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N T O E M R A C L

issue 1 | X l | vo

2012

boat

pages 18-19

IS STUDYING ABROAD OVERLY FETISHIZED?

pages 16-17

october

SUSTAINABLE WATER USE IN CLAREMONT

’ the rockin

raPE pages AT 12-13 THE 5Cs


While debating quantum particles and the effectiveness of Medicare, I began to see a connection between the explanatory power of science and the creation of national policy which can drastically affect the lives of millions. Specifically, I conjectured that the inherent skepticism, use of controlled variables, and outside the box thinking as prescribed by the scientific method could potentially play a major role in improving deliberative decision making.

Yet, as I continued studying science, I learned to appreciate journalism more and the role it plays in communities ranging from the 5Cs to a national level .The major catalyst for change occurred in my Intro Scientific Philosophy class the day we were debating whether our scientific laws describe natural phenomena as they actually were or whether they are just empirically adequate (the laws simply fit the data). I agreed with the latter view and found myself reflecting upon the effectiveness of governmental policies that attempt to correct some social ill. Why do some work and others don’t and, more importantly, who decides whether some are successful or not? Do the same natural laws that play such an extensive role in science govern these outcomes as well?

The famed astronomer Carl Sagan also noted this connection between science’s role to map the unknown and a government’s policies. He writes, “every act of congress, every supreme court decision… is an experiment. Policy ideas can be tested. The great waste would be to ignore the results of social experiments because they seem to be ideological unpalatable.” As Sagan so eloquently points out, there are more similarities between science experiments and the successes and failures of decision making than many acknowledge and it is critical to recognize them.

october 2012| vol IX iss 5

After dedicating a large part of my high school experience to journalism, I never really gave a second thought to continuing it when I entered CMC. I pictured a glamorous life filled with caustic chemicals, NMR spectra and the occasional memo to the President of South Sudan. I exchanged my notepad and fedora for thick goggles and flame retardant aprons. And, as a dual Chemistry and International Relations major, most of those things have come true.

the CLAREMONT PORT SIDE

editor’s note

Quarks, Neutrinos and Fiscal Policy

page 2

The more and more I thought about science and government, the more clearly I saw the role that journalism should play in

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF Sam Kahr PUBLISHER Jaya Williams EDITOR EMERITUS MANAGING EDITORS Alyssa Roberts CAMPUS Emma Brillhart WEB EDITOR NATIONAL Logan Galansky Tim Reynolds INTERNATIONAL Jon Rice COPY EDITORS Maryl Evans, Jenna Hussein, Ben Hackenberger, Aly Minamide ILLUSTRATORS Tessa Barton, Leah Hughes, Blake Weber, Jaya Williams The Claremont Port Side is dedicated to providing the Claremont Colleges with contextualized, intelligent reports to advance debate among students and citizens. This is a progressive newsmagazine that offers pertinent information and thoughtful analysis on the issues confronting and challenging our world, our country, and our community. Each article in the Claremont Port Side reflects the opinion of its author(s) and does not represent the Claremont Port Side, its editors, its staff, or the Claremont Colleges. Letters, Questions, Comments? editor@claremontportside.com

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facilitating these changes in thinking. Journalism and free press, both in Washington and here in Claremont, strive to be much more than just an source for news and an outlet for people to express their opinions. We strive to provide the ideas that deviate from conventional wisdom and initiate change, we attempt to question the conventional and provide a source of skepticism that causes people to see beyond penciled bubbles. These are all important characteristics of the scientific method. With national elections and major transformation occurring across the 5Cs, now is a good of time as ever to prescribe to the ideals of science and challenge accepted ideas and policies through journalism. Here at the Port Side, we have been working to “rock the boat” since our inception and the ideas of transparency, skepticism and change are the reason we exist. However, I encourage you to also read TSL, The Forum, Scripps Voice, Claremont Independent and The Orange Peel. Despite minor differences, we all have very similar goals and are well suited to promote skepticism among students, staff and faculty. Even better, express your thoughts and ideas by writing for these publications. As Hippocrates, who played a major role in the creation of the scientific method, wrote, “leave nothing to chance, overlook nothing and combine contradictory observations.”

Campus Progress works to help young people — advocates, activists, journalists, artists — make their voices heard on issues that matter. Learn more at CampusProgress.org.

Single copies ar e fr ee, to pur chase additional copies please contact us. editor@claremontportside.com


national

Shoot to Kill

August shootings call attention to gun control issues By Sridhar Poddar Staff Writer, CMC ‘15

In the “Claremont Bubble,” it is easy to disregard crime and safety as issues not to be worried about. Despite the fact that the colleges have reported instances of theft, assault, indecent exposure and the sale of date rape drugs all within the last year, most students do not regularly feel the need to defend themselves from crime. However, one mechanism for self-defense, gun ownership, has risen to the forefront of national discourse. This summer saw shootings across the United States. There were three fatal shootings in the month of August alone, and the city of Aurora, Colorado was at the center of media attention for weeks after James Holmes killed 12 and wounded 58 others at a midnight premiere of The Dark Knight Rises. Some politicians and citizens point to these shootings as a clear indication of a need for tighter gun laws. Others argue that perpetrators will get hold of guns regardless of the law, so deregulating gun ownership would allow civilians to be better equipped to defend themselves. Kyle Tanguay CMC ’15 commented that even in states with more lax gun laws, tragedies can still occur, and that lowering gun control standards may not be the right solution. “[Having looser gun control] didn’t work so well in gun friendly states like Colorado, where theatergoers were surprised by a gunman wielding an assault weapon. That also didn’t work in gun friendly Arizona…or in my own gun friendly homestate of Nevada,” said Tanguay. CMC professor of Government Andrew Busch countered Tanguay’s opin-

ion, arguing that since there is already an abundance of guns in the country, it easy for criminals to access weapons and tighter gun laws would be unlikely to achieve the goals of gun control advocates since, “law abiders will face the brunt of regulating guns.” Moreover, Professor Busch highlighted that guns are an embedded part of our country’s mores. The Second Amendment ensures that “the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.” Busch affirmed this sentiment, stating, “I think the government does not have the right to infringe on [peoples’] fundamental right to self defense.” It is difficult to gauge whether increased gun regulation would deter shootings. Tanguay advocates for outlaw[ing] assault weapons whose only practical purpose is killing large amounts of people. “I think it’s only sensible to put heavier regulations and bans on things like assault rifles and ammunition, while also getting rid of concealed-carry laws,” said Tanguay. “If people who defend gun ownership use crime deterrence or self-defense as their rationale, there is no reason to support laws that allow folks to conceal this deterrent.” Some have suggested establishing more comprehensive processes to ensure that citizens wishing to purchase weapons have a clean record. “Licensing private gun ownership should be more precautionary with [rigorous] psychological tests. The government should study how the public is influenced by their surroundings.” said Andrew Nam CMC ’15.

strates, this can be a complicated process. Holmes, whose mass shooting was the deadliest in American history, graduated from University Of California, Riverside with honors and was enrolled in a selective graduate program at the University of Colorado. A UCR recommendation letter described him as contributing “a great amount of intellectual and emotional maturity” to the classroom. While the Aurora shootings have sparked a national discourse on gun control, the 2012 presidential candidates have been noticeably silent on the issue. Professor Busch points to the outcome of the 2000 presidential race to explain this silence. “A lot of Democrats blamed Gore’s loss in [the] election on the push for gun control,” Busch said, “on the face of it there doesn’t seem to be much of a difference.” As a result, Obama has stayed quiet about the issue, fearing a loss of votes from swing states. Yet even with politics aside, it is hard to deny the effect loose gun regulations have had on violent crime in the United States. The Economist recently reported that Americans are four times more likely to be murdered than in Britain and two thirds of these murders in America involve guns, whereas in Britain the figure is under 10 percent. “My [nineteen year old] friend from home who has a couple of handguns is an example of why I’m on the fence about arms regulation,” said Kost Psaltis CMC ‘15. “I would trust him with my life, because I know he’s responsible. Yet I don’t feel the same way about everyone, so neither side is comforting.”

