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Servicio al cliente Aspectos que acompa単an al cliente

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Contents Articles Servicio al cliente




Customer service


Customer satisfaction


Customer support


Customer experience


Customer engagement


References Article Sources and Contributors


Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


Article Licenses License



Servicio al cliente Customer A customer (also known as a client, buyer, or purchaser) is usually used to refer to a current or potential buyer or user of the products of an individual or organization, called the supplier, seller, or vendor. This is typically through purchasing or renting goods or services. However, in certain contexts, the term customer also includes by extension any entity that uses or experiences the services of another. A customer may also be a viewer of the product or service that is being sold despite deciding not to buy them. The general distinction between a customer and a client is that a customer purchases products, whereas a client purchases services. The word derives from "custom," meaning "habit"; a customer was someone who frequented a particular shop, who made it a habit to purchase goods of the sort the shop sold there rather than elsewhere, and with whom the shopkeeper had to maintain a relationship to keep his or her "custom," meaning expected purchases in the future. The slogans "the customer is king" or "the customer is god" or "the customer is always right" indicate the importance of customers to businesses – although the last expression is sometimes used ironically. However, "customer" also has a more generalized meaning as in customer service and a less commercialized meaning in not-for-profit areas. To avoid unwanted implications in some areas such as government services, community services, and education, the term "customer" is sometimes substituted by words such as "constituent" or "stakeholder". This is done to address concerns that the word "customer" implies a narrowly commercial relationship involving the purchase of products and services. However, some managers in this environment, in which the emphasis is on being helpful to the people one is dealing with rather than on commercial sales, comfortably use the word "customer" to both internal and external customers. OBSOLETE meaning: In the early 17th century customer was defined as a "common prostitute". This meaning is important for understanding historical literary works. ("I marry her! What, a customer?")Othello, or ("I think thee now a common customer") All's Well that Ends Well.[1] Today the meaning of "customer" has been inverted in this usage.

References [1] A Glossary and Etymological dictionary of obsolete and uncommon words, William Toone, 1850-ish

Customer service

Customer service Customer service is the provision of service to customers before, during and after a purchase. According to Turban et al. (2002),[1] “Customer service is a series of activities designed to enhance the level of customer satisfaction – that is, the feeling that a product or service has met the customer expectation." Its importance varies by products, industry and customer; defective or broken merchandise can be exchanged, often only with a receipt and within a specified time frame. Retail stores will often have a desk or counter devoted to dealing with returns, exchanges and complaints, or will perform related functions at the point of sale; the perceived success of such interactions being dependent on employees "who can adjust themselves to the personality of the guest,"[2] according to Micah Solomon quoted in Inc. Magazine. From the point of view of an overall sales process engineering effort, customer service plays an important role in an organization's ability to generate income and revenue.[3] From that perspective, customer service should be included as part of an overall approach to systematic improvement. A customer service experience can change the entire perception a customer has of the organization. Some have argued[4] that the quality and level of customer service has decreased in recent years, and that this can be attributed to a lack of support or understanding at the executive and middle management levels of a corporation and/or a customer service policy. To address this argument, many organizations have employed a variety of methods to improve their customer satisfaction levels, and other KPIs.

Customer support Customer support is a range of customer services to assist customers in making cost effective and correct use of a product.[5] It includes assistance in planning, installation, training, trouble shooting, maintenance, upgrading, and disposal of a product.[5] Regarding technology products such as mobile phones, televisions, computers, software products or other electronic or mechanical goods, it is termed technical support.

Automated customer service Customer service may be provided by a person (e.g., sales and service representative), or by automated means. Examples of automated means are Internet sites. An advantage with automated means is an increased ability to provide service 24-hours a day, which can, at least, be a complement to customer service by persons.[6] However, in the Internet era, a challenge has been to maintain and/or enhance the personal experience while making use of the efficiencies of online commerce. Writing in Fast Company, entrepreneur and customer systems innovator Micah Solomon has made the point that "Online customers are literally invisible to you (and you to them), so it's easy to shortchange them emotionally. But this lack of visual and tactile presence makes it even more crucial to create a sense of personal, human-to-human connection in the online arena."[7] Automated means can be based entirely on self service, but may also be based on service by more or less means of artificial intelligence.


Customer service


Examples of customer service by artificial means are automated online assistants that can be seen as avatars on websites.[6] It can avail for enterprises to reduce their operating and training cost.[6] These are driven by chatterbots, and a major underlying technology to such systems is natural language processing.[6]

Instant feedback Recently, many organizations have implemented feedback loops that allow them to capture feedback at the point of experience. For example, National Express, one of the UK's leading travel companies invites passengers to send text messages whilst riding the bus. This has been shown to be useful as it allows companies to improve their customer service before the customer defects, thus making it far more likely that the customer will return next time.[8] Technology has made it increasingly easier for companies to obtain feedback from customers. Community blogs and forums give customers to give detailed explanations of both negative and positive experiences with an organization.

An automated online assistant with avatar providing automated customer service on a web page.

A challenge working with customer service is to ensure that you have focused your attention on the right key areas, measured by the right Key Performance Indicator. There is no challenge to come up with a lot of meaningful KPIs, but the challenge is to select a few which reflects your overall strategy. In addition to reflecting your strategy it should also enable staff to limit their focus to the areas that really matter. The focus must be of those KPIs, which will deliver the most value to the overall objective, e.g. cost saving, service improving etc. It must also be done in such a way that staff sincerely believe that they can make a difference with the effort. One of the most important aspects of a customer service KPI is that of what is often referred to as the "Feel Good Factor." Basically the goal is to not only help the customer have a good experience, but to offer them an experience that exceeds their expectations. Several key points are listed as follows: 1. Know your product – Know what products/service you are offering back to front. In other words be an information expert. It is okay to say "I don't know," but it should always be followed up by "but let me find out" or possibly "but my friend knows!" Whatever the situation may be, make sure that you don't leave your customer with an unanswered question. 2. Body Language/Communication – Most of the communication that we relay to others is done through body language. If we have a negative body language when we interact with others it can show our lack of care. Two of the most important parts of positive body language are smiling and eye contact. Make sure to look your customers in the eye. It shows that we are listening to them, not at them. And then of course smiling is just more inviting than someone who has a blank look on their face. 3. Anticipate Guest Needs – Nothing surprises your customer more than an employee going the extra mile to help them. Always look for ways to serve your customer more than they expect. In doing so it helps them to know that you care and it will leave them with the "Feel Good Factor" that we are searching for.

Customer service

Standardization There are few standards on this topic. ISO and The International Customer Service Institute (TICSI) have published the following ones: • • • • •

ISO 9004:2000, on performance improvement ISO 10001:2007, on customer service conduct ISO 10002:2004, on quality management in handling customer complaints ISO 10003:2007, on dispute resolution The International Customer Service Standard (TICSS)

There is also an Information Technology service management standard: ISO/IEC 20000:2005. Its first part concerns specifications and its second part the code of practice.

