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Summer Scholars 2018 Julia Costa Michael Farkas Claire Shue Jonathan Warner Anne Taylor Windsor


Summer Scholar Research Project 2018

CONTENTS Program Overview

Project Introduction

Research

04

Hanbury Firm Overview Summer Scholar Program 2018 Summer Scholars

06 07 08

Introduction : Summer Scholar Research Project What is Urban Resilience? Norfolk’s Resiliency Strategy

10 12 16

History

22 26 28

20-21st Century Development Timeline Historic Maps Norfolk: Past and Present

Precedents Resilient Cities Precendents

34

Environmental Factors Typical Flooding Events Major Events Native Brackish Species

44 46 52

Social and Economic Influences Norfolk: Diverse but Divided Neighborhood Analysis Who is affected by flooding?

56 58 60

Sustainable Goals and Guidelines 2030 Challenge Living Building Challenge Tidal Energy

64 65 66


Observations & Synthesis

Design Intervention

Notes

Site Photographs Mapping Synthesis

Masterplan Concentrated: Detailed Master Plan Development Phases Regional: Light Rail Extension Focus Areas The Overpass The Waterfront The Boomerang The Canal

71 72 82

86 89 92

94 98 102 108

Conclusions

114

Acknowledgements Citations & References

116 117

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“We believe architecture can impact a sense of joy and optimism to life. Our work is an offering to that vitality where the lives of others might be touched by the spaces and forms we shape. We believe buildings that are loved and endure, matter.� - Hanbury Design Philosophy


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Summer Scholar Research Project 2018

2018 SUMMER SCHOLARS Julia Costa

Julia is a bachelor’s of architecture candidate, 2020, from Virginia Tech. At the University, she serves as the American Institute of Architecture Students (AIAS) President and Ambassador of the College of Architecture and Urban Studies. In 2017, Julia studied the fashion industry in London, Paris, Florence, and Rome. She has also designed and constructed her own clothing. Her experience includes an internship at InterArch.

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Michael Farkas

Mike is a candidate for a bachelor’s of architecture degree, 2020, from Virginia Tech. He is a member of SCOPE (Student Coalition Organizing Progressive Engagement), The Big Event at Virginia Tech and does Architectural and Landscape photography. Mike was a finalist in Virginia Tech’s Third-year Architecture Competition.


Claire Shue

Claire is a candidate for a bachelor’s of arts in architecture degree, 2019, from UNC Charlotte. Her professional experience includes assisting students and faculty in material and digital fabrication as a fabrication technician at UNC Charlotte and working as an intern for 505 Design and Smith Sinnett Architecture. Claire was also a part of the collaborative project entitled Effervesce, which won the AIA Small Project Design award.

Jonathan Warner

Jon has obtained a Bachelor’s of Arts in Architecture from UNC Charlotte and is pursuing as Masters of Architecture II Degree from Southern California Institute of Architecture. Jonathan has studied architecture abroad in Seoul and in Rome. His portfolio includes a collaborative project called Effervesce, which won the AIA Small Project Design award. The project was recognized nationally as one that evokes memory of the lives lost at the Pulse nightclub shooting.

Anne Taylor Windsor

Anne Taylor graduated from the University of Virginia in May 2018 with a Bachelor’s degree in Foreign Affairs and a minor in Global Culture and Commerce. She joined the Hanbury team as a summer intern with the goal of learning about architecture, planning and digital marketing. She quickly involved herself in the Summer Scholar Research Project, contributing with city and flooding research, site master planning, and providing local insight to the area.

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INTRODUCTION

For centuries, Norfolk, Virginia has been a cultural and commercial center within Hampton Roads. Its location between several major waterways, including the Elizabeth River and Chesapeake Bay, has driven its economy but endangered the future of the city as sea levels rise. Because of its deep channels, the Chesapeake Bay catalyzes both the import and export of goods within the United States and internationally. Norfolk is also home to the largest naval base in the world, as well as one of NATO’s Strategic Command headquarters. In addition, due to its geography, many of its residents enjoy waterfront living.

cities and projects across the world, and various strategies to promote healthy living and clean energy use. Our findings then helped inform our proposed design interventions.

Our site is focused around Harbor Park, a baseball stadium adjacent to downtown Norfolk. The area around the stadium is tragically underutilized. Currently home to a plethora of parking lots, it sits predominately empty until the Norfolk Tides are home for a game. Because the site is so disconnected from the rest of the city, we focused our efforts on opening up a dialogue between Harbor Park and its surrounding neighborhoods. We asked ourselves, “Why is this area so isolated? Why aren’t The City of Norfolk has recognized how imperative it is for the people coming to this site? How can they even access it? and city to maintain a healthy relationship with water. With flooding once they are here, why should they stay?” already threatening the destruction of billions of dollars of property, the citizens of Norfolk along with the city’s politicians First, we identified several areas around our site that could feed have expressed a desire to address this issue. Because of this, into our proposed development. Of course, connectivity with Norfolk has become one of the Rockefeller Foundation’s 100 downtown Norfolk is critical, however directly to the north of Resilient Cities. This global network supports cities in their Harbor Park is the Tidewater Gardens neighborhood. This region pursuit of creating a physically improved, culturally diverse, is especially susceptible to flooding and home to thousands and socially just future. of impoverished people. In response to these physical and social drivers, our design intervention is focused on not only Norfolk’s resiliency story is centered around both “living physically bridging these realms, but also improving flood with the water,” and the social implications of new resilient mitigation so as to not further disadvantage its inhabitants. development. The city is incredibly racially diverse, however most of its African American population are living in areas that To form a physical connection to our site, we are first proposing are disproportionately affected by flooding. Furthermore, the the reconfiguration of the I-264 overpass in order to allow standard of living within these neighborhoods is not on par pedestrian traffic to comfortably cross beneath the highway. with the rest of the city. One of Norfolk’s main goals is to ensure Next, we are adding interest to the area by creating a series that all of its citizens have equal access to all the amenities of waterfront parks and a large pedestrian bridge around the necessary for a fulfilled and productive life. stadium. The high density of Downtown will also continue along Main Street, reinstating it as a major thoroughfare throughout As part of Hanbury’s Summer Scholar program, our team of five the city. Finally, a large canal strategically planned along the set out to learn about these issues challenging Norfolk’s future. flood plain will address the sites tendency to flood and provide We researched resiliency in the context of Norfolk, precedent a new outdoor recreation space for the city.


“There are far too many evenings where the moon is full and the tide is high, where there are streets where the kayak is the preferred vehicle of choice.� - George Homewood Norfolk City Planning Director

Corner of Tidewater Dr. and E Virginia Beach Blvd.


Summer Scholar Research Project 2018

WHAT IS URBAN RESILIENCE?

“the capacity of individuals, communities, institutions, businesses, and systems within a city to survive, adapt, and grow no matter what kinds of chronic stresses and acute shocks they experience.”