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Hitting the Campaign Trail Taking the fight beyond Claremont’s borders By David Leathers Staff Writer, CMC ‘15 In 2008, two-thirds of youth voters aged 18-30 voted for Barack Obama. He was a young, energetic candidate that would bring a fresh attitude to the White House. It probably didn’t hurt either that he was the fifthyoungest president in history at the time of his inauguration. But this election process seems to be telling a slightly different story than four years ago. It isn’t a secret that partisanship is at an all-time high, statistically in Congress and obviously from the media. This kind of caustic rhetoric discourages many, especially youth,from following the campaigns. The outlook for Obama among this bloc isn’t nearly as promising as 2008 either: young millennials rank “jobs” as their top concern, and the Washington Examiner recently reported that Obama is polling at just under half of the youth vote. Many young voters are wary of Obama’s economic performance, but aren’t flocking to Romney as a viable alternative, resulting in political apathy among what was in 2008 a much larger group of involved, interested young voters. Yet while most of the youth backing Obama will show support solely by voting for him, a much smaller group of supporters are so passionate about re-electing the President that their enthusiasm cannot be encapsulated into a penciled bubble. They are campaigning with Obama for America (OFA). One of these OFA interns was Adrian Vallens CMC ‘14. Adrian wasn’t working in Chicago, California, or New York – or any area for that matpage 4

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ter that was traditionally “blue”. The rural Pennsylvania area he worked in carried only 37% of Obama support in 2008 and 31% for Kerry in 2004.

ter, Vallens is spending this semester in Washington D.C., interning at the watchdog CREW (Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington).

Because of this demographic, his office was inundated with Obama opposition.

“While Pennsylvania is a crucial state, I felt that I learned a lot through my summer experience and I needed to do something new,” said Vallens. “I would be open to working on a campaign in the future…but a four year break will do me some good!”

“There was a lot of hostility towards the Democratic Party” he said, recalling verbal harassment and threats. Though confrontational campaigning was more common than he expected, he easily remembered one of the more humorous, yet revealing, conversations he had. “I’ll never forget the guy who said he wasn’t voting for Obama because he read somewhere that Oprah wasn’t campaigning for the President,” Vallens recalled. “Therefore, he figured Obama wasn’t doing a good job.” While disheartened at times, Vallens and his office were persistent in working towards his OFA office’s obvious goal: turning their areas blue. As a fellow, he was in charge of creating and managing different neighborhood and city teams in his office’s area. From 9-6 each day, he met with volunteers from around Lycoming and Tioga counties, and kept track of the progress in the 150,000-person area. Then from 6 until 9 at night, he and his team made phone calls, often dialing over 150 households each per night. OFA’s strict, efficient hierarchy continually surprised him; each night his progress was quickly reported up until it was reviewed by the team at the Chicago headquarters. Although he was offered a position to stay with OFA for the fall semes-

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other student had been planning on it for a while. Alyssa Roberts CMC ‘13 says that she has planned to spend this semester working to reelect the President since was a freshman. “There’s too much at stake this election to sit on the sidelines!” Roberts said. She has been working since May as a field organizer in Breckenridge and Frisco, Colorado. She recruits, manages, and trains a team of volunteers that registers voters and gets out the vote for President Obama. She also runs the office.

“At CMC, we study how politics works. It’s not pretty,” said Roberts. “But working with volunteers and voters reminds me why politics is important – elections impact each and every one of us.”

to them. I got to do this,” he said.

While Vallens and Roberts worked in swing states, CMC senior Sarah Birkenthal worked this summer primarily at the OFA office in New Jersey, a state that has voted democratic since Clinton’s first election.

“The worst part of my job was constantly failing to convince people to even register to vote,” he said. “This is unfortunate... seeing the high level of apathy and misunderstanding that exists in many of [the areas I worked in] discouraged me for a long time.”

“I did a lot of outreach with the Jewish and Arab-American communities in New Jersey, which was really interesting,” Birkenthal said. “It was especially eye-opening to use my Arabic in the Syrian-American neighborhoods to discuss the wide range of issues that mattered to them. In these Syrian neighborhoods, no one cared about the state of the economy. They wondered when President Obama was going to start providing support for their families back home.” Birkenthal stressed that it was these types of interactions that made it worth it to work at OFA. “The life of someone working a campaign is not glamorous,” she admitted. “But working with these different groups and different people really shows how everyone has a wide range of issues they care about. I learned the importance of getting people connected and involved because everyone has a personal stake in this election.”

While he appreciated the depth of his work with voters, Vallens saw one of his failures in something much simpler.

While the three students’ experiences varied in location and job description, their reflections seemed to share a common sentiment: they were proud of the unique perspective on the political process that working on the campaign afforded them. Being on the ground and part of the process is an entirely different experience than simply voting for the candidate you support. Roberts observed that considering the impact of her work is, ultimately, uplifting and exciting. “Seeing the impact my team’s had in our community proves that, if organized, every citizen can have a powerful voice in the political system,” she said. “I’m confident that we’ll choose to go forward, not back.”

Vallens echoed a similar type of experience about his unique view of the political process. “People who don’t work on campaigns often fail to understand voters’ true motives. Many times, one can only understand why others support a candidate by sitting down face to face and talking volumeX issue1

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international

A Clash of Ignorance

Muslims react to defamation of Muhammad via YouTube video

By Ellie Yusuf Staff Writer, CMC ‘16

witnessed worldwide.

Fear and ignorance impede the boundaries of tolerance and compassion among nations, allowing the forces of violence and retaliation to direct the way of thought for many men and women across the globe. In terms of cultural differences between the East and the West, there are misunderstandings on both sides that lead to altercations. These alterations are often rooted in a fundamental confusion, and essentially based on unawareness and the unwillingness to learn and understand. Conflicts no longer stem from civilizations, but rather, from ignorance. On September 12th, 2012, the world witnessed the rupture of two cultures due to a 14-minute trailer produced in Southern California. The trailer mocked crucial figures and ideas of Islam and was demeaning towards the Prophet Muhammad. Therefore, many Muslims saw the video as a personal attack on their identity and spirituality. In retaliation to the trailer, strong demonstrations against the film were held in many predominantly Muslim countries including Afghanistan, Tunisia, Bangladesh, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, and Libya. Susan E. Rice, the U.S. ambassador to the United Nations, said that “extremist elements” joined in what she calls a demonstration that began “spontaneously” in response to another demonstration in Cairo and lead to violence. Four American diplomats, including Libyan Ambassador Chris Stevens, were killed when the US consulate in Libya was attacked based on planned retaliations that did not involve the trailer. Due to globalization in recent decades, this violence had a domino effect on various aspects of society, the impact of which can be page 6

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The demonstrations of violence in predominantly Islamic states shocked the global community. Many could not comprehend what motivated individuals to resort to such violent tactics, including killing American officers stationed within the affected countries. To act on fear of sabotaging the Islamic identity, many Muslim groups projected their rage on the nearest American scapegoat. To the public audience, one can quickly form a hasty generalization of a small Muslim population over the global Muslim community. It is easy to make presumptions and generalizations about communities and faiths based on a limited, and sometimes false, understanding of the matter at hand. Understandably, to attack the American embassy and judge the entire American population based on the actions of a few is unjust. There is a cancer of extremism in the East and the West and a creed of ignorance that can be seen on both ends. Although views can sometimes be lopsided, it is important to consider the fact that we are all one global community and we should remain united.

out because of the errors of one person.” Coptic Christians are the largest Christian group in Egypt. Traditionally, there has been a great deal of tension between Coptic Christians and Muslims, particularly in Cairo and Alexandria. However, relations have improved, and the communities are making significant progress towards a more reconciled understanding. They are truly fostering mutual tolerance and seeking to understand each others’ faiths. On the contrary, Helmy expresses her concern that the trailer has resurfaced old problems, and the reconciled relationship has now “deteriorated and returned to square one.” “Both ends were attacked. It was putting a front on a group of people that demean the value of religious tolerance,” Helmy said. “It is a stereotype of threat. It is a self-fulfilling prophecy where we accuse each other.”