References [1] [2] [3] [4]

Turban, Efraim (2002). Electronic Commerce: A Managerial Perspective. Prentice Hall. ISBN 0131854615. http:/ / www. inc. com/ magazine/ 20110301/ a-customer-service-makeover_pagen_2. html Paul H. Selden (December 1998). "Sales Process Engineering: An Emerging Quality Application". Quality Progress: 59–63. Dall, Michael; Bailine, Adam (2004). Service this: Winning the war against customer disservice (1st ed.). Last Chapter First. ISBN 0975371908.

[5] > customer support (http:/ / www. businessdictionary. com/ definition/ customer-support. html) Retrieved Mars 2011 [6] Implementing an online help desk system based on conversational agent (http:/ / portal. acm. org/ citation. cfm?id=1643823. 1643908) Authors: Alisa Kongthon, Chatchawal Sangkeettrakarn, Sarawoot Kongyoung and Choochart Haruechaiyasak. Published by ACM 2009 Article, Bibliometrics Data Bibliometrics. Published in: Proceeding, MEDES '09 Proceedings of the International Conference on Management of Emergent Digital EcoSystems, ACM New York, NY, USA. ISBN 978-1-60558-829-2, doi:10.1145/1643823.1643908 [7] Solomon, Micah (4 March 2010). "Seven Keys to Building Customer Loyalty--and Company Profits" (http:/ / www. fastcompany. com/ article/ seven-keys-to-building-customer-loyalty-and-company-profits?page=0,0). Fast Company. . Retrieved 14 March 2010. [8] "Lunch Lesson Four - Customer service" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ programmes/ working_lunch/ 3161800. stm). BBC News. October 3, 2003. . Retrieved October 27, 2008.


Customer satisfaction

Customer satisfaction Customer satisfaction, a term frequently used in marketing, is a measure of how products and services supplied by a company meet or surpass customer expectation. Customer satisfaction is defined as "the number of customers, or percentage of total customers, whose reported experience with a firm, its products, or its services (ratings) exceeds specified satisfaction goals."[1] It is seen as a key performance indicator within business and is often part of a Balanced Scorecard. In a competitive marketplace where businesses compete for customers, customer satisfaction is seen as a key differentiator and increasingly has become a key element of business strategy.[2] Within organizations, customer satisfaction ratings can have powerful effects. They focus employees on the importance of fulfilling customers’ expectations. Furthermore, when these ratings dip, they warn of problems that can affect sales and profitability. These metrics quantify an important dynamic. When a brand has loyal customers, it gains positive word-of-mouth marketing, which is both free and highly effective.[1] Therefore, it is essential for businesses to effectively manage customer satisfaction. To be able do this, firms need reliable and representive measures of satisfaction. In researching satisfaction, firms generally ask customers whether their product or service has met or exceeded expectations. Thus, expectations are a key factor behind satisfaction. When customers have high expectations and the reality falls short, they will be disappointed and will likely rate their experience as less than satisfying. For this reason, a luxury resort, for example, might receive a lower satisfaction rating than a budget motel—even though its facilities and service would be deemed superior in “absolute” terms.[1] The importance of customer satisfaction diminishes when a firm has increased bargaining power. For example, cell phone plan providers, such as AT&T and Verizon, participate in an industry that is an oligopoly, where only a few suppliers of a certain product or service exist. As such, many cell phone plan contracts have a lot of fine print with provisions that they would never get away if there were, say, a hundred cell phone plan providers, because customer satisfaction would be way too low, and customers would easily have the option of leaving for a better contract offer. There is a substantial body of empirical literature that establishes the benefits of customer satisfaction for firms.

Purpose [[|alt=|thumb|right|A business ideally is continually seeking feedback to improve customer satisfaction.]] Customer satisfaction provides a leading indicator of consumer purchase intentions and loyalty. Customer satisfaction data are among the most frequently collected indicators of market perceptions. Their principal use is twofold[1] : 1. Within organizations, the collection, analysis and dissemination of these data send a message about the importance of tending to customers and ensuring that they have a positive experience with the company’s goods and services[1] 2. Although sales or market share can indicate how well a firm is performing currently, satisfaction is an indicator of how likely it is that the firm’s customers will make further purchases in the future. Much research has focused on the relationship between customer satisfaction and retention. Studies indicate that the ramifications of satisfaction are most strongly realized at the extremes. On a five-point scale, individuals who rate their satisfaction level as “5” are likely to become return customers and might even evangelize for the firm. (A second important metric related to satisfaction is willingness to recommend. This metric is defined as "The percentage of surveyed customers who indicate that they would recommend a brand to friends." When a customer is satisfied with a product, he or she might recommend it to friends, relatives and colleagues. This can be a powerful marketing advantage.) Individuals who rate their satisfaction level as “1,” by contrast, are unlikely to return. Further, they can hurt the firm by making negative comments about it to prospective customers. Willingness to recommend is a key metric relating to customer satisfaction.[1]


Customer satisfaction

Measuring customer satisfaction Organizations needto retain existing customers while targeting non-customers.[3] Measuring customer satisfaction provides an indication of how successful the organization is at providing products and/or services to the marketplace. Customer satisfaction is measured at the individual level, but it is almost always reported at an aggregate level. It can be, and often is, measured along various dimensions. A hotel, for example, might ask customers to rate their experience with its front desk and check-in service, with the room, with the amenities in the room, with the restaurants, and so on. Additionally, in a holistic sense, the hotel might ask about overall satisfaction “with your stay.”[1] As research on consumption experiences grows, evidence suggests that consumers purchase goods and services for a combination of two types of benefits: hedonic and utilitarian. Hedonic benefits are associated with the sensory and experiential attributes of the product. Utilitarian benefits of a product are associated with the more instrumental and functional attributes of the product (Batra and Athola 1990)[4] . Customer satisfaction is an ambiguous and abstract concept and the actual manifestation of the state of satisfaction will vary from person to person and product/service to product/service. The state of satisfaction depends on a number of both psychological and physical variables which correlate with satisfaction behaviors such as return and recommend rate. The level of satisfaction can also vary depending on other options the customer may have and other products against which the customer can compare the organization's products. Work done by Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry (Leonard L)[5] between 1985 and 1988 provides the basis for the measurement of customer satisfaction with a service by using the gap between the customer's expectation of performance and their perceived experience of performance. This provides the measurer with a satisfaction "gap" which is objective and quantitative in nature. Work done by Cronin and Taylor propose the "confirmation/disconfirmation" theory of combining the "gap" described by Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry as two different measures (perception and expectation of performance) into a single measurement of performance according to expectation. The usual measures of customer satisfaction involve a survey[6] with a set of statements using a Likert Technique or scale. The customer is asked to evaluate each statement and in term of their perception and expectation of performance of the organization being measured. Their satisfaction is generally measured on a five-point scale. Customer satisfaction data can also be collected on a 10-point scale.[1] Regardless of the scale used, the objective is to measure customers’ perceived satisfaction with their experience of a firm’s offerings. It is essential for firms to effectively manage customer satisfaction. To be able do this, we need accurate measurement of satisfaction.[7] Good quality measures need to have high satisfaction loadings, good reliability, and low error variances. In an empirical study comparing commonly used satisfaction measures it was found that two multi-item semantic differential scales performed best across both hedonic and utilitarian service consumption contexts. According to studies by Wirtz & Lee (2003)[8] , they identified a six-item 7-point semantic differential scale (e.g., Oliver and Swan 1983), which is a six-item 7-point bipolar scale, that consistently performed best across both hedonic and utilitarian services. It loaded most highly on satisfaction, had the highest item reliability, and had by far the lowest error variance across both studies. In the study[8] , the six items asked respondents’ evaluation of their most recent experience with ATM services and ice cream restaurant, along seven points within these six items: “please me to displeased me”, “contented with to disgusted with”, “very satisfied with to very dissatisfied with”, “did a good job for me to did a poor job for me”, “wise choice to poor choice” and “happy with to unhappy with”. A semantic differential (4 items) scale (e.g., Eroglu and Machleit 1990)[9] , which is a four-item 7-point bipolar scale, was the second best performing measure, which was again consistent across both contexts. In the study, respondents were asked to evaluate their experience with both products, along seven points within these four items:


