MATERIALS BIBLE The designerâ€™s visual guide to materials and industrial procecess
Anthony Michael Leonsins Claudia SolĂŠ Huizi Desislava Danova Franc Navarro Cifani INDEX
Anthony Michael Leonsins Claudia SolĂŠ Huizi Desislava Danova Franc Navarro Cifani
Thanks to Francisco Tejada, our mentor and friend, for teaching us with patience.
CONTENTS A comprehensive guide intended for all designers who rely on materials and technologies - The Materials Bible is written in a visual style that conveys a wealth of information in a language thatâ€™s easy to understand. This book covers materials, technologies and procecess in one single volume.
01 02 03 04
20 - 37
38 - 53
54 - 67
05 06 07 08 09
68 - 83
84 - 99
100 - 113
POLYMERS 114 - 125 POLYMERS 126 - 149 INDEX
WOOD [woo d]
(n.) The secondary xylem of trees and shrubs, lying beneath the bark and consisting largely of cellulose and lignin.
DOOW ]d oow[
dna seert fo melyx yradnoces ehT ).n( -tsisnoc dna krab eht htaeneb gniyl ,sburhs .ningil dna esolullec fo ylegral gni
WHAT A WONDERFULL WOOD 101
Cool If your looking for... Furniture and flooring. Woodâ€™s unique aesthetic appeal and character make it an absolute favourite for furniture making and flooring. Both wooden furniture and flooring . Construction and shipbuilding. Wood is one of the most important construction materials from the time Music instruments. Piano, violin, cello, drums, flute, guitar, double bass and a number of other music instruments are made from wood. Dishes and utensils. Before the instruction of plastic, most people used wooden dishes and utensils. However, their popularity tends to be on Tools. There are not many tools that are made from wood but wood remains a popular material for Sports equipment and toys. A number of sports rely heavily on wooden sports equipment. Examples include cricket, hockey, billiard, table tennis, Fuel. Wood has been used as fuel from the time humans learned to control fire. Despite a number of other options, wood remains the most common eco-scale
Properties If your looking for...
The forest is the biggest deposit of raw materials
Less energy needed
Legal cutting forests
No pollution No waste
Low energy needed to manifacture RECYCABLE
Low energy to harvest the raw material
Leftovers are reused No literal waste
All waste is reused in:
Options to be transformed into a variety of materials
Firewood Pulpwood Compost
Production of wood
LV PL AT
* Source: “State of the World’s forests” FAO: Eurostat world trade atlas 10
Consumption of wood
* Source: “State of the World’s forests” FAO: Eurostat world trade atlas WOOD
12 MATERIAL BIBLE
Soft wood Hard wood
HEY WOOD SISTER EBONY
A dark wood with small, diffuse pores, durable and rot resistant; generally used for small ornamental items, musical instrument parts and carvings. You can get beautifull finishes and shininess.
Hard, heavy, ring pourous hardwood. Ash burls have a twisted, interwoven figure. Widely used for structural frames and steam bent furniture pieces. Often less expensive compared to other hardwoods.
A color that tends to be medium golden or reddish brown, with uniform medium to coarse texture. It comes from Australia and its mainly used for furniture, support beams, fragances and essential oils A wood that machines well and has low resistance to decay and nonresinous. It comes from the U.S.A, Canada and Asia. Mainly used in construction, planks, doors, boards, panneling, sub flooring and crates.
A wood resistant to deterioration due to sunlight, moisture and insects. It is used to craft outdoor furniture and decorative carvings.
A wood with red-brown color with streaks. Its aromatic and moth repellent qualities make it popular for lining drawers, chests, boxes, cases and simple closets.
BIRCH Hard, heavy, close grained hardwood with a light brown or reddish colored heartwood and cream or light sapwood. It can be stained to resemble mahogany or walnut. Used for furniture, shelving and trim wood.
This wood produces good results with hand and machine tools. Moderately shrinkage values, resulting in medicine dimencional stability. Responds to stream-bending, glues , stains and finishes well. Used in american and english designs as well as many transitional contemporary pieces. A wood easy to work with hand and machine tools. It has a tendency to burn with high speed cutters. Turns, glues, and finishes well and a pre-conditioner is necessary to get an even colour. Used for colonial furniture. It can also be stained to simulate cherry wood.
Excellent carving wood and finishes well. A strong wood with a uniform pore structure and poorly defined annual rings. Its a tropical wood with many species and varies widely in quality and price.
A moderately hard, hard, strong, closed grain, light to red-brown wood. It resists warping and checking. Easy to carve and polish. Often used to craft 18th century, colonial and french provincial designs.
A strong, hard and durable wood without being excessively heavy. Takes finishes well. Its one of the most versatile wood used in cabinet work, especially in the 18th century reproductions.
A hard, strong, heavy wood with tiny pores and large conspicuous medullary rays. Quarter sliced and half round cut beech veneers are commonly used. Often used for frames and a variety of bent and turned parts.
One of the heaviest and hardest woods available. It has closegrain without much figure. Used in furniture, structure parts, especially where strength and thickness are required.
Extremely heavy, strong and durable wood. Carves well. Often used as a veneer. Used in scandinavian and oriental furniture
Its a wood hard to work and takes high polish. Very hard, fragrant and closed grained. Used in musical instruments, piano cases, tool handles, art projects, veneers and furniture. Soft , white or pale yellowwood which is light weight, straight grained and lacks figure. It resists shrinking and swelling. Often used for country or provincial furniture. Pickled, whitened, painted and oil finishes are commonly used on this wood.
JUST THE WOOD YOU ARE
How do you find it in stock?
Woodâ€™s unique aesthetic appeal and character make it an absolute favourite for furniture making and flooring. Both wooden furniture and flooring .
Small pieces of chips or sawdust pressured at a ratio of 85% chips and 15 % glue . . Usually softwoods are used for ease of working with them , because it is easier soft pressing hard .
Plant tissue , composed of several layers of dead skin cells lining the outside of the trunk and branches of some trees , particularly the oaks; It is characterized by its impermeability and elasticity and is used in numerous industries such as foot-
They are constructed by gluing the layers with the fibers transversely one over the other , alternately . Most plywood are formed by an odd number of layers to form a balanced construction .
Made from pressed organic matter, or, biomass( industrial waste and co-products, food waste, agricultural residues, energy crops and virgin lumber). Generally made from compacted sawdust and related industrial wastes from the milling of lumber, manufacture of wood products and furniture, and construction.
wear and pavement.
I WAS BORN THIS WOOD
heartwood When working with wood, the commercialy exploited part is the trunk. From there on is being separed into layers.
SAPWOOD Is removed, because it is too young
BARKWOD The outer sheet, is removed since it is being too irregular HEARTWOOD Is the part of wood that is most often used, since it has no humidity
1. Milling 2. Cut 3. Blaa 4.millling 5.kljsdlkfjs
Wood cutting ROTARY CUT: The log is centered on a lathe and turned against a broad cutting knife set into the log at a slight angle. Result: Creates a soft and fluid pattern
QUARTER SLICING: The slicing is made perpendicular to the annual growth rings of the tree. Result: Creates a straight grain appearance.
LENGHTWISE SLICING: This is done from a board of flat sawn lubmer rather than from a log. Result: Variegrated figure is created with this slice. TYPES OF CUTS
Looking for final touches? Bow (Bowing) The curvature of a piece of sawn wood in the direction of its length.
Boxed Heart A term used when the heart is enclosed within the four surfaces of a piece of sawn wood. Well boxed Heart means that the heart is enclosed within the four surfaces of piece of sawn or hewn wood throughout its entire length, and is reasonably well centered at both ends.
Wood is far from being a stable and consistent material. One of the biggest challenges of working with wood is learning to work within the constraints of a timberâ€™s. The following are a list of the most common wood defects.
Honeycomb (Internal Checks) The development of checks in the interior of a piece of wood due to drying stresses, usually along the wood rays, often not visible at the surface. This defect occurs when thick wood is dried too quickly in a seasoning-kiln. Split Is a longitudinal separation of the fibers which extends to the opposite face or adjoining edge of a piece of sawn timber. Spring s the curvature of a piece of sawn timber in the plane of its wide face: known as Crook or Free Side Bend. Wane (Want) Is the lack of wood on any face or edge of a piece of sawn timber, usually caused by a portion of the original rounded surface of a long remaining on the piece; bark may or may not be present. WOOD
MATERIALS BOOK 18
GO YOUR OWN WOOD
SUSTAINABILITY & CERFTIFIES
Certifications There are about 50 different certifications worldwide for paper and wood sustainability. The principal ones being FSC (Forest Stewardship Council) and PEFC (Program of Endorsement of Forest Certification). Waste management When buildings are demolished the timber will be separated and recovered in the best possible condition. The demolishers then sell the used timber to merchants who will de-nail the timber with help of metal detectors. After this process the timber will be re-milled and sawn to size. Once re-milled the timber is sold in the form of timber flooring, beams and decking. Sawdust from wood cutting is usually kept and reused to produce particle boards, sawdust Briquettes or used to absorb moisture and other liquids in for example car repair shops etc. In general reclaimed wood that canâ€™t be reused directly is chopped into chips that can be used in gardening or as bedding for animals such as cows, chickens, horses etc. Types of woods that can be recycled Block board, hardwood, plywood, hardboard, particleboard, softwood, fibreboard (MDF) and oriented Strand Board (OSB). Types of recycled woods Particleboard, softwood, fibreboard (MDF) and oriented Strand Board (OSB).
(n.) Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibres of cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets. 22
gnisserp yb decudorp lairetam niht a si repaP ).n( devired plup esolullec fo serbif tsiom rehtegot meht gniyrd dna ,sessarg ro sgar ,doow morf .steehs elbixelf otni PAPER
PAPER PLANES 102
Cool If your looking for... Paper is used to make books, magazines and newspapers as well as paper money and photographic paper. It's used to make writing paper, toys, boxes, wrapping paper, glassine, paper napkins, toilet paper, paper towels, facial tissue and paper plates. It's also used for wax paper, parchment paper, filter paper, insulation, roofing felt, wallboard and gypsum board. Some further uses are envelopes, wrappers and butcher paper.
Properties If your looking for...
The forest is the biggest deposit of raw materials
Less energy needed
Legal cutting forests
No pollution No waste
Low energy needed to manifacture RECYCABLE
Low energy to harvest the raw material
Leftovers are reused No literal waste
All waste is reused in:
Options to be transformed into a variety of materials
Firewood Pulpwood Compost
Production of Paper
Consumption of Paper
CA DE US
* Source: “State of the World’s forests” FAO: Eurostat world trade atlas PAPER
Hard wood Short Fibres Weaker
Soft wood Long fibres Sronger
HEMP IT OR LEAF IT "THE PAPER YOU CHOOSE SAYS AS MUCH ABOUT YOU AS THE IMAGE YOU PRINT ON IT.”
<100 DAYS STAYS WHITE
MORE FIBRE PER
4 KM2 THAN PINE TREES
THAN HEMP PAPER
HOW I ROLL
Uncoated Paper Not all paper is coated. Uncoated paper is typically used for letterheads, copy paper, or printing paper. Most types of uncoated paper are surface sized to improve their strength. Such paper is used in stationery and lower quality leaflets and brochures.
Coated paper Coating is a process by which paper or board is coated with an agent to improve brightness or printing properties. By applying PCC, china clay, pigment or adhesive the coating fills the miniscule pits between the fibres in the base paper, giving it a smooth, flat surface which can improve the opacity, lustre and colour-absorption ability. Various blades and rollers ensure the uniform application of the coating. They are divided into light coated, medium coated, high coated, and art papers - art paper is used for the high quality reproduction of artwork in brochures and art books.
Sanitary & household This covers a wide range of tissue and other hygienic papers for use in households or on commercial and industrial premises. Examples are toilet paper and facial tissues, kitchen towels, hand towels and industrial wipes. Some tissue is also used in the manufacture of babies nappies, sanitary towels, etc. The parent reel stock is made from virgin pulp or recovered fibre orWOOD mixtures of these.
Folding Boxboard Often referred to as carton board, it may be single or multiple layers, coated or uncoated. It is made from virgin and/or recovered fibre and has good folding properties, stiffness and scoring ability. It is mainly used in cartons for consumer products such as frozen food and for liquid containers.
How do you find it in stock?
