whether produce is ripe or not by using their senses of touch, smell, and sight. Some people believe that these devices are deskilling humans.33 If this is true, then it is vital to intervene now.

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Scales of Seeing Chart

Humanity++Science Science ++ Universe Humanity Universe

Enlightenment: Telescope

Age of Reason: The Telescope

TIME

Artists + Comme Artists + Comme

Industrial Revolution: T

Industrial Revolution


erce++ Access Access erce

The Camera

n: The Camera

The present is a good time for design intervention and rethinking how we interact with technology as it becomes more accessible

A Return to Tactile Experiences Outward Focus + Tacit Knowledge

Present: The Smart Phone Camera

Present: The Cell Phone


There was a child went forth every day. / And the first object he looked upon and received with wonder, pity, love, or dread, that object he became, / And that object became part of him for the day, or a 42


certain part of the day, or for many years, or stretching cycles of years. - Walt Whitman Leaves of Grass, 1855

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Secondary Sources

This section is comprised of pulled quotes and interesting insights from books that have influenced the process and thinking behind Lucid.

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Shop Class as Soul Craft Matthew B. Crawford “Consumer culture points to some basic questions about work, because in becoming less obtrusive, our devices become more complicated.” “Shared Memories attach to the material souvenirs of our lives, and producing them is a kind of communion…”

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Hands John Napier “The human hand, as well as being the principle vehicle of motor activity, is the chief organ of the fifth sense, touch.” “With the eye, the hand is our main source of contact with the physical environment.” “How much more telling it would be for children to use their hands to feel the thickness of the fur or the texture of the skin of a mounted exhibit in a natural history museum than to simply stand and stare.”

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The Hand Frank Wilson “Any theory of human intelligence which ignores the interdependence of hand and brain function, the historic origins of that relationship, or the impact of that history of developmental dynamics in modern humans, is grossly misleading and sterile.” “Bodily movement and brain activity are functionally interdependent.”

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“The hand is so widely represented in the brain, the hand’s neurologic and biomechanical elements are so prone to spontaneous interaction and reorganization, and the motivations and efforts which give rise to individual use of the hand are so deeply and widely rooted, that we must admit we are trying to explain a basic imperative of human life.�

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The Thinking Hand Juhani Pallasmaa “(The body’s) significance is understood merely in its physical and physiological essence, but undervalued and neglected in its role as the very ground of embodied existence and knowledge as well as the full understanding of the human condition.” “Today’s prevailing educational principles fail to grasp the indeterminate, dynamic, and sensually integrated essence of human existence, thought and action.”

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“It is tragic, indeed, that at the time in which our technologies offer a multidimensional perception of the world and ourselves, we should throw our consciousness and capabilities back to a Euclidean world.�

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The Art of Play Adam Blatner “Imaginative play develops a variety of skills – and your competency in these areas has major psychosocial benefits which may be applied in several aspects of living” “Make-believe or sociodramatic play is a natural vehicle of the child’s exploration of physical, psychological, and social realities.”

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Action in Perception Alva Noë “What we perceive is determined by what we do (or what we know how to do).” “By moving yourself, you can come to occupy a vantage point from which, say, better to see your goal. And then having seen your goal, you can better decide what to do.”

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Open Design Now Marleen Stikker “The implications for education are huge, and hyper-craft broadens the perspectives in education – not only for design, but for all crafts. “ “Disruption these macro-political movements that privatize the commons or control access to the public domain is the challenge for open design. An effective response to that challenge starts with understanding and reflecting on what we are doing when we make things.”

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The Power of Play David Elkind “There is little time for exercising their predisposition for fantasy, imagination, and creativity – the mental tools required for success in higher level math and sciences.” “For (Friedrich) Schiller, play allows humans to realize their highest aspirations and ideals.”

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The Human Condition Hannah Arendt “It was not reason but a man-made Instrument, the telescope, which actually changed the physical worldview; it was not contemplation, observation, and speculation which led to new knowledge, but the active stepping in of homo faber, of making and fabricating.�

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Wisdom of the Hands Blog Doug Stowe “The density of nerve endings in our fingertips is enormous. Their discrimination is almost as good as that of our eyes. If we don’t use our fingers, if in childhood and youth we become “finger-blind”, this rich network of nerves is impoverished — which represents a huge loss to the brain and thwarts the individual’s all-around development.” “Without the opportunity to learn through the hands, the world remains abstract, and distant, and the passions for learning will not be engaged.”