Customer satisfaction “satisfied to dissatisfied”, “favorable to unfavorable”, “pleasant to unpleasant” and “I like it very much to I didn’t like it at all”.[8] The third best scale was single-item percentage measure, a one-item 7-point bipolar scale (e.g., Westbrook 1980)[10] . Again, the respondents were asked to evaluate their experience on both ATM services and ice cream restaurants, along seven points within “delighted to terrible”.[8] It seems that dependent on a trade-off between length of the questionnaire and quality of satisfaction measure, these scales seem to be good options for measuring customer satisfaction in academic and applied studies research alike. All other measures tested consistently performed worse than the top three measures, and/or their performance varied significantly across the two service contexts in their study. These results suggest that more careful pretesting would be prudent should these measures be used.[8] Finally, all measures captured both affective and cognitive aspects of satisfaction, independent of their scale anchors.[8] Affective measures capture a consumer’s attitude (liking/disliking) towards a product, which can result from any product information or experience. On the other hand, cognitive element is defined as an appraisal or conclusion on how the product’s performance compared against expectations (or exceeded or fell short of expectations), was useful (or not useful), fit the situation (or did not fit), exceeded the requirements of the situation (or did not exceed).[11]

Methodologies American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) is a scientific standard of customer satisfaction. Academic research has shown that the national ACSI score is a strong predictor of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth, and an even stronger predictor of Personal Consumption Expenditure (PCE) growth. On the microeconomic level, academic studies have shown that ACSI data is related to a firm's financial performance in terms of return on investment (ROI), sales, long-term firm value (Tobin's q), cash flow, cash flow volatility, human capital performance, portfolio returns, debt financing, risk, and consumer spending.[12] Increasing ACSI scores has been shown to predict loyalty, word-of-mouth recommendations, and purchase behavior. The ACSI measures customer satisfaction annually for more than 200 companies in 43 industries and 10 economic sectors. In addition to quarterly reports, the ACSI methodology can be applied to private sector companies and government agencies in order to improve loyalty and purchase intent. Two companies have been licensed to apply the methodology of the ACSI for both the private and public sector: CFI Group, Inc. [13] and Foresee Results [14] apply the ACSI to websites and other online initiatives. ASCI scores have also been calculated by independent researchers, for example, for the mobile phones sector,[15] higher education,[16] and electronic mail.[17] The Kano model is a theory of product development and customer satisfaction developed in the 1980s by Professor Noriaki Kano that classifies customer preferences into five categories: Attractive, One-Dimensional, Must-Be, Indifferent, Reverse. The Kano model offers some insight into the product attributes which are perceived to be important to customers. SERVQUAL or RATER is a service-quality framework that has been incorporated into customer-satisfaction surveys (e.g., the revised Norwegian Customer Satisfaction Barometer[18] ) to indicate the gap between customer expectations and experience. J.D. Power and Associates provides another measure of customer satisfaction, known for its top-box approach and automotive industry rankings. J.D. Power and Associates' marketing research consists primarily of consumer surveys and is publicly known for the value of its product awards. Other research and consulting firms have customer satisfaction solutions as well. These include A.T. Kearney's Customer Satisfaction Audit process,[19] which incorporates the Stages of Excellence framework and which helps define a company’s status against eight critically identified dimensions.


Customer satisfaction For Business to Business (B2B) surveys there is the InfoQuest box.[20] This has been used internationally since 1989 on more than 110,000 surveys (Nov '09) with an average response rate of 72.74%. The box is targeted at "the most important" customers and avoids the need for a blanket survey. These customer satisfaction methodologies have not been independently audited by the Marketing Accountability Standards Board (MASB) according to MMAP (Marketing Metric Audit Protocol) [21].

