ISSUE NO. 15
SCIENCE EVERYTHING SCIENCE
IN THE MIND OF A SCIENTIST
ENERGY TO THE CORE
Know the who, what and when of the discovery!
We get down and dirty in to the top energy debates.
Its up to you to decide what the world should do next.
DESIGN BY MARISA FEIST
A BRIEF HISTORY Learn all about energy and how it got to where it is now.
NON RENEWABLE ENERGY Learn All about one of the biggest arguments in science.
RENEWABLE ENERGY See how easy it is to clean energy. Save the environment one simple step at a time.
ADVICE ARTICLE You ask we answer all the latest questions from our readers.
FUN PAGE Get random fact to fulfill your needs.
A Brief History
ENERGY October 3, 1600 William Gilbert coined the word electricity. Faraday, who lived from 1791 until 1867, was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. The first source of energy was the sun Fire was discovered from lightning strikes 500 BC Chinese discovered natural gas leaking from the ground 1816 was the first manufactured natural gas.
In the early days of the United States of America a common family used wood, which is a renewable source. As the country grew industries used water mills. Coal ended up becoming the dominant resource in the late 19th century. As time went on around of the middle of the last century natural gas usage grew drastically. Three major fossil fuels became the main sources, and they were petroleum, natural gas, and coal. All together they make up 87% of the total U.S energy over the past decade (EIA). The United States has also started using more nuclear and clean energy sources such as wind and solar.
By: Marisa Feist and Grace Armstrong Page 3
TYPES OF ENERGY
BY: CLAIRE STROBUSH | PAGE 4
Mechanical Energy is the energy of motion that does the work. An example of mechanical energy is the wind as it turns a windmill. Mechanical energy was discovered by James Joule. Thermal (Heat) Energy is energy that is pushed into motion by using heat. An example is a fire in your fireplace. Heat energy was discovered by James Joule. Chemical Energy is energy caused by chemical reactions. An example of chemical energy is food when it is cooked. Chemical energy was first discovered by J. Willard Gibbs. Electrical Energy is when electricity creates motion, light or heat. An example of electrical energy is the electric coils on your stove. Electrical energy was discovered by Benjamin Franklin. Gravitational Energy is motion that is caused by gravity. An example of gravitational energy is water flowing down a waterfall. Gravitational energy was discovered by James Joule. Potential Energy is stored energy. An example of Potential energy is your jaw before you chew food. Potential Energy was discovered by Isaac Newton. Kinetic Energy is energy that is in motion. An example of Kinetic energy is a baseball thrown by a pitcher, although having a small mass, can have a large amount of kinetic energy due to its fast velocity. Kinetic Energy was discovered by Gottfried Leibniz and Johann Bernoulli.
SOURCES By: Marisa Feist and Grace Armstrong
Most of the energy we capture for use on Earth originates in the nuclear reactions powering our Sun. Coal, oil, natural gas, biomass, and even the wind and hydro-power we harness to generate electricity, originally derive their energy content from the Sun. one source is solar power. Solar power is energy that is converted from sunlight into electrical or thermal energy. Solar energy is the cleanest and most common renewable energy available. The United States has put the most money into solar energy. This modern energy source can be used for many things, generating electricity, providing light for outside or inside, and heating water for domestic, commercial, or industrial use. Another energy source is nuclear energy. Nuclear energy is when Nuclear power plants split uranium atoms inside a reactor in a process called fission. At a nuclear energy facility, heat from fission is used to produce steam. This steam spins the turbine and generates electricity. These are just two of the many sources. Wind, geothermal, and wood are just a few more sources of energy.