Reaching a mutual understanding

Marie Helmy PO ‘15 who identifies with the Coptic Christian community, believes that an attack on the Islamic faith is an attack on the Coptic Christian faith as well.

Just as Helmy stated, both sides have been attacked as a result of mutual ignorance. Therefore, how can we build an understanding of our differences and similarities? As a global community, the universal perspective on the importance of respect and fostering understanding for all religions needs to change. Religion defines people, and it is a vital part of their identities.

“My understanding was that the producer was thought to be a Coptic Christian from Riverside, California. If so, he is not a representative of the majority,” Helmy said. “[Copticism] is a huge community in my life and I don’t want the world to feel animosity towards all Coptics for one person’s mistake. People shouldn’t feel singled

There are undeniably two sides to this argument. It is easy to see how the entire Coptic community was isolated by this YouTube video, and how Muslims were made to feel victimized. If one takes a minute to assess the situation and consider the forces at hand, it becomes clear that everyone is in the same situation; everyone is human,

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Helmy passionately advocates for the importance of building bridges of understanding and empathy between people of the world, and highlighting and celebrating everyone’s beliefs. “Don’t construct your perceptions on your own understanding and obtrude it on others. Dig down. Empathy goes a long way,” said Helmy “We need to be building bridges, act on your words, not superficially. Walk the talk.”

Taking time to build

between acts of warfare and an ecumenical message of egalitarianism?” Professor Ferguson said illuminating a historical context to today’s events towards Islamic society.

constitute knowledge and as a result perpetuate what is already known (i.e. the biases, judgments, stereotypes, and presumptions that dominate relations between self and other).”

However, the teaching of her class and the responses to the events circulating in the Muslim world highlights an important illumination that “tolerance and cultural understanding take time,” as Professor Ferguson articulates.

Everywhere, the human soul stands between a hemisphere of light and darkness, on the confines of the two everlasting empires of ignorance and understanding. The West has bared the loss of a human life that aspired to implement plans of action that would encourage positive social change for the people of Libya. Likewise, the East’s dignity was shattered over their rampant reaction to a 14-minute attack on their Abrahamic faith. Every hardship and every temptation to violence and retaliation is a challenge of the spirit, and asks the human soul to raise itself above misconceptions and hatred. Actions of ignorance, such as the Western-made trailer and Eastern attacks on the U.S. embassy, are bound to self-destruct.

“It takes time to learn about something that is slightly foreign to one’s own experience. It takes time to set down preconceptions and judgments and pay attention to someone else’s narrative. And taking that time is a stance of respect; it reflects a willingness to grant just an extra moment, without a twitter feed or a Youtube video, to reviewing complex historical developments and

Professor Heather Ferguson, Assistant Professor of History at CMC who specializes in the Middle East and the Ottoman Empire, has carefully analyzed the trailer and the satirical hashtags of “Muslim Rage”. She is currently teaching a class on the history of early Islam and the formation of Muslim societies in the late antique and medieval Middle East. First seen on Newsweek’s cover about the US embassy attack in Benghazi, Twitter used the hashtag #muslimrage sparking Mari e H elmy, comical responses.

I don’t want the world to feel animosity towards all Coptics for one person’s mistake. People shouldn’t feel singled out because the errors of one person.

“As the hashtags of “Muslim Rage” circulated American media and discussion over ads on MTA buses recycled conversations about the difference between hate speech and the freedom of speech, we [Ferguson and her class] were evaluating how to build a nuanced understanding of Prophethood. We asked questions such as: what is the relationship between political pragmatism and spiritual transformation and

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the ways in which the past remains a touchstone for the present,” Professor Ferguson said. “Unfortunately, we don’t often take that time and as a result, events both at home and abroad are easily transformed into brief summaries of 140 characters. In my opinion, 140 characters are not enough for the origin story of Islam. Neither is 14 minutes. But clips and hashtags now volumeX issue1

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Can we rise above it? We may be unique in our traditions, but we are united in our capabilities and in our intrinsic human motivations. We can choose to separate ourselves along lines of religion, culture and tradition or we can unite ourselves by practicing tolerance, awareness and respect. We, as citizens of the world, need to invest in the individual. We need to cultivate an awareness and tolerance for the differences that make communities unique. To engage in conscious diplomatic discourse enables us to affirm the existence of our differences and similarities and relinquish the misunderstandings we hold against one another.

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international

acting on emotions and sometimes acting violently.


Navajo Hipster Panties Gone Awry Offensive fashion trends in popular culture

By Arielle Zionts Staff Writer, PZ ‘14 As you browse through Tumblr or Instagram, step into Urban Outfitters, skim through a high fashion magazine, or attend a music festival like Hardly Strictly or Coachella, chances are high that you will observe people wearing headdresses, war paint, and organic T-shirts silkscreened with teepees and dream catchers. While mainstream media has not covered the recent trend of adopting specific aspects of Native American culture that can be very offensive to native peoples, indigenous bloggers and digital social justice publications have been diligently covering this trend.

Native Design in Mass Retail Often hailed as the “hipster-Mecca,” the widely popular Urban Outfitters began to sell Navajo themed clothing, accessories and home goods. These items included the “Peace Treaty Father Necklace,” “Staring at Stars Skull Native Headdress T-shirt,” “Navajo Hipster Panty,” and the “Navajo Print Fabric Wrapped Flask.” Critics pointed out that the word “Navajo” is a nation, a group of people, not a trend or pattern. To many, the flask was seen as particularly offensive, since indigenous Americans have historically had troubles with alcohol abuse and it is banned on many reservations, including the Navajo Nation. Scott Scoggins, the Native American Program Coordinator at Pitzer’s Community Engagement Center (CEC) found Urban Outfitters’ “Hipster Panty” particularly offensive. Scoggins is of Pipil Nahuat, Pocoman Maya and Scottish ancestry.

He feels that this product, along with other products and photos posted on the internet sexualizing Native women, are inappropriate. He regards these types of products as demeaning to the females in Native American society, who are regarded with great respect and are given important tasks. In particular, he emphasizes that “women in most [Native American] cultures elect the chiefs.” Scoggins also disapproves of the fashion trends, and pointed out that specific patterns and colors hold spiritual meanings and are linked to specific families and tribes. Many noted that these products could, in fact, be deemed illegal based on The Indian Arts and Crafts Act, a law that prohibits falsely marketing arts and crafts as made by Native Americans. The Navajo nation agreed with this assessment and sued Urban Outfitters for violating this law. A more recent controversy emerged in early September when the clothing company Paul Frank held a party titled, “Dream catchin’ with Paul Frank: a Pow Wow celebrating Fashion’s Night Out,” to promote their new line of products featuring their trademark, Julius the Monkey, clad in war paint and a headdress. As Adrienne K., member of the Cherokee Nation and creator of the popular “Native Appropriations” blog explained, Paul Frank invited guests to “play Indian” by providing war paint, plastic feathers, bows, arrows, and tomahawks for guests to use in photo shoots. The bar served drinks titled, ‘Rain Dance Refresher,’ ‘Dream Catcher,’ and ‘Neon Teepee.’” “[Inviting guests to] play Indian is exactly akin to providing props for party guests to dress in blackface for photos, a practice that I’m sure

would not bode well for [their] brand,” said Adrienne. After writing a letter outlining why Paul Frank’s “Pow Wow” was offensive and explaining the history behind Native American stereotypes, Adrienne wrote on her blog that Paul Frank responded by removing all Native-themed clothing and design from their website and stores. In addition, the company invited Adrienne and another blogger to speak at a panel about the use of Native imagery in the fashion world at an industry event, and wants to “collaborate with a Native artist to make designs, where the proceeds would be donated to a Native cause.” Adrienne wrote that she is optimistic that Paul Frank’s response has “create[d] a model for any company in the future to follow.”