References [1] Farris, Paul W.; Neil T. Bendle; Phillip E. Pfeiffer; David J. Reibstein (2010). Marketing Metrics: The Definitive Guide to Measuring Marketing Performance. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. ISBN 0137058292. The Marketing Accountability Standards Board (MASB) endorses the definitions, purposes, and constructs of classes of measures that appear in Marketing Metrics as part of its ongoing Common Language: Marketing Activities and Metrics Project (http:/ / www. themasb. org/ projects/ underway/ ). [2] Gitman, Lawrence J.; Carl D. McDaniel (2005). The Future of Business: The Essentials. Mason, Ohio: South-Western. ISBN 0324320280. [3] John, Joby (2003). Fundamentals of Customer-Focused Management: Competing Through Service. Westport, Conn.: Praeger. ISBN 9781567205640. [4] Batra, Rajeev and Olli T. Athola (1990), “Measuring the Hedonic and Utilitarian Sources of Consumer Attitudes,” Marketing Letters, 2 (2), 159-70. [5] Berry, Leonard L.; A. Parasuraman (1991). Marketing Services: Competing Through Quality. New York: Free Press. ISBN 9780029030790. [6] Kessler, Sheila (2003). Customer satisfaction toolkit for ISO 9001:2000. Milwaukee, Wis.: ASQ Quality Press. ISBN 0873895592. [7] Wirtz, Jochen and John E. G. Bateson (1995), “An Experimental Investigation of Halo Effects in Satisfaction Measures of Service Attributes,” International Journal of Service Industry Management, 6 (3), 84-102. [8] Wirtz, Jochen; Chung Lee, Meng (2003), “An Empirical Study on The Quality and Context-specific Applicability of Commonly Used Customer Satisfaction Measures,” Journal of Service Research, Vol. 5, No. 4, 345-355. [9] Eroglu, Sergin A. and Karen A. Machleit (1990), “An Empirical Study of Retail Crowding: Antecedents and Consequences,” Journal of Retailing, 66 (Summer), 201-21. [10] Westbrook, Robert A. (1980), “A Rating Scale for Measuring Product/Service Satisfaction,” Journal of Marketing, 44 (Fall), 68-72. [11] Retrieved from: “Customer Satisfaction Measurement.” (http:/ / www. qualtrics. com/ university/ customer-satisfaction-measurement/ ) [12] Vikas Mittal; Carly Frennea (2010). "Customer Satisfaction: A Strategic Review and Guidelines for Managers." Marketing Science Institute: MSI Fast Forward (10-701). [13] http:/ / www. cfigroup. com [14] http:/ / www. foreseeresults. com [15] Turel, Ofir; Alexander Serenko (2006). "Satisfaction with mobile services in Canada: An empirical investigation" (http:/ / foba. lakeheadu. ca/ serenko/ papers/ Turel_Serenko_tp_published. pdf). Telecommunications Policy 30 (5-6): 314–331. doi:10.1016/j.telpol.2005.10.003. . [16] Serenko, Alexander (2010). "Student satisfaction with Canadian music programs: The application of the American Customer Satisfaction Model in higher education" (http:/ / foba. lakeheadu. ca/ serenko/ papers/ Student_Satisfaction_ACSI_Published. pdf). Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education 35 (4). . [17] Dow, Kevin; Alexander Serenko, Ofir Turel, Jeff Wong (2006). "Antecedents and consequences of user satisfaction with e-mail systems" (http:/ / foba. lakeheadu. ca/ serenko/ papers/ JeC_Dow. pdf). International Journal of e-Collaboration 2 (2): 46–64. doi:10.4018/jec.2006040103. . [18] Johnson, Michael D.; Anders Gustafssonb, Tor Wallin Andreassenc, Line Lervikc and Jaesung Cha (2001). "The evolution and future of national customer satisfaction index models". Journal of Economic Psychology 22 (2): 217–245. doi:10.1016/S0167-4870(01)00030-7. ISSN 0167-4870. [19] Bluestein, Abram; Michael Moriarty; Ronald J Sanderson (2003). The Customer Satisfaction Audit. Axminster: Cambridge Strategy Publications. ISBN 9781902433981. [20] Customer Satisfaction Surveys - InfoQuest worldwide B2B customer satisfaction syrveys (http:/ / www. infoquestcrm. co. uk) [21] http:/ / www. themasb. org/ about/ mmap/


Customer satisfaction


External links • Customer Satisfaction - The Survey of Organizational Excellence, University of Texas ( research/cswr/survey/site/customer/cspaper.pdf) • Customer Satisfaction resources (

Customer support Customer support is a range of customer services to assist customers in making cost effective and correct use of a product.[1] It includes assistance in planning, installation, training, trouble shooting, maintenance, upgrading, and disposal of a product.[1] Regarding technology products such as mobile phones, televisions, computers, software products or other electronic or mechanical goods, it is termed technical support.

Automation Automation of service organizations aim to achieve, for example, lower mean time to repair (MTTR). Customer support automation involves the building of a knowledge base of known issues and their resolutions to support incidents with delivery mechanisms, often by expert systems. A service automation platform includes a suite of support solutions including proactive support, assisted support and self support. With automated support, service organizations can make their services available to their customers 24 hours a day and 7 days a week, by monitoring alarms, identifying problems at an early stage and resolving issues before they become problems. Automated assisted support enables remote access to sites that need instant problem solving. By automating the collection of information of devices and applications coexisting with the supported application, problems can be quickly detected and fixed.

An automated online assistant on a website - a means of providing automated customer support.

Automated self support, automates the self support process, freeing users from self-help diagnostics and troubleshooting from on-line libraries or knowledge bases. Support automation solutions can be integrated with customer relationship management (CRM) systems and network management systems (NMS), and provide full customer reports to management tallying problems and incidents that were solved mechanically ensuring compliance to industry regulations like Sarbanes Oxley, 21 CFR part 11, and HIPAA.

Customer support

Types • Proactive Support Automation refers to support automation solutions that minimize downtime and enable 24x7 availability. This is achieved by constant health check tracking with diagnostic procedures to enable issue monitoring and problem solving. • Preemptive Support Automation refers to a support solution that utilizes information that is either generated or culled from an application or service, e.g. log files, database queries, configuration changes, etc. This information can then be exploited to predict service degradations or interruptions. The upshot of this is a higher level of service/application availability for the underlying application • Self support automation is the term organizations give to their support structures that provide on-line libraries and tools for self-help and easy troubleshooting solutions to automatically and precisely diagnose and resolve problems and incidents. • Assisted support automation is the software that enables support personnel to remotely access their customers desktop or server for diagnostics and trouble ticket resolution.

References [1] > customer support (http:/ / www. businessdictionary. com/ definition/ customer-support. html) Retrieved Mars 2011

Customer experience Customer experience (CX) is the sum of all experiences a customer has with a supplier of goods or services, over the duration of their relationship with that supplier. From awareness, discovery, attraction, interaction, purchase, use, cultivation and advocacy. It can also be used to mean an individual experience over one transaction; the distinction is usually clear in context.

Growing recognition Analysts and commentators who write about customer experience (CX) and customer relationship management have increasingly recognized the importance of managing the customer's experience.[1] Customers receive some kind of experience, ranging from positive to negative, during the course of buying goods and services. Thompson and Kolsky say that “an experience is defined as the sum total of conscious events. As such, a supplier cannot avoid creating an experience every time it interacts with a customer” (2004). Furthermore, it has been shown that a customer’s perception of an organisation is built as a result of their interaction across multiple-channels, not through one channel, and that a positive customer experience can result in increased share of wallet and repeat business. A company's ability to deliver an experience that sets it apart in the eyes of its customers serves to increase their spend with the company and, optimally, inspire loyalty to its brand. "Loyalty," says Jessica Debor, "is now driven primarily by a company's interaction with its customers and how well it delivers on their wants and needs." (2008) [2] To create a superior customer experience requires understanding the customer's point of view, say Don Peppers and Martha Rogers, Ph.D in Rules to Break and Laws to Follow. "What's it really like to be your customer? What is the day-in, day-out 'customer experience' your company is delivering? How does it feel to wait on hold on the phone? To open a package and not be certain how to follow the poorly translated instructions? To stand in line, be charged a fee, wait for a service call that was promised two hours ago, come back to an online shopping cart that's no longer there an hour later? Or what's it like to be remembered? To receive helpful suggestions? To get everything exactly as it was promised? To be confident that the answers you get are the best ones for you?" (Peppers and Rogers 2008)[3] In short, customer experience meaning a customer journey which makes the customer feel happy, satisfy, justify, with a sense of being respected, served and cared, according to his/her expectation or standard, start from first


Customer experience contact and through the whole relationship.