Case Material paper and board mainly used in the manufacture of corrugated board. They are made from any combination of virgin and recovered fibre and can be bleached, unbleached or mottled. Included are kraftliner, testliner, semi-chemical fluting, and waste-based fluting (Wellenstoff).
Wrappings paper whose main use is wrapping or packaging made from any combination of virgin or recovered fibre and can be bleached or unbleached. They may be subject to various finishing and/or marking processes. Included are sack kraft, other wrapping krafts,
Magazine paper is uncoated mechanical paper, suitable for printing or other graphic purposes where less than 90% of the fibre used comes from chemical pulp. This grade is also known as groundwood or wood-containing paper, such as consumer magazines printed by the rotogravure and offset methods where drying is necessary.
Newsprint paper is mainly used for printing newspapers and is produced in large quantities. It is made largely from mechanical pulp and/or recovered paper, sometimes including a small amount of filler. The thickness of the paper can vary according to the usage: weights typically range from 40 to 52g/mÂ˛ but can be as much as 65g/mÂ˛. Newsprint is machine-finished or slightly calendered, white or slightly coloured, and is used in reels for printing.
Specialised papers This category includes other paper and board for industrial and special purposes, including cigarette papers and filter papers, as well as gypsum liners (or dry wall) and special papers for waxing, insulating, roofing, asphalting, and other specific applications or treatments such as cat litter, address labels or photographs.
RAW WOOD TO PAPER
Mostly recyled offcuts from industrial saw mills are used.
Remove Acid Solution. Pulp is left sift and fibrous.
3. DIGESTER The woodchips are cooked to remove lignin. Burning of the process by-products enables the whole pulpinh process to be energy self-sufficient.
Did you know? 100L water 6. FILTERED
EXTRA LIGNIN IS FILTERED OUT TO AVOID YELLOWING
Wood fibres alone would produce rough textured and unevenly dense paper. Fillers such as calcium carbonotate and clay are mixed in.
10. TO THE PAPER MACHINE The pulp solution is now a carefully controlled mix of fibres, fillers and colouring agents.
5. BLEACHING Chlorine free using oxygen and peroxide.
7. REFINED Pulp is refined by passing it through a series of rotating and stationary blades. *This process can give fibres a vaiable degree of clean cut or fibrillated ends. Fibrillated fibres bind more tightly with adjacent fibres, creating stronger paper.
9. ADDITIVES Dyes, optical brighteners and sizes may also be blended into the pulp to improve the appearance of the paper.
Did you know? Every hour, the paper line creates a jumbo real which amounts to: 80 km, 8,5m in width and 20 Tonnes!
11. HEAD BOX
13. PRESS SECTION
The headbox squirts a mixture of water and fibre though a thin horizontal slit accross the machine’s width onto an endless moving wire mesh.
The press section squeezes the web of wet papers and lowers content to 50%.
12. WIRE SECTION
The water is then removed on this wire section. Here the fibres start to spread and consolidate into a thin mat. This porcess is called “sheet formation”.
A series of cast iron cylinders, heated to a temperature in excess of 100ºC,where the web of sheets pass through and drying takes place.
In the coating process, coating colour is spread onto the paper surface. The coating colour contains pigments, binding agents, and various additives. Coating the paper several times often improves its printing properties. High grade printing paper is coated up to 3 times.
The papers are then wound into a reel or cut into sheets, ready for printing and converting.
16. CALENDERING After coating, the paper can be calendered. A calender is a device with two or more rollers through which the paper is run. The compressuon of the rollers and the application of heat give the paper its smooth an glossy properties, like ironing shirts.
SIZES OF PAPER
Paper weights grams per square meter
This ia the most popular paper weight - perfect for everyday use.
Ideal for colour pri ting and internal presntations.
The most popular for correspondence, executive documents, presentations and mailings.
High quality paper for presentations, flyers, leaflets and menus.
A lightweight card for arts, crafting and other specialist projects.
SUSTAINABILITY & CERFTIFICATES Waste management There are 3 different grades of paper waste that are recyclable. 1) Mill broke : Mostly trimmings from inside the factory and they are automatically reused to make paper. 2) Pre-consumer waste : Paper that leave the paper mill but is not used. 3) Post-consumer waste : Paper that has been used and is “damaged”. mostly used for paperpulp molding after it’s been deinked the process of that is called deinking).
How it’s recycled : Repulping and Screening (say re-pal-pin and skree-nin): From the storage shelves, they are moved into a big paper-grinding machine called a vat (pulper). Here the paper is chopped into tiny pieces, mixed with water and chemicals and heated up to break it down into fibre. After, it is screened to remove contaminants such as bits of plastic and globs of glue. Deinking (say dee-in-kin): This involves ‘washing’ the pulp with chemicals to remove printing ink and glue residue. Sometimes, a process called floatation is applied to further remove stubborn stains and stickies. Floatation involves the use of chemicals and air to create bubbles which absorb the stickies in the pulp. Refining, Bleaching and Color Stripping: Refining involves beating the recycled pulp to make them ideal for paper-making. After refining, additional chemicals are added to remove any dyes from the paper. It is then bleached to whiten and brighten it up. Paper making: At this stage, the pulp is ready to be used for paper. Sometimes new pulp (virgin pulp) is added to give it extra strength and smoothness. Water is added to the pulp and sprayed onto a large metal screen in continuous mode. The water is drained on the screen and the fibres begin to bond with each other. As it moves through the paper-making machines, press rollers squeeze out more water, heat them dry and coat them up.
Certifications In the pulp and papermaking industry 95% of the water used is cleaned and reused on-site and all waste water is treated in accordance with European legislation and standards. Paper mills have state of the art wastewater treatment installations to the extent that in some cases water in lakes close to paper mills is now cleaner than it was in the past. Since 1994, the paper industry has reduced annual water consumption by over 14% per year. The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) is an international non-profit, multi-stakeholder organization established in 1993 to promote responsible management of the worldâ€™s forests. The FSC does this by setting standards on forest products, along with certifying and labeling them as eco-friendly.
(n.) A material made from the skin of an animal by tanning or a similar process: [ as modifier ] : a leather jacket.
30 REHTAEL ]əðɛlˈ[
lamina na fo niks eht morf edam lairetam A ).n( a : ] reifidom sa [ :ssecorp ralimis a ro gninnat yb .tekcaj rehtael
TOUGH AS AN OLâ€™ BOOT 103
Sexy If your looking for... Binding. Leather is often used to bind or finish books. Clothing. It is often used to make clothing, including pants, skirt, raincoats, and jackets. Saddles. In fact, leather has been used for all types of equestrian related products, including horse hoof boots. Footwear. Fashionable footwear is one of the most common uses for leather, including boots, shoes, slippers, and more. Furniture. Couches, chairs, recliners, and even automotive interiors are made from leather. Gloves. From fashionable winter gloves to durable work gloves, leather is often used. Watches. Leather wrist watch straps are very common, as well as bangles and other jewelry. Sports. Leather has a number of uses in sports, such as producing footballs and baseball gloves. Bags. Satchels, backpacks, wallets, and purses are all made from leather. Cases. A case for your eyeglasses or a protective enclosure for your smartphone may be made from leather. Holsters. Leather is commonly used to make arrow quivers, knife sheaths, and gun holsters. Accessories. Leather is commonly used to manufacturer personal accessories, such as belts. eco-scale
Properties If your looking for...
THERMOSTATIC Leather is warm in winter and cool in summer.
Leather can be moulded and will retain itâ€™s new shape. it has both elastic and plastic properties in wear.
FIRE RESISTANT Leather is inherently resistant to heat and flame.
The atmosphere of modern cities is polluted from the burning of carbon fuels wih sulphur dioxide gas, which can accelerate the deterioration of leather. Modern Leathers are tanned and dressed to resist these harmful chemicals.
FUNGI RESISTANT Leather is resistant to mildew.
Production of leather
* Source: http://conseilnationalducuir.org/en/press/releases/ http://www.fao.org/3/a-i4651e.pdffrance-is-in-the-leading-group-of-leather-exporting-countries http://www.macauhub.com.mo/en/2011/01/05/brazil-expected-this-year-to-continue-as-worlds-second-largest-leather-producer-after-china/
Consumption of leather
Dermis Split Layer Hypodermis
(Fibrous tissue layer)
Thick Skin 46
HEY LEATHER WHATâ€™S YO PLEASURE CHROME-TANNED LEATHER
Invented in 1858, is tanned using chromium sulfate and other chromium salts. It is more supple and pliable than vegetable-tanned leather and does not discolor or lose shape as drastically in water as vegetable-tanned. It is also known as wet-blue for its color derived from the chromium. More exotic colors are possible when using chrome tanning. The chrome tanning method usually only takes a day to finish, and the ease and agility of this method make it a popular choice. It is reported that chrome-tanned leather adds up to 80% of the global leather supply.
Is tanned using tannins and other ingredients found in different vegetable matter, such as tree bark prepared in bark mills, wood, leaves, fruits, and roots. It is supple and brown in color, with the exact shade depending on the mix of chemicals and the color of the skin. It is the only form of leather suitable for use in leather carving or stamping. Vegetable-tanned leather is not stable in water; it tends to discolor, so if left to soak and then dried it shrinks and becomes harder. In hot water, it shrinks drastically and partly congealsâ€”becoming rigid, and eventually brittle. Boiled leather is an example of this, where the leather has been hardened by being immersed in hot water, or in boiled wax or similar substances. Historically, it was occasionally used as armour after hardening, and it has also been used for book binding.
Aldehyde-tanned leather is tanned using glutaraldehyde or oxazolidine compounds. This is the leather that most tanners refer to as wet-white leather due to its pale cream or white color. It is the main type of "chrome-free" leather, often seen in automobiles and shoes for infants. Formaldehyde tanning (being phased out due to danger to workers and sensitivity of many people to formaldehyde) is another aldehyde tanning method. Brain-tanned leathers fall into this category, and are exceptionally water absorbent.
BRAIN TANNED LEATHER
Brain tanned leathers are made by a labor-intensive process that uses emulsified oils, often those of animal brains such as deer, cows, and buffaloes. They are known for their exceptional softness and washability.
Chamois leather also falls into the category of aldehyde tanning and, like brain tanning, produces a porous and highly water-absorbent leather. Chamois leather is made by using marine oils (traditionally cod oil) that oxidize easily to produce the aldehydes that tan the leather to make the fabric the color it is.
ROSE TANNED LEATHER Rose tanned leather is a variation of vegetable oil tanning and brain tanning, where pure rose otto replaces the vegetable oil and emulsified oils. Rose tanned leather tanned using rose otto oil leaves a powerful rose fragrance even years from the day it is manufactured. It has been called the most valuable leather on earth, but this is mostly due to the high cost of rose otto and its labor-intensive tanning process.
Synthetic-tanned leather is tanned using aromatic polymers such as the Novolac or Neradol types (syntans, contraction for synthetic tannins). This leather is white in color and was invented when vegetable tannins were in short supply during the Second World War. Melamine and other amino-functional resins fall into this category as well, and they provide the filling that modern leathers often require. Urea-formaldehyde resins were also used in this tanning method before people realized the hazards that formaldehyde presents to tanners and consumers.
Alum-tanned leather is transformed using aluminium salts mixed with a variety of binders and protein sources, such as flour and egg yolk. Alum-tanned leather is technically not tanned, as tannic acid is not used, and the resulting material reverts to rawhide if soaked in water long enough to remove the alum salts.
Rawhide is made by scraping the skin thin, soaking it in lime, and then stretching it while it dries. Like alum-tanning, rawhide is not technically "leather", but is usually lumped in with the other forms.Rawhide is stiffer and more brittle than other forms of leather; it is primarily found in uses such as drum heads and parchment where it does not need to flex significantly; it is also cut up into cords for use in lacing or stitching and for making many varieties of dog chews.
DID YOU KNOW?
Leather, usually vegetable-tanned, can be oiled to improve its water resistance. This currying process after tanning supplements the natural oils remaining in the leather itself, which can be washed out through repeated exposure to water. Russia leather was an important international trade good for centuries. Frequent oiling of leather, with mink oil, neatsfoot oil, or a similar material keeps it supple and improves its lifespan dramatically. Leather with the hair still attached is called hair-on.
HELL FOR LEATHER
How do you find it?