The History of a Stereotype and Trend Christa McGowan, a senior at Claremont High School and a member of the Iowa tribe of Kansas and Nebraska, notes that the image of Native Americans used in contemporary fashion was popularized by the era of “Cowboy and Indian” western films. In these films all Native Americans were grouped together and portrayed as Northern Plains peoples riding horses, using bows and arrows, and wearing headdresses. Bill Anthes, Associate Professor of Art History at Pitzer specializing in Native American art, noted that there is a very long tradition of American manufacturers using Indian names and motifs for profit. Some examples include the American Spirit cigarettes, the indigenous woman of Land O’ Lakes butter, and cars such as the Jeep Cherokee and the Mazda Navajo.


“The image of the Indian has kind of come and gone...it’s something that the counter-culture throughout the 20th century has fixated on,” said Professor Anthes. During the 60’s and 70’s, the idea of Native Americans was “trendy” for the hippie counter-culture. Anthes noted that Native Americans were used “to signify something about closeness to nature and purity,” ideas that were attractive to hippies that advocated for communal living and connecting with nature.

on websites such Tumblr, Twitter, and Instagram of people dressed up as Native Americans.

“Some people don’t know that that’s offensive… you are desensitized to it,” said Scoggins.

Many images from high fashion magazines also appear on these websites. These images often feature scantily clad, skinny caucasian females who are sitting in teepees and casually smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol. Such images are captioned with phrases such as: “Feathers in my hair! #hipster” and “My spirit name is ‘Drinks Vodka’”.

McGowan agrees that education on the topic should be promoted, but warns that people should not be approached forcefully about the issue. “You just don’t go up to them and say ‘hey, don’t do this’ because then you aren’t a good ambassador… [by doing so] you are putting on an aggressive face yourself,” said McGowan. Anthes hopes that the movement towards the acceptance of the LGBT community can be used as a model to approach this trend. “Twenty years ago… it was acceptable societally to make homophobic jokes, to just assume that these people were not going to hear you say these hateful things… that population has become a lot more visible so we understand and have empathy,” said Anthes. “Most people [can] go through their life without ever having to look an Indian person in the eye and say… ‘it’s fine if I’m joking about it.’” Arguably, the best way to combat the problem of cultural misunderstanding is through fostering intercultural connections. Native Americans are a minority of the American population, and can easily be marginalized. Efforts such as Adrienne K’s Native Appropriations blog and social media campaigns are where indigenous Americans can have their voices heard.

Scoggins described this trend as the “romanticization” of indigenous Americans. Clearly the appropriation of Native Americans into recent trends has made a strong comeback since the 1970’s, especially within the “hipster” community. There are myriad images circulating

Looking to the Future Scoggins suggests the best way to counter disrespectful appropriation of Native American fashion and culture is to educate people about Native American history and explain to nonNatives why this trend is disrespectful.

The ultimate goal of these efforts is to educate non indigenous Americans about the appropriation of Native American culture and breakdown the stereotypes many hold. Many non-indigenous Americans will also be able to learn the opinions of Native Americans themselves and hopefully stop the trend of naively using Native American culture in their own.


campus

Challenges of Non-Work Study

Students find it increasingly difficult to secure non-work study jobs

By Stephanie Steinbrecher & Kristi Sun Staff Writers, SC ‘16 Finding a job on campus can be a challenging process for students, whether or not they receive work-study funds. According to Lesley Bonds, Career Counselor and Student Employment Coordinator at Scripps, certain protocol exists that structures the hiring process for on campus jobs. After the Office of Financial Aid works with a federal work-study coordinator to finalize financial aid packages, students that qualify for work-study work with Scripps’ Career Planning and Resources (CP&R) to find on-campus jobs. “Federal work-study itself is a program where funding does not come from departments, it comes from the government,” Bonds said. “Based on need, students work with their supervisor to determine how many hours they will work per week.” CP&R estimates that 600 Scripps students have on-campus jobs; this includes work and nonwork study students and students with multiple jobs. A common misperception is that students who qualify for work-study are required to find employment. In reality, work-study is not mandated and does not guarantee jobs to qualifying students. Work-study students’ pay does not come from the budgets of the departments that employ them, but through federal funds that are determined by a department based on how much work that department needs students to complete.

“Of that total, we try to work in a 70 percent work-study, 30 percent non-work study capacity,” Burke said. “Students have the opportunity to work at the front desk, be programmers, lifeguards, and we actually have two of our building manager positions being held by work study.” Work-study students work between seven to ten hours at this particular department. Ellen Pelos SC ‘16 is one of the few non-work study students who has a job working for the Scripps Phonathon. Pelos first heard about the Phonathon at meet and greets in her area. “[The fact that it accepted non-work study students] was kind of the appeal of it; there’s so few jobs that do that,” said Pelos. Two weeks before Pelos set foot on campus, she was already perusing The Gateway, searching for jobs that accepted non-work study students, which she described as “really, really hard” because of their rarity. Besides the Phonathon, she also applied to Tiernan Field House and Scripps College Academy, a tutoring program for middle and high school students in Claremont. Pelos’ search for a job was driven by her desire to earn money and garner work experience. “Even though I’m not on financial aid, I’m not getting support from my parents for day-to-day things [besides tuition]. I need to build up my resume for summer internships and jobs and I think it’s a good experience.” Pelos said.

“Non-work study positions get lumped into certain departments that have a large need [for student employees],” Bonds said. “Some other higher responsibility positions and people who do their own programming just want the most competitive applicant pool, but with the way the economy is right now, it simply isn’t a luxury that a lot of departments have.” Tiernan Field House director Tamsen Burke hires about 60-70 student employees per year.

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CP&R understands the difficulty faced by nonwork study students to obtain an on-campus job. In CP&R’s blog, Beyond the Elms, sophomore Laurel Schwartz provided tips to aid non-work study students in the on-campus job search. Schwartz’ first piece of advice to students was to do what Pelos did: search the Gateway. “Look at all the different positions that are available, even if they are work-study,” she encouraged. Schwartz admitted that it can be tough for nonwork study students to find certain jobs they want, but networking and working for volunteer positions can lead to employment opportunities in the future. Bonds attributes the difficulties non-work study students face in finding jobs to the lack of knowledge of their resources. Bonds is working to include every available job on The Gateway online website for students to have access. Additionally, the CP&R office is making it a priority this year to inform students of their options early on, to encourage on-campus networking, and to urge students to begin the job search early. Bonds’ last piece of advice to non-work study students searching for on-campus employment is “to advocate for themselves. To be open minded, to use the Gateway, and not to take job descriptions at face value.” Though many small jobs on-campus may be reserved for work-study students, opportunities do exist for non-work study students across the 5Cs, if they only take the initiative to look for them.


international

Dangerous Compromises

Living abroad is frought with problems, both seen and unseen

Traveling: freedom, adventure, and jealous friends back home. Many college students, including those in Claremont, dream of studying in different countries and immersing themselves in new cultures. However, traveling to a new and unknown country has the potential to incite fear. Horror stories of sexual harassment, kidnappings and bombings involving students traveling abroad are hard to ignore. But, is this fear of danger when abroad justified and what can a student do to combat it? Max Houtzager PO ‘16 took a gap year before coming to college. Houtzager traveled to Canada, Australia and New Zealand in hopes of continuing with his mountain biking and gain new experiences. He did not travel on an organized program and planned the trip himself, a risk most prospective study abroad students would not take. For example, while living in Canada, Houtzager shared a house with strangers he found on craigslist.com, a definite risk. “I was 18 at the time and [my roommates] were between 20 and 32,” he said. However, Houtzager shrugged off any feelings of discomfort. It is also possible, that Houtzager was simply very lucky to end up with friendly roommates. After Canada, Houtzager flew to Australia. There, he stayed with a fellow mountain biker he had previously met in Lake Tahoe. While racing his bike in Australia, he spent time with the kids who lived nearby. “One 17-year-old had already spent two years of his life in jail over three different occasions, escaping twice. I never felt threatened since everyone was more interested to be my friend,” said Houtzager. While a community cannot be determined safe or unsafe based on the actions of some citizens, Australia does have a troubled history of teenage violence and Houtzager bravely entered an

Kramer admitted that being in large crowds was the most dangerous.

unknown country with fact in mind. “Basic common sense and confidence seemed to be all I needed. The closest calls I had were with cars while on my bike.” Gap years spent abroad immediately after high school are usually the riskiest traveling a student can undertake. Students are younger and less experienced at travel during their pre-college years. With many students now traveling abroad during their junior year of college a significant difference arises between an 18-year-old traveling in an unknown country and a 21-year-old who often has prior knowledge or educational reasons for traveling to that location.