Emerging Business Requirement With products becoming commoditized, price differentiation no longer sustainable and customers demanding more, companies – and communication service providers (wireline, wireless, broadband cable, satellite) in particular – are focusing on delivering superior customer experiences. A 2009 study of over 860 corporate executives revealed that companies that have increased their investment in customer experience management over the past three years report higher customer referral rates and customer satisfaction (Strativity Group, 2009).[4] This finding is also supported by research completed by software company Chordiant in 2008 into the customer experience management performance of large organisations across Europe.[5] The research surveyed 450 large organisations to create a maturity model and the results showed that over ¾ of the organisations surveyed achieved level 3 (of 5) or less for CEM performance (5 being best possible result). The results also showed that performance in four key business areas (market share, retention, profitability, and customer satisfaction) was directly related to CEM performance.[6] The customer experience has emerged as the single most important aspect in achieving success for companies across all industries (Peppers and Rogers 2005).[7] For example, Starbucks spent less than $10MM on advertising from 1987 to 1998 yet added over 2,000 new stores to accommodate growing sales. Starbucks popularity is based on the experience that drove its customers to highly recommend their store to friends and family.[8]

Customer Experience Management The goal of customer experience management (CEM) is to move customers from satisfied to loyal and then from loyal to advocate. Traditionally, managing the customer relationship has been the domain of Customer Relationship Management (CRM). However, CRM strategies and solutions are designed to focus on product, price and enterprise process, with minimal or no focus on customer need and desire. The result is a sharp mismatch between the organisation’s approach to customer expectations and what customers actually want, resulting in the failure of many CRM implementations. Where CRM is enterprise-focused and designed to manage customers for maximum efficiency, CEM is a strategy that focuses the operations and processes of a business around the needs of the individual customer. Companies are focusing on the importance of the experience and, as Jeananne Rae notes, realizing that “building great consumer experiences is a complex enterprise, involving strategy, integration of technology, orchestrating business models, brand management and CEO commitment.” (2006) [9] According to Bernd Schmitt, "the term 'Customer Experience Management' represents the discipline, methodology and/or process used to comprehensively manage a customer's cross-channel exposure, interaction and transaction with a company, product, brand or service."[10] Customer experience solutions provide strategies, process models, and information technology to design, manage and optimize the end-to-end customer experience process.

CEM systems One of the key features of successful CEM implementations is their ability to manage multi-channel interactions. Customer experience solutions address the cross-channel (contact center, Internet, self service, mobile devices, brick and mortar stores), cross-touchpoint (phone, chat, email, Web, in-person), and cross-lifecycle (ordering, fulfillment, billing, support, etc.) nature of the customer experience process. By contrast, CRM solutions tend to offer point solutions for specific customer-facing functions such as, but not limited to, sales force automation, customer analytics, and campaign management. Experience-based providers also integrate both internal and external innovations to create end-to-end customer experiences. They evaluate their business models as well as business support systems and operational support systems (BSS/OSS) from the customer’s point of view to achieve the level of customer-centricity necessary to


Customer experience improve customer loyalty, churn and revenue (Lopez, 2007).[11]

References [1] "How to Approach Customer Experience Management" (http:/ / www. gartner. com/ it/ products/ research/ asset_129491_2395. jsp). 2004-12-27. . Retrieved 2008-05-13. [2] Debor, Jessica (2008-02-20). "CRM Gets Serious" (http:/ / www. destinationcrm. com/ articles/ default. asp?ArticleID=7495& TopicID=8). CRM Magazine. . Retrieved 2008-05-13. [3] Peppers, Don and Martha Rogers, Ph.D. (2008), Rules to Break and Laws to Follow (http:/ / www. rulesandlaws. com), Wiley, pp. 24, 164, ISBN 978-0470227541, [4] Strativity Group (2009), 2009 Global Customer Experience Management Benchmark Study (http:/ / strativity. com/ products/ 2009-Experience-Management-Benchmark-Study. aspx), Strativity Group, Inc., [5] Cx (Customer Experience) Maturity Model website (http:/ / www. cxm-model. com) [6] Cx Maturity Model white paper (http:/ / www. cxm-model. com/ download. php) [7] Don Peppers and Martha Rogers.; Don Peppers, Martha Rogers (2005), Return on Customer, Doubleday, division of random House, Inc., ISBN 0-385-51030-6 [8] Shaun Smith and Joe Wheeler.; Shaun Smith, Joe Wheeler (2002), Managing the Customer Experience: Turning customers into advocates, Financial Times Press, ISBN 978-0273661955 [9] Rae, Jeananne (2006-11-27). "The Importance of Great Customer Experiences" (http:/ / www. businessweek. com/ magazine/ content/ 06_48/ b4011429. htm?chan=search). Business Week. . Retrieved 2008-05-13. [10] Bernd H. Schmitt.; Bernd H. Schmitt (2003), Customer Experience Management: A Revolutionary Approach to Connecting with Your Customers, Wiley; 1 edition, ISBN 0-4712-3774-4 [11] Lopez, Maribel D. (2007-11-12). "Operators Thrive by Building and Enabling Experiences" (http:/ / www. forrester. com/ Research/ Document/ Excerpt/ 0,7211,42267,00. html). Forrester. . Retrieved 2008-05-13.

Customer engagement Customer engagement (CE) refers to the engagement of customers with one another, with a company or a brand. The initiative for engagement can be either consumer- or company-led and the medium of engagement can be on or offline. Unlike marketing terms such as positioning, customer engagement has not been traced to a single source.[1] Customer engagement has been discussed widely online; hundreds of pages have been written, published, read and commented upon. Numerous high-profile conferences, seminars and roundtables have either had CE as a primary theme or included papers on the topic.[2] Customer engagement marketing places conversions into a longer term, more strategic context and is premised on the understanding that a simple focus on maximising conversions can, in some circumstances, decrease the likelihood of repeat conversions (Customer engagement interview with Richard Sedley [3]). CE aims at long-term engagement, encouraging customer loyalty and advocacy through word-of-mouth. Online customer engagement is qualitatively different from offline engagement as the nature of the customer’s interactions with a brand, company and other customers differ on the internet. Discussion forums or blogs, for example, are spaces where people can communicate and socialise in ways that cannot be replicated by any offline interactive medium. Customer Engagement marketing efforts that aim to create, stimulate or influence customer behaviour differ from the offline, one-way, marketing communications that marketers are familiar with. Although customer advocacy, for example, has always been a goal for marketers, the rise of online user generated content can take advocacy to another level. The concept and practice of online Customer Engagement enables organisations to respond to the fundamental changes in customer behaviour that the internet has brought about, as well as to the increasing ineffectiveness of the traditional 'interrupt and repeat', broadcast model of advertising. Due to the fragmentation and specialisation of media and audiences, as well as the proliferation of community- and user generated content, businesses are increasingly losing the power to dictate the communications agenda. Simultaneously, lower switching costs, the