Cow Hide & Hair On
Sheep Hide & Hair On
Goat Hide & Hair On
Deer Hide & Hair On
Bycast Leather LEATHER
MORE THAN ONE WAY TO SKIN A CAT Raw material
DIFFERENT PARTS OF SKIN (CATTLE, SHEEP, GOAT) 1 Top of Hide 2 Back of hide 3 Flank of hide
RE-WETTING WATER HUMIDITY AGENTS BACTERIAL AGENTS
DE-HAIRING CHEMICAL AGENTS
PRE-TANNING TANNING WITH LIQUOR OR SUSTITUTES
NORMALLY SOLD BY WEIGHT
What’s your cut? DOUBLE FRONT SHOULDER
BELLY HALF BOVINE LEATHER (COW, CALF OR BULL)
FULL HIDE OR SKIN
FULL HIDE OR SKIN
BEAUTY IS ONLY SKIN-DEEP
SUSTAINABILITY & CERFTIFIES Leather produces some environmental impact, most notably due to: The carbon footprint of cattle rearing Use of chemicals in the tanning process (e.g., chromium, formic acid, mercury and solvents) Air pollution due to the transformation process (hydrogen sulfide during dehairing and ammonia during deliming, solvent vapors) Carbon footprint One estimate of the carbon footprint of leather goods is 0.51 kg of CO2 equivalent per £1 of output at 2010 retail prices, or 0.71 kg CO2eq per £1 of output at 2010 industry prices. Water footprint One ton of hide or skin generally produces 20 to 80 m3 of waste water, including chromium levels of 100–400 mg/L, sulfide levels of 200–800 mg/L, high levels of fat and other solid wastes, and notable pathogen contamination. Producers often add pesticides to protect hides during transport. With solid wastes representing up to 70% of the wet weight of the original hides, the tanning process represents a considerable strain on water treatment installations. Disposal Leather biodegrades slowly—taking 25 to 40 years to decompose. However, vinyl and petro-chemical derived materials take 500 or more years to decompose.
Chemicals used in tanning Tanning is especially polluting in countries where environmental regulations are lax, such as in India, the world's third-largest producer and exporter of leather. To give an example of an efficient pollution prevention system, chromium loads per produced tonne are generally abated from 8 kg to 1.5 kg. VOC emissions are typically reduced from 30 kg/t to 2 kg/t in a properly managed facility. A review of the total pollution load decrease achievable according to the United Nations Industrial Development Organization posts precise data on the abatement achievable through industrially proven low-waste advanced methods, while noting that "even though the chrome pollution load can be decreased by 94% on introducing advanced technologies, the minimum residual load 0.15 kg/t raw hide can still cause difficulties when using landfills and composting sludge from wastewater treatment on account of the regulations currently in force in some countries." MATERIAL BIBLE
You can make soft, washable leather with emulsified oils and woodsmoke. This is commonly known as brain, smoke or Indian tanning. Animal brains are traditionally used as the source of emulsified oils, hence the name, but you can also use eggs or a mixture of soap and oil. Brain tan is ideal for clothing, bags, beadwork and all kinds of things (such as shoe-laces, pot holders, hair ties, holding parts of your truck together). Hides can also be tanned by soaking them in tannic acids derived from tree barks and certain plants. This is known as bark tan. Bark tan makes a stiff, solid leather that is useful for saddles, holsters and stiff bags. Low tech recycling Leather products are generally very durable and expensive. However, as leather gets older some areas become worn out or damaged, whereas other parts of the item still look brand new. For example, the cushions on a couch may become torn and tattered after years of use. Luckily, with the use of leather conditioning products, dyes, and crafting supplies, you can recycle and repurpose many old leather products into a brand new, useful item. For recycling, basically every leather product available can live a second life. To name a few luggage, wallets, purses, jackets, pants, skirts, shoes, belts, gloves and furniture. Bonded leather To recycle leather, first the leather residues and scraps must be shredded. Next, the resulting blend of shredded leather material is glued together with resin and catalysers. The mixture is then extruded onto a fiber cloth, or paper backing, and the surface is usually embossed with a leather-like texture or grain. Color and patterning, if any, are a surface treatment that does not penetrate like a dyeing process would. The natural leather fiber content of bonded leather varies. The manufacturing process is somewhat similar to the production of paper. Certificate USDA National Organic Program (NOP) Organic leather must come from an animal that has been raised on a certified organic ranch, and then tanned in a certified organic tannery.
(n.) A solid material which is typically hard, shiny, malleable, fusible, and ductile, with good electrical and thermal conductivity (e.g. iron, gold, silver, and aluminium, and alloys such as steel). 56
,elbaellam ,ynihs ,drah yllacipyt si hcihw lairetam dilos A ).n( -noc lamreht dna lacirtcele doog htiw ,elitcud dna ,elbisuf syolla dna ,muinimula dna ,revlis ,dlog ,nori .g.e( ytivitcud .)leets sa hcus METAL
METAL AGES ARE BACK 104
Cool If your looking for... Metals are good conductors, making them valuable in electrical appliances and for carrying an electric current over a distance with little energy lost. Electrical power grids rely on metal cables to distribute electricity. Home electrical systems, for the most part, are wired with copper wire for its good conducting properties. The thermal conductivity of metal is useful for containers to heat materials over a flame. Metal is also used for heat sinks to protect sensitive equipment from overheating. The high reflectivity of some metals is important in the construction of mirrors, including precision astronomical instruments. This last property can also make metallic jewelry aesthetically appealing. Some metals have specialized uses; radioactive metals such as uranium and plutonium are used in nuclear power plants to produce energy via nuclear fission. Mercury is a liquid at room temperature and is used in switches to complete a circuit when it flows over the switch contacts. Shape memory alloy is used for applications such as pipes, fasteners and vascular stents.
Plasticity / Ductility
Its ability to to be subjected to a permanent and irreversible defformation without breaking.
A componentâ€™s resistance to penetration and abrassio of its surface.
Once polished, metals, can reflect light to such an extent to render a perfect image.
The capability to absorb a mechanical energy in a smallamount of time, at a given temperature.
Some metals, can become permanent or temporary magnets once introduced in a magnetic field.
They are generally good conductors of electricity, due to the type of metal bonds.
* Source: USGS Mineral Resources Data System 60
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The industry Metals do not appear in nature as we see them in day to day life. Only copper, gold, platinum or the meteoric rocks containing iron and nickel, are naturally available, which are metals in their native state. Metals usually present themselves in nature as oxides, in the for of ores, and certain transformation processes are needed to reduce oxidation in order to convert them into a familiar form. Metallurgy is the term covering all of the stages of transformation of ore into metal until the point of semi-finished products. Oxidation is reduced by adding carbonto the ore at high temperature. Metals are rarely used in their pure form. by combining a metal with one or several elements, you can considerably enhance the properties of the new material; the alloy.
How do you find it in stock? Metal is not usually bought by itself, but when it is, it comes normaly in extrussions, the most common is the IPE Beam (at the top), but there are lots of varieties and shapes. The other common way to find it is in rolled sheets of different different thicknesses and lengths. 62
The structure of metal The structure of metal is characterised by metallic bonds, which support the coherence of its atoms. The atoms actually share one or several electrons which constitute a combinaton of positive ions surrounded by a cloud of free elctrons. The electrostatic bonds, which operate within the material are strong, the ionic packing is well-orderes, regular, and periodic, referred to as Crystal Lattice. Different models of crystal lattice can be listed, each one with a different “geometric structure”
Crystal Lattice Example
On a higher level, the magnitude of a micron or milimetre, each well-ordered lattice of ions can be represented by a “grain”. Metal derfore acts as a granular structure, an aggregate of crystallites with varying degrees of orientation. Crystal Structure of a Metal
Iron and Steel metallurgy The â€œCast Ironâ€? method: Cast iron is produced as a result of adding carbon to iron ore, provided by coke (coal) in blas furnaces. Once liquid, cast irons is transferred into an oxygen converter to lowe r its carbon content and become steel. At this point it is called wild steel. As a result cast irons have a carbon content of 2-6% whereas steels do not exceed 2%.
Iron and Steel metallurgy The â€œScrap Metalâ€? method: Steels are produced as a result of recasting recycled components. Wild steel is obtained as a result of putting this scrap metal into an electric furnace. This method of recycling is far from being negligible in terms of production. Along with glass, it is in fact one of the first methods to have been implemented for the industrial recycling of materials.
Looking for final touches? DEFFECTS The mechanical properties of metal can be modified with heat treatments, once the components have been made. The structure of the material can then be modified. There are three major types of treatment: Annealing: The metal component is heated between 500ยบC and 850ยบC, mantained at this temperature, and then slowly cooled. In this way the internal tensions of the metal are released, making the material more maleable. An equilibrium structure is regained. Quench Hardening: In the same way, the component is heated (> 800ยบC for steels, for example), mantained at this temperature then cooled abruptly in water, air, oil or gases. Two types of hardening are possible: solid or superficial. The metal then becomes very hard but brittle. Tempering: Once hardening has been completed, the component is reheated, amongst other things, to minimise the embrittling of the quench hardening.
GO YOUR OWN METAL
SUSTAINABILITY & CERFTIFIES Ferrous metals are able to be recycled, with steel being one of the most recycled materials in the world. Ferrous metals contain an appreciable percentage of iron and the addition of carbon and other substances creates steel. Steel does not lose any of its inherent physical properties during the recycling process, and has drastically reduced energy and material requirements compared with refinement from iron ore.
TYPES Heavy melting steel – Industrial or commercial scrap steel greater than 6mm thick, such as plates, beams, columns, channels; may also include scrap machinery or implements or certain metal stampings Old car bodies – Vehicles with or without interiors and their original wheels Cast iron – Cast iron bathtubs, machinery, pipe and engine blocks Pressing steel – Domestic scrap metal up to approx. 6mm thick. Examples - White goods (fridges, washing machines, etc.), roofing iron, water heaters, water tanks and sheet metal offcuts Re-inforcing bars or mesh – Used in the construction industry within concrete structures Turnings – Remains of drilling or shaping steels. Also known as "borings" or "swarf" Manganese steel – Non magnetic, hardened steel used in the mining industry, cement mixers, rock crushers, and other high impact and abrasive environments. Rails – Rail or tram tracks
SYMBOL FOR RECYCLABLE STEEL The European Committee for Standardization (CEN, French: Comité Européen de Normalisation) is a public standards organization whose mission is to foster the economy of the European Union (EU) in global trading, the welfare of European citizens and the environment by providing an efficient infrastructure to interested parties for the development, maintenance and distribution of coherent sets of standards and specifications.
RECYLING As recycling does not transmute the element, aluminium can be recycled indefinitely and still be used to produce any product for which new aluminium could have been used. Recycled aluminium uses 5% of the energy that would be needed to create a comparable amount from raw materials. Process : Aluminium beverage cans are usually recycled by the following method: Cans are first divided from municipal waste, usually through an eddy current separator, and cut into small, equally sized pieces to lessen the volume and make it easier for the machines that separate them. Pieces are cleaned chemically/mechanically and blocked to minimize oxidation losses when melted. Blocks are loaded into the furnace and heated to 750 Â°C Âą 100 Â°C to produce molten aluminium. Dross is removed, and the dissolved hydrogen is degassed. This is typically done with chlorine and nitrogen gas. Samples are taken for spectroscopic analysis. Depending on the final product desired, high-purity aluminium, copper, zinc, manganese, silicon, and/or magnesium is added to alter the molten composition to the proper alloy specification. The top-five aluminium alloys produced are 6061, 7075, 1100, 6063, and 2024. The furnace is tapped, the molten aluminium poured out, and the process is repeated again for the next batch. Depending on the end product, it may be cast into ingots, billets, or rods, formed into large slabs for rolling, atomized into powder, sent to an extruder, or transported in its molten state to manufacturing facilities for further processing.
INTERESTING FACTS Brazil recycles 98.2% of its aluminium can production, equivalent to 14.7 billion beverage cans per year, ranking first in the world, more than Japan's 82.5% recovery rate. Brazil has topped the aluminium can recycling charts eight years in a row. When you recycle 100 aluminum cans, it can reproduce 88 new cans. Recycling one metric ton (1,000 kilograms) of steel saves 1.1 metric tons of iron ore, 630 kilograms of coal, and 55 kilograms of limestone.
GLASS [glas, glahs]
(n.) A hard, brittle, noncrystalline, more or less transparent substance produced by fusion, usually consisting of mutually dissolved silica and silicates like soda and lime.