As cities age, there is a remarkable increase in the need for urban resilience. Whether it’s establishing provisions to accept the changes in the climate, creating social programs and spaces that address income inequality, or reimagining existing infrastructure to adapt to evolving societal needs, urban resilience helps cities envision a better, sustainable future. The Rockefeller Foundation describes urban resilience as “the capacity of individuals, communities, institutions, businesses, and systems within a city to survive, adapt, and grow no matter what kinds of chronic stresses and acute shocks they experience.” This can be achieved by understanding a city holistically. By considering strengths, weaknesses, and areas of opportunities, cities can enhance the quality of life for their citizens while providing for both the expected and unexpected challenges that may arise.

Source: https://www.100resilientcities.org/our-impact/

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WHAT IS URBAN RESILIENCE?


LEADERSHIP & STRATEGY Source: https://wtkr.com/2016/07/01/kenny-alexander-to-be-sworn-in-as-mayor-of-norfolk-at-10-a-m/

HEALTH & WELLBEING Source: https://wparch.com/elizabeth-river-trail/

INFRASTRUCTURE & ENVIRONMENT

Source: https://pilotonline.com/business/ports-rail/article_70932757-9ace-5179-bf38-5863dcb51747.html

ECONOMY & SOCIETY Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norfolk_Naval_Shipyard

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“As we design and build a new kind of coastal community to withstand changing threats, we are committed to reducing residents’ exposure to risk, to building an economy driven by innovative solutions, to leveraging infrastructure investments to create new open spaces for citizens, and to bringing communities together and attracting new residents to our city.� - Goal 01 : Norfolk Resilient City


Summer Scholar Research Project 2018

NORFOLK RESILIENCE STRATEGY

In October 2015, the City of Norfolk released its resiliency strategy that both identifies the shocks and stresses the city is facing, as well as establishes several goals for the city to pursue. It acknowledges that the challenges Norfolk is facing are both affected by singular catastrophic events, such as hurricanes, as well as ongoing stresses that weaken the city over time, such as poverty and crime. The city identified eight Guiding Tenants to help formulate its strategy, suggesting that a Resilience Strategy must be: • • • • • • • •

Celebrating and building on existing work Aspirational Proactive, not reactive Fair and equitable Community driven and connected Actionable and practical Informed Long-lasting

Eventually, Norfolk’s Resilience Strategy became focused into three goals. They acknowledge the work that has been done to date, yet establish a framework to guide future efforts: •

Goal 01: To design the coastal community of the future by collectively creating a futuristic vision, implementing innovative strategies for water management, creating a place where people want to live, work and play, and rethinking regulations to achieve this strategic vision.

Goal 02: To create economic opportunity by advancing efforts to grow existing and new sectors. This goal will be achieved by creating an economic development strategy, nurturing the economic health of the city, strengthening the work force, revitalizing neighborhoods, and exploring innovative financing methods.

• Goal 03: Advance initiatives to connect communities, The City of Norfolk then asked the question, “What most challenges deconcentrate poverty and strengthen neighborhoods our city’s ability to thrive today and to bounce back from a disaster by improving access to information and services, support tomorrow?” Through countless meeting with residents, non-profits, technological community building initiatives, and connecting educational institutions, the military, the business sector, and faith through conversations. based institutions, the city determined that while storms and flooding do pose a treacherous threat, it is the challenges associated with Norfolk’s Resilience Strategy is especially interesting because not poverty and the wealth gap that were most prevalent during these only does this city want to survive, it wants to thrive. Open to new discussions. technologies and ways of thinking, Norfolk has both expressed and demonstrated a desire to become an example for other cities With over 90% of Norfolk’s land built out, retreat from the water is facing with similar issues. The city also recognizes that the solution not an option, nor is it desirable. Norfolk’s identity is centered around requires cooperation and teamwork among the government, the water, and therefore the city seeks to find new ways to live with the private sector and the citizens of Norfolk in order to make their water. Instead of attempting to keep it out, Norfolk is embracing new optimistic future a reality. technologies that allow the water to exist alongside the people living here. Overall, these initiatives will improve the standard of living for the city, continuing to create a place where people want to live, work and play.

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NORFOLK RESILIENCY STRATEGY


ENVIRONMENTAL Shocks & Stresses

Costal & Tidal Flooding Hurricane, Typhoon, & Cyclone Rainfall Flooding Sea Level Rise/Coastal Erosion Severe Storms Storm Surge Subsidence

SOCIAL Shocks & Stresses

Lack of Affordable Housing Lack of Social cohesion Poverty Structural Racism Unemployment

ECONOMIC

Shocks & Stresses Lack of Investment Poverty Shifting Macroeconomic Trends Undiversified Economy Unemployment

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HISTORY OF NORFOLK


Summer Scholar Research Project 2018

20-21ST CENTURY DEVELOPMENT TIMELINE

1917

Opening of US Naval Operating Base

1904

1932

1910

Freemason Street Library Built

US Post Office & Courthouse Built

Christ & St. Luke’s Church Built

1900

1907 1912 Monticello Arcade Built

Norfolk Terminal Station Built

22

1921 VA Beach Blvd opens


1962 Midtown tunnel built

1967

1940

VA Beach Expressway opens I-264

NFK International Airport

Norfolk Museum of Arts & Sciences (Chrysler Museum)

1933

1965 City Hall Built

1950

1971 Norfolk Scope Opens

Urban Renewal Project

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Summer Scholar Research Project 2018

1994

Nauticus Opens

1983 Waterside District Opens

1989

Norfolk Southern Tower Built

1987 Dominion Tower Built

1

1993 Harbor Park Stadium Opens

24

1999 McArther Center Opens


Light Rail “The Tide� Opens

Elizabeth River Trail Opens

2003

2011 2017

Waterside District Renovation

2007

2020

Half Moon Crusie & Celebration Center Amtrak Station Built

2013 2017 The Main Opens

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Summer Scholar Research Project 2018

Norfolk 1873

Historic Maps These historic maps of Norfolk from the late 19th century show the natural shoreline of Norfolk and Portsmouth. The maps also allow us to get a glimpse of the original town layout and the railroad hub that once dominated the site past St. Pauls Blvd.

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Norfolk 1892

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Summer Scholar Research Project 2018

NORFOLK: PAST AND PRESENT

Norfolk 1950 - East Main Street District

Due to the Urban Renewal Project sponsored by the United States Government in the 1950s, most of Norfolk’s original buildings and landmarks were torn down, to make room for new exciting development projects that would bring life back to the city. Unfortunately, this plan backfired and left Norfolk struggling in a time when the nation was booming. The 1980s saw a turn for the better, however and the city has been making strides to bring back what was once lost.