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Ways of Seeing John Berger “(Due to the camera) For the first time ever, images of art have become ephemeral, ubiquitous, available, valueless, free.” “We only see what we look at. To look is an act of choice.” “As a result of this act, what we see is brought within our reach.”

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The Architecture of the Visible Graham MacPhee “With spaceflight, the human eye is able to occupy a completely new viewpoint, one which is no longer anchored to the earth. “Visual technologies permeate the main form of mass-mediated popular culture, and have played a crucial role in the development of modern mass societies and the subsequent emergence of what might be described as a new global cultural space.”

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Subject Matter Experts RACHAEL MATTHEWS Rachel Matthews is a programs director at the Children’s Museum of Indianapolis, one of the largest children’s museums in the country. “Play is a learning process, and it is important that adults play along with the kids.” “Often things are designed to be kid-sized, which means that the child will experience the exhibition or playground space without their parents to help them navigate the space. At the same time, this is not good for the parent, because they should be learning how to interpret the experience for their kid.”

GREG SCOTT Greg Scott is a designer at Playworld Systems Inc a major manufacturer of playgrounds for a North American audience. There are a lot of alarming statistics about what is happening with kids. The amount of time that they spend outside has decreased a lot. The things that Playworld Systems attempts to mitigate children spending too much time on the screen is to make things that can compete with the alternative reality of video games. It is important to get the kids to be playing outside because it is important to their cognitive development. At the Chicago Toy Fair, there are a lot of conversations within the toy and playground design community about how play is in danger. Many adults often view play as slacking off, even though it is an important part of childhood development. There is a need for better products to facilitate the continuation of play.

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EMILIE BALTZ Emilie Baltz is a French-American food designer, photographer and artist who explores consumption. She has trained omnivorously in diverse mediums of storytelling, from Modern Dance to Screenwriting and Industrial Design. “There are many different aspects of interacting with cameras in terms of design. There is perspective, the lens, framing, and point of view. All of these things can change depending on the scale of the project, from individual to societal. The work has the opportunity to question what is a lens, and it has the opportunity to determine what is a frame. “ “What distinguishes this thesis from a personal project is accessibility. The idea is that fun, or playful interactions are designed into the objects are meant to engage others, and have them reflect. “

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Audiences & Market


Audience Lucid is designed within the scope of continuously changing digital media that affect various generations and geographic locations. This means that there are a few target audiences that the Lucid Modeler is being created for. The mobile phone and its camera have reconfigured the context in which people consume images and information, from storing it in their possession for the eyes and ears of their family members, to placing it in a publicly accessible ecosystem. These changes in the accessibility of information, paired with the affect on those who have only grown up in the digital age, or previous forms of visual and tangible media, it also affects those who are established photographers and artists. Digital technology is replacing analog methods of teaching in school settings, which makes it important to focus on the kids who are growing up without knowing as many analog devices. Digital Natives My first audience is pre-teens and adolescents, which Marc Prensky refers to as Digital Natives. They are the first generations to grow up with the ubiquity of networked computers and phones. They are an interesting audience because they speak a fluent digital language, and are accustomed to interacting with the world through digital interfaces.22 With the digital world at their fingertips, it will be challenging, but also fulfilling to offer them objects that require tactile engagements to have them focus on manipulating levers and buttons to take pictures. When I was twelve, many of the experiences that I’m reminded of the most incorporate an object that required a serious investigation to appreciate. Digital Immigrants Digital Immigrants are those who were born before the widespread adoption of digital technologies. They have adapted to information technologies in order to operate within the contemporary landscape of digital business, and communication. Marc Presnky states that like anyone trying to pick up a new language, there is a learning curve for those who are non-native speakers.23 The digital immigrants remember what it was like to be without these technologies, and can see the benefits of both an analog world, and a digital world.