SSALG ]shalg ,salg[
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WHAT A WONDERFULL GLASS 105
Cool If your looking for... Packaging (jars for food, bottles for drinks, flacon for cosmetics and pharmaceuticals) Tableware (drinking glasses, plate, cups, bowls) Housing and buildings (windows, facades, conservatory, insulation, reinforcement structures) Interior design and furnitures (mirrors, partitions, balustrades, tables, shelves, lighting) Appliances and Electronics (oven doors, cook top, TV, computer screens, smart-phones) Automotive and transport (windscreens, backlights, light weight but reinforced structural components of cars, aircrafts, ships, etc.) Medical technology, biotechnology, life science engineering, optical glass Radiation protection from X-Rays (radiology) and gamma-rays (nuclear) Fibre optic cables (phones, TV, computer: to carry information) Renewable energy (solar-energy glass, windturbines) eco-scale
01 MATERIAL BIBLE 72
Properties If your looking for...
In the visible part of the light spectrum, glass is transparent.
Glass is isotropic: its properties are independent of directions of space.
Glass can be recycled without detriment to its quality.
High density, similiar to a classic concrete.
INSULATION Thermal intertia and thermal expansión make glass a good termal insulator. It’s also an electrical insulator at low temperatures.
DUALITY This infinitely viscous liquid is hard and brittle at ambient temperature, but we can alter its viscosity by heating, when it can become maleable and plastic.
INERTIA Glass is a closed material, it’s relatively inert chemically speaking and resists most acids and bases. It’s not susceptible to UV radation, oxidation or atmospheric erosion. 70%
* Find more about sustainability in page 23.
Production of glass
S. EAST ASIA
* Source: “State of the World’s forests” FAO: Eurostat world trade atlas 7401MATERIAL BIBLE 74 MATERIAL BIBLE
Consumption of glass
S. EAST ASIA
MATERIALSGLASS BOOK75 GLASS
MAJOR GLASS COMBINATIONS
inexpensive easy to melt and shape most widely used glass
poor durability not chemicaly resistant poor thermal shock resistance
Windows Bottles Light bulbs Jars
High density Brilliant Very easy to melt, shape out and engrave
poor durability Easily scratched
Fine crystal radiaton windows TV parts
Very good thermal shock resistance and chemical durability Easy to melt and shape
Not suitable for long-term high temperature use
Labware Kitchenware Special light bulbs Sealed beam headlamps
Excellent thermal resistance Durability
More difficult to melt and shape than borosilicate
Top-of-store cookware High quality fiberglass
Difficult to make Very expensive
Spacecrafts windows Labware Fiber optics
HEY GLASS SISTER FLAT GLASS
Used in windows, mirrors, room dividers, and some kinds of furniture. All flat glass is made in the form of flat sheets. But some of it, such as that used in automobile windshields, is reheated and sagged (curved) over molds.
Opal glass has small particles in the body of the glass that disperse the light passing through it, making the glass appear milky. This glass is widely used in lighting fixtures and for tableware.
GLASS BUILDING BLOCKS
GLASS OPTICAL FIBERS
Used for packaging food, beverages, medicines, chemicals, and cosmetics. Glass jars and bottles are made in a wide variety of shapes, sizes, and colors. Some of them are made from special glass formulas to make sure there will be no contamination or deterioration of blood plasma, serums, and chemicals stored in them.
Used in eyeglasses, microscopes, telescopes, camera lenses, and many instruments for factories and laboratories. The raw materials must be pure so that the glass can be made almost flawless. The care required for producing optical glass makes it expensive compared with other kinds of glass. Consists of fine but solid rods of glass, each of which may be less than one-twentieth the width of a human hair. These tiny glass fibers can be loosely packed together in a woollike mass that can serve as heat insulation. They also can be used like wool or cotton fibers to make glass yarn, tape, cloth, and mats. Fiberglass has many other uses. It is used for electrical insulation, chemical filtration, and firefighters' suits. Combined with plastics, fiberglass can be used for airplane wings and bodies, automobile bodies, and boat hulls. Fiberglass is a popular curtain material because it is fire-resistant and washable..
Is a â€œsandwichâ€? made by combining alternate layers of flat glass and plastics. The outside layer of glass may break when struck by an object, but the plastic layer is elastic and so it stretches. The plastic holds the broken pieces of glass together and keeps them from flying in all directions. Laminated glass is used where broken glass might cause serious injuries, as in automobile windshields.
LAMINATED SAFETY GLASS
Used in eyeglasses, microscopes, telescopes, camera lenses, and many instruments for factories and laboratories. The raw materials must be pure so that the glass can be made almost flawless. The care required for producing optical glass makes it expensive compared with other kinds of glass.
When it is cut, looks like a black honeycomb. It is filled with many tiny cells of gas. Each cell is surrounded and sealed off from the others by thin walls of glass. It floats on water is widely used as a heat insulator in buildings, on steam pipes, and on chemical equipment. Foam glass can be cut into various shapes with a saw. Glass building blocks are made from two hollow half-sections sealed together at a high temperature. Glass building blocks are good insulators against heat or cold because of the dead-air space inside. The blocks are laid like bricks to make walls and other structures.
Glass fibers used to transmit information as pulses of light. Thin, extremely pure optical fibers are used to carry telephone and television signals and digital (numeric) data over long distances. Glass optical fibers are also used in control board displays and in medical instruments.
Glass-ceramics are strong materials made by heating glass to rearrange some of its atoms into regular patterns. These partially crystalline materials can withstand high temperatures, sudden changes in temperature, and chemical attacks better than ordinary glass can. They are used in a variety of products, including heat-resistant cookware, turbine engines, electronic equipment, and nose cones of guided missiles. Glass-ceramics have such trade names as Pyroceram, Cervit, and Hercuvit..
Photochromic glass darkens when exposed to ultraviolet rays and clears up when the rays are removed. Photochromic glass is used for windows, sunglasses, and instrument controls.
Photosensitive glass can be exposed to ultraviolet light and to heat so that any pattern or photograph can be reproduced within the body of the glass itself. Because the photographic print then becomes an actual part of the glass, it will last as long as the glass itself.
JUST THE GLASS YOU ARE
How to find it on stock?
Raw to mold
Flat & Laminated
The collection of all raw materials, soda lime,
Wood’s unique aesthetic appeal and character make it an absolute favourite for furniture making and flooring. Both wooden furniture and flooring .
Wood’s unique aesthetic appeal and character make it an absolute favourite for furniture making and flooring. Both wooden furniture and flooring .
Wood’s unique aesthetic appeal and character make it an absolute favourite for furniture making and flooring. Both wooden furniture and flooring .
I WAS BORN THIS GLASS
Glass ins an amorphous solid obtained by the cooling of a molten liquid. In most materials indeed throughout most of the solid state, atomes are organized acording to a very precise arrafement. This arragement stabilises and compresses the material. In the case of molden glass, the liquid sets gradually whilst still keeping its irregular atomic structure: Vitreous state. The materials is therefore said to be amorphous. Glass is the paradoxical material per excellence. Itâ€™s a solid with the structure of a liquid: a brittle and rigid material at ambient temperature and yet extremely plastic when heated. Random Glass structure ( Opaque )
Ordered Glass structure ( Crystalline )
This diagrams demonstrate some of the structural differences between a glass and a a ceramic on the atomic scale, eben though they can have exactly the same composition.
Glass composition Silica or sand
Glass former: Essntial base constituent
Lime: Adding the lime makes the glass more stable making it insoluble in water
Used to improve the optical qualities (refractive index, optical transmission, color) or physical qualities (malleability, termal stability)
1. Oven 2. Molten glass 3. Bath of molten tin 4. Float 5. Annealing lehr 6. Cutting
Looking for final touches? Annealing: DEFFECTS If a hot glass object is cooled "too quickly," it may be strained at ambient temperature, and therefore may break easily. For small, or thin-walled shapes the effect may not be serious but for more massive pieces, the strain can be delicated. The amount of strain (observed in a polariscope) depends upon how quickly the object passes through a critical temperature range. The range depends on the composition of the glass but is usually about 450°C. If the glass is cooled slowly through that range, so that the temperature near the surface is never very different from that of the interior, then the strain in the resulting object is much reduced. Such glass is said to be annealed. So, annealing glass is the process of slowly cooling glass so that the internal temperature matches the external temperature.
Thermal tempering tempered glass is a glass that has been subjected to an additional heat treatment after annealing in order to increase its mechanical strength • The tempering process lies on the controlled creation of permanent stresses in the glass • The surface is under compressive stress while the core is under tensile stress • Tempered glass can be as much as 4 to 5 times stronger than annealed glass (without tempering) • When fracturing, tempered glass breaks into small fragments. It is often referred to as “safety glass” IMI-NFG Course on Processing of Glass - Lecture 9: Annealing and Tempering email@example.com 37 • Tempering of glass is mostly applied to articles with relatively simple geometries, e.g. windows, windshields… • The tempering process involves reheating of the glass article to a critical temperature (typically above 600-650°C) and subsequent rapid cooling WOOD of the surface to create a desired stress profile within the material
Chemical tempering Chem-tempered glass is 25 times as strong as ordinary glass. It’s made by a chemical process that, like thermal strengthening, makes glass strong by compressing its surface. The glass is placed in a bath of molten potassium salts. The combination of heat and salts causes the large potassium atoms to exchange places with smaller sodium atoms in the glass. As the surface of the glass becomes crowded, it becomes compressed.seasoning-kiln.
GO YOUR OWN GLASS
SUSTAINABILITY & CERFTIFIES Certifications There are a lot of certifications for glass, but they also are very specific depending on what it is used for. Interesting facts Glass can be recycled endlessly with no loss in quality or purity. In 2013, 41.3% of glass beer and soft drink bottles, 34.5% of wine and liquor bottles, and approximately 34% of all glass containers were recycled. In some states, like California, glass bottle recycling reaches over 80%.* Made from nontoxic raw materials—silica, sand, soda ash, limestone and up to 70% recycled glass—glass is the only packaging material certified by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration as “generally regarded as safe.” How it is recycled Recycling glass starts in your home. There is a reason why many local councils provide different containers for green, brown, plain glass and even glass from broken windows. The reason is that they are all made very differently and mixing them can create huge problems at the recycling center.
Cleaning and Crushing: The glass is transported to the processing plant where contaminants such as metal caps and plastic sleeves are removed. Different grades are treated separately. Clean glass is then crushed into small pieces called cullet. Cullet is in high demand from glass manufacturers. It melts at a lower temperature and it is cheaper than raw glass materials. Ready for use: The cullet is then transported to glass-making factories. Here, it is mixed with sand, soda ash and limestone. It is heated at very high temperature and melted into liquid glass. This liquid is then poured into moulds that give glass its shape. Glass is used for many thingsâ€”depending on what grade they were recycled from. A few items made of recycled glass include fibre-glass, countertops, bottles and jars.
(adj.) Of or relating to products made from clay and similar materials, as pottery and brick, or to their manufacture.
06 CIMAREC ]kimarˈəs[
morf edam stcudorp ot gnitaler ro fO ).jda( dna yrettop sa ,slairetam ralimis dna yalc .erutcafunam rieht ot ro ,kcirb
Cool If you are looking for... Art ware, figurines and sculptures. Ceramics with their versatile and flexible behaviour give the freedom every artist dreams for - to creat, produce and amaze Tableware and utensils. Ceramics and its subcategories are often a desirable choice in the creation of tableware, such as plates, bowls, cups, etc. Domestic products. Most of out houses are overflowing with ceramic products such as - bathtubs, toilets, sinks, door knobs, etc. Industrial products. Ceramics spread their reach to not only the daily visible products, it can also be found in pipes, ceramic insulators, television setsâ€™ capacitors and resistors, magnetic ceramics in vacuum cleaners and blenders, etc. Automobile industry. The properties of advanced ceramis find place in the car industry in the form of - ceramic engine components thet combust fuel more cleanly, catalytic converters which conevert air pollution into less harmful gases.
High melting point
Bad electricity conductor
No flexible bonds
Bad heat conductor
No plastic deformation
DURABILITY Time resistance
Grinded into powder
Does not degrade by
and reused for new
corrosion or oxidation
products, nourish the soil
CERAMICS HOW IT IS MADE Made by firing and generally from, clay, quartz (silica) and feldspar, traditional ceramics are porous materials which have vitreous (amorphous) and crysatalline phases. Following the irreversible firing of tradional ceramics, the water content in the original mixture evaporates.