One 17-year-old had already spent two years of his life in jail over three different occasions, escaping twice. I never felt threatened since everyone was more interested to be my friend.

By Aidan Orly Staff Writer, PO ‘16

Max Houtza ger, PO ‘16

Therefore, it is commendable for a student who chooses to travel for recreational activities, new experiences or humanitarian opportunities without the collegiate educational background.

Anna Kramer PO ‘16 also took a gap year before coming to college, traveling to India on an International Rotary Youth Exchange. Kramer lived in the state of Gujarat in western India, a place she felt was relatively safe. However, when Kramer traveled to other regions, she felt significantly less secure.

“Both of the times when I was assaulted was when I was in the thick of the crowd,” Kramer said. To prospective women travelers in countries that have a history of female oppression, Kramer emphasized common sense. “Use your head, listen to your host family or whatever support network you’re going with, talk to people who have been [to the country you’re going to] or lived there, try to establish connections...know the language,” said Kramer. There are constant references to increased violence worldwide. For instance, just last year, the intensification of the drug war in Mexico prompted many universities across the country to cancel their study abroad programs in the more dangerous areas of the country. At least from the lens of the national media, it would appear that the world is becoming more treacherous for travelers. However, the numbers of students traveling abroad is consistently on the rise. It would appear that students desire for adventure, new experiences, and new educational opportunities continues to be undeterred. Both Houtzager and Kramer took risks when traveling abroad, but they both were glad they had the experience. For these two students luckily, the benefits of traveling abroad outweighed the potential dangers. “I learned so many new perspectives through living abroad and would recommend it to anyone,” Houtzager said.

“The different economic groups, and the different attitudes of treatment towards women do vary,” she said. “I couldn’t wear anything shorter than my knees, and at least a short sleeved shirt. Nothing more revealing than that, it would promote more harassment.”

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campus

Silent Suffering

Rape at the Claremont Colleges: to report or not to report By Simone Butler, Staff Writer, SC ‘15 & Michelle Saipe, Staff Writer, CMC ‘15

forcible sex offenses on the five campuses in 2010.

A study from the U.S. Department of Justice estimated that 25 percent of women attending four-year colleges will be victims of rape or attempted rape before they graduate. Astonishingly, less than five percent will actually report the crime. This makes rape an extremely crucial issue for colleges to focus on and to help prevent.

There are many reasons why a rape might go unreported. A CMC sophomore who wished to remain anonymous and decided not to report her rape said that she felt embarrassed and was worried about the implications of reporting such an incident.

Here at the Claremont Colleges, there is a tight sense of community, and it is easy for many students to remain unaware of the fact that a number of rape incidents occur on campus. However, in 2010, which is the most recent data available, seven forcible sex offenses were reported across the five campuses: one at CMC, one at Harvey Mudd, two at Pomona, and three at Scripps. None were reported at Pitzer. If national averages apply here, and 95 percent of rapes are unreported, that would mean that there were a total of 140

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“I didn’t want it to become a big deal. I didn’t want people to think I was lying [about the incident occurring] because we were both drunk,” said the sophomore. The sophomore also says that she was nervous that her peers on campus would find out that she reported the perpetrator, and was worried that her reputation might be tarnished. It seems that Claremont’s tight community is definitely a contributing factor to the level of difficulty regarding reporting rape incidents. In addition to being concerned

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about a tarnished reputation, an individual may also be wary of getting in trouble for other offenses that may have lead to the incident such as drug and alcohol use. However, according to the CMC Civil Rights Policies, the prior use of drugs and/ or alcohol would only be taken into consideration for either party if there was compelling reason to believe that prior use or abuse is relevant to the present complaint. If someone does decide to report a rape, each campus takes different measures. The guidelines for procedures across the five campuses are often confusing and difficult for students to find. Scripps and Pitzer are the two schools with a detailed outline in their handbook of their procedure for when a rape is reported. Pomona also has a very detailed procedure, although it can only be found in their Dean of Students Disciplinary Policies and Procedures. CMC and Harvey Mudd only list the Rape Crisis Hotline number in their student handbooks, but provide de-


campus

For students who don’t immediately report an assault, the Project Sister hotline is a resource listed in the handbooks of all five colleges. This resource provides assistance to people living in 27 cities in Southern California, including Claremont. According to Zinat Heredia, a Project Sister staff member, when a victim of a sexual assault calls their hotline, they will be connected to an advocate who has undergone at least 50 hours of training and is certified as a crisis counselor. They have 80 advocates, which allows them to have at least one on call 24/7. No matter the age of the victim, Project Sister remains confidential and will not contact law enforcement or the school nor participate in legal action. “[Project Sister] does encourage people to report their incidents, and if the victim decides to do so, the police will be notified,” said Heredia. Project Sister also has resources like advocates who will accompany survivors to the hospital, police station and court appearances. They also provide counseling services which are free or discounted for most victims. According to Zinat Heredia, out of the 717 Hotline Callers in 2011, 19 callers were from the city of Claremont, and all were female. Additionally in that year, Heredia said that two hospital accompaniments out of 134 were from Claremont and that the average ages of callers from Claremont was 19-24. An alternative to Project Sister is the campus based Advocates for

Survivors of Sexual Assault. This student-initiated group based at Pomona is intended to assist victims at any stage of the reporting process. Pomona is the only college who lists the Advocates as a resource in their student handbook, but they are available to help everyone at all seven campuses. The mission of the Advocates is to “educate the community about the complex issues that underlie sexual assault, and to provide support for individual survivors of sexual assault.” According to the Advocates, one of the two Advocates on call for the week will call back as soon as possible, or contacts the caller in whatever way they dictate in their message to us. We also have just launched a pager system, which will be more widely advertised very soon. The Advocates also offer community workshops, and educate the community about various forms of sexual assault. “We [the advocates] do not claim to be professional counselors, but we are sensitive to issues of sexual assault and domestic violence, and know a lot about resources,” said a spokesperson for the advocates. “We help survivors in any way they see fit.” Shahram Araine, director of Campus Safety at the Claremont Colleges, says that the normal protocol when Campus Safety is informed about a rape incident is to notify the Dean of Students, and then, only if the victim is under 18 are local police notified. He also said that Campus Safety does not have any sort of information regarding how many rapes or attempted rapes go unreported each year. According to Campus Safety, the reason they do not have these statistics is due to privacy issues. volumeX issue1

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With Scripps having the highest distribution of reported rapes of all the 5Cs, it is natural to assume that this is because it has the highest proportion of female students. However, at a women’s college, where students are educated about rape prevention and are informed about how to deal with such consequences, there is a

I didn’t want people to think I was lying [about the incident occurring] because we were both drunk. Anonymous, CMC ‘15

tailed information online through their Dean of Students Disciplinary Policies and Procedures as well.

heightened awareness about rape. As a consequence, students are more likely to report an incident if it occurs. Regardless of whether the most rapes do in fact involve Scripps student, the other colleges should follow Scripps’ example and place an emphasis on educating their students on preventing and reporting rape.

The national statistics about campus rape are startling, and it is even more startling if you take into account the sheer number of incidents that remain unreported. If we want a safe environment for our college students, some dramatic action needs to be taken. We have a duty to look out for ourselves and for our friends, and to make sure that we foster a type of environment that encourages the reporting of any kind of sexual assault.

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national

Breaking Down Barriers

DREAM & DACA acts give undocumented students a bright future By Emily Hayes Staff Writer, PO ‘13

thing, but a limited thing. State financial aid in California is not a generous pot,” said Summers Sandoval.