According to Perlman at USGS (12/2/16) "A hydraulic turbine converts the energy of flowing water into energy. A hydroelectric generator converts this energy into electricity. When a magnet is moved past a conductor, it causes electricity to flow. In a large generator, electromagnets are made by circulating direct current through loops of wire wound around stacks of magnetic steel laminations. When the rotor turns, it causes the electromagnets to move past the conductors mounted in the stator. This, causes electricity to flow and a voltage to develop at the generator output terminals." Page
Clean Energy by: Marisa Feist
Renewable energy is energy that is collected from resources that can be renewed. These energy sources are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat. This is energy that will always be around, it is also better for the environment. Compared to non renewable resources these things can be used again and again. Such as the sun. Solar panels take in sunlight and turn it into energy. One Example of energy is wind. Wind is harnessed through wind turbines. "Wind turbines operate on a simple principle. The energy in the wind turns two or three propeller-like blades around a rotor. The rotor is connected to the main shaft, which spins a generator to create electricity (EERE)". You may see field and fields of these wind mills if you are driving. You can find them from Texas to Iowa. Texas has the largest amount of wind farms, and Iowa second. Other states that you may find these farms in are California, Oklahoma, Illinois, Kansas, Minnesota, Oregon, Colorado, Washington, North Dakota, and Wyoming. You will also them them here and there in other states as well.
LEARN ALL ABOUT NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCES AND HOW WE USE THEM IN EVERYDAY LIFE.
What are Fossil Feuls
Non-renewable energy comes from sources that will run out or will not be replenished in our lifetimes—or even in many, many lifetimes. Most nonrenewable energy sources are fossil fuels: coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Carbon is the main element in fossil fuels. Coal, petroleum (which is used in oil), and natural gas are the main non renewable energy. Carbon is the main element in non renewable resources. It takes about 360 million years for these sources to form (National Geographic) .
Fossil fuels are formed when dead plants or animals drift to the bottom a water sources. Rocks and other sediments are crushed on top of the dead organisms. Over time they are transformed into into fossil fuels. The energy was stored for millions of years and that is how we get it. These types of resources are found all over the world in reservoirs.
Even though these resources are used in everyday life. Thus making it a rarer that other energy sources that can come back within in decades or less. There are advantages of these resources, not many but there are some. In countries that have a lot of these resources such as Australia, gas prices are low. But in countries that have to have oil brought in from other countries it is quite expensive. Gas in used in gas stoves and fireplaces, and we use oil in our cars. The world supply of oil should last us several hundred years, but we should start looking at cleaner and more abundant resources. When coal and oil is burned it pollutes the air with carbon dioxide.
By: Marisa Thibodeau Feist
USE OF ENERGY CLAIRE STROBUSH
Efficient energy use, sometimes simply called energy efficiency, is the goal to reduce the amount of energy required to provide products and services. For example, insulating a home allows a building to use less heating and cooling energy to achieve and maintain a comfortable temperature.
FUN FACTS MEET THE SCIENTISTS Michael Faraday invented the electrical generator in 1832. Guglielmo Marconi invented the radio in 1895. Thomas Edison invented the light bulb in 1879.
Charles Brush invented the first wind turbine in 1888. Nuclear power was first discovered by Enrico Fermi in 1934. The first heat pump was invented in 1852 by Peter Von Rittinger.
BY MARISA FEIST PAGE 9
ENERGY INVENTIONS ARTICLE BY CLAIRE Radio- Guglielmo Marconi- Around the start of the 20th century, the Slaby-Arco wireless system was developed by Adolf Slaby and Georg von Arco. In 1900, Reginald Fessenden made a weak transmission of voice over the airwaves. In 1901, Marconi conducted the first successful transatlantic experimental radio communications. Electric generator- Michael FaradayInvented in 1831. Electric generators convert one form of energy into another, especially mechanical energy into electrical energy, as a dynamo, or electrical energy into sound, as an acoustic generator. Light bulb- Thomas Edison- Invented in 1879. It produces light from electricity. In addition to lighting a dark space, they can be used to show an electronic device is on, to direct traffic, for heat, and many other purposes
Wind turbine- Charles F. BrushInvented in 1888. Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy in the wind into mechanical power. This mechanical power can be used for specific tasks (such as grinding grain or pumping water) or a generator can convert this mechanical power into electricity.
Telephone- Alexander Graham Bell- Invented in 1876. A telephone, or phone, is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly.
Nuclear power plant- Enrico Fermi- In a nuclear power plant (reactor), the energy released is used as heat to make steam to generate electricity. It was developed from 1895 to 1945. (In a research reactor the main purpose is to utilise the actual neutrons produced in the core. In most naval reactors, steam drives a turbine directly for propulsion).