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Norfolk 2018 - Harbor Park


Main Street 1906

Main Street 2018

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“In the face of rising sea levels, we are committed to continuing the globally important work of ensuring trade moves seamlessly through our port, to supporting the readiness of the nation’s naval forces, and to safeguarding our cities historic, cultural, and natural assets. To achieve this goal we acknowledge that the city must physically change. We embrace the idea that this physical transformation can drive economic vitality and social cohesion.� - Goal 01 : Norfolk Resilient City


Summer Scholar Research Project 2018

A Changing Shoreline With over 90% of the city of Norfolk already built out, it’s no wonder why so many branches of the Elizabeth River have been filled in over the years. However, this effort to increase square footage has created many issues associated with flooding and water mitigation. During storms, the water naturally tries to reclaim its original real estate, damaging much of the city’s built environment in the process.

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1907

1955

1994 33


RESILIENT CITY PRECEDENTS


Summer Scholar Research Project 2018

BOSTON, MA

Major Challenges “Boston’s response to the Marathon bombing in 2013 demonstrated a well-integrated emergency response system. However, officials recognize the need for greater integration across city systems. In addition, Boston needs to develop plans to respond to flooding and the impacts of sea level rise. Several essential civic and transportation hubs, including Logan International Airport, are located in flood-sensitive zones.” - BOSTON’S RESILIENCE STORY 100 RESILIENT CITIES

Boston’s Response After consulting over 400 East Boston and Charlestown residents, it was clear that the city’s citizens overwhelmingly shared common goals of protecting their safety, property and livelihoods in the face of flooding. Furthermore, many also hoped for an increase in open space, mobility and access to the waterfront. As a response, the Charlestown Costal Resilience Strategy was developed to improve existing and create new resilient solutions to these concerns. This strategy calls for the creation of parks, connections from the neighborhoods to the water, livable sites that serve social and resilient functions, and areas for mixed use redevelopment. Interestingly, the proposed built environment features smaller footprints and increased density that the city envisions as a source of funding for future waterfront transformation. The strategy explains a layered solution that addresses sea level rise and flooding, increasing temperatures, community preparedness, social equity and economic opportunities. It is imperative that these solutions are lasting in their effects. Flood protection measures are designed to protect against 36 inches of sea level rise. Should this measure be exceeded, the structural furniture proposed for the site can be increased in height up to two additional feet as necessary. Adaptability is key in order for this project to be effective long term.

Charlestown Costal Resilience Strategy

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DALLAS, TX Major Challenges “Dallas faces many challenges. Severe weather events, disease outbreaks, and economic disparity have tested Dallas’ mettle. These experiences and conditions have reinforced the City’s need to ensure regional systems such as economic development, public health, and transportation are crosscutting and corroboratively working to create a more resilient Dallas.” - DALLAS’ RESILIENCE STORY 100 RESILIENT CITIES

Dallas’ Response Stoss and SHoP Architects proposed this response to reunite the city of Dallas with the Trinity River. As they have named it, Hyper Density Hyper Landscape visualizes the future of this city and lays the foundation for its transformation. By enhancing the existing urban and natural landscape, new opportunities arise. These envisioned outcomes promote social, economic, or environmental prosperity - each contributing in a unique way to the overall vitality and health of the city. Three new neighborhoods are also created by this plan, infused with sustainable landscapes and programming. With the addition of these neighborhoods, the city gird also expands, further extending the livability and resiliency of Dallas. These areas are all united around the Trinity River, reimagined into a series of wetlands, gardens and public green areas. All of these areas form a resilient surrounding landscape that accepts the water instead of pushing it back.

Trinity Riverfront

By creating livable spaces in an area unsuited for lasting buildings, this project not only allows these areas to be utilized by the residents of the city, but also promotes healthy living and a connection to nature. In an area where space comes at a premium, it is imperative to utilize as much as possible. Activated in section, this project is aware of the limitations to necessary programs and the affordance of others that may not be classified as critical. While a road cannot absorb excess water, a public park can, because of this, more of these spaces have been given back to the city’s inhabitants. This connection to nature completely revolutionizes what is means to live, work and play in a city, and creates a healthier place overall.

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Summer Scholar Research Project 2018

NEW ORLEANS, LA

Major Challenges “New Orleans has had unique experience in dealing with and recovering from major urban emergencies. From Hurricanes Katrina and Isaac to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill to the city’s frequent boil water advisories, New Orleans has learned important lessons about what it takes to become a vibrant, resilient city that serves all its residents — particularly its most vulnerable.” - NEW ORLEANS’ RESILIENCE STORY 100 RESILIENT CITIES

New Orleans’ Response The goal of this linear, 20-acre park is continuous connection between the communities of New Orleans and the Mississippi River Waterfront. This connective theme also creates a visual extension back to the center of the city. An abandoned railroad siding is transformed into a public landscape including bridges, a wharf and a flood gate opening. The bridges provide access across the railroad tracks and a floodwall. The Mandeville Wharf will also be repurposed to serve as an open air event space within the existing structure. Crescent Park is the first phase of New Orleans’ Reinventing the Crescent. The city has been reinventing itself as an entrepreneurial and artisan based economy, and the waterfront will serve as a place to celebrate its progress. Overall, the entire project will adapt six miles of unused and abandoned industrial and commercial spaces. Its goals are to increase tourism, create jobs, and foster an improved quality of life for local communities. The economic impact of Reinventing the Crescent will be transformative for New Orleans. LSU professor Dr. Jim Richardson concluded that almost 6,000 jobs will be created per year during construction and over 24,000 permanent jobs will be created as a result. Furthermore, the spaces created will allow for recreation, relaxation, and reconnection throughout the city. Fifteen different sites have been chosen as areas for development, with the goals of bringing prosperity back to the city, improving old damaged neighborhoods, and creating new neighborhoods that integrate seamlessly into the city fabric. Crescent Waterfront - Hargreaves Associates

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NEW YORK, NY Major Challenges “New York City is home to more than 520 miles of coastline and more than 8 million residents — nearly 400,000 of whom live in buildings that are physically vulnerable to coastal flooding and sea level rise. Faced with an aging building stock, an expanding 100-year floodplain, and rising costs of insurance, New York City’s coastal communities need to be better prepared.” - NEW YORK’S RESILIENCE STORY 100 RESILIENT CITIES

New York’s Response The aftermath of Hurricane Sandy in 2012 served as a wake up call for New York City. Affecting almost 100,000 elderly, low income and disabled city residents along with the financial district, the hurricane left thousands without power, water, transportation, and communication. President Obama’s Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force resulted in the launch of Rebuild by Design, a design competition focused on responding to the complex needs of the affected areas. Rebuild by Design is comprised of professionals from a variety of sectors including government, business, non profits, and community organizations. Coupling innovation and global expertise, the program promotes research, cooperation and practicality. In collaboration with New York City and Rebuild by Design, BIG has developed a protective waterfront system to wrap around lower Manhattan to prevent future storms from devastating the city like Hurricane Sandy. Designed to respond to individual neighborhoods and community wishes, The Big U will provide a flood protection zone along with a social and community zone. In a city where green space is concentrated and ineffective in terms of flood mitigation, this project will not only provide protection, but also a direct social link among its residents. This access to natural landscapes and human interaction will exponentially increase the quality of life for these city dwellers.