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The Toy Enthusiast The audience that I am designing for is the toy enthusiast! The decision to call this group of people the toy enthusiasts allows for me to be inclusive with my work. Though I want most of the offerings that I will have in the end to be digestible for a younger audience, I aim to have older camera enthusiasts be interested in my work. I’m building a series of interactive toys that promote tactility and interaction. These toys could be adopted by people of all ages, but it is important to the mission of the project to speak to a younger generation, essentially children, who are growing up in this digital era without having the same connection to the advancement of technologies as we moved through the 80’s, 90’s, and 2000’s. LUCID is designed to engage children with ideas of composition, making, independence, creative thought, collaboration, and sharing. I believe that this target audience is my twelve year old self. Gear Heads/ Photo Enthusiasts I’ve spent many hours trolling the comments section of articles about the current state of photography, most of which talk about the cell phone surpassing the high end cameras both in quantity of users, and functionality. In Craig Mod’s article Good Bye Cameras, which appeared in The New Yorker, he mentions that photography has moved beyond a process of chemistry and process, and has moved toward sharing and connectivity. After doing many investigations around this area, I have to agree that photography is about the dissemination of information, and the accessibility to information. It’s a powerful tool when connected with social media, and can help sway political viewpoints of large groups of people. However, when I look at the comment sections of the these articles people are arguing about the future of photography as an object-based medium, rather than arguing about the political implications of sharing photographs! What’s important to recognize here is that photographers are toy enthusiasts, just like kids. The camera is an object that acts as a catalyst to get people to enter into a world of possibilities, of lighting situations, of chance. So it’s important to get this group interested in LUCID as well.

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3D Printing 3D printing is an additive manufacturing process where layers of material are built directly upon each other to construct a solid object.34There are a variety of 3D printers on the market that build models in a variety of ways, and can be used for industrial or domestic purposes. Much like other types of ink-based printers, the Stratasys Dimension35 machines that were used to construct my cameras extrude hot ABS plastic36 from a nozzle. While inkjet printers can lay ink along a two dimensional surface, a 3D printer can operate in three dimensions. A 3D printer is a type of robot that reads data from a 3D computer model, allowing for it to build virtually any shape. This type of manufacturing allows for rapid prototyping because there is no need for tooling. Shapeways Shapeways is a New York based 3D printing marketplace and service that allows for customers to print models on demand. This allows for people who do not own their own 3D printer to have access to the technology.37 MakerBot Industries MakerBot Industries is a manufacturer of 3D printers based in Brooklyn. MakerBot’s printers are marketed for do-it-yourself makers. They also host an online 3D model sharing community called Thingiverse. 39

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3D Modeling 3D modeling is a process of developing a digital, mathematical representation of a three dimensional object, surface, or space.403D models can be used to communicate designs through plans and renderings, or to create animations, or to rapid prototype physical objects through digital fabrication techniques. As 3D modeling and 3D printing are becoming more widely accepted, there has been a move to free, web-based 3D modeling aids. Tinkercad Tinkercad is the first 3D modeling tool developed for use in the browser. It was founded by Kai Backman and Mikko Mononen in 2011, and is an easy to learn. This site also includes tutorials and lessons to help teach beginners the basics of 3D modeling.41 Project Shapeshifter Project Shapeshifter allows for complex forms to be developed easily with the use of sliders. This is a type of 3D modeling where the shape of the form reacts to parameters that the sliders control.42 Autodesk 123D Autodesk 123D is a range of 3D modeling and CAD tools that are easy to use and can be run on a variety of platforms. Users can download the apps for their mobile devices and desktops, or they can access some of the tools from their browser. They have an extensive library of readymade and community generated models.43123D Catch allows for users to take photographs and upload them online to create a 3D model.

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Analog Photography Analog photography is recognized as any type of photography that is not digital, meaning that no computer is needed to process the image. Traditional modes of photography use light sensitive emulsions and films. When the photographer makes a picture, the film is exposed to light for the appropriate amount of time. This produces what is called the latent image, meaning that the film is still sensitive to light, but has already started the chemical reaction.44 The photograph is made permanent and visible on the film through developing (when the film is no longer sensitive to light).45Analog photography has gone through a period of resurgence with many companies and organizations that focus on spreading its popularity. Lomography Lomography is an analog camera movement and community. It was founded in 1992 by a group of Austrian students who had used the LOMO LC-A, a Russian point and shoot camera. Lomography has created their own range of cameras, films, and photography accessories.46 The Impossible Project The Impossible Project was founded in 2008 after Polaroid announced it was no longer producing its instant film. The Impossible Project is based in the Netherlands, and uses Polaroid’s old machinery to re-create the instant films. These films are available for a wide range of Polaroid cameras.47 Wanderlust Cameras Wanderlust Cameras is a project that was funded on Kickstarter. As a way to make analog photography more easily accessible, Wanderlust designs hand-held large format systems that accept 4” x 5” sheet film.48

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Wanderlust’s Travelwide 4x5 Camera was funded on Kickstarter.