Heat pump- Peter von RittingerIn 1855-1857 Peter von Rittinger developed and built the first heat pump system. When it's cold outside a heat pump extracts this outside heat and transfers it inside. When it's warm outside, it reverses directions and acts like an air conditioner, removing heat from your home. One advantage of a heat pump is that it moves heat instead of generating heat, giving you more energy efficiency.
Brake- Frederick LanchesterInvented in 1902. A brake is a mechanical device that inhibits motion by absorbing energy from a moving system. It is used for slowing or stopping a moving vehicle, wheel, axle, or to prevent its motion, most often accomplished by means of friction.
Editorial Article By: Grace Armstrong B Y about ARTHU W I L L I A coming MS Clean energy. You hear people talk it.R They’re out with electric cars that
you plug in instead of fill up with gas, or you can fill them up with gas, but you use the electricity in the car first so it doesn’t pollute as much. Solar panels are being more widely used, windmills farms are more common, hydroelectricity is becoming fairly common too, even nuclear energy is becoming common. These are all good things because they’re clean energy, a type of energy that doesn’t pollute the Earth or use fossil fuels. Clean renewable energy is a very important issue, because of things happening to our Earth and our oceans due to use of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide levels have increased by 25%, along with methane and nitrous levels have increased along the years. Increased levels of carbon dioxide can have a negative effect on humans and animals too. Expose to it can cause headaches, health problems, and increase your risk for heart disease. Animals can be affected too, their habitats are destroyed so they have no place to live. Clean energy makes almost zero pollution, and is renewable meaning it’ll never run out. This is a good thing, we can use and produce energy without killing the ecosystem, animals habitat’s, or causing us health problems. I’m all for clean energy, the Earth has done nothing but been perfect for us. It’s kept us alive and healthy, and made sure we don’t burn or freeze. I personally think that least we could do is help preserve it and keep it alive.
YOU ASK, WE ANSWER MOST ASKED QUESTIONS OF 2017!
Question: What is a wind farm? Answer: A wind farm is a power plant made up entirely of wind turbines. It’s called a “farm” because there are using found in rural areas. Question: How do solar panels work? Answer: Solar panels work by allowing photons to knock electrons free from atoms, generating a flow of electricity. When this happens it creates electricity, powering different things. Question: How long is our oil reserves projected to last? Answer: According to the 2014 information we have about 54 years worth of oil left. That does not mean we will run out anytime soon. That is just what is projected at, but with recent discoveries of reserves, that number should be going up.
ENERGY CANNOT BE CREATED OR DESTROYED, IT CAN BE CHANGED FROM ONE FORM TO ANOTHER
Question: Has anyone ever survived being struck by lightning. Also what are my chances on being struck by lightning? Answer: Yes, one man had survived being struck by lightning 7 times. He was a park Question: Are we in an ranger in Virginia. There are several other energy crisis? Answer: No, at the moment cases of people surviving being struck by we have plenty of resources lightning. Your chances of being struck by to last us hundreds to lightning is 1 in 700,000 in the United States. thousands of years as long as There is also a 1 in 3,000 chance in your the sun doesn't go out or lifetime (National Geographics). I do not wind stops blowing. suggest on running outside during a storm.
To whom it may concern, I’ve been wondering if nuclear energy is a safe affordable new form of renewable energy. Do you have any thoughts on the matter? My biggest concerns would be are they safe? What if there’s a meltdown, how would they handle that? Where do they dispose of the old plants, and could people target them for attacks? I’m interested to know your thoughts and opinions. Thank you, Steven Mason. Dear Steven, Great questions you asked, I’m glad you wrote in to our magazine. As for our thoughts on nuclear energy, here’s what we think. Nuclear energy is for the most part safe, and there have only been three major disasters - Three Mile Island, Fukushima, and Chernobyl (Rinkesh 1). While this has been in the whole history of nuclear energy, in the past 25 years there have been over ten major disasters involving fossil fuels (Rinkesh 1). Normally with the regular checkups and repairs they do, the chances of a meltdown happening in a power plant is very low, they are very cautious about that and keep everything running as best they can.