The BIG U

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Summer Scholar Research Project 2018

PARIS, FRANCE

Major Challenges “The main challenges identified for Paris are: To reduce inequalities (social, economic, cultural, territorial) and enhance social cohesion to reinforce resilience capacity in case of a crisis but also for the daily life; To provide a new vision of the Seine River and deal with three related risks: flood, low water and the rarefaction of the resource and the necessity to improve its quality...” - PARIS RESILIENCE STORY 100 RESILIENT CITIES

Paris’s Response Similar to New Orleans’ Reinventing the Crescent, Paris has developed Reinventer la Seine. It’s goals are also socially and sustainability grounded: to preserve the quality of life for Parisians, to protect natural areas and promote biodiversity, to reimagine the riverfront, and to increase the overall urban resilience of the city. With many sites along the river identified as areas for resilient opportunity, design teams are encouraged to submit proposals that address the economic, social and environmental challenges associated with each location. SO-IL won this proposal for the Place Mazas site in Paris. It considers both contemporary and historical context in its flexible solution that has the ability to evolve along with the city. The site is made up of two distinct parts - one being a seven story volume including a housing program and restaurant and the other being dedicated to outdoor public activities. The second part includes three new public squares, a co-working space, fabrication lab, a terrace and a facility for the homeless. While the programming of the site promotes social and cultural diversity, the project also has sustainable goals. Paris is working to create a swimmable river, so this project includes a public swimming pool in the river, and a second pool dedicated to biodiversity research and water quality monitoring. The housing is also constructed from locally sourced timber and the pavilion from renewable materials, in an effort to promote urban growth while reducing environmental impact.

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Reinventer La Seine - SO-IL


ROTTERDAM, THE NETHERLANDS Major Challenges “With nearly 80% of the city below sea level and one of the largest ports in the world, Rotterdam has built up centuries of experience when it comes to resilience, particularly on the topics of integrated water management and innovative climate adaptation. In 2007, this Dutch city announced its ambition to become 100% climate-proof by 2025 — able to continue functioning economically and socially with minimal disturbance under any extreme weather situation.” - ROTTERDAM’S RESILIENCE STORY 100 RESILIENT CITIES

Rotterdam’s Response Through this project, De Urbanisten seeks to change how the city of Rotterdam views the Meuse River. Presently, the river affords the city over 360 kilometers of waterfront, however 70% of the bank are hard quays and less than 10% could be considered tidal in nature. The concept of the tidal park not only allows the river to flood safely, but also increases biodiversity and creates a new significant outdoor public space for the city’s inhabitants. It also creates many areas of opportunity for future development and connections. De Urbanisten’s involvement in this project has been twofold: first, they helped the city develop an overall framework for the tidal park along with some guiding tenants of design. These principals are aimed at inspiring local designers and stakeholders to create concrete proposals for the sites. Secondly, De Urbanisten has been working with some of these stakeholders to develop concepts that align with their visions. The office has developed plans showing the ecological and recreational potential for several areas along the waterfront. Overall, this project strives to connect the city with the river, provide a learning environment for the city’s inhabitants, increase biodiversity, improve water safety, close the water cycle, provide a basis for urban development, and showcase Dutch innovation. By recognizing the riverbank as a balance between nature and culture, this project will hopefully continue to promote design interventions that are both ecologically and socially impactful. Tidal Park - De Urbanisten

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ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS


Summer Scholar Research Project 2018

TYPES OF FLOODING

Precipitation Flooding

Storm Flooding

Tidal Flooding

Precipitation flooding occurs when the intensity of the rain exceeds Storm flooding is the result of storm surges caused by nor’easters, Tidal flooding is caused by normal moon cycles and tidal variation. the capacity of the storm drainage systems. This can happen due to hurricanes, or other large storms. The effects of this type of flooding It can be worsened by high wind speed and direction and sea level naturally depressed elevations or blockages. are directly related to proximity to the coast and elevation above rise. It is also tied directly to the proximity of the coast and elevation. sea level. High tides can increase storm damage.

Photos by L. Todd Spencer | The Virginian-Pilot

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ArcGIS - Norfolk Interactive Map

Flood Zones

VE - Lower than Base Flood Elevation

AE - 1% Annual Chance of Flood AH - 1% Annual Chance of Flood w/ ponding .2% Annual Chance of Flood

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Summer Scholar Research Project 2018

Tidal Flooding

Existing Waterline Flood Waterline

46


Sea Level Rise 2030 - 1.5ft - Extreme Case

Existing Waterline Flood Waterline

47


Summer Scholar Research Project 2018

Category 01

Existing Waterline Flood Waterline

48

ArcGIS - Norfolk Interactive Map


Category 02

ArcGIS - Norfolk Interactive Map

Existing Waterline Flood Waterline

49


Summer Scholar Research Project 2018

Category 03/04

Existing Waterline Flood Waterline

50

ArcGIS - Norfolk Interactive Map


Storm Ditches

ArcGIS - Norfolk Interactive Map

Storm Ditches

51


Summer Scholar Research Project 2018

Native Brackish Species As we design resilient landscapes, it is important to repopulate waterfronts with their native species. These photos represent just a few of the many species native to Southern Virginia’s waterfronts. Many of these species prevent erosion and provide a rich habitat for marine life, allowing for a lively and beautiful resilient landscape.

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53


SOCIAL & ECONOMIC INFLUENCES


Summer Scholar Research Project 2018

NORFOLK : DIVERSE BUT DIVIDED 74%

ONLY A FRACTION OF NORFOLK RESIDENTS WALKS, CARPOOLS, Norfolk is the second largest city in Hampton Roads, behind Virginia OR USES PUBLIC Beach, with a population of over 245,000 people. Offcially founded in TRANSIT TO GET TO 1682, it is one of the oldest cities of the region, serving as a cultural WORK EVERY DAY

DRIVE ALONE

and fnancial center. Over the years, Norfolk has faced destruction numerous times. In 1776 it was bombarded for over eight hours during the Revolutionary War. Later, in 1804 it was decimated once again by a fre. Throughout the 1800’s recession and outbreaks of illnesses threatened the city and its residents.

TE

NORFOLK,VA Highest Income

Lowest Income

MEDIAN HOUSEHOLD

However, during the 1900’s the city began to regain its footing. Before World War I, the Naval Air Station was established. Norfolk continued to annex land until the 1980’s. As suburbs were constructed, white middle class families began to move out of the city center, drastically changing the demographic distribution. Revitalization efforts were made to attract the population back to the urban environment, and many malls, restaurants and retail centers were built.