Customer engagement geographical widening of the market and the vast choice of content, services and products available online have weakened customer loyalty. So today, leveraging customer contributions is an important source of competitive advantage – whether through advertising, user generated product reviews, customer service FAQs, forums where consumers can socialise with one another or contribute to product development. Amazon recently re-branded into 'serving the world's largest engaged online community', the World Federation of Advertisers (WFA) has created a 'Blueprint for Consumer-Centric Holistic Measurement' and the Association of National Advertisers (ANA), American Association of Advertising Agencies (AAAA) and the Advertising Research Foundation (ARF), have put together the 'Engagement Steering Committee' to work on the customer engagement metric. Nielsen Media Research, IAG Research and Simmons Research are also all in the process of developing a CE definition and metric.[4] Online customer engagement refers to: 1. A social phenomenon enabled by the wide adoption of the internet in the late 1990s and taking off with the technical developments in connection speed (broadband) in the decade that followed. Online CE is qualitatively different from the engagement of consumers offline. 2. The behaviour of customers that engage in online communities revolving, directly or indirectly, around product categories (cycling, sailing) and other consumption topics. It details the process that leads to a customer’s positive engagement with the company or offering, as well as the behaviours associated with different degrees of customer engagement. 3. Marketing practices that aim to create, stimulate or influence CE behaviour. Although CE-marketing efforts must be consistent both online and offline, the internet is the basis of CE-marketing.(Eisenberg & Eisenberg 2006:72,81) 4. Metrics that measure the effectiveness of the marketing practices which seek to create, stimulate or influence CE behaviour.

Definition In March 2006, the Advertising Research Foundation announced the first definition of customer engagement[5] the first definition of CE at the re:think! 52nd Annual ARF Convention and Expo: "Engagement is turning on a prospect to a brand idea enhanced by the surrounding context." However, the ARF definition was criticized by some for being too broad.[6] Customer engagement can also refer to the stages consumers travel through as they interact with a particular brand. This Customer Engagement Cycle, or Customer Journey, has been described using a myriad of terms but most often consists of 5 different stages: Awareness, Consideration, Inquiry, Purchase and Retention. Marketers employ Connection Strategy to speak to would-be customers at each stage, with media that addresses their particular needs and interests. When conducting Search Engine Marketing & Search Engine Optimization, or placing advertisements, marketers must devise media and/or keywords and phrases that encourage customer flow through the Customer Engagement Cycle, towards Purchase. Because the various definitions often focus on entirely different aspects of CE, they are not in every case competing definitions but, rather, illuminate CE from different perspectives. Eric Peterson's definition[7] for example frames CE as a metric: "Engagement is an estimate of the degree and depth of visitor interaction against a clearly defined set of goals." At the moment the ARF, World Federation of Advertisers,[8] Nielsen Media Research, IAG Research and Simmons Research are in the process of developing a definition and a metric for CE.[4]


Customer engagement

The need for customer engagement CE-marketing is necessitated by a combination of social, technological and market developments: 1. Businesses are losing the power to dictate the communications agenda:[9] The effectiveness of the traditional 'interrupt and repeat' model of advertising is decreasing.[10] In August 2006, McKinsey & Co published a report[11] which said that by 2010 traditional TV advertising will only be one-third as effective as it was in 1990.[12] This is due to: • Customer audiences are smaller and specialist: The fragmentation of media and audiences and the accompanying reduction of audience size[13] have reduced the effectiveness of the traditional top-down, mass, 'interrupt and repeat' advertising model. The adoption of new media. Forrester Research's North American Consumer Technology Adoption Study[11] shows people in the 18-26 age group spending more time online than watching TV.[14] In response to the fragmentation and increased amount of time spent online, marketers have also increased spending in online communication. ContextWeb analysts found marketers who promote on sites like Facebook and New York Times are not as successful at reaching consumers while marketers who promote more on niche websites have a better chance of reaching their audiences.[15] • Customer audiences are also broadcasters: A company's position is no longer just inside consumers' minds. As they increasingly speak their minds with the power for circulation and permanence of CGM, businesses lose the power of shouting over everyone else. Instead of trying to position a product using a couple of static messages that will themselves become the subject of conversation amongst a target market that has already discussed, positioned and rated the product, companies must join in. This also means that consumers can now choose not only when and how but, also, if they will engage with marketing communications;[16] they can rely on CGM. In addition new media themselves provide consumers with more control over their advertising consumption.[17] 2. Decreasing brand loyalty: The lowering of entry barriers (such as the need for a sales force, access to channels and physical assets) and the geographical widening of the market due to the internet have brought about increasing competition. In combination with lower switching costs, easier access to information about products and suppliers and increased choice customer loyalty is hard to achieve. The increasing ineffectiveness of TV advertising due to the shift of consumer attention to the internet, the ability, within new media, to control advertising consumption and the decrease in audience size is bringing about a progressive shift of advertising spending online.[18] The proliferation of media that provide consumers with more control over their advertising consumption (subscription-based digital radio and TV for example) and the simultaneous decrease of faith in advertising and increase of faith in peers[19] point to the need for communications that the customer will desire to engage with. Stimulating a consumer’s engagement with a brand is the only way to increase brand loyalty and, therefore, "the best measure of current and future performance".[20] CE is the solution that marketers have devised in order to come to terms with the social, technological and market developments outlined above. In a nutshell, it is the attempt to create an engaging dialogue with target consumers and stimulate their engagement with the brand. Although this must take place consistently both on and off-line, the internet is the primary vehicle for doing so. CE marketing begins with understanding the internal dynamics of these developments and, especially, the behaviour and engagement of consumers online. That way, business opportunities can be identified. As Max Kalehoff[21] suggests, consumer-generated media should play a massive role in our understanding and modelling of engagement. The control Web 2.0 consumers have gained must, and will be, quantified through 'old school' marketing performance metrics.[22]


Customer engagement


Customer Engagement as a social phenomenon Online inter-customer engagement is a recent social phenomenon that came about through the wide diffusion and adoption of the internet in western societies during the late 1990s. Although offline CE predates online CE, the latter is a qualitatively different social phenomenon unlike any offline CE that social theorists or marketers are familiar with. People also engage online in communities that do not necessarily revolve around a particular product, but serve as meeting or networking places, for instance on MySpace. The people in one's MySpace friend's list do not necessarily all share a single consumption habit, although they often do. People's online engagement with one another has brought about both the empowerment of consumers and the opportunity for businesses to engage with their target customers online.