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3D Printed Cameras

Lux by Kevin Kadooka. Lux features an electronic shutter controlled by Arduino. The shutter speeds can be adjusted with a dial, this gives the user more latitude for creative effects.

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Open Reflex is functional single lens reflex camera by Leo Marius. The files are open source and the design allows for lenses to be changed.

PINH5AD by Todd Schlemmer is a 4 x 5 inch pinhole camera.

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Service Model


Value Proposition Lucid is a cloud-based educational 3D modeling and 3D printing service. What makes Lucid unique in the realm of digital fabrication is that it allows you to use your own photographs to dictate the design and functionality of a 3D model of a camera (which can then be 3D printed!) In the Lucid Modeler, the camera model and photographs are presented side by side. This tool is an amalgamation of photo editing software, 3D modeling programs, and social media sharing sites. At first you upload a photograph, or take a new one from a smart phone. This launches the modeling software. On the left side of the screen is the photograph, and on the right side of the screen is the model of the camera. When you adjust the settings on the uploaded picture (such as lightness/darkness, light leaks, red-scaling, etc.,) it directly affects the different settings of the camera. At the same time, the model of the camera is connected to a series of sliders that affect different functions. So when someone is adjusting the aperture settings of the camera, this also affects the focal length or the diameter of the pinhole. The model and the photographs are reactive, meaning that the model changes in real time. While these animations and variables are occurring, they can be explained with prompts to describe to you what is actually happening between the camera and the photograph. Once you like the design of the camera, or the effects in the photograph, you can save your model, 3D print it yourself, or purchase a 3D print from our photography and printing studio. Once you get your camera in the mail, you can go shoot pictures on 35mm or 120mm film. Part of this digital service is the community that it is fostering amongst its participants. There are places where each person’s project can be shared on the site to act as a feedback loop for the work that is being created on the site, and to describe a range of possibilities in formats. Part of this process is to allow for our members to download each other’s models, and to collaborate on the design of novel camera forms. In this instantiation, Lucid teaches the mechanical processes and the technical aspects of photography, rather than teaching about how to compose a good picture. My plan is to host contests and assignments, which are judged, and have tangible rewards as a way to teach more about the history and the art of photography. For instance, there could be an Ansel Adams contest where participants are prompted to take landscape photographs. Or there could be photojournalist contests, which combine the creation photo essays along with brief write-ups that explain the projects.

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Early version of the Lucid Modeler user flow.

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Basic Financial Model How to Receive Financial Support Lucid expects to partner with other software developers in order to start up the service. Either I will sell the idea/product to another organization, or I expect to accrue venture capital to produce our digital tools. Revenue Model The revenue model is based off of asset sales and usage. In terms of asset sales, Lucid will sell camera accessories such as film, paper, lenses, etc. In terms of usage, we will be able to process and develop films and 3D print peoples’ projects on demand. Since other people’s projects will be shared on the site, you have the opportunity to download, or 3D print someone’s model that you like. Cost Model: Implicit Costs App development/digital service development, web development, 3D printer rental or purchase, supply of film stock, chemicals, developing machines, shop staff, or out-source to other labs + implicit fees, workspace rent, utilities, insurance, returns and refunds, website maintenance, shop/office equipment and furniture, computers, internet,domain name.

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Free App/Site Lucid is free to download, and free to use

Asset Sales Lucid will provide film, photo paper, and other accessories available in our online store

Usage Model Customers will be able to build, and 3D print their models using our site

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Launch Strategy I would love to collaborate with artists that I admire, and that are well known as way to better develop my cameras. The artists’ whose work I have included below utilize social media networks such as Instagram and Tumblr as a way to reach their audiences.

@benschuyler

@alexstrohl

@hokaytokay

@nhmcelroy

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Lucid has the opportunity to partner with community making spaces such as TechShop, darkrooms such as the Bushwick Community Darkroom, and Schools as a way to share learnings and garner community around learning photography.