RACIAL DEMOGRAPHIC

%

20%100 LESS THE VIRGINIA Today, Norfolk is almost squareTHAN miles, with a population density AND LESS of about 4,500 people AVERAGE were square mile. The10% population of the city THE NATIONAL is very diverse, with THAN 44% of residents identifying as AVERwhite, 43% as African American and 3% as Asian. Norfolk AGEis a relatively young city, with the median age falling just under 30. Tragically one-ffth of the population lives below the poverty line. Total crime falls above the national average as well, however this statistic has been improving. SERVICE Up until the 1970’s, the population of Norfolk was steadily increasing, SALES & OFFICE sometimes even doubling over the course of a decade. In 1980 13.3% of the populationEMPLOYMENT moved away, but has since leveled offBUSINESS, after SCIENCE & ARTS 2010. DISTRUBUTION

OWTH 56

45K

PRODUCTION CONSTRUTION

VIRGINIA BEACH

DOWNTOWN


AVERAGE AGE IS

29.5

74% DRIVE ALONE

YEARS OLD HISPANIC BLACK

OTHER WHITE

RACIAL DEMOGRAPHIC

.71%

IN JOB GROWTH

N

ONLY A FRACTION OF NORFOLK RESIDENTS WALKS, CARPOOLS, OR USES PUBLIC TRANSIT TO GET TO WORK EVERY DAY

MEDIAN HOUSEHOLD

45K

20% LESS THAN THE VIRGINIA AVERAGE AND 10% LESS THAN THE NATIONAL AVERAGE SERVICE SALES & OFFICE

EMPLOYMENT DISTRUBUTION

BUSINESS, SCIENCE & ARTS

DOWNTOWN

PRODUCTION CONSTRUTION

57


Summer Scholar Research Project 2018

Surrounding Neighborhoods The three neighborhoods surrounding our site are Downtown, Brambleton, and Tidewater Gardens. Each one is very different from the next, with Downtown Norfolk as the wealthiest by far. Interestingly, Tidewater Gardens is immediately adjacent to Downtown, however almost two thirds of its population lives under the poverty line with a median household income of a shocking $11,000 annually.

58

ArcGIS - Norfolk Interactive Map


9.5

DEMOGRAPHIC

the Poverty Line

DOWNTOWN NORFOLK

12.5% 63.5% live under

51K

HISPANIC OTHER BLACK

BLACK

WHITE

HISPANIC

OTHER

RACIAL DEMORACIAL GRAPHIC DEMOGRAPHIC

the livePoverty under Line the Poverty Line

MEDIAN HOUSEHOLD MEDIAN HOUSEHOLD

64K 11K

MENT RATE

6% 27% UNEMUNEMPLOYPLOYMENT MENT RATE RATE

BRAMBLETON

52%

9.512.5%

HISPANIC OTHER WHITE

BLACK

RACIAL DEMOGRAPHIC

live under the Poverty Line

TIDEWATER GARDENS

63.5% live under the Poverty live under Line the Poverty Line

MEDIAN HOUSEHOLD

51K

HISPANIC OTHER

WHITE

BLACK

HISPANIC BLACK

RACIAL DEMORACIAL GRAPHIC DEMOGRAPHIC

OTHER

MEDIAN HOUSEHOLD MEDIAN HOUSEHOLD

64K 11K

25%

UNEMPLOYMENT RATE

6% UNEM27% PLOYUNEMMENT PLOYRATE MENT RATE

59 HISPANIC OTHER


Summer Scholar Research Project 2018

Who is susceptible to flooding? It is clear that the areas surrounding our site that are most affected by flooding are also among the poorest neighborhoods in Norfolk. One of Norfolk’s Resilience Goals is to ensure an equal standard of living, yet these people are disproportionately affected by flooding. We have decided to propose a canal in this area, both to help with water mitigation and increase the value of the land.

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SUSTAINABLE GOALS & GUIDELINES


Summer Scholar Research Project 2018

2030 CHALLENGE The Challenge A major source for the global demand of energy and materials, buildings are responsible for the production of large amounts of greenhouse gasses (GHG). In order to address climate change and maintain the global average temperature at a specific value, slowing and reversing the effects of these emissions is key. To do so, the 2030 Challenge was developed with these initiatives: “All new buildings, developments and major renovations shall be designed to meet a fossil fuel, GHG-emitting, energy consumption performance standard of 70% below the regional (or country) average/median for that building type. “At a minimum, an equal amount of existing building area shall be renovated annually to meet a fossil fuel, GHG-emitting, energy consumption performance standard of 70% of the regional (or country) average/median for that building type. “The fossil fuel reduction standard for all new buildings and major renovations shall be increased to 80% in 2020, 90% in 2025, and carbon-neutral in 2030.” - The 2030 Challenge

The Impact So far eight out of the top ten architecture, engineering and planning firms in the United States have adopted the Challenge. In addition, the AIA and other American organizations, as well as various organizations in Canada have adopted it. Since 2006, sustainable buildings have migrated from prototypes to a new standard of building across the United States. As a result various programs and initiatives have begun in collaboration with the 2030 Challenge. For example, the 2030 Palette was developed as a free online tool to assist designers, engineers and planners in ensuring the implementation of the Challenge. Furthermore, 2030 Districts have been created in over a dozen major cities. Their goal is to renovate existing buildings and create high performance infill development within their current urban landscape.

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LIVING BUILDING CHALLENGE The Challenge “The Living Building Challenge is a green building certification program and sustainable design framework that visualizes the ideal for the built environment. It uses the metaphor of a flower because the ideal built environment should function as cleanly and efficiently as a flower.� - Living Building Basics Overview The Living Building Challenge promotes the design of spaces that connect light, air, food, nature and community with their inhabitants. Buildings should not only produce their own energy, but also create a surplus and collect and treat the water on their site. These healthy and beautiful buildings give more than they take.

Place

Water

Energy

Health and Happiness

Materials

Equity

The Principles The Living Building Challenge is concentrated around two core rules: 1. All Imperatives assigned to a Typology are mandatory. 2. Living Building Challenge Certification requires actual, rather than anticipated, performance demonstrated over twelve consecutive months. - Living Building Basics Overview Imperatives are subdivisions of seven different Petals, or performance areas. They address a variety of specific issues. Living Building Challenge also recognizes that sustainable solutions are often not one-size-fits-all. Scale jumping allows for cooperation between projects and their neighbors. The Living Future Institute has also created the Living Community Challenge and the Living Product Challenge. The former is a framework for master planning, design and construction, while the latter is a framework for creating healthy products that give back to the environment. Because of this, the Living Future Institute has created a network of guides that can help create sustainable solutions from a scale large enough to encompass a community, to one small enough to choose a proper light fixture. Overall, the Living Building Challenge and similar initiatives are helping to create communities that are socially fair yet still ecologically friendly.