Customer Engagement as consumer behaviour CE behaviour became prominent with the advent of the social phenomenon of online CE. Creating and stimulating customer engagement behaviour has recently become an explicit aim of both profit and non-profit organisations in the belief that engaging target customers to a high degree is conducive to furthering business objectives. Shevlin's definition of CE is well suited to understanding the process that leads to an engaged customer. In its adaptation by Richard Sedley the key word is 'investment'. "Repeated interactions that strengthen the emotional, psychological or physical investment a customer has in a brand." A customer's degree of engagement with a company lies in a continuum that represents the strength of his investment in that company. Positive experiences with the company strengthen that investment and move the customer down the line of engagement. What is important in measuring degrees of involvement is the ability of defining and quantifying the stages on the continuum. One popular suggestion is a four-level model adapted from Kirkpatrick's Levels: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Click - A reader arrived (current metric) Consume - A reader read the content Understood - A reader understood the content and remembers it Applied - A reader applies the content in another venue

Concerns have, however, been expressed as regards the measurability of stages three and four. Another popular suggestion is Ghuneim's typology of engagement.[23] Degrees of Engagement






Collaborative Filtering

Content Creation


Bookmarking, Tagging, Adding to group

Rating, Voting, Commenting, Endorsing, Favouritising

Upload (User Generated Content), Blogging, Fan community participation, Create mash-ups, Podcasting, Vlogging

Adding Friends, Networking, Create Fan Community

The following consumer typology[24] according to degree of engagement fits well to Ghuneim's continuum. • • • •

Creators (smallest group) Critics Collectors Couch Potatoes (largest group)

Engagement is a holistic characterisation of a consumer's behaviour, encompassing a host of sub-aspects of behaviour such as loyalty, satisfaction, involvement, Word of Mouth advertising, complaining and more.

Customer engagement • Satisfaction: Satisfaction is simply the foundation, and the minimum requirement, for a continuing relationship with customers. Engagement extends beyond mere satisfaction.[25] • Loyalty - Retention: Highly engaged consumers are more loyal. Increasing the engagement of target customers increases the rate of customer retention. • Word of Mouth advertising - advocacy: Highly engaged customers are more likely to engage in free (for the company), credible (for their audience) Word of Mouth advertising. This can drive new customer acquisition and can have viral effects. • Awareness - Effectiveness of communications: When customers are exposed to communication from a company that they are highly engaged with, they tend to actively elaborate on its central idea. This brings about high degrees of central processing and recall.[17] • Filtering: Consumers filter, categorise and rate the market from head to tail, creating multiple, overlapping folksonomies through tagging, reviewing, rating and recommending. • Complaint-behaviour: Highly engaged customers are less likely to complain to other current or potential customers, but will address the company directly instead. • Marketing intelligence: Highly engaged customers can give valuable recommendations for improving quality of offering. The behavioural outcomes of an engaged consumer is what links CE to profits. From this point of view, "CE is the best measure of current and future performance; an engaged relationship is probably the only guarantee for a return on your organisation's or your clients' objectives."[26] Simply attaining a high level of customer satisfaction does not seem to guarantee the customer's business.[27] 60% to 80% of customers who defect to a competitor said they were satisfied or very satisfied on the survey just prior to their defection.[28] The main difference between traditional and customer engagement marketing is marked by these shifts: • From 'reach or awareness focused' marketing communications and their metrics (GRP or pageview) towards more targeted and customised interactions that prompt the consumer to engage with and act on the content from the outset. • From absolute distinctions and barriers between an organisation and its target customers towards the participation of consumers in product development, customer service and other aspects of the brand experience. • From one-way, top-down, formal B2C and B2E interaction to continuing, dialogic, decentralised and personalised communications initiated by either party. Specific marketing practices involve: • Encouraging collaborative filtering: Google, Amazon, iTunes, Yahoo LAUNCHcast, Netflix, and Rhapsody encourage their consumers to filter, categorise and rate; that is, to market their products. They realise consumers are not only much more adept at creating highly-targeted taxonomies (folksonomies) given that they are more adept at delineating the segment they themselves constitute, but, also, that they are willing to do so for free. And to the extent they cannot, they do it for them. If enough people like the band Groove Armada as well as the band The Crystal Method, there may well be a stylistic connection between them, despite the fact that one’s categorised as 'downtempo' and the other 'beats and breaks'. Such strong associations tell Yahoo! to put the two on the same playlist more often, and if the positive ratings continue to come in, that connection is reinforced. (Anderson 2006:101) Amazon does the same with their ‘customers who bought this item also bought…’ recommendations. • Community development: Helping target customers develop their own communities or create new ones. • Community participation: (See Communal marketing) Consumers do not filter and rate companies and their offerings within company websites only. Being able, with little effort, cost or technical skills, to create their own online localities, a large percentage of the filtering and rating takes place in non-sponsored, online spaces. Organisations must go and meet their target customers at their favoured online hangouts to not only listen but also participate in the dialogue.


Customer engagement • Help consumers engage with one another: Give them content (viral podcasting, videocasting, games, v-cards etc) they can use to engage with one another. • Solicitation of user generated content: Engage them directly or indirectly with your product by giving them the means or incentive to create user generated content. • Customer self-service: Help them create a customer service FAQ in wiki or blog format. Create a blog where technical support staff and customers can communicate directly. • Product co-development: Create a blog where product developers and consumers can communicate directly.

Customer Engagement as a metric All marketing practices, including Internet Marketing include measuring the effectiveness of various media along the Customer Engagement Cycle, as consumers travel from awareness to Purchase. Often the use of CVP Analysis factors into strategy decisions, including budgets and media placement. The CE metric is useful for: a) Planning: • Identify where CE-marketing efforts should take place; which of the communities that the target customers participate in are the most engaging? • Specify the way in which target customers engage, or want to engage, with the company or offering. b) Measuring Effectiveness: Measure how successful CE-marketing efforts have been at engaging target customers. The importance of CE as a marketing metric is reflected in ARF's statement: "The industry is moving toward customer engagement with marketing communications as the 21st century metric of marketing efficiency and effectiveness."[29] ARF envisages CE exclusively as a metric of engagement with communication, but it is not necessary to distinguish between engaging with the communication and with the product since CE behaviour deals with, and is influenced by, involvement with both. Eric Peterson's definition[30] also frames CE as a metric: "Engagement is an estimate of the degree and depth of visitor interaction on the site against a clearly defined set of goals." In order to be operational, CE-metrics must be combined with psychodemographics. It is not enough to know that a website has 500 highly engaged members, for instance; it is imperative to know what percentage are members of the company's target market.[31] As a metric for effectiveness, Scott Karp[32] suggests, CE is the solution to the same intractable problems that have long been a struggle for old media: how to prove value. The CE-metric is synthetic and integrates a number of variables. The World Federation of Advertisers calls it 'consumer-centric holistic measurement'.[33] The following items have all been proposed as components of a CE-metric: Root metrics • Duration of visit • Frequency of visit (returning to the site directly – through a URL or bookmark - or indirectly). • % repeat visits • Recency of visit • Depth of visit (% of site visited) • Click-through rate • Sales


