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Table of Contents Introduction + Table of Contents………………..……………………… 2 What is a Carbon Footprint…………………………………..…………….3 My Footprint…………………………………………………………………..4-10 How to Reduce Your Footprint……………………………………………. 11 Consequences of a Large