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Summer Scholar Research Project 2018

HARNESSING TIDAL ENERGY

What is tidal energy?

Tidal Streams

Tidal energy, a renewable source of energy, is produced by the surge of ocean waters during the cyclical rise and fall of the tides. While this method of harnessing energy is still relatively new and untested, engineers are working to improve the technology to make it cheaper and more accessible. It offers some advantages over producing energy from the wind, too. Water is much more dense than air, and tides are far more predictable than the wind. This leads to a more stable energy supply and the potential to create more energy.

Pros: • Most common method of generating tidal energy, and therefore the most studied • Turbine blades spin slowly to protect marine life Cons: • Expensive to implement • Result in large scale disruption of natural ecosystems

Currently, only a few sites around the world even have tidal energy plants including France and South Korea. The United States only has a few sites where tidal energy could be produced at a reasonable cost, and legal concerns about underwater land ownership has further slowed American willingness to use the energy.

Source: http://www.tidalenergy.eu/tidal_stream_systems.html

Pros: • Generate a lot of energy • Can be constructed within a variety of geographic situations Cons: • Result in major disruption of the natural ecosystem • Very expensive to build and maintain

There are three ways to generate tidal energy, including tidal streams, barrages, and tidal lagoons. Tidal streams, or fast-flowing bodies of water created by tides, are currently the most popular option to locate tidal energy generators. Unfortunately, these turbines are very large, and disrupt the natural environments in which they are placed. However, the blades of the turbine spin slowly to help prevent marine life from getting caught within. The second way to generate tidal energy is the barrage, or a large dam that allows water to flow over the top or through turbines. They can be placed in rivers, bays, and estuaries. Working similarly to a traditional dam, the barrage stays open as the tide rises. At high tide, it will close, forming a tidal lagoon. As this water is released, it creates energy. Barrages aren’t as environmentally friendly as tidal streams. They trap organisms within and the turbine blades spin much faster than tidal energy generators. Furthermore, they are much more expensive to construct and maintain.

The Rance Tidal Barrage in North West France

Tidal Lagoons Pros: • Can be constructed along naturally occurring coastline • Allows vulnerable species to thrive • Minimal environmental impact Cons: • Low energy production • No functioning examples to study

The third way to harvest tidal energy is to construct tidal lagoons within the ocean. Functioning much like a barrage, tidal lagoons can be created along a natural coastline. Their environmental impact is far less than barrages, and they can be constructed from natural materials like rocks. Large predators would not be able to enter the lagoon, allowing smaller fish to thrive and drawing many birds to the area. Swansea Tidal Lagoon in the United Kingdom

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Barrages


Source: https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/tidal-energy/

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Summer Scholar Research Project 2018

UNDERSTANDING THE SITE SI

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First Impressions As the site transitions from the bustling Waterside area into Harbor Park, the context takes a dramatic shift. The Elizabeth River Trail becomes disconnected from the water front and continues behind Harbor Park, making it disconnected from the river itself. Overpasses clutter space between Tidewater Gardens and Harbor Park creating a stark separation between the two neighborhoods. Lack of flood mitigation keeps the area constantly covered in water and crumbling piers. Harbor Park stands alone in the center of the site becoming the anchor for why this area of the city exists in the first place. Our goal is to dissect these elements and to propose a solution which takes the once cluttered and unsightly area and turn it into a beautiful space with a multitude of activities and to prevent Norfolk from flooding as sea level rises and storms hit the coast.

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Summer Scholar Research Project 2018

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ELIZABETH RIVER

Points of Interest Network The site is currently a hub for transportation for a singular activity: The Tides baseball. As we move forward with the project it is important to understand the networks which exist between transportation elements and Harbor Park stadium. These site lines could provide insight to how we may organize the surrounding area and reactivate the city as it expands into the Harbor Park area.

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P P P

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Existing Connectivity Diagram Existing on the site are 5 modes of transportation, pedestrian, ferry, light rail, Amtrak, and car. It is important to take into account that all these modes of transportation are merely utilized for Tides baseball games an no other activity. Being s hub for transportation, the site has potential to become an extremely activate transit oriented development which could boost Norfolk’s young population.

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Summer Scholar Research Project 2018

...CONNECTIVITY?

View of our site from City Hall Avenue

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Main Street Extension As City Hall begins trasnformation Main Street becomes a significant street which can be activated on the Harbor Park Site. Diagrammatically, Main Street connects to Harbor Park through the City Hall building and continues down to the waterfront. In turn, this will create a main axis on the site which can be used to orient buildings, and park spaces.

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Initial Canal Proposal In an attempt to mitigate flooding issues and make Harbor Park a unique destination, a canal is cut through the site in order to transform Norfolk back to its orginal identitiy. This canal will provide space for waterfront properties, an extensive park network, and make Habor Park an even more significant destination in the urban context of Norfolk.

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OUTDOOR OUTDOORTHEATRE THEATRE

Summer Scholar Research Project 2018 OUTDOOR THEATRE BRIDGING OVER

BUILDING : RIVER

BREWERY

OUTDOOROUTDOOR THEATRE THEATRE RIVER RIVERININRELATION RELATIONTO TOTRAIN TRAINSTATION STATION

OUTDOOR THEATRE

RIVER IN RELATION TO TRAIN STATION BRIDGING OVER W/ PARK

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ELIZABETH ELIZABETHRIVER RIVER

UNDERPASS: POP UP SHOPS

ELIZABETH RIVER ELIZABETH ELIZABETHRIVER RIVERTRAIL TRAILEXTENTION EXTENTION ELIZABETH RIVER TRAIL EXTENTION

OVERLOOK OVERLOOK OVERLOOK

ROAD : RIVER : LIGHT RAIL

BUILDING : RIVER

BREWERY BREWERY BREWERY

ELIZABETH ELIZABETH RIVER RIVER

RIVER IN RELATION RIVER IN RELATION TO TRAIN TO STATION TRAIN STATION RIVER IN RELATION TO TRAIN STATION

RK

UNDERPASS: UNDERPASS:POP POPUP UPSHOPS SHOPS UNDERPASS: POP UP SHOPS PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE ROAD : RIVER : LIGHT RAIL

UNDERPASS: UNDERPASS:SKATE SKATEPARK PARK UNDERPASS: PARK SHOPSSKATE UNDER BRIDGES

ELIZABETH RIVER TRAIL EXTENTION

BREWERY

BREWERY

UNDERPASS: UNDERPASS:COMMUNITY COMMUNITYGARDEN GARDEN UNDERPASS: COMMUNITY GARDEN BREWERY

BRIDGING OVER W/ LIGHT RAIL UNDER BRIDGES SHOPS

E

UNDERPASS: UNDERPASS:INTERACTIVE INTERACTIVEFOUNTAIN FOUNTAIN UNDERPASS: INTERACTIVE FOUNTAIN FLOATING SHOPS ON RIVER

UNDERPASS: UNDERPASS: POP UP SHOPS POP UP SHOPS UNDERPASS: UNDERPASS: SKATE PARK SKATE PARK UNDERPASS: POP UP SHOPS UNDERPASS: SKATE PARK

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OVERLOOK OVER

ELIZABETH RIVER ELIZABETH ELIZABETH RIVER TRAIL RIVER EXTENTION TRAIL EXTENTION

THE TIDE

BREWERY

UNDERPASS: COMMUNITY GARDEN

OVERLOOK


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Focus Areas Our research and observations led us to determine four main areas to focus on for development. First, the overpass and the waterfront park pull people into the site. Once in the site, the waterfront park shifts into an inhabitable canal that also aids in water mitigation. Finally, the Boomerang, a pedestrian walkway and public space closes the loop around Harbor Park.