Energy News California Is Considering a 100 Percent Renewable Energy Law. That’s a Bad Idea By: Julian Spector
Last week, California’s quest for a clean grid revolution culminated in the introduction of a bill mandating 100 percent renewable energy by 2045. Opponents of renewable energy incentives often use the argument that government shouldn't pick winners and losers. There's a big difference between giving fledgling, socially beneficial technologies a boost so they can compete effectively in a calcified marketplace, and using the power of government to favor one set of mature companies over another in providing a similar service.The legal requirement to source 100 percent renewable energy looks more like the latter. The stated goal is to decarbonize the electric grid. Converting all electrical generation to some combination of wind, hydro and solar is one way to achieve this goal. Arguably the most prominent planners of the 100 percent renewable approach are Mark Jacobson of Stanford University and Mark Delucchi of UC-Berkeley, and they end up arguing that the ramp-up of renewable production to power the whole country is possible given our nation's previous success with World War II-era societal mobilization. We don’t know that a 100 percent renewable approach is the fastest, cheapest or easiest way to decarbonize the grid. We do know that it will be expensive and hard enough that its own advocates compare it to the most gargantuan collective effort in the nation’s history. If solar and wind form the base load, you have to prepare for the scenario when the sun is mostly blocked and wind is weak. One way to do this is building enough extra capacity that with all the fleet operating at its trough of productivity, there is still enough to power the system. That requires building capacity well beyond the reserves required of thermal plants, which produce a much higher percentage of their potential output. This multiplies the cost of the build-out, which is compounded by the diminishing returns of additional renewable capacity. With so much extra solar on the grid, grid operators have to deal with over-generation when the weather conditions are optimal. Solar and wind plants may have to curtail their output under such conditions. Storage offers a hopeful way out of this conundrum, allowing renewables to act more like traditional power plants.
THE STORY BY GRACE ARMSSTRNG
The following story is a true story. In August of 1975 two brothers and their sister went hiking on the Moro Rock in California’s Sequoia National park. Michael, who at the time was only 18, was with his brother, Sean who was 12, and his sister, Mary who was 15. They were from San Diego and having fun climbing the mountains. The day started off gorgeous, blue sky and only the occasional cloud passing in front of the sun. No one thought the weather was going to take a turn for the worst. They failed to notice the dark clouds that had rolled in while they were hiking and when they reached the summit they noticed their hair was standing on end. Not thinking anything of the weather, the two brothers took a picture together, and then snapped one of their sister. Mere minutes after taking the photos disaster struck. The two brothers were struck by lightning, Sean, the youngest, was struck directly and fell into a coma instantly, Michael was dazed but managed to pick up Sean and carry him all the way back down with the help of his sister, who hadn’t been struck Sean was in a coma for 6 months, Michael suffered injuries as well, but none to the degree of his younger brother. Their sister luckily was not struck by lighting and suffered no injuries. Sean lived, but a few years after committed suicide. People repost the pictures everywhere and talk about how cool it is, and the famous picture even now tops lists of scary pictures, or pictures taken right before disaster strikes. Michael was interviewed and says now that “If clouds start to gather when I’m climbing a mountain, you better believe I’m the first one down in my car on the road to home.” He is now 56 and still climbs mountains and enjoys the outdoors.
When I wake up in the morning I see the light that lights the word Heats it Helps power it The magnificent sun. A burning star that is 92.96 million miles away from me And at night I see it set and everything becomes cold. Without my beautiful sun that powers my life. Part of the secret of a success in life is to eat what you like and let the food fight it out inside.Â MARISA THIBODEAU FEIST
Lightning is awesome Donâ€™t get struck by it though, man It will kill you dude GRACE
Eating healthy food gives us more energy
Natural gas is used for heat and cooking
Electricity and coal are two forms of energy
Renewable energy includes sea currents and solar po
Geothermal energy is natural heat from inside the E
You need energy in order to move
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SCIENCE Magazine Energy Issue. Everything you need today about energy.