Undocumented students and their families face challenges that are unimaginable to those of us who can take for granted the convenience of having legal citizenship. For these residents, daily life is rife with struggles, especially when they are required to interact with government and public organizations. Most undocumented families struggle to reach a subsistent level of income, and financing a college education is impossible without aid. Before the passage of the California DREAM Act, undocumented students were ineligible to receive financial aid from federal, state, and many private sources. The California DREAM (Development, Relief, and Education for Alien Minors) Act of 2011 is composed of two clauses. AB 130 allows undocumented students to apply for and receive non-state funded scholarships for public colleges and universities. AB 131 allows undocumented students to apply for and receive statefunded aid, such as Cal and Chafee Grants and community college fee waivers. The application was made available on April 2, 2012. Thus far, 16,000 students have applied to the program, of which only 9,000 are eligible based on their application. Pomona College Associate Professor of Chicano and Latino History Tomas Summers Sandoval, who has worked with undocumented students, praises the act but is wary about its long term effectiveness. “The [CA DREAM Act] is a great p a g e 14

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Diana and Jose

Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals

One of these students is Jose Ortiz, a senior at UCLA and the brother of Diana Ortiz PO ’14, who came to the US from Mexico in 1998 with their mother. The Ortiz family has worked hard to make ends meet, and Diana said that her and Jose’s lives as students were “defined by the struggle to find available resources that allowed [them] to overcome obstacles caused by [their] immigration status.” Ortiz witnessed her older brother’s struggle as an undocumented student at UCLA and knew that the best option for her was to attend a private university that allowed her to receive aid separate from federal and state regulations. This pressure pushed Ortiz to the top of her class, but even after considering her academic success, she was unsure of whether or not she would be able to go to college. “The passage of the California DREAM Act will impact my life because it will impact my brother’s life,” said Ortiz, referring to Jose’s DREAM application. The first of the DREAM funds will be dispersed in January 2013, helping Jose and the 9,000 other undocumented scholars pursue their education with the aid that they deserve as long term and high achieving residents of California. While California’s DREAM Act is a great way to help undocumented students in California afford a college education, the Act does not provide a path to citizenship. Because it does not provide legal work authorization,

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the Act leaves recent grads vulnerable to the same uncertainties and struggles as other undocumented workers.

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President Obama announced a new policy called Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals in June of 2012. DACA defers deportation of illegal immigrants for two years and affords them the opportunity to apply for legal work permits if they meet certain criteria. Applicants must have entered the US before the age of 16, resided in the US continuously since 2007, and must have been in the US on June 15th, 2012. Furthermore, applicants must either be in school or have graduated from high school. Eric Martinez PO ’14 has already applied to DACA and is awaiting his application decision. After losing his father to a devastating disease, Eric’s mother brought him and his brother from Mexico to Dallas, Texas in search of a better life. Even though Texas has its own version of the DREAM Act, Eric has still faced enormous difficulty. DACA will allow Eric to finally attain a drivers license and a work permit. When asked about how this will affect his life, Eric expressed excitement at the prospect of finally being able to drive legally without “the worry of getting pulled over and not having a license to show,” and added, “summer jobs? I’ve hardly known the meaning of that.” Ortiz has been working on completing her DACA application, which has been challenging. “[The process] is very stressful con-


Summers Sandoval, who has worked with DACA applicants, is optimistic of act’s future. “[The Act is] is much more of a game changer [than the CA DREAM Act]. It is a huge psychological change— to be able to envision a future is a profound asset,” said Summers Sandoval. Like the California DREAM Act, DACA is a temporary solution to an ongoing problem. Martinez, Ortiz and Ortiz’s brother still have no path to citizenship. Both acts, however, are a step in the right direction, providing untold opportunity to students like the Ortizes. According to the Center for American Progress, passage of the federal DREAM Act would add $329 billion to the US economy and create 1.4 million new jobs by 2030. Not only would the federal DREAM Act promote economic growth by incorporating intelligent and hardworking residents in every corner of the country, but it would change the lives of these residents in intangible ways. “[The DREAM Act] would change my life, my family’s life, and [the lives] of many of my community members,” said Ortiz.

From college admissions, to employment, to studying abroad, having had [the] federal DREAM Act pass when I was younger would have greatly facilitated much of my life.

Er ic Ma r tine z , P O ‘ 14

plans to replace the temporary program with a more permanent solution.

Eric and Diana are not alone in this experience—since release of the application, which has a $465 fee, 100,000 have been submitted, and 29 people have been notified of their deferred status.

national

sidering that I have to balance academics, extracurricular, personal care, and invest time in this very important application that will open many doors for me in the near future,” said Ortiz.

Martinez is also excited about the ultimate implications of the DREAM Act.

“From college admissions, to employment, to studying abroad, having had [the] federal DREAM Act pass when I was younger would have greatly facilitated much of my life,” said Martinez.

Immigrants and the Election This election year is proving the power of Latino voters, many of whom are strongly invested in reforming immigration policy to create a more welcoming environment toward immigrants and all people who may be viewed as “outsiders” by the dominant white culture. According to the PEW Hispanic Center, a record 23.7 million eligible voters are Latino, which is a 22% increase over the last presidential election year and many of these voters, old and new, support Obama. Obama’s large lead over Romney in states with large Latino populations such as Florida, Arizona, and Nevada clearly demonstrates this.

“While there are other reasons I support the Democratic Party, proimmigrant legislation is definitely at the top of my list,” said Martinez. “Although much more can and should be done by the party, at least some progress is made by the Democrats compared to the regress brought forth by the Republicans.”

Despite debate over the strengths of weaknesses of each candidate’s immigration platform, recent surveys found that a huge margin of voters support the federal DREAM Act. 74% of surveyed participants support the DREAM Act, compared to 20% who do not support it. Even amongst Republicans, the DREAM Act had wide margins of support—63% versus 29%. As the election draws closer, voters must remember to weigh the implications of their vote on all parts of society. These undocumented students, workers and family members are just as much of a part of our country as every other citizen, and they deserve the tools that allow them to thrive as contributing members of our nation. If we truly believe in the efficacy of free market competition for creating innovation, why shouldn’t a group of people that could greatly contribute be included in driving progress and development?

The preference of Hispanic voters for the Democratic Party is easy to understand.Mr. Romney has expressed his intention to end DACA if elected and, in typical fashion, has articulated only vague conceptual volumeX issue1

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campus

The Devil’s Bargain

Escalating prices of water force colleges to become more sustainable By Jean Larson, Staff Writer, SC ‘14 & Rae Brookshire, Staff Writer, CMC ‘16 Green grass, hot showers, and clean dishes in the dining halls. 740,000 gallons per day. One million dollars per year. These figures on water consumption have long been accepted as the cost of the 5C lifestyle with little question about their sustainability or environmental impact. Yet as northern water supplies dwindle and usage costs rises, the Claremont community is searching for water solutions.

Water and the Colleges: a historical perspective Professor Char Miller, director of the 5-C Environmental Analysis program, says that there used to be streams which flowed through Claremont: “The fascinating thing about the Pomona Valley is that the colleges and this whole valley lie atop a very productive aquifer,” Miller said. When Miller was a student at Pitzer, water from the local aquifer was used to irrigate the citrus groves above Baseline.

came unprofitable. Developers knew that controlling the flooding from Mt. Baldy could turn the farmland into a desirable neighborhood. Slowly, the groves were replaced by houses. “If you want to live here and you want to live in a way that is in contrast to the natural system-intense rain, lots of flooding--then you have to control the natural system. Post 1938, every canyon along the San Antonio mountains was dammed,” said Miller. Yet Miller added that because roofs and pavement are impervious surfaces, very little water can replenish the local aquifer. Though irrigation can suck water resources dry, farmland naturally allows the rain and streams to sink back into the vast expanses of exposed soil. Therefore, suburbanization is worse than agriculture from a water sustainability perspective. “The ambition of California engineers is to have every drop of water that hits the pavement head directly to the sea at 60 mph. The amount of rain that can fall here is so great that it can produce flooding...This is ‘the wash.’ It is called that for a reason, if you allow nature to do what it does, you can’t build anywhere in here, that’s why you build a dam and channel it.” Essentially, the price the colleges and the neigh-

borhoods north of the colleges pay for both the water supply and flood protection is whatever suppliers want to charge. “The devil’s bargain is this: lets get rid of the water that’s local in favor of water from the Colorado river 200 miles away or from the Northern Sierras through State Water Project,” said Miller. “By in large at the colleges, water you use when you turn on the tap is from snowmelt from the Northern Sierras. Why? Because we can. It’s stupid because we are standing on a water resource of immense capacity.” Miller says the imported water is only going to get more expensive as demand increases and global warming decreases the snowpack in the Sierras. The rising cost won’t affect all of the colleges equally, however: “Pomona College is different in this story because it owns two wells. The way you get water in the West is by getting here first. Pomona has rights because they’ve been here 125 years... They went after water the moment they got here--they weren’t stupid,” said Miller. “Pomona sells the water at a very cheap rate to Golden State Water company, which in turn cleans it and sells it back to us at a far cheaper rate than any other college pays for their water. Much cheaper than Pitzer or Scripps.”