Clay’s main constituent is kaolin, with a relatively large proportion of metallic oxides - impurities wich affect the colour or the finish product
Main ingredient in the ceramic composition quartz, also knows as, silica.
Feldspar plays the role of a fluxing material, cementing the kaolin and silica particles and reducing porosity. It also gives rise to the vitreous phases.
By varying and supplementing the basic ceramic recipe, the performance levels and characteristics of the product can be controlled. other elements involved in the composition of ceramics are: mica, talc, chamotte (grounded bits of fired refractory ceramic), limestone, magnesia. There are also a subcategory of ceramics called - “technical” ceramics. They are synthetic materials mostly made of oxides, carbides, nitrides, borides, sulphides, etc. 90
TYPES OF CERAMICS POTTERY
USE AND COMPOSITION
Hand - thrown pieces, made on a potterâ€™s wheel. TERRA COTTA Terra Cotta is a permeable, unglazed ceramic. Characterize with more porous surface Some types of terra cotta can be used to make refractory equipment. Terra Cotta is used to make tiles, bricks, etc, outdoor produts. EARTHENWARE Eearhenware refers to red clay, with high iron content. Fired at a low temperature (less that 1,100 C), therefore they are porous and must be glazed. The clay may also be creamy white or black. Earthenware is certainly one of the oldest and most widely-used techniques. Many floor and wall tiles and earhenware. PORCELAIN Porcelain is a white clay fired at high temperatures ( above 1,250 C). If made very thin some porcelain can be translucent. Porcelain is an impermeable ceramic which is often used for tableware or decorative objects. STONEWARE Stoneware is grey or brown clay which, following firing, often has black or dark brown specks (which correspond to iron aggregates - pyrites - or other metals). Firing temperatures vary between 1,200C and 1,400C. Stoneware stays opaque and is impermeable. Stoneware is used for tiles and stoneware close to porcelain is used for sanitary ware.
transparent porcelain soft porcelain
floor tiles FELDSPAR
Finishes (colouring) do not come out the same across the board of ceramics, due to their different firing temperatures. However, it is not always easy to distinguish between the different types. CERAMICS
Production of ceramics
CA THE MOST
Consumption of ceramics
CH VIE IND
PRODUCTION OF CERAMICS
How to make ceramic pieces? To make traditional ceramic pieces either slip, paste or powder/ thermoplastic composites are prepared.
Liquid suspension. The primary materials are first grounded and then mixed to form, with the addition of water or another binder. This creates a mixture ready to be casted or injected. The thickness of the slip governs the behaviour of the mixture and the sucess rate in the further processes. Used in casting and injection moulding.
Obtained from enriched liquid paste. The water from the slip is removed with a filter press. This produces flat firm layers of paste. The layers are made into rolls by an extruder. Later, the paste is precessed again by extrusion, pressing or jiggering.
POWDER Powder of a pre-fired ceramic is mixed with a thermoplastic. The whole lot is injected into a mould and then fired once to eliminate the thermoplastic binder and a second time ro insure grain cohesion withing the ceramic - also known as sintering.
Ceramic processes Firing Process
After the ceramic pieces are being processed- hand thrown, moulded, slip-casted, pressed, etc., they are being left to air-dry and after that fired in a kiln. The firing takes place in one or more stages, depending on the type of ceramics.
For example earthenware fired first at 1,000 C - 1,050 C, this gives a piece known as “biscuit” or “bisque”. After that the piece is ready to be glazed or decorated. The second firing (between 940 C 980 C) makes the glazed coating vitrify (harden and close the poures) and completes the piece’s manufacture. 4
6 Process description: 1. Mixing, 2. Spray drying 3. Forming, 4. Drying, 5. Glazing, 6. Firing, 7. Final 96
Ceramic techniques Pottery wheel - hand thrown pieces are made on it
Slipcasting - pouring the slip into a plaster mould, later pouring out the exess ceramic. After solidifying, open the cast and let it airdry and then fired in a kiln. Finishing touches can be glazing, which needs a second firing after that.
Extrusion - the slip is being extruded into tubular shapes
Press moulding - used generally for tiles to stamp them out, or create a patten on top
3D printing - Most ceramic 3D printing uses complex techniques to deposit layers of the material on top of each other, and as a result have to use materials with relatively low melting points. The techniques can also only be used to create fairly simple shapes. However, their are developments on ceramic 3d printed surfaces that withstand 1,377 C.
Max Cheprack - clay extruded chair
Max Cheprack - clay extruded chair How it is made
The whole design is based on the different techniques related with clay extrusion. The designer made two pneumatic clay extruders. The interesting part of this project is in the combination between manual and mechanical industrialisation. 1. The clay is feeded through the extruder 2. Cut from the custom made die with the design 3. Afterwards, manualy cut and curved by the designer 4. Air dry 5. First firing 6. Glazing 7. Second firing 8. Assembling to the wooden base 9. Post treatment of the wood
SUSTAINABILITY & CERFTIFICATIONS Ceramic sustainability Firing Process ALorem ceramic is most madeconsectetuer from clay that has been ipsum doloroften sit amet, heated to where particles partiallyligula melt together adipiscing elit. the Aenean commodo (sinter) and stick together into aCum rigid sociis mass. The way to eget dolor. Aenean massa. reuse a broken ceramic mass isdis thus obvious. Break the natoque penatibus et magnis parturiparticles apart and return them to the mus. clay that they were ent montes, nascetur ridiculus made Thisfelis, is best done by grinding Donecfrom. quam ultricies nec, pellen-the pieces in a mill, but eu, second bestquis, would be simply breaking the large tesque pretium sem. Nulla conpieces powder with a large hammer or a flat tamping sequatinto massa quis enim. Donec pede tool. The powder may not benec, valuable, since it is just justo, fringilla vel, aliquet vulputate ordinary clay, In butenim at least it canrhoncus be distributed onto soil eget, arcu. justo, ut, with no ill effect and it isvitae, not filling dumps. Some imperdiet a, venenatis justo.up Nullam excessively soilsmollis may benefit dictum felissandy eu pede pretium.from Inte-the addition of clay ger powder. tincidunt. Cras dapibus. Vivamus
100 MATERIAL BIBLE
(n.) any cloth or goods produced by weaving, knitting, or felting.
102 MATERIAL BIBLE
-tink ,gnivaew yb decudorp sdoog ro htolc yna ).n( .gnitlef ro ,gnit
TEXTILE ME BACK 107
Cool If your looking for... The classification 'textiles' refers more to the processes used than the resultant material. In fact, numerous materials can be made into textiles (plastics, metals); the raw material of this industry is fibre, transformed into yarn. Made up of long continuous fibres or short discontinuous fibres, then woven, knitted or assembled and finally, finished, fabrics may vary in terms of composition (cotton, silk, glass, nylon, etc.) and in terms of properties (flexibility, strengths, insulating capacity. This section on textiles describes the different stages of transforming fibre into fabric, in terms of the transition from fibre to yarn, to textile, as well as some of the finishing processes used.
eco-scale 104 MATERIAL BIBLE
Textile fibres Amongst current textile production, two main types of fibres can be distinguished. Natural fibres: These fibres represent less than half of all fibres used. They are in turn divided into three categories: vegetable fibres (cellulose-based, such as cotton, flax, hemp, kapok); animal fibres (wool and silk); and mineral fibres (glass, basalt) Man-made fibres: Making up the majority of fibres used and obtained by forcing (or extruding) fibre forming materials, man-made fibres can be divided into two categories: Artificial fibres - these can be based on vegetable, animal, or mineral constituents which have been modified (cellulose is modified to provide viscose, for example) Synthetic fibres (nylon, polyester, etc.)
Natural Fibre (Cotton)
Man-made synthetic fibre (Polyester)
30% TEXTILES 105
Yarn production Each individual fibre has its own characteristics and as such, the lengths and strengths are not sufficient, nor uniform enough, to be woven or knitted. Fibres therefore need to be worked and assembled into yarn (or thread) of a continuous length and constant diameter. Yarn is deemed multi-stranded, as it often combines several fibres. Yarn production started in ancient times, with spindles and bobbins, like those in children's fairy tales. lt is an age-old technique, which has been industrialised over the course of time.
There are two ways of producing yarn. Spinning: This consists of twisting together short, discontinuous fibres. These are often natural fibres (cotton, flax, wool) and sometimes cut man-made fibres. After cleaning (to remove impurities), the loosely bundled fibres are aligned by means of carding, then combined, in parallel, to form a carded sliver (a loose rope of fibres). This sliver then undergoes drawing and twisting, which strengthens fibre cohesion. This is then referred to as a roving, which is drawn and twisted again, to become yarn. Reeling: This consists of pulling out long, continuous fibres. Reeling is a process performed on man-made fibres. Silk - a natural fibre - is the product of a natural biological reeling process. Silk fibres are long and continuous by nature. Reeling man-made fibres is a form of extrusion. The material (polymers) is fed through a spinneret under pressure. The shape of the spinneret is very important as it determines the profile and the diameter of the filament. The shape of the filament determines its characteristics: lustre (whether it is matt or shiny, Iuminous, or reflective, etc.), properties of adhesion or absorption, texture, flexibility and how fine it is (microfibres, for example, are only a few microns in diameter and, amongst Other things, are very soft, very fluid and very light). White the shape of man-made fibres can be manipulated during this process, making a number of variations and applications possible, natural fibres, on the other hand, have pre-defined shapes.
106 MATERIAL BIBLE
Throwing Gimping & Texturizing At the end of the reeling process, some yarn, known as 'single' yarn, may be used directly. However, most yarn undergoes subsequent processing.
Texturising: By means of eat treatment, it is sible to vary the volume and elasticity of the yarn, thereby obtaining crirnped yarns, shrinkable yarns (for puckered fabrics), etc.
Gimping: One or more threads are wound around a 'core' of yarn. This is how special yarns and threads are created, using different colours and textures: mottled, plush, gold thread.
Throwing: Several single filaments are interlinked by means of twisting. The resultant yarn is referred to as 'thrown' or 'twisted' yarn. Twisting increases the strength of yarn. There are two types of twist: S-twist - frorn left to right and Z-twist from right to left. Both twists may be used within one length of yarn, creating a more solid yarn known as 'cabled' yarn.
Weaving Once the yarn is ready, it can then be woven to produce fabrics. Weaving is a process passed down from generation to generation and found all over the world. Mechanised, weaving is now a large-scale industrial operation. Weaving rates are now much faster. No history of the mechanisation of weaving would be complete without a mention of the name 'Joseph-Marie Jacquard', who introduced the automatic shuttle loom to Lyon during the 19th century. 'Jacquard' is now used to describe a particular type of weaving. The principle behind weaving is even and alternate crossing of perpendicular threads: the warp (vertical) and the weft (horizontal). The pattern produced is called the weave type. lt is by varying the weave type that different fabrics can be produced. There are two basic weave types, which are the starting point for all Other variations. Plain weave: Also known as canvas weave, this is certainly the simplest, oldest and most widely used weave type. The weft goes under and over the warp at regular intervals and the under-over order is reversed for each new line. Plain weave fabric has no 'right' or 'wrong' side. This method can be used to make fine, transparent fabrics (voile), just as well as heavy-duty canvases and patterned cloths (Vichy cloth or tartan, for example) Twill weave: The yarns are less tightly woven. In fact, the weft goes over two warp yarns at a time and then under just one. Each row is offset from the lasti creating a diagonal effect in the finished cloth, as with denim, for example. The front and back of the cloth are different. 108 MATERIAL BIBLE
Knitting Knitted fabrics are made up of loops of yarn, linked gether to make stitches. While the threads and yarns in woven fabrics cross in straight lines, knitting interlinks yarns in a curvilinear fashion. The knitting industry mostly uses computer controlled machinery nowadays. There are two main types of knitted fabric:
KNITTING VS. WEAVING
Weft-knits: The stitches are made of one continuous yarn, making the loops of each row. This type of knitting gives the fabric stretch in both directions. However, it only takes one break in the yarn for the whole thing to unravel. Jersey knit, rib knit and Jacquard knit are all weft knits. As are all those scarves knitted by the fire with knitting needles and balls of wool. Warp-knits: This technique uses multiple yarns and needles. In each row (or 'course'), stitches are made simultaneously using separate yarns. For the next course, the stitches in the same column (or 'wale') Will be made by another needle, using another yarn, thus linking the entire piece of fabric together. Warp-knits are less stretchy than weft-knits, but are more solid and less likely to 'run'. Knitted fabric is measured in two dimensions. We use the terms stitch gauge: stitch density for a given width and row gauge: number of rows in a given length. Stretchy, flexible, comfortable; knitted fabrics are highly prized for a number of products: tights, lingerie and jumpers, but also furniture and automotive upholstery, as well as for certain technical applications. TEXTILES 109
FROM FIBER TO TEXTILE
STRETCH AND TWIST
YARN 110 MATERIAL BIBLE
WEAVING/ KNITTING WARPING Warping is the process of winding yarn on a huge spool called a beam to create the length-ways yarns of fabric (the warp). The warp is crossed with fill yarns when woven to create fabric.