Customer engagement • Lifetime value Action metrics • RSS feed subscriptions • Bookmarks, tags, ratings • Viewing of high-value or medium-value content (as valued from the organisation’s point-of-view). 'Depth' of visit can be combined with this variable. • Inquiries • Providing personal information • Downloads • Content resyndication • Customer reviews • Comments: their quality is another indicator of the degree of engagement. • Ratio between posts and comments plus trackbacks. In selecting the components of a CE-metric, the following issues must be resolved: • Flexible metric vs. Industry standard: According to some, CE "measurement has never been one size fits-all" but should vary according to industry, organisation, business goal etc. On the other hand, corporate clients and even agencies also desire some type of solid index. Internal metrics could, perhaps, be developed in addition to a comparative, industry-wide one.[34] Other exponents of a flexible CE-metric include Bill Gassman in his comments to ‘How do you calculate engagement? Part I’ [35]. Eric Peterson[7] shares Gassman's views. • Relative weighting: The relative weighting associated with each CE-component in an algorithm. For instance, is subscribing to RSS more important than contributing a comment? If yes how much more important exactly? Relative weighting links up with the issue of flexible vs. standardised metrics: Is the relative weighting going to be solid – as will be required if the CE-metric is to be standardised – or is it going to differ depending on the industry, organisation, business goals etc? • Component measurability: Most of the components of a CE-metric face problems of measurement. Duration of visit for example suffers from (a) failing to capture the most engaged users who like to peruse RSS feeds; (b) inaccuracy arising from leaving a tab open during breaks, stopping to converse with co-workers, etc. • Length of measurement: For how long must the various CE components be measured if CE is to reflect loyalty rather than short-term, faddish engagement?

References • • • •

Anderson C., (2006) "The Long Tail", Hyperion Chak A., (2003) "Submit now", New Riders Press Eisenberg B. and Eisenberg J., (2006) "Waiting for Your Cat to Bark?", Thomas Nelson, Nashville Locke et al. (2001) "The Cluetrain Manifesto", Perseus Books Group

[1] The earliest reference to customer engagement is The Constant Customer. (http:/ / gmj. gallup. com/ content/ 745/ 2/ The-Constant-Customer. aspx) [2] See for example AAAA & ARF’s Consumer Engagement Conference 2006, (http:/ / www. planetesolutions. com/ consumerengagement06/ invitation. aspx) iMedia Agency Summit 2006 (http:/ / www. imediaconnection. com/ content/ 9729. asp), Experian’s Future of Information Summit 2007. (http:/ / www. dmnews. com/ cms/ dm-news/ research-studies/ 39730. html) [3] http:/ / www. davechaffey. com/ E-marketing/ Emarketing-Excellence-Interviews/ Customer-engagement [4] Getting to Engagement (http:/ / www. strategymag. com/ articles/ magazine/ 20060601/ media. html) [5] Advertising Industry 'Turned On' by New Measurement Model (http:/ / www. thearf. org/ about/ pr/ 2006-03-21. html) [6] Marketers Mulling ARF's 'Engagement' Definition (http:/ / www. clickz. com/ showPage. html?page=3595911) [7] How do you calculate engagement? Part II (http:/ / www. webanalyticsdemystified. com/ weblog/ 2006/ 12/ how-do-you-calculate-engagement-part-ii. html)


Customer engagement [8] Blueprint for Consumer-Centric Holistic Measurement (http:/ / www. wfanet. org/ news/ article_detail. asp?Lib_ID=1699) [9] Anderson 2006:98-99, Locke et al 2001 [10] ARF on Engagement (http:/ / www. thearf. org/ research/ engagement. html) Blueprint for Consumer-Centric Holistic Measurement (http:/ / www. wfanet. org/ news/ article_detail. asp?Lib_ID=1699) Can Web 2.0 user engagement be measured? (http:/ / blogs. zdnet. com/ micro-markets/ ?p=632) [11] Traditional TV advertising is losing efficacy: McKinsey (http:/ / www. wfanet. org/ news/ article_detail. asp?Lib_ID=1742) [12] See also Anderson 2006:1-13 [13] Anderson 2006:1-13 [14] See also Anderson (2006:166) and Eisenberg and Eisenberg (2006:73) [15] http:/ / www. marketingforecast. com/ archives/ 10560 [16] (Huffman in Eisenberg and Eisenberg 2006:39) [17] Request for Proposals: Measurement of engagement in live brand experiences. See ARF website [18] Advertisers are starting to find television a turn-off (http:/ / www. wfanet. org/ news/ article_detail. asp?Lib_ID=1607) [19] Anderson 2006:98-99, Levine et al 2001:xxiii [20] 2006 Annual Online CE Survey (http:/ / www. cscape. com/ services/ Pages/ SurveyHighlights. aspx) [21] Engagement & CGM Top 2007 Marketing Trends (http:/ / consumerengagement. blogspot. com/ 2006/ 11/ engagement-cgm-top-2007-marketing. html) [22] Can Web 2.0 user engagement be measured? (http:/ / blogs. zdnet. com/ micro-markets/ ?p=632) [23] Mark Ghuneim, Terms of Engagement Measuring the Active Consumer (http:/ / wiredset. com/ blogs/ markghuneim/ 2008/ 03/ 26/ terms-of-engagement-measuring-the-active-consumer/ ), Mar 26, 2008 [24] Webinar Notes: “Web 2.0 How to Measure Social Engagement: Blogs Podcasts and RIAs” (http:/ / www. web-strategist. com/ blog/ 2007/ 01/ 19/ web-20-how-to-measure-social-engagement-blogs-podcasts-and-rias/ ) [25] Building Customer Engagement (http:/ / www. advisortoday. com/ archives/ 2003_march/ WebExclusiveArticles/ webexart_buildingcustomer. html) [26] 2006 Annual Online CE Survey (http:/ / www. cscape. com/ services/ Pages/ SurveyHighlights. aspx) [27] Building Customer Engagement (http:/ / www. advisortoday. com/ archives/ 2003_march/ WebExclusiveArticles/ webexart_buildingcustomer. html) [28] [Eisenberg and Eisenberg 2006:32] [29] 'Request for Proposals: Measurement of engagement in live brand experiences' - see ARF website [30] How do you calculate engagement? Part II (http:/ / www. webanalyticsdemystified. com/ weblog/ 2006/ 12/ how-do-you-calculate-engagement-part-ii. html) [31] Engagement, Conversion, Measure (http:/ / www. stoweboyd. com/ message/ 2006/ 10/ engagement_conv. html) [32] New Media Frets Over ‘Engagement’ and Audience Measurement: Sounds A Lot Like Old Media (http:/ / publishing2. com/ 2006/ 10/ 25/ new-media-frets-over-engagement-and-audience-measurement-sounds-a-lot-like-old-media/ ) [33] See the 'Blueprint for Consumer-Centric Holistic Measurement' (http:/ / www. wfanet. org/ news/ article_detail. asp?Lib_ID=1699) [34] Like Nailing Down A Shadow: The Problem with Social Media Measurement (http:/ / www. brianoberkirch. com/ ?p=821) [35] http:/ / www. webanalyticsdemystified. com/ weblog/ 2006/ 12/ how-do-you-calculate-engagement-part-i. html?vs_b=Web%20Analytics%20Demystified& vs_p=How%20do%20you%20calculate%20engagement%3F%20Part%20I& vs_k=1


Article Sources and Contributors

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