Reclamation Project

“The smell of orange blossoms and lemons! There were days when the smog was horrific...but there were also days where the oranges just overwhelmed you. I met my wife here when we were both students at Pitzer and we’d go on these bike rides through the groves and they just knocked you out,” said Miller idyllically. Claremont college students today don’t go biking through orange groves because the overpumping of the aquifer led the water table to drop. Once local water sources were depleted, citrus farming be-

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There is an alternative to buying water from miles away at any cost. Miller acknowledges Harvey Mudd Physics Professor Dick Haskell’s water reclamation plan as a major component of this effort.

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Haskell is no stranger to the water woes of the Claremont. He has served on the board of Sustainable Claremont Action, a local grassroot nonprofit, creating goals and writing policy to ensure the


campus social inertia, the resistance to change. There’s almost an attitude with the colleges of because we can use water, we do,��� said Zubke.

city’s environmental, social, and economic future. While Haskell characterized the group as “concerned, smart citizens who want to do something,” Sustainable Claremont has played an instrumental role in establishing the City Council’s adopted Sustainability Plan and setting the ambitious goal of reducing the city’s imported water by 80 percent by 2017. Haskell began his efforts at the 5C’s in 2007, advising senior projects in water sustainability. While his students worked tirelessly analyzing the effects of shorter showers and higher efficiency toilets, they realized their changes would make little impact on the 60 percent of the water that was for campus for landscaping. “It was so discouraging, it was depressing. The numbers made it clear that the problem wasn’t domestic, it was irrigation,” said Haskell. The ultimate problem lay in the fact that highquality, potable water was being used to irrigate over four million square feet of campus landscaping. In similar spaces, like public parks and golf courses, the Los Angeles County Sanitation Department had begun to use treated wastewater for irrigation. This safe and money saving process known as water reclamation had saved the County approximately 200 million gallons of water per day. Envisioning the Colleges’ extensive network sewer lines under the campus as the replacement for expensive imported water, Haskell outlined a simple reclamation plan. Over the summer of 2011, Dustin Zubke HMC ‘13 worked closely with Haskell compiling the science, engineering, and financial aspects into a detailed report. Zubke’s efforts, which included actually lifting a man hole and measuring the sewage flow rates, brought remarkable conclusions. “In addition to decreasing the colleges’ potable water bill, using 310,000 gallons per day of treated water for landscape irrigation would, in principle, allow the colleges to function almost independently of imported water and make the undergraduate colleges’ water use nearly sustainable,” Zubke concluded in his final report.

However, Professor Miller believes student input could help change the trajectory of water use at the colleges:

Aerial view of the aftermath of 1938 flooding in Claremont Zubke estimated that installing a water reclamation plant at the cost of approximately 5 million dollars would have the potential to save the colleges $400,000 per year and up to 20 million dollars in 20 years. In February of 2012, Zubke culminated his research in a proposal pitch to the Claremont University Consortium Council of Presidents. The Council gave Haskell the go ahead to proceed with a professional engineering study. While there are significant steps to be taken before even the first gallon is saved, including determining whether the LA County or the College have the legal right to the sewage, Haskell remains confident that the plan will carry through. Haskell predicts the Council Presidents will be making a decision by the end of 2013, nearly eight years after the original inquires by concerned students. “This has taught me that you just have to persevere. It’s been a long time but now we’re at the point that everyone agrees it’s the right thing to do. It’s a substantial amount of money and of course there’s risk, that’s why we need to do it very carefully,” he reflected.

Resistance to Change

“If sustainability is going to be a real project, students must voice concerns.... through surveys and potentially political action because the colleges are [going to be] building for the next fifty years and this is the legacy that we leave the future, we have to take it seriously-- students, boards of trustees, faculty,” said Miller. Students can’t bring back the citrus groves which allowed water to percolate back to the aquifer far more than the pavement does. But they can influence the choices their colleges make about the future. For instance, Scripps is in the process of collecting input on how much students care about the LEED rating of the next dorms they build. “We can build smarter buildings that capture runoff and precipitation, and allow it drain into the soil and the aquifers; we can construct pervious parking lots that let water seep back into the ground. Doing so will allow us to increase the amount of water beneath our feet and reduce our dependence on imported flow - this won’t solve all our water woes but it would be an important step in the right direction.” Ultimately, Miller warns that the colleges should move ahead cautiously, keeping in mind Claremont’s natural ecosystem. “That photograph [Aerial view of Claremont] tells us the past we must return to. We live in these natural systems, we have to pay attention to that past if we want to live here in the future,” said Miller. [Images courtesy of Honnold Mudd Special Collections]

Though a clear advocate for campus sustainability, Zubke conceded that there are many challenges to future sustainability efforts,“There’s the

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international

Study Abroad, Worth the Risk? Despite fetishization, many study abroad programs leave students disillusioned By Lauren Sampson Staff Writer, PZ ‘14

Oldenburg Halls for Chinese, French, Japanese, German, Russian and Spanish classes.

There is no denying that the Claremont Colleges place a high value on study abroad; as far as the percentage of students sent abroad are concerned, the 5Cs all boast impressive numbers, emphasizing both the practical and theoretical importance of cultural immersion. The numbers are even more impressive when you compare them to the national average, which according to the Association of International Educators is less than 2% of all college students. Examining each Claremont College’s unique educational philosophies and study abroad programs available, there appears to be an excellent variety of study abroad options. However, even with the high rates of students going abroad and the often reputable programs, study abroad at the Claremont Colleges is far from perfect. An academic institution’s educational philosophies are usually indicative of its institutional “personality,” and the Claremont Colleges do not disappoint. As the largest college on the 5Cs, Pomona leads the pack with over 49 programs in 31 different countries. According to the Pomona website, “The Program for Education Abroad seeks to maximize the benefits of living temporarily in a non-American milieu... to generate both intellectual and personal sensitivity to the variations of life, culture, and scholarship in the world, and thus contribute to responsible citizenship in human affairs.” Known for its championing of a liberal arts education, Pomona’s study abroad philosophy is reflected in the pure number of cultural programs it offers. This dedication to international education it is why students from all 5Cs trek to Mason or p a g e 18

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Pitzer’s educational philosophy similarly emphasizes the importance of intercultural understanding and views study abroad as an excellent way to accomplish this goal. The program’s uniqueness comes from what Pitzer’s Office of Study Abroad deems its commitment to “cultural immersion and sustained engagement in local communities.” Corresponding with Pitzer students’ reputation of demonstrating the most activism out of the 5Cs, those studying abroad are expected not only to learn about the world around them, but also to turn that knowledge into action to benefit communities for future generations. Scripps emphasizes seven key reasons for including study abroad in the course of study: to expand worldviews, to gain an insider perspective on another culture, the opportunity to view your own culture from a different perspective, intensive language study, exposure to varying academic perspectives, leaving your comfort zone, and internship/career opportunities. Scripps also states that “participation in study abroad and domestic exchange programs fosters the goals eloquently prescribed by Ellen Browning Scripps,” reaffirming the programs’ relevance to education. Although not required, Pitzer, Pomona and Scripps encourage that students go abroad during their junior year. Claremont McKenna takes a different view, encouraging students to study abroad spring semester of sophomore year, which their website says will “[allow] them to spend a full two years in upper-level courses and [have] discourse with faculty at a more