TREATMENTS TEXTILES 111
LOOKING FOR SOME FINAL TOUCHES
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Finishing procecess Once woven or knitted, fabric is then ready to receive various finishing touches, improving certain properties. There are many finishing processes and they are becoming more refined everyday. Here are just a few:
where the pattern is carved into cylinders; 'stencilling' where colour is applied with a brush or is dusted on, or 'rotary screen printing' whereby a canvas is coated with varnish and passes over the fabric to be printed, allowing ink to pass through only certain areas. Silk screen printing onto fabrics is also possible.
Flaring: Fabric is passed over a flame to remove surface fuzz and lint. This is used for cotton or Wool textiles. The surface of the material is neater as a result.
Treatments: Either mechanical or chemical, there are countless treatments for fabrics, affecting their appearance, thickness and Other properties (lining, seing, embossing, mercerising for cotton, to give shine and strength, watering, scraping, etc.) Fabrics can be made to be crease-resistant, non-shrink, waterproof' flame-retardant, stain-resistant, antibacterial, scented cosmetic releasing, etc.
Bleaching: Colour is removed from fibres by a chemical treatment suited to the type of fibre. Dyeing: Dyeing refers to colouring the entire fibre. Some colorants are natural (red from cochineal or madder, purple from shells, brown from berries, indigo from creepers, etc.), others are synthetic (indigo used particularly in the manufacture of jeans is man-made). Dyeing can be done earlier in the textile manufacture line, by dyeing the unprocessed fibres. This is often the case for wool and some man-made fibres must receive their pigment before extrusion through the spinneret. Fibres may also be dyed once they are yarns or cloths, after weaving or knitting. Printing: Patterns can be printed onto woven, knitted, or non-woven fabrics. Colour is only applied to the surface, as opposed to dyeing which has a deeper action. There are various printing methods: using paraffin to make certain areas resist the colour; 'woodblock' printing (one of the oldest methods) where patterns are carved into a block of wood which is then inked and the pressed onto the cloth; by 'roller'
SUSTAINABILITY & CERTIFIES
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For consumers the most common way of recycling textiles is reuse through reselling or donating to charity, the pieces must be clean and dry in order to be accepted for recycling. Where does textile go? 1) Resale After colliction of the textiles, workers sort and separate collected textiles by color, size and quality, it is then packed, baled and sold as good reusable clothing. Shoes are reused by being resold as well. This process not only creates local jobs, it helps stimulate local economy. 2) Conversion to rags Damaged textiles are sorted out to make industrial wiping cloths and other items. 3) Made into other clothes Some textiles can be remade into other pieces of clothing. 4) Recycling Process Clothing fabric generally consists of composites of cotton (biodegradable material) and synthetic plastics. The textile's composition will affect its durability and method of recycling. Fiber reclamation mills grade incoming material into type and color. The color sorting means no re-dying has to take place, saving energy and pollutants. The textiles are shredded into "shoddy" fibers and blended with other selected fibers, depending on the intended end use of the recycled yarn. The blended mixture is carded to clean and mix the fibers and spun ready for weaving or knitting. The fibers can also be
compressed for mattress production. Textiles sent to the flocking industry are shredded to make filling material for car insulation, roofing felts, loudspeaker cones, panel linings and furniture padding For specialized polyester based materials the recycling process is significantly different. The first step is to remove the buttons and zippers then to cut the garments into small pieces. The shredded fabric is then granulated and formed into small pellets. The pellets are broken down polymerized and turned into polyester chips. The chips are melted and spun into new filament fiber used to make new polyester fabrics.
CERTIFICATIONS GOTS Aims to define a universal standard for organic fabricsâ€”from harvesting the raw materials, through environmentally and socially responsible manufacturing, to labeling. WRAP The aim of the program is to trace and certify Independently Compliance with this socially responsible global Standard Focused on manufacturing and Guarantee GOODS Items are produced under lawful , ethical and humane conditions. OEKO-TEX & Made in green It is the only European certification that takes into account three areas of the production process : health, environment and human rights of workers . TEXTILES 115
(n.) Hard solid non-metallic mineral matter of which rock is made, shaped or finished for a particular purpose.
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fo rettam larenim cillatem-non dilos draH ).n( a rof dehsinif ro depahs ,edam si kcor hcihw .esoprup ralucitrap
HOW STONNING! 108
What is natural stone? "Natural Stone" refers to a number of products quarried from the earth, used over many thousands of years as building materials and decorative enhancements. These products include Granite, Marble, Limestone, Travertine, Slate, Quartzite, Sandstone, Adoquin, Onyx, and others. They are more than just rocks â€“ natural stone is hand selected from the best, most consistent sources for durability and beauty. Natural stone products differ in composition, color, and texture even among pieces from the same source. This is usually considered a benefit, lending itself to one of a kind designs and distinctive, dramatic applications.
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General properties of stones
Cool If your looking for...
The properties of the stone vary depending on the type of stone. However all the different families share this same characteristics;
Building and decorative stone – stone used for its resistance to weather or its aesthetic appeal – walls and decorative purposes. Buildings, walls, paving slabs, jewerly...etc.
Aggregates – stone used for its strong physical properties – crushed and sorted into various sizes for use in concrete, coated with bitumen to make asphalt or used 'dry' as bulk fill in construction. Mostly used in roads, concrete and building products. Industrial purposes – limestone can be used for its chemical (mainly alkaline) properties as calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in farming and manufacturing industry.
Lime burning (calcining) – limestone when heated to a high temperature breaks down into lime (calcium oxide) and carbon dioxide gas. It can then be used as a more powerful alkali than limestone (see above) or used as a cement with sand, to make mortar, or as a soil improver in agriculture. Cement – if limestone (or its variety chalk) is mixed with clay or sandstone before firing, it can producecement which when mixed with aggregate makes concrete.
For maintenance-free elegance and durability, granite is unmatched. Its incredible strength and density makes granite the perfect choice for massive structural work â€“ walls, monuments and supports. Though it is the hardest of structural stones, the amazing variety of mineral-rich colors and natural patterns gives it ornamental value as well. Granite products are ideal for flooring, countertops, vanities and decorative exterior applications.
Valued for its banded, pitted â€œdistressedâ€? appearance, travertine adds rich, distinctive character to a variety of indoor and outdoor building projects. Its patterns and veining effects were formed by hot spring water percolating through underground limestone. When used for interior applications, travertine is often filled with cement, grout or resin and sealed to create a smooth, stain-resistant surface.
Marble Prized for its timeless style, texture and high-gloss polish along with a rich palette of beautiful colors, marble has a place anywhere in the home. Available in solids or dramatic veined varieties, marble may be carved or sculpted in many ways, making it one of the most versatile decorative stones. Often seen as a symbol of luxury, modern technology brings beautiful marble products even to budget-conscious homeowners. Serpentine Marble Also referred to as Verde Antique, Serpentine Marble is a dramatic green color with strong white veining. Slate Formed over thousands of years of sedimentary deposit and compression, slate splits naturally into beautifully textured layers. The various shades of slate products. Durable and stain-resistant, slate products are often used for flooring, cladding and landscaping. 120 MATERIAL BIBLE
Shell Stone Shell Stone is a sedimentary stone similar to limestone, with many small shells embedded and visible upon its surface. Onyx A translucent stone with a glossy, polished surface, onyx is composed of crystalline silica and closely related to agate, a semi-precious stone. Often found in caves, onyx is formed by the slow flow of cold, carbonated spring water. Onyx is available in pastel shades of yellow, brown, green, orange, and white. Cantera Stone Cantera is a sedimentary stone that comes from the riverbeds of Mexico. It is used extensively for architectural columns, moldings, and for pavement tiles. with heavy traffic and exposure to the elements.
Quartz Shimmering and sparkling with tiny quartz crystals, Quartz is a rock similar to slate with a medium grained texture and incredible durability. Differing mineral content creates many color variations, from the sedate white, gray or beige to more adventurous shades of purple and pink. Quartzite is widely used for wall veneers and decorative tiles. A naturally non-skid texture makes it a perfect candidate for flooring indoors and out, including areas with heavy traffic and exposure to the elements.
TYPES OF STONES
Sandstone With a uniform texture, an appealing variety of colors and finishes, and weather resistant durability, it's easy to see why sandstone products have been used for thousands of years for walls, floors, and pavers. As with other types of rock, its variations result from differing mineral composition â€“ there's a sandstone product to match any dĂŠcor. Limestone The muted, soft tones of limestone are perfect for today's casual and comfortable lifestyles. Available in hues of soft beige and tan, either polished or honed, limestone products are ideal for bathrooms, fireplaces, countertops and flooring in low-traffic, informal areas
Weathering and erosion
Slow uplift to the surface
Transport and deposition
Igneous rock Sedimentation Crystallization of magma
Compaction and cementation
Metamorphic rock 122 MATERIAL BIBLE
Burial, high temperatures and preassures
HOW ITâ€™S MADE IGNEOUS ROCKS Magma,rising to the surface of the Earth, gradually cools and crystallises, forming silicated minerals. They arrive at the surface via various dynamic movements of floating plates (plate tectonic). It exits different types: - Plutonic or intrusive rocks. Slow-cooled under high pressure. (Granite) - Volcanic rocks. Fast-cooled at the surface during a volcanic eruption. (Basalt, lavas and pumice) - Dyke rocks. With an intermediate formation process. (Porphyry) SEDIMENTARY ROCKS Igneous rocks change and disintegrate into particles of various sizes. Erosion (by water, ice and wind) transport these particles and creates ĂĄreas of loose deposits: sediments. Sediments (made of sand, mud and organic waste) accumulate and become compacted into layers. They become compacted increasingly dense and hard, undergoing the transformation into sedimentary rocks: phenomenon of diagenesis.
METHAMORPHIC ROCKS By the movement of the tectonic plates, certain igneous and sedimentary rocks are buried and due to the high pressure and temperature undergo transformations. This process is called recrystallisation and it give rise to new minerals and textures and create distinctive structures. Certain schists (of clayey origin), marbles (of limestone origin) or quartzites (created from sandstone) are metamorphic rocks.
EXTRACTION AND PROCESS Blocks of stone are cut from earth with diamond studded, high speed equipment. The diamond wire cutting system revolutionized the extraction process.
1. Blocks then moved to a processing plant 2. Then cut into slabs 3. Takes 2 days for a saw to cut a 20 ton block of stone 4. Sent through a polishing machine for the finish 5. Finishes range from rough, rustic texture to mirrored polish 6. Slab is calibrated to uniform thickness 7. Customized for specific installations 8. Edges shaped and polished 9. For tiles, slabs are just cut down 10. Polished with a different machine than slabs 11. Tiles packaged, shipped and stored (vertically only)
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How to find it on stock? Blocks Large and not yet cut to size
Dressed stone Squared off, ready to be assembled
Bricks Smaller size dressed Stone
Stone bits Bits of Stone broken into more or less fine pellets can be mixed into concretes, mortars, or loaded into plastics, or used to make reconstitued stone.
Looking for final touches? DEFFECTS 5. Embossed Stone: Embossed stones are worked on the face, visible in the final construction. There are embossing processes such a chamfering, diamond stud and wrinkling (as on the facades of the Louvre un Paris).
1. Raw Stone: Left in their natural state, Stone surface don’t always need to undergo any particular finishing process. 2. Sawn Stone: A Stone face which has been sawn may be mechanically created using a diamond wire. In this case, the finish bears characteristic saw marks, creating parallel irregularities in the direction of sawing (waves).
6. Planed Stone: A mechanical finish done on dry, hard stones, which eliminates the saw marks associated with cutting. This finish is used for exterior dressing.
3. Flamed Stone. Flaming, best suited to hard Stone, consists of a termal treatment applied superficially using a blowtorch. It give a rough surface (crystals and surface grains shattering upon contact with the flame).