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Summer Scholar Research Project 2018 Y CIT

DOWNTOWN NORFOLK

LL HA MA ST ER PL AN

OUR VISION

As Norfolk evolves into a city of resiliency, development, and activity, it is important to project a vision that creates a sense of connection, activated program, and reintegration of water. This master plan speculates Harbor Park as a place of destination where a person could experience the city of Norfolk in a way never before in attempt to reclaim Norfolk’s nautical identity. Through the reintegration of the canal which once existed on the site, it becomes populated with waterfront properties, a rich trail system, and mitigates potential for extreme flooding both for Harbor Park and Tidewater Gardens. Stretching up to Brambleton Avenue, the canal becomes a hub for activity and future development for many years to come with potential to be integrated into Downtown Norfolk and other neighborhoods East of St. Paul’s Boulevard encouraging activity across it’s threshold.

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By reorganizing the highway system, the sites area nearly doubles in size providing more land to develop mixed use buildings, park networks, and bustling waterfront properties. Moving traffic due north of this site encourages a transit oriented neighborhood free from extreme amounts of cars to encourage pedestrian, bike, light rail, and Amtrak transportation. This sparks development of on street retail, transportation income for the city to fund the transformation, and create an activated Main Street which stays true to its past identity. The Boomerang provides a unique infrastructural element which captures a space between Harbor Park Baseball Stadium and the Elizabeth River. The Boomerang acts as an anchor for the site by providing a unique attraction to watch the baseball game from the water, to provide connection to the Elizabeth River Trail Extension and to give Harbor Park a heightened sense of destination it never had before. The beach, shops, restaurants, and trails all converge on this site making it a hub for activity during a baseball game as well as every other day. By linking each aspect of the master plan with site lines along the waterfront, Norfolk’s waterfront is identified as a place full of activity and resilient landscapes. Through these means, Harbor Park becomes an extension of downtown Norfolk but maintains it’s own destination which projects Norfolk’s development into the future.

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“We have built this momentum together. We must stay the course and remain committed to reimagine Norfolk.� - Mayor Kenneth Cooper Alexander


Re-route highway to consolidate exits and clear site for future development.

PHASE 01 - 2 year

Add lights and murals under overpass to activate space beneath.

Demo existing structure & establish extension of existing city grid through Tidewater neighborhood

Demo existing buildings and foundations at waterfront and begin construction on new resilient park

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Summer Scholar Research Project 2018

PHASE 02 - 5 year

Phase in new development, focusing on the Main St. Extension and lots adjacent to the overpass

Begin canal constrution around Harbor Park

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Extend light rail: Orange Line

Construct the Boomerang and surrounding Harbor Park restaurants. Connect with existing Elixabeth River Trail.


PHASE 03 - 10 year

Increase density of new development and extend towards Brambleton Avenue

Extend light rail: Blue and Pink lines

Finish construction of the canal, extending through Tidewater along the flood plain

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Summer Scholar Research Project 2018

EXTENDING THE LIGHT RAIL

THE TIDE : Important Connections The goal of connection did not end at the borders of Norfolk, it continued across the entire Chesapeake Bay region. In order to grow the city of Norfolk, commuting to the city for work and entertainment, must come with ease, therefore the current light rail was extended north, to connect Hampton to Norfolk, and west, to connect Norfolk to Virginia Beach. Two new light rail lines will be added to connect

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the towns of Chesapeake, Portsmouth, Suffolk, as well as the Norfolk International Airport. At the Intersection of these lines will be the new Norfolk Transportation Hub, connecting the Amtrak station, bus stations, and the new light rail lines, all built in the new Harbor Park District.


Virginia Beach Oceanfront

Portsmouth

Hampton

Naval Station

Old Dominion University

Norfolk International Airport

Chesapeake

Virginia Beach Town Center

Regent University

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Summer Scholar Research Project 2018

The Overpass Elevated highways naturally create divided spaces, so we decided to challenge this idea by redirecting exits and humanizing the area underneath the road. Our design makes an effort to blend the overpass into its surroundings and to facilitate the movement of people below, in the same spirit of allowing the movement of vehicular traffic above. We envision the underpass park as home to running and biking trails, light installations and a place for local artists to showcase their work.

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Traffic Recirculation/Underpass The relocation of exits is critical in opening up the area below the elevated highway for pedestrian inhabitation. Presently, there are extraneous exits that could be consolidated and concentrated in one area. This new concept returns valuable real estate back to the city while maintaining present connections between Downtown Norfolk, the bridge to Portsmouth and Virginia Beach.

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Harbor Park Devlopment

Underpass Park

Community Garden

Tidewater Gardens

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Summer Scholar Research Project 2018

The Waterfront Currently, the waterfront adjacent to Harbor Park is home to old concrete foundations, parking lots, and not much else. All of the lingering hardened landscape disallows storm water from being absorbed back into the ground, resulting in more devastating flooding. Our vision for the waterfront returns both people and the site back to the river. Grasses and plants in the off the coast along with a tiered grade permit safe flooding and allow Norfolk to live with the water.

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Waterfront Circulation The circulation along the waterfront is designed around bringing people into the site, guiding them towards the river, and promoting rest and reflection. Two piers further extend the experience into the water and a set of concrete stairs maintain the integrity of the land while allowing access to the river. The Elizabeth River Trail feeds into this new landscape as well.

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Hotel

Upper Level Park

Road & Bike

Lower Level Park

Living Shoreline

BREWERY CAFE

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Summer Scholar Research Project 2018

The Boomerang The Boomerang is an intervention to create new, interesting, and dynamic exterior spaces in the city. It is a natural extension of Main street, welcoming to cyclists, pedestrians, and mariners alike. The Boomerang breaks up tidal flooding on the site by creating a barrier that separates the natural coast line from the Elizabeth River. It also acts as a tidal lagoon creating energy for the city. In addition, it introduces new green spaces to absorb water from storms and surges.