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in-depth and sophisticated level.” The stated mission of CMC study abroad “is to connect students to off-campus academic and cultural immersion experiences that support their personal, professional, and intellectual development in a globalized world.” Both of these statements support the highly pragmatic and professional activities that CMC encourages its students to undertake, both on and off campus. Though Harvey Mudd students must complete a two-year core program before going abroad, making junior year their only option, they are still encouraged “to see the world as their campus and gain a borderless education,” according to their Study Abroad Program. Despite their legacy as a college for science, mathematics and engineering, Harvey Mudd maintains its dedication to “provide its students with a rich background in the humanities and social sciences.” Even as study abroad remains popular among the Claremont Colleges, some students say that academic rigor makes it difficult to take a semester away from campus. This makes the most sense at Harvey Mudd, where according to Ray Hurwitz HMC ’14, it simply was not feasible for him or other students to go abroad while completing the graduation requirements for engineering. In theory, Mudd administration is supportive of study abroad, but the bar for course approval is so high that many Mudd students cannot participate. Although Mudd has numerous pre-approved programs, all classes taken abroad must also be individually approved by department chairs. For the most part, the rest of the 5Cs have less strict guidelines. For Hurwitz, there was a lot of ex-


Still determined to immerse themselves in Spanish culture, Brownstein and her friends attempted to participate in a program called Intercambios where foreign students were put in contact with local students via e-mail with the intention of setting up faceto-face meetings in an informal setting. Despite their efforts, Brownstein and her peers were again left dissatisfied; most of their e-mails went unanswered. citement sophomore year as he went about preparing potential courses of study. But once it came down to presenting their plans, the responses from department chairs were discouraging; some classes could only count towards half a Mudd credit, while others would not count at all. In the end, he observed “only a handful” of his peers going abroad. When compared to the relative ease of studying abroad at the rest of the 5Cs, Mudd’s policies seem discouraging. “It’s not that Mudd is against it, but they’re trying to make you the best engineer you can be. They’re not going to let you take a course if they don’t think it’s worth it,” said Hurwitz. This attitude is mirrored by other Mudd students as well: many students fear that even with department chair approval, taking prerequisite courses while away from Mudd’s campus will put them at a disadvantage in their upper division courses upon return. In contrast, Pitzer takes international education stateside, bringing those ideas home by offering all of its students, even those who choose not to study abroad an opportunity to inter-

act with foreign students. Through semester and yearlong exchange programs, Pitzer hosts a number of international students. Whereas many international students grew up in either American or British international schools, exchange students come from an array of cultural backgrounds. Pitzer’s exchange program extends the benefits of study abroad to a greater amount of students. Even with the hype, study abroad does not always meet the objectives. Amy Brownstein PZ ‘13 was less than satisfied with her experience last spring in Seville, Spain. As a Spanish major, Brownstein was looking to fully immerse herself in Spanish culture and improve her conversational skills. Hoping to push herself towards fluency, Brownstein chose to study abroad during the opposite semester as her friends, fearing that she would fall into default mode and rely on the comfort of English. Before her departure, Brownstein made sure that she would be able to take regular classes with Spaniards at the University of Seville. However, upon arrival, she was told that this would not be possible. After a month of appeals, Brownstein was told that she would be allowed to enroll in regvolumeX issue1

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In speaking with one of her professors about other avenues to explore to interact with locals, Brownstein was warned against making connections on her own, told by locals, “night friends are not good friends.” Ultimately, Brownstein felt that she did not receive the cultural immersion she was promised. She believes that she could have accomplished the more had she simply spent a summer traveling. While the aims and goals of study abroad are admirable, these goals are not necessarily met in every situation at the Claremont Colleges. Even as each of the schools offers strong study abroad options, the academic programs and requirements can make doing so difficult. More importantly, when intercultural and interdisciplinary exploration is not fostered, the study abroad experience can be a frustrating one. However, when these goals are achieved, study abroad can be an integral part of a student’s education.

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ular university classes. Unfortunately, the times conflicted with her other courses leaving her unable to enroll.


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Patriotism at the 5Cs

Differences in defining dedication to our country

By Emily Haynes Staff Writer, PO ‘13 Patriotism has historically served as the rallying cry and a means of political justification for both the Left and the Right, but it is worth asking whether this remains an effective tool for involving educated young voters in the political process. College students at exclusive liberal arts institutions such as the Claremont Colleges are generally not considered poster children for patriotism. However, the Claremont Colleges, which host a significant number of politically conscious students, provide an appropriate microcosm of how America’s youngest voters connect with their country. Kate Zernike of The New York Times observed in 2011 that for current college students, growing up in the shadow of 9/11 “set off a new emphasis on patriotism, with constant reminders from teachers and parents that it is important to be proud of being an American — a striking contrast to the ambivalence of the Vietnam years that marked their parents’ generation.” While some students remain devoted to these ideals, others have reacted by dissenting from political norms. “I see [patriotism] more on a local level,” said Sarah Servin CMC ’15, President of the Democrats of the Claremont Colleges club. While she defines patriotism more broadly as a pride in one’s country, Servin believes that many Americans choose to express this pride by being active in their local community. Although she considers herself both liberal and patriotic, Servin believes the media tends to portray liberal Americans as “constantly down on our country.” “You can definitely be critical of your country and at the same time love it and be proud

of how far it has come,” said Servin. Self-proclaimed patriots like Servin are not always embraced on college campuses, and she is the first to admit, “It’s not ‘cool’ to be patriotic.” While Servin’s devotion to her country is not without criticism of its policies, her behavior is nevertheless supportive of the established political system, and views like this can come off as conservative to college students who are often skeptical about the world in which they live. Much of this disillusionment with the established American political system was expressed through the Occupy Movement last fall. Phoebe Duvall PZ ’13 saw many of her own beliefs echoed in the movement’s demands, and participated in some of the protests until she became frustrated with their lack of organization around a clear set of ideals. A registered Independent, Duvall leans towards the far Left, and her political philosophy stems significantly from anarchism. “Being somewhat of an anarchist,” Duvall said, “I do not consider myself patriotic because [anarchism] entails that I want to see the collapse of nation-states, and that is completely against the normal definition of patriotism.” Despite her anarchist leanings, Duvall continues to vote—a point of contention between her and more radical anarchists who abstain from this kind of involvement in the democratic political system. “A lot of staunch anarchists don’t vote,” Duvall explains. “I think that that is ineffective because things are not going to change overnight.” Although the limitations of the American

two-party system frustrate her, Duvall believes, “by voting I can help ensure that at least some pieces of my views are represented inside the current system.” To the right of Duvall lies Aidan Fahnestoct CMC ’14, the Vice President for Operations of the Claremont College Republicans club. Fahnestock’s ideas of patriotism are much more in line with Servin’s, emphasizing, “a love for the values that separate the United States from the rest of the world as a nation that values civil liberties [and] freedom.” A time that he best felt this expressed was the night he found out Osama Bin Laden had been killed. “It gave me kind of a tangible thing to relate to in regards to patriotism,” says Fahnestoct. “Up until then patriotism had always been something I’d felt…but now I had something very specific to be patriotic about.” When evaluating the candidates in the Republican primary race, Fahnestock never questioned their patriotism. “[In politics] if you didn’t have a strong commitment to the United States and her values…you wouldn’t get that far,” Fahnestock believes. “The vast majority of our political leaders…are very patriotic men and women, [and] despite our political differences, that’s the one thing that can draw us together.” Although the American political system represents very different ideals for Servin, Duvall, and Fahnestock, they all value the right to dissent. With radically different political views, these three students, like many other Claremont college students, will come together in the 2012 presidential election to cast their votes and determine the future of American politics.


October 2012