7. Softened stone. Polishing heads polish the surface of the Stone under water, mounted on a conveyor belt. Softened Stone gives a mat polish with sllight reflective properties. 8. Polished stone. The Stone is polished, but this time with a finer grained abrasive. This process gives a shiny surface (mirror effect).
4. Dressed Stone. Stone may be dressed by hand, using a dressing hammer, or mechanically, using a hydraulic hammer. The surface of the Stone is hammered to give a characteristic “dotted” finish.
MATERIALS BOOK 126 MATERIAL BIBLE
STAND FOR STONES
(n.) The secondary xylem of trees and shrubs, lying beneath the bark and consisting largely of cellulose and lignin.
128 MATERIAL BIBLE
eht htaeneb gniyl ,sburhs dna seert fo melyx yradnoces eTh ).n( .ningil dna esolullec fo ylegral gnitsisnoc dna krab
LIFE IN PLASTIC ITâ€™S FANTASTIC 109
What is crude oil? Crude oil is the term for "unprocessed" oil. It is also known as petroleum. Is a fossil fuel, meaning that it was made naturally from decaying plants and animals living in ancient seas millions of years ago -- most places you can find crude oil were once sea beds. They vary in color, from clear to tar-black, and in viscosity, from water to almost solid.Crude oils are such a useful starting point for so many different substances because they contain hydrocarbons.
How is crude oil formed? Oil comes from the remains of tiny plants and animals (plankton) that died in ancient seas million of years ago. After the organisms died, they sank into the sand and mud at the bottom of the sea. Microorganisms broke the remains into carbon-rich compounds that formed organic layers. The organic material mixed with the sediments, forming source rock. The heat and pressure distilled the organic material into crude oil and natural gas. The oil flowed from the source rock and accumulated in thicker, more porous limestone or sandstone, calledÂ reservoir rock. Movements in the Earth trapped the oil and natural gas in the reservoir rocks between layers of impermeable rock. eco-scale
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GAS CRUDE OIL
Finding & locating oil Crude oil is located with the help of geologists. There are different types of doing ths. The most common one is seismology, shock waves are created that pass through hidden rock layers and later interpret the waves that are reflected back to the surface. Another option is to use sensitive gravity meters to measure tiny changes in the Earth's gravitational field that could indicate flowing oil, as well as sensitive magnetometers to measure tiny changes in the Earth's magnetic field caused by flowing oil. Modern oil geologists also examine surface rocks and terrain, with the additional help of satellite images.
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Extraction of crude oil
Oil and Gas Journal 2012
Production of crude oil
Source: US Energy Information Administration; Data includes crude oil, lease condensate, natural gas plant liquids, and refinery processing gain; Updated Feb. 11, 2016
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Production of plastic products
EUROPE SECOND PLACE
Source: PlasticsEurope (PEMRG) / Consultic2013 World production of plastics materials (thermoplastics and polyurethanes) Does not include other plastics (thermosets, adhesives, coatings and sealants) nor PP-fibers.
STEAM INJECTION WELL
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Oil extraction Drilling The crude oil is extracted from an oil well. The well is created by drilling a hole into the earth with a drilling rig that rotates a string with a bit attached. After the hole is drilled, sections of steel pipe (casing), slightly smaller in diameter than the borehole, are placed in the hole. Cement may be placed between the outside of the casing and the borehole known as the annulus. The casing provides structural integrity to the newly drilled wellbore, in addition to isolating potentially dangerous high pressure zones from each other and from the surface. OIL WELL
Different hydrocarbon chain lengths all have progressively higher boiling points, so they can all be separated by distillation. This is what happens in an oil refinery - in one part of the process, crude oil is heated and the different chains are pulled out by their vaporization temperatures. Each different chain length has a different property that makes it useful in a different way. Examples of some of the products that can come from crude oil – naptha, gasoline, kerosene, gas oil, lubrication oil and most importanly petroleum gas, which is used for heating, cooking, and also making plastics. Petroleum Gases
Liquefied petroleum gas
30-70°C Petrol 70-180°C
Petrol (gasoline) for vehicles
Jet fuel, paraffin for lighting and heating
260-350°C Lubricants 350-575°C Fuel Oil
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The various components of crude oil have different sizes, weights and boiling temperatures; so, the first step is to separate these components. Because they have different boiling temperatures, they can be separated easily by a process called fractional distillation. The process steps are: 1. Heat the mixture of two or more substances with different boiling points to a high temperature 2. The mixture boils, forming vapor (gases); most substances go into the vapor phase 3. The vapor enters the bottom of a long column (fractional distillation column) that is filled with trays or plates. The trays have many holes or bubble caps from where the vapor pass through. They increase the contact time between the vapor and the liquids in the column and help to collect liquids that form at various heights in the column. There is a temperature difference across the column (hot at the bottom, cool at the top). 4. The vapor rises in the column. 5. As the vapor rises through the trays in the column, it cools. When a substance in the vapor reaches a height where the temperature of the column is equal to that substance's boiling point, it will condense to form a liquid.
Diesel or gas oil
6. The trays collect the various liquid fractions.
Motor oil, waxes and polishes
7. The collected liquid fractions may pass to condensers, which cool them further, and then go to storage tanks, or they may go to other areas for further chemical processing
Candles, fuel oil for ships and power stations
Roofing tar, road tar
However, very few of the components that come out of the fractional distillation column are ready for the market. Many of them must be chemically processed to make other fractions.
Polymerization CHEMICAL PROCESSES
CRUDE OIL TO PLASTIC
Cracking â€“ breaking large hydrocarbons into smaller pieces. There are several types of cracking- thermal, where you heat large hydrocarbons at high temperature or pressure to break into its components, and catalytic, where you use a catalyst to speed up the cracking reaction. Unification - combining smaller hydrocarbons to make larger ones Alteration - rearranging various pieces to make desired hydrocarbons TREATING AND BLENDING THE FRACTIONS Distillated and chemically processed fractions are treated to remove impurities, such as organic compounds containing sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen, water, dissolved metals and inorganic salts. After the fractions have been treated, they are cooled and then blended together to make various products, such as chemicals of various grades for making plastics and other polymers.
WHAT ARE PLASTICS AND THEIR CHEMISTRY?
Plasitc chemistry Till this point the petroleum is refined and destilated, ready for the making of polymers and plastic products, however, what exactly are plastics? In order to understand the great properties of plastic materials we need to examine some basic principles of plastics. Plastics are materials made up of a set of macromolecules (long molecular chains), whose central atom is nearly always carbon (apart from some instances such as silicones where the silicon replaces carbon, for example). The hydrogen atoms complete the basic molecular structure, which then, depending on the material in question, accomodates oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine or fluorine atoms, est. The components needed to manufacture plastics are extracted from a variety of natural substances, as mention earlier, mainly petroleum (crude oil). But also from natural gas, from coal or from other mineral and organi materials such as sea salt, limestone, water or wood.
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Making plastics - Pelletizing To make plastics, chemists and chemical engineers follow those steps: 1. Prepare raw materials and monomers 2. Carry out polymerization reactions 3. Process the polymers into final polymer resins 4. Produce finished products First,Â they must start with various raw materials that make up the monomers. Ethylene and propylene, for example, come from crude oil, which contains the hydrocarbons that make up the monomers. The hydrocarbon raw materials are obtained from the "cracking process" used in refining oil and natural gas. Once various hydrocarbons are obtained from cracking, they are chemically processed to make hydrocarbon monomers and other carbon monomers (like styrene, vinyl chloride, acrylonitrile) used in plastics. Next, the monomers carry out polymerization reactions in large polymerization plants. The reactions produce polymer resins, which are collected and further processed. Processing can include the addition of plasticizers, dyes and flame-retardant chemicals. The final polymer resins are usually in the forms of pellets.
Pellets are the â€œrawâ€? unit of plastic products. Pelletizing is the process of compressing or molding a material into the shape of a pellet. The pros of using pellets is that this creates a uniform unit for all of the manufacturing process. The plastics can be this way be divided into different types, colours, properties, etc. , which makes it easier for distribution, buying and manufacturing. Latly having a uniform unit makes it easier for transportation and logistics.
TYPES OF POLYMERS
Thermoplastics atomic structure
cross links Thermoset atomic structure
Elastomers atomic structure - nonstressed 142 MATERIAL BIBLE
Elastomers atomic structure - stressed
Thermoplastics Long chains of molecules weakly interlinked by the intermolecular links. These links disappear when heated, allowing macromolecules to slide amongst one another and then reappear when cooled. That is why it is referred as a “ thermoplastic”. Having this reversible processing properties under the action of heat, thermoplastics have a high degree of flexibility to transfrom themselves, making them easy to recycle. Nowadays, thermoplastics represent 83% of the production of plastic products. General characteristics: - Soft - Polymer long strands that dont interlink - can break - Can melt - Can be recycled - Need lower temperature to be manufactured - Cost efficient Thermoplastic polymers: Polystyrene (PS), polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polycarbonate (PC), saturated polyesters, methacrylate, poly vinyl chloride (PVC), etc. Thermoplastics applications: Furniture, domestic appliances, toys, etc.
Elastomers Elastomers are characterized by wide-meshed crosslinking of the "knotted" molecular chains. This type of crosslinking means that the materials have a high level of dimensional stability but are still elastically malleable.
Long chains of molecules interlinked by means of strong covalent links, that the action of heat does not break ( other than at the point of complete destruction of the material). This material is referred to as a “thermosetting plastic”.
By applying load (for instance tensile load) the chains become disentangled, but after removal of the load they relax again. Like thermoset polymers, elastomers are not meltable.
Thermosets harden through the action of heat, similar to the process of curing. Processing is irreversible once subjected to heat and catalysts and is therefore a more delicate and longer process. Direct recycling is not possible. Thermosets generally have mechanical, thermal and structural properties that are superior to those of thermoplastics.
General characteristic: - Soft - Polymer long strands that interlink - cannot break - Don’t melt - Can not be recycled - Need lower temperature to be manufactured - Cost efficient - Elasticity & flexibility - Resilence ( they quickly return to their shape)
General characteristics: - Hard - Polymer long strands that interlink cannot break - Don’t melt - Can not be recycaled - Need higher temperature to manufacture - More expensive - Stronger and more durable
Elastomers polymers: Silicone, some polyurethanes, Neoprene, EPD, Rubber (natural or synthetic) , Latex.
Thermoset polymers: Polyuerethane (PU), epoxy, unsaturated polyesters, etc.
Elastomers applications: Tires, tubes, seals, gloves, toy balloons, adhesives, high voltage cables, seals etc.
Thermoset applications: Car parts, aircraft parts, tyres, etc.
Common thermoplastics in the market Polyethylene terephthalate (PET or PETE): John Rex Whinfield invented a new polymer in 1941 when he condensed ethylene glycol with terephthalic acid. The condensate was polyethylene terephthalate (PET or PETE). PET is a thermoplastic that can be drawn into fibers (like Dacron) and films (like Mylar). It's the main plastic in ziplock food storage bags. High-density polyethylene (HDPE): HDPE is known for its large strength-to-density ratio. Although the density of HDPE is only marginally higher than that of low-density polyethylene, HDPE has little branching, giving it stronger intermolecular forces and tensile strength than LDPE. The difference in strength exceeds the difference in density, giving HDPE a higher specific strength. It is also harder and more opaque and can withstand somewhat higher temperatures. HDPE was first introduced in the hula hoop, but today it's mostly used in containers. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC): PVC is a thermoplastic that is formed when vinyl chloride (CH2=CH-Cl) polymerizes. When made, it's brittle, so manufacturers add a plasticizer liquid to make it soft and moldable. PVC is commonly used for pipes and plumbing because it's durable, can't be corroded and is cheaper than metal pipes. Over long periods of time, however, the plasticizer may leach out of it, rendering it brittle and breakable. Low-density polyethylene (LDPE): LDPE is a thermoplastic made from the monomer ethylene. It was the first grade of polyethylene, produced in 1933 by Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) using a high pressure process via free radical polymerization. It is not reactive at room temperatures, except by strong oxidizing agents, and some solvents cause swelling. It can withstand temperatures of 80 °C continuously and 95 °C for a short time. Made in translucent or opaque variations, it is quite flexible, and tough but breakable. It was first used to insulate electrical wires, but today it's used in films, wraps, bottles, disposable gloves and garbage bags.