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Lenses


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“Tacit Knowledge consists of beliefs, ideals, values, schemata and mental models which are deeply ingrained in us and which we often take for granted. While difficult to articulate, 88


this cognitive dimension of tacit knowledge shapes the way we perceive the world.� - Michael Polanyi The Tacit Dimension, 1966 89


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Methodology The lenses section illustrates the design process for Lucid as a series of deliverables and project inspirations from my time at SVA. From speculative thinking, to realized prototypes, this work aims to answer questions that were raised while I conducted my research.

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Speculative Sketches

The analog version of Instagram connects the interface of the popular app, with its mechanical counterpart of the past. This object adds a more physical experience to the act of scrolling through photos.

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By holding the phone up to their face, and staring deeply into the mirror, this design helps the end user practice the delicate art of texting and making eye contact.

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These cell phone training devices are designed to help the user build strength in their thumb muscles. There is an opportunity to help people move digital content at even faster speeds.

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The bus stop camera is a camera mounted to the top of a sign. This intervention is intended to add moments of delight to the morning commute. While the viewer turns the crank, a boom box plays a song, and an image is captured. It’s an experience intended to excite the senses of touch, sight, and hearing.

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This sketch depicts a camera that is mounted at the top of a tree, and the only visible cue of the fact that there is something up there is the crank, and the viewfinder. It would be interesting to prototype this camera with a digital read-out next to the crank, so that the viewer could see the picture that they took at the moment the shutter goes off.

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The tree top camera V2 is a camera that is mounted to a branch. The shutter mechanism is rigged up to a tree-swing operate pulley system. As the participant swings, the crank winds up the shutter mechanism, and takes the participants photo.

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Music Box Portrait

In November 2012, I set out to create a playful photo-taking apparatus that would elicit genuine emotional responses from my subjects. There’s something about waiting for the pencil to strike the shutter that alleviates the awkward tension of getting your picture taken. This design is a 3D printed camera housing that plays music and eventually takes a picture when the user turns the crank. I left the gears exposed so that they become part of the visual experience.

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Early Camera Prototype This camera was designed in CAD and built entirely by a 3D Printer in October 2012. I left a small opening in the front for the pinhole lens. All irregularities, and aberrations in the images it produced are a result of the 3D printing process.

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Lucid Printed Pinhole Cameras & One Digital

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Pinhole_New 35mm film f210 aperture 50mm focal length 0.2mm lens

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Test Shots

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Pinhole_2.0 35mm film f125 aperture 22mm focal length 0.2mm lens

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Test Shots

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Digital_JPEG Digital Sensor Arduino Board SD Shield SD Card

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Test Shots

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Pinhole_3.0 35mm film f140 aperture 35mm focal length 0.2mm lens

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Test Shots

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Test Shots

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Pinhole_4.0 35mm film f140 aperture 35mm focal length 0.2mm lens

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Test Shots

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Wavy Cam 35mm film variable aperture variable focal length 0.2mm lens

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Test Shots

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Test Shots

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Test Shots

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Cybernetic Systems

USER

DESIGN CAMERA WITH IMAGE-BASED INTERFACE

3-D Model of the camera

IMAGE

increases

decreases

increases

APERTURE

pinhole width decreases

(distance from objects, exposure time, light in scene)

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In December, I ran the Lucid service through a cybernetic model. Cybernetic models are useful for analyzing systems that require feedback loops to make changes. This is called a closed signaling loop; where an action taken by the system generates some change in its environment and that change is reflected by feedback that triggers an overall change to the system.

get appropriate shutter times

increases

ight meter

SHUTTER SPEED

increases

time of exposure

3-D computer model on LUCID

FOCAL LENGTH decreases

decreases

light inside camera (density of silver halide crystals, reciprocity failure)

length of the camera (size of rolls/sheets available, store stock)

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Science Dreams A car door shuts behind me, and the gentle breeze grazed the tips of my hair. I felt a burst of energy inside my chest as I dashed off toward the grassy diamond, leather glove in tow. The sweet scent of freshly cut grass filled my nostrils amidst the clang of aluminum bats and the whir of the infamous slushy machine. Cotton candy and root beer were my favorite flavors, something that I often pondered while standing idly out in left field. I mean, bubblegum and cherry tasted pretty good too. Anyway, I ran out toward the far reaches of the diamond and dutifully kicked up dust with my white Reebok cleats to signify my arrival. There I stood alone with the June Bugs, awaiting a pop fly. Clang! All of a sudden, a ball was hurtling toward me, and the spinning seams obscured into a red and white flash. I tipped the brim of my hat closer to my nose to protect my vision from the dominance of the mid-afternoon sun. I could sense Dad chanting, “Keep your eye on the ball Qwaid!” Now, I thought, this was my time to show the coaches my true grit! I raised my right arm up (I’m a lefty), and peered through the leather net of my glove. There I crouched, all eyes gazing on me, lenses focusing on the play unfolding, like astronomers tracking the Sputnik in a late evening sky. Fractions of a second seemed to stretch out like taffy into the endless cycle of a lucid dream. I can hear my neighbor getting ready for work, the shower just turned on. A bus shrieks as it hits the breaks in the rush hour traffic, just outside of my window. “Shit, its just a dream,” I think. “I’m waiting to catch the ball. Please let me get it! I know I can… Damn snooze sensor gets me every time… I’m going to be late again, but just give me… Just give me five more minutes, please…The ball… I know I have it… It’s definitely going to be cold beyond my comforter…

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I only need five more minutes, five PERSONA 2020 more please.”I was still as I came to consciousness from that rosetinted vignette. The memory of my father dropping me off at the Oreland Little League fields played over and over again in my head. It was such a palpable dream, one that felt like a faded photograph from my mother’s albums. Hopefully kids these days can still have vivid dreams. In this age of seamless photo-integration, I wonder if people can even relate to a still image. Do they think about it as a moment in time that could be captured by a person, like how my father aimed his point and shoot at the action unfolding in front of him. When I was in college, I read Ways of Seeing. There’s this poignant passage about how anyone should be able relate to how the photographer viewed the scene, based upon the image that resulted. This doesn’t seem to be possible anymore, at least to those who live in a world with automated embedded vision. Clay Kippen

CHAT TREE

FEED

ABOUT

THOUGHTS

PROFESSION

“Ah, I gotta get up.”Thursday begins as I rise from the covers, triggering the motion sensors in my room. The server out in my closet is rattling with hot new data. Persona 2020 just updates itself – every bit of my apartment is closely related to my social networks. Streaming a live cast of pictures, thoughts, and snippets of conversations that I had in the past twenty-four hours. I’m now sitting on the edge of my bed. “Those were the good days,” I shouted, reaching into my dresser to reveal a pair of curly, teal socks. My clammy toes wait on the hardwood floor, as I prepare to plunge them into my boots. “Ch’ching, ch’ching.” The mirror across the way has just captured a nice profile picture of my Thursday, December 14th, 2020 outfit. I think this one is rather good. I can feel all of the devices around my apartment buzzing with notifications as my wardrobe seamlessly integrates with my online profile. Jeeze, it can be embarrassing. Last week my boss got on my case for wearing a t-shirt with profanity on it. It was uploaded on Persona. What am I supposed to do? It’s not like I get to choose what goes up there!

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Public Experience

With teaching and sharing in mind, I created a series of prototypes that could be shared with the public. The #ClayObscura was the final outcome of this exploration. The idea was to allow for people to make the choice of using their smart phones, or their eyes, to see a working camera obscura in 2014. It was a way to have a first hand experience in creating a filter for Instagram.

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Location: High Line Park, New York, New York According to Instagram, the High Line was one of the top ten most photographed locations in the world by people using their service.

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Video Stills

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Looking Through #ClayObscura

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Workshop


“Getting better at using tools comes to us, in part, when the tools challenge us, and this challenge often occurs just because the tools are not fit-for-purpose� 166


- Richard Sennett The Craftsman, 1966

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How to: Pinhole Photography When shooting with Lucid System Cameras, there are a few steps that should be taken to ensure that your pictures are properly exposed. This section acts as an introductory guide to the world of pinhole photography.

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What you will need:

Pinhole Camera

35mm Film

Light Meter or Light Meter App

Tripod

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Pinhole Camera Film Advance Turn 8 times to move to the next frame

Film Rewind Turn this to wind up roll of film after shooting all pictures

Pinhole The diameter of the pinhole determines the size of aperture and the exposure time

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Loading Camera To load the film, thread the end of the film (leader) into the slot of the spool. Drop the film into the camera body. Close the lid tightly.

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Step 1: Frame Shot

In order to get the desired composition in the photograph, you must line up your shot.

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Step 2: Meter Exposure

The time that the photograph takes to make is calculated by the light meter. This corresponds with the aperture, which is different for each Lucid model. On sunny days, exposures are typically 2 - 5 seconds.

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Step 3: Open Lens

Pull the lens cap off of the camera to let light in.

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Step 4: Count

Counting is a good method for keeping track of the exposure time.

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Step 5: Close Lens

Place the lens cap firmly onto the front of the camera.

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Step 6: Wind Film

Wind film to in order to set camera for the next exposure.

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Step 7: Keep Shooting Pictures!

These images were taken during the pinhole workshops that I held in April, 2014. Some were taken by my classmates, and others were taken by passers-by on the High Line.

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Back Matter


End Notes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

8 9 10 11

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Crawford, Matthew B. Shop Class as Soulcraft: An Inquiry into the Value of Work. New York: Penguin Books , 2009, 7. Sennett, Richard. The Craftsman. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008, 194. Polanyi, Michael. The Tacit Dimension. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1966. Stowe, Doug. Untitled. 16th October 2006. <http://wisdomofhands.blogspot.com/>. Wilson, Frank R. The Hand. New York: Vintage Books, 1999. Crawford, 2. Crawford, 4. Jeffries, Stuart. The death of photography: are camera phones destroying an artform? 13 December 2013. <http://www.theguardian. com/>. Arendt, Hannah. The Human Condition: Second Edition. 2. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1998, 94. Crawford, 7. Crawford, 55. Pallasmaa, Juhani. The Thinking Hand: Existential and Embodied Wisdom in Architecture. West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons, 2009. Victor, Bret. Worry Dream. 11 2011. <http://worrydream.com/ ABriefRantOnTheFutureOfInteractionDesign/>. NoĂŤ, Alva. Action in Perception. Cambridge : The MIT Press, 2004. Elkind, Dave. The Power of Play: Learning What Comes Naturally. Reprint. Boston: Da Capo Lifelong, 2007. Blatner, Adam, Blatner, Allee. The Art of Play: Helping Adults Reclaim Imagination and Spontaneity. 2. Brunner/Mazel Publishers, 1997. Pallasmaa, 11. Napier, John. Hands. Revised . Princeton:

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30 31 32

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Princeton University Press , 1993, 23. http://worrydream.com/ ABriefRantOnTheFutureOfInteractionDesign/>. Crawford, 21. Crawford, 176. Prensky, Marc. “Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants.” On the Horizon 9.5 (2001): 1-6. Prensky, 2. Wikipedia, the Telescope, and Heliocentric. MacPhee, Graham. The Architecture of the Visible. London: Continuum, 2002. Weinstein, Leo. The Age of Reason: The Culture of the Seventeenth Century. New York: George Braziller Press, 1965, 21. UCSB Department of Geography. Joseph Nicephore Niépce. <http://www.geog.ucsb. edu/~jeff/115a/history/niepce.html>. Berger, John. Ways of Seeing. London: Penguin Books, 1972, 32. Berger, 32. Bishop, Brian. ‘Selfie’ is the 2013 Oxford Dictionaries Word of the Year. 18 November 2013. <http://www.theverge. com/2013/11/18/5120390/selfie-is-the-2013oxford-dictionaries-word-of-the-year > http://worrydream.com/ ABriefRantOnTheFutureOfInteractionDesign/>. TED Conferences, LLC. . Ramesh Raskar. <http://www.ted.com/speakers/ramesh_ raskar>. Confino, Jo. How technology has stopped evolution and is destroying the world. 11 July 2013. <http://www.theguardian.com/ sustainable-business/technology-stoppedevolution-destroying-world>. Excell, John. The Rise of Additive Manufacturing. 24 5 2010. <http://www. theengineer.co.uk/in-depth/the-big-story/ the-rise-of-additive-manufacturing/1002560. article>

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34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47

http://www.stratasys.com/ Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) is a common thermoplastic. http://shapeways.com/ http://makerbot.com/ http://www.thingiverse.com/ Wikipedia, 3D Modeling. https://tinkercad.com/ http://shapeshifter.io/ http://www.123dapp.com/ Wikipedia, Latent Image Wikipedia, Photographic Processing http://www.lomography.com/ https://www.the-impossible-project.com/ https://wanderlustcameras.com/

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Doeffinger, Derek. The Art of Seeing: The Kodak Workshop Series. Rochester, New York: Eastman Kodak Company, 1984. Elkind, Dave. The Power of Play: Learning What Comes Naturally. Reprint. Boston, Massachusetts: Da Capo Lifelong, 2007. Excell, John. The Rise of Additive Manufacturing. 5 24, 2010. http:// www.theengineer.co.uk/in-depth/the-big-story/the-rise-of-additivemanufacturing/1002560.article. Feininger, Andreas. Photographic Seeing . Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall , 1973. Gefter, Philip. The Next Big Picture. January 23, 2014. http://www. nytimes.com/. Gibson, Sophie Watson and Katherine. Postmodern Cities and Spaces. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers, 1995. Grene, Marjorie. Introduction to Existentialism. Chicago, Illinois: The University of Chicago Press, 1948. Gross, Doug. Instagram and the Rise of Photo Taking Apps. April 11, 2012. http://www.cnn.com/. Heiferman, Marvin. Photography Changes Everything. New York: Aperture Foundation, 2012. Hiley, Michael. Seeing Through Photographs. London: The Gordon Fraser Gallery Ltd., 1983. Jacobs, Jane. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. Vintage Books. New York, New York: Vintage Books, 1992. Jeffries, Stuart. The death of photography: are camera phones destroying an artform? December 13, 2013. http://www.theguardian. com/. Kottke, Jason. Your company? Thereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s an app for that. September 16, 2009. http://kottke.org/.

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Acknowledgments Thank you to everyone who assisted me throughout the creation of Lucid. Over the course of this past year, I reached out to friends, colleagues, family, and professionals for the advice, support, resources and love that inspired this body of work. I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my grandparents, Madeline and Stanley Ravett, who allowed for me to stay with them during my first year in New York. It would not have been possible to do this without them. Thank you to my Mom and Dad for always supporting me in my endeavors. The postcards and Wednesday phone calls keep me going. Thank you to my brother, Hunter, whose perseverance motivates me everyday. I am grateful to Allan Chochinov for believing in me during the summer of 2012, and offering me the opportunity to join my amazing classmates in the first class of Products of Design. Thank you to Gabrielle Kellner for giving me invaluable advice. Whether it was about writing, resumĂŠs, emails, or types of fruit to keep me nourished, she has been my life-coach over the last nine months. A special thank you to Marko Manriquez, who has patiently helped me with the technical aspects of my thesis. This project would not have been possible without the help of Liam Sweeney. As an editor, and ad-hoc thesis adviser, Liam helped me organize all of the disparate pieces of my project into a cohesive story. Thank you to Abby Covert and Andrew Schloss, who patiently supported the vision that I had for Lucid during the Thesis Class. I am grateful for the following people who collaborated with me, and took time out of their schedules to give advice: Joe Baltz, Emilie Baltz, Eric Hagan, Joey Neal, Liz Arum, Rachael Matthews, Natalie Balthrop, Richard Pedranti, Greg Scott, Benjamin Critton, Rob Walker, Amy Whitaker, Steven Dean, John Austin, Sinclair Scott Smith, Elliot P. Montgomery, Lenore Thomas, Barbara Weissberger, David Love, and anyone else who gave me feedback!

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I would like to acknowledge Leif Manglesen, Tak Cheung, Boris Klompus, John Heida, and the rest of the crew at the Visible Futures Lab who assisted me in the creation of my prototypes. Thank you to the School of Visual Arts, and the SVA Alumni Society for supporting, and funding this project. Thank you to my classmates at Products of Design who have inspired me over the last two years: Damon Ahola, Matt Barber, Rona Binay, Willy Chan, Richard Clarkson, Mansi Gupta, Charlotta Hellichius, Kathryn McElroy, Cassy Michel, Sam Moore, Ga誰a Orain, Zena Verda Pesta, Joseph Weissgold, Emi Yasaka. Thank you to the first year students as well for always being willing to lend a hand. Lastly, I would like to thank all of my friends from Pittsburgh who most certainly keep it real.

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Lucid

Written by Clay Kippen Edited by Liam Sweeney 2014



Lucid: Seeing as a Tool for Learning