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An original member of the Katipunan movement, Macario Sakay fought alongside AndrĂŠs Bonifacio throughout the Philippine Revolution of 1896.


President Theodore Roosevelt officially ended the Philippine-American War on July 4, 1902. At the end of the war, Sakay was granted amnesty and released from prison.

He continued the struggle for Philippine independence against the United States. Near the end of the Philippine-American War Sakay was captured and jailed by the Philippine Constabulary.



Dr. Domingo lopez, a Filipino labor leader, was authorized in 1905 byGovernor General Henry Clay Ide to negotiate for the surrender of Sakay and his men.

Sakay issued his own manifesto proclaiming himself President and established his own government called the RepĂşblika ng Katagalugan in opposition to U.S. colonial rule.


September 13, 1907, the leader of the Republic of Katagalugan, the de facto fourth President of the Philippines, was hanged.

After receiving a letter from the American governor-general promising amnesty for himself and his men in exchange for surrender, Sakay was fooled into an agreement but actually was betrayed.


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