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Polypropylene (PP): In 1953, Karl Ziegler and Giulio Natta, working independently, prepared polypropylene from propylene monomers (CH2=CHCH3) and received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1963. The various forms of polypropylene have different melting points and hardnesses. Polypropylene is used in car trim, battery cases, bottles, tubes, filaments and bags. Now that we have discussed the various types of plastics, let's look at how plastics are made. Polystyrene (PS): Polystyrene is formed by styrene molecules. The double bond between the CH2 and CH parts of the molecule rearranges to form a bond with adjacent styrene molecules, thereby producing polystyrene. It can form a hard impact-resistant plastic for furniture, cabinets (for computer monitors and TVs), glasses and utensils. When polystyrene is heated and air blown through the mixture, it forms Styrofoam. Styrofoam is lightweight, moldable and an excellent insulator. Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS): First discovered during World War II when its basis, SBR, was used for alternatives to rubber. Commercially acrylonitrile butadiene styrene polymers first became available in the early 1950s in an attempt to obtain the best properties of both polystyrene and styrene acrylonitrile. ABS has very high heat resistance, impact resistance, flame retardant, electrical insulation, chemical resistance, high gloss, etc. It is used for automotive applications, electronic applications, housing products, general purpose, etc.
Type of Plastic PET Polyethylene Terephthalate
HDPE High Density Polyethylene
PVC Unplaticised Polyvinyl Chloride PVC-U
Plasticised Polyvinyl Chloride PVC-P
LDPE Low Density Polyethylene
Properties Clear, tough, solvent resistant, barrier to gas and moisture, softens at 80°
Hard to semi-flexible, resistant to chemicals and moisture, waxysurface, opaque, softens at 75°C, easily coloured, processed and formed
Soft drinks and Pillow and sleeping water bottles, salad bag filling, clothing, domes, biscuit trays, soft drink bottles, salad dressing and carpeting, building containers. insulation Shopping bags, freezer bags, milk bottles, ice cream containers, juice bottles, shampoo, chemical and detergent bottles. Buckets, rigid agricultural pipe, crates.
Soft, flexible, waxy surface, translucent, softens at 70°C, scratches easily
Cling wrap, Garbage bags, squeeze bottles, rrigation tubing, mulch film, refuse bags.
Clear, glassy, rigid, opaque, semi-tough, softens at 95°C
PS-E Expanded Polystyrene
OTHER Letter below indicate iso codefor plastic type e.g. SAN, ABS, PC, Nylon
CD cases, plastic cutlery, imitation glassware, low cost but resistant to alkalis, brittle toys, video salt solutions. Low water cases/foamed absorbtion, when not pigmented polystyrene cups, is clear, is odour and taste free. takeaway clamshells, foamed meat trays, Special types of PS are available protective packaging for special applications. and building and food insulation
Includes all resins and multi-materials (e.g. laminates). Properties dependent on plastic or combination of plastics.
Bin liners, plallet sheets
Bottles and ice Pegs, bins, pipes, cream tubs, potatoe pallet sheets, oil chip bags, straws, funnels, car battery microwave dishes, cases, trays kettles, garden furniture, lunch boxes. Packing tape.
affected by fat, acids and solvents,
Recycling bins, compost bins, buckets, detergent containers, posts, fencing, pipes, plastic timber
IDENTIFICATION CHART & CODE
Strong, tough, can be clear, can Cosmetic containers, Flooring, film and Electrical conduit, sheets, cables, plumbing pipes an speed bumbs, fittings, blister packs, packaging, binders, wall cladding, rood mud flaps and mats, Flexible, clear, elastic, sheeting, bottles. can solvent welded new gumboots and shoes. Garden hose, shoe soles, cable sheathing, blood bags and tubing
softens at 140°C, translucent, withstands solvents, versatile
besolvent welded, softens at 80°C
Hard but still flexible, waxy surface,
Automotive and appliance components, Computers, electronics, cooler bottles, packaging.
Coat hangers, coasters, white ware components, stationery trays and accessories, picture frames, seed trays, building products
Automotive components, plastic timber
Common thermosets and elastomers in the market Polyurethane: Polyurethane routinely outperforms plastic, rubber and steel in its overall ability to resist harsh environmental factors such as abrasion, heat, solvents, oil and acid. In addition, polyurethane‘s noise abatement ability makes it the preferred material in chain-drive designs, conveyor belt systems and assembly line environments. In today’s manufacturing environments where the cost of downtime is measured in thousands of dollars per hour, polyurethane’s incredible durability actually increases your company’s profitability. Polyurethanes are widely used in flexible and rigid foams, durable elastomers and high performance adhesives and sealants, fibers, seals, gaskets, condoms, carpet underlayment, and hard plastic parts. Over three quarters of the consumption of polyurethane products is in the form of foams, with flexible and rigid types being roughly equal in market size. Polyimide (PI): PI is a polymer of imide monomers. Polyimides have been in mass production since 1955. With their high heat-resistance, polyimides enjoy diverse applications in applications demanding rugged organic materials, e.g. high temperature fuel cells, displays, and various military roles. When compared to most other organic or polymeric materials, polyimides exhibit an exceptional combination of thermal stability (>500°C), mechanical toughness and chemical resistance. In addition, they have excellent dielectric properties Epoxy resin: Epoxy resins, also known as polyepoxides, are a class of reactive prepolymers and polymers which contain epoxide groups. Epoxy resins may be reacted (cross-linked) either with themselves through catalytic homopolymerisation, or with a wide range of co-reactants including polyfunctional amines, acids (and acid anhydrides), phenols, alcohols and thiols. These co-reactants are often referred to as hardeners or curatives, and the cross-linking reaction is commonly referred to as curing.
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Polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon): Teflon was made in 1938 by DuPont. It's created by polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene molecules (CF2=CF2). The polymer is stable, heat-resistant, strong, resistant to many chemicals and has a nearly frictionless surface. Teflon is used in plumbing tape, cookware, tubing, waterproof coatings, films and bearings. Polyester resin: Polyester resins are unsaturated synthetic resins formed by the reaction of dibasic organic acids and polyhydric alcohols. Polyester resins are thermosetting and, as with other resins, cure exothermically. The use of excessive catalyst can, therefore, cause charring or even ignition during the curing process. Excessive catalyst may also cause the product to fracture or form a rubbery material. Silicone: Polystyrene is formed by styrene molecules. The double bond between the CH2 and CH parts of the molecule rearranges to form a bond with adjacent styrene molecules, thereby producing polystyrene. It can form a hard impact-resistant plastic for furniture, cabinets (for computer monitors and TVs), glasses and utensils. When polystyrene is heated and air blown through the mixture, it forms Styrofoam. Styrofoam is lightweight, moldable and an excellent insulator. Vulcanized rubber: - Vulcanization or vulcanisation is a chemical process for converting natural rubber or related polymers into more durable materials via the addition of sulfur. or other equivalent curatives or accelerators. These additives modify the polymer by forming cross-links (bridges) between individual polymer chains. Vulcanized materials are less sticky and have superior mechanical properties
Type of Plastic
hardness tensile strength compression strength impact resistance abrasion resistance
foam, condoms, varnishes, adhesive, solid tires, wood glue,
thermal stabilitity chemical resistance mechanical properties characteristic orange/ yellow colour tensile strength
machine gears, bushings, bearings, ring seals, thrust washers, wear strips
mechanical properties temperature resistance chemical resistance
washable wall resistance surfaces
afforable price dimensional stability
metal coatings electronics electriacal components insulators adhesives
stable heat resistant strong chemical resistant frictionless surface
tubing plumbing tape cookware waterproof coating films, bearings
odorless, colourless water resistant chemical resistant stable at high temperature low surface tension donâ€™t conduct electricity
lubricants adhesives sealants, dishware Silly Putty medical application
mechanical strength relative high temperature resistance flexibility durability
automobile tires rubber seals gaskets transmission belts shoe soles
IDENTIFICATION CHART & CODE
PRODUCTION FLOW Extrusion: Pellets are heated and mechanically mixed in a long chamber, forced through a small opening and cooled with air or water. This method is used to make plastic films. Injection molding: The resin pellets are heated and mechanically mixed in a chamber and then forced under high pressure into a cooled mold. This process is used for containers like butter and yogurt tubs. Compression Molding: The most common process used with thermosetting materials and is usually not used for thermoplastics. With this process, the material is squeezed into its desired shape with the help of pressure and heat. Plastic molding powder and other materials are added to the mix in order to create special qualities or to strengthen the final product. When the mold is closed and heated, the material goes through a chemical change that causes it to harden into its desired shape. The amount temperature, amount of pressure, and length of time utilized during the process depends on the desired outcome. Transfer Molding: Generally used only for forming thermosetting plastics. It is similar to compression molding because the plastic is cured into an infusible state through pressure and heat. Unlike compression molding, however, transfer molding involves heating the plastic to a point of plasticity prior to being placed into the mold. The mold is then forced closed with a hydraulically operated plunger. Transfer molding was initially developed as a method for molding intricate products, such as those with many metal inserts or with small, deep holes. This is because compression molding sometimes disturbed the position of the metal inserts and the holes of these types of products. With transfer molding, on the other hand, the liquefied plastic easily flows around the metal parts without causing them to change position.
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Reaction Injection Molding: Reaction injection molding, or RIM, is one of the newer processes used in the plastics industry. It differs from liquid casting in that the liquid components are mixed together in a chamber at a lower temperature before it is injected into a closed mold. RIM requires less energy than other injection molding systems. Reinforced RIM, or R-RIM, involves adding materials such as milled or chopped glass fiber in the mixture in order to increase the stiffness. Blow molding: This technique is used in conjunction with extrusion or injection molding. The resin pellets are heated and compressed into a liquid tube, like toothpaste. The resin goes into the chilled mold, and compressed air gets blown into the resin tube. The air expands the resin against the walls of the mold. This process is used to make plastic bottles. Rotational molding: The resin pellets are heated and cooled in a mold that can be rotated in three dimensions. The rotation evenly distributes the plastic along the walls of the mold. This technique is used to make large, hollow plastic items (toys, furniture, sporting equipment, septic tanks, garbage cans and kayaks). Thermoforming: Thermoforming uses a plastic sheet, which is formed with the mold by applying air or through mechanical assistance. The air pressure used can be nearly zero psi, or several hundred psi. At 14 psi, which is equivalent to atmospheric pressure, the pressure is created by evacuating the space between the mold and the sheet. This is known as vacuum forming.
Additives and agents Rarely used in their pure form, polymers are increasingly formulated depending on the end use of the objects (chemical strength, impact-resistant, etc.). They are manipulated, withing the limits of their compatibility, either by combining them or by adding various elements to them in order to enhance their properties. These elements are called additives (when they represent more than 10% of the weight of the final product) or agents (when they represent less that 10% of the weight of the final product).
- Plasticisers: to make the material more flexible - Fillers: to save on the plastic material and to minimise shrinkage, often chemically inert materials are added, such as sawdust, talc or carbon black - Stiffening agents: to structure the material, to increase its mechanical behavious and to limit shrinkage, short fibers are added such as glass fibre, carbon fibre, aramid fibre - Expanding agents: for making foam, add CO2 to the mixture
-Colourants and pigments -Lubricants -Anti-static agents -Anti-UV agents
PRODUCTION FLOW SUSTAINABILITY
Recycling of plastics Oil-based plastics don't degrade, but many types (including PP, LDPE, HDPE, PET, and PVC) can be recycled. Each type has a code and identifying number, but some plastics aren't as economically feasible to recycle. So it's important to check with your recycler or municipality about which types of plastics will be accepted. Once collected, plastics go through the following steps: - Inspection to weed out contaminants and inappropriate types of plastic - Shredding and washing - Separation based on density - Drying - Melting - Draining through fine screens to remove more contaminants - Cooling and shredding into pellets - Selling back to plastic companies The discovery of plastics revolutionized our society by introducing a huge variety of lightweight, strong, flexible products with many uses. Although plastics do pose disposal problems, recycling is always a possibility. Furthermore, new research into biopolymers may produce new bioplastic products from renewable resources that are biodegradable and easier on our environment.
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Source: Adventure Ecology, Illustration by Benjamin Allder
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A comprehensive guide intended for all designers who rely on materials and technologies â€“ The Materials Bible is written in a visual style that conveys a wealth of information in a language thatâ€™s easy to understand. This book covers materials, technologies and procecess in one single volume.
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