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The Boomerang : Circulation Diagrammatically, The Boomerang serves as an extension to Main St. while providing a unique experience between Harbor Park Baseball Stadium and the Waterfront. A singular path branches off into three piers that extend down to the artificial beach next to Harbor Park. (Blue) Two curvilinear piers serve as vantage points out to the Elizabeth River and the newly formed canal. (Yellow)

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Harbor Park Rooftop & Retail

Beach & Interstitial Waterfront

Boomerang Interior Walkway

Boomerang Exterior Walkway

HARBOR PARK

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The Canal The canal is experienced as an interconnected network of paths parks and other activities. As it weaves through the site, it directs users around the site’s extents pulling people in from every neighborhood, regardless of demographic area. Populated with native plants, the resilient canal prevents tidal and storm surge flooding by providing a space for large volumes of water to collect. During the event of a flood, the canal is still activated due to it’s unique stratification of space and circulation.

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The Canal : Circulation The circulation around the canal helps transform this necessary resilient intervention into a public and social space for the citizens of Norfolk to enjoy. Bike and pedestrian friendly, it promotes healthy living, exercise and a connection with nature. The paths are layered as well to create a diverse experience and allow for interaction with the water on various levels.

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Harbor Park Development

Road

Visitor’s Center

Elizabeth River Canal

Canal Park

Harbor Park

HARBOR PARK

BREWERY

Visit Norfolk

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Summer Scholar Research Project 2018

Path Stratification Urban overlap provides a stitching between the urban fabric and the resilient landscapes which exist along the edges of Harbor Park Baseball Stadium. Layering paths which weave in and out of each other provide varying sectional qualities and potential for water retention. Light rail, car, pedestrian, bike, and nautical traffic create a transportation oriented development which is rich in experience and is unprecedented in the city of Norfolk.

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CONCLUSION

As sea levels rise and storms become more frequent, it is clear that Norfolk must quickly respond to its changing environment. Because simply letting nature run its course would result in the demise of the city. It is imperative that resilience efforts must be continued and increased in order to protect Norfolk’s future. It is our hope that this project serves as a source of inspiration for addressing this challenge head on. We believe in the potential of Norfolk to serve as a model coastal city for the rest of the world because we recognize that these issues extend far beyond the Hampton Roads region.

Finally the canal addresses the issues associated with flooding by returning some of the infilled land back to its original state. Water mitigation in the Tidewater Gardens neighborhood would be significantly improved, as will the quality of life for its inhabitants. Since the city already has plans to reimagine this area, we see this as an opportunity to create a higher density development that retains enough space for anyone who wants to stay, yet increases the value and utility of the land. Furthermore, south of the overpass the canal would transform the area surrounding Harbor Park into a unique geographical feature. By creating an island, the stadium’s While we chose to focus on four concrete ideas, we hope that they identity would be reimagined. With the right balance of community, can be recognized and remembered for the ideas behind them. First, commercial and cultural spaces, this concentrated area could take the overpass encourages connections between neighborhoods and on a new importance within Norfolk. allowing the pedestrian to become more important than the car. It represents the breakdown of social and income inequity and Overall, this project explores only some of the possibilities for promotes shared experience and inclusion. creating environmentally conscious, resilient-minded, socially equitable spaces. We offer our ideas as part of the conversation on Secondly, the waterfront park grew from ideas rooted in preserving urban resilience that is already taking place here in Norfolk. We hope the natural environment and learning to live with the water. By that they bring a fresh perspective to the table, allowing the city to designing landscapes that accept the water gracefully, the coast think about its future in new unprecedented ways. is protected, habitats are restored and the built environment is not threatened. Furthermore, by encouraging a connection with the river and with green space, the quality of life is enhanced for the people living in Norfolk. Opportunities to embrace nature are often limited in urban environments and this idea would help Norfolk attract potential residents. Third, the Boomerang serves as an icon for the city. A large intervention like this may seem daunting at first, however it has the potential to become an attraction and a destination. It protects the coastline, creates new experiences, and embraces the baseball stadium. It helps Harbor Park retain importance even when games are not taking place by providing uses for the area at all times of the day, week and year. It also continues the extension of Main Street, a symbolic unification between downtown and this new district.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Project Contributors & Critics

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WORKS CITED Hanbury hewv.com/practice/overview/ hewv.com/practice/summer-scholar-program/ hewv.com/knowledge-cafe/welcome-to-our-2018-summer-scholars/ 100 Resilient Cities 100resilientcities.org/our-impact/ 100resilientcities.org/cities/norfolk/ 100resilientcities.org/cities/boston/ 100resilientcities.org/cities/dallas/ 100resilientcities.org/cities/new-orleans/ 100resilientcities.org/cities/new-york-city/ 100resilientcities.org/cities/paris/ 100resilientcities.org/cities/rotterdam/ The City of Norfolk norfolk.gov/flooding norfolk.gov/DocumentCenter/View/27257 (Resilience Strategy) norfolk.gov/index.aspx?NID=1605 (Interactive Map) Neighborhood Scout neighborhoodscout.com/va/norfolk/demographics Charlestown Costal Resilience Strategy boston.gov/sites/default/files/coastalresiliencesolutions_ eastbostoncharlestown_executivesummary.pdf Trinity Riverfront stoss.net/projects/27/trinity-riverfront/

Scenes of Rain, Wind, and Flooding pilotonline.com/news/local/weather/storms/article_469e4cab-e2ae5c17-9afe-cfcbdcf338ed.html 2030 Challenge architecture2030.org/2030_challenges/2030-challenge/ architecture2030.org/2030_challenges/2030_challenge_planning/ Living Building Challenge living-future.org/lbc/ Living Building Challenge 3.1 LEED new.usgbc.org/leed Artticles and Projects brooksscarpa.com/salty-urbanism wetlandswatch.org/dutch-dialogues/ fastcompany.com/3020918/how-the-netherlands-became-thebiggest-exporter-of-resilience theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2015/09/this-is-what-happens-aftera-neighborhood-gets-gentrified/432813/ citylab.com/equity/2016/05/which-neighborhoods-win-by-buildingaffordable-housing/481209/ reinventingthecrescent.org rebuildbydesign.org nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/tidal-energy/ union-news.co.uk/unite-makes-waves-over-swansea-bay-tidallagoon/

Greater New Orleans Urban Water Plan wbarchitects.com/urban-design/greater_new_orleans_water_ management_strategy/ The BIG U archdaily.com/493406/the-big-u-big-s-new-york-city-vision-forrebuild-by-design Place Mazas so-il.org/projects/place-mazas River as Tidal Park urbanisten.nl/wp/?portfolio=river-as-tidal-park

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[re]norfolk  

As part of Hanbury’s Summer Scholar program, our team of five set out to learn about the resiliency issues challenging Norfolk’s future. We...

[re]norfolk  

As part of Hanbury’s Summer Scholar program, our team of five set out to learn about the resiliency issues challenging Norfolk’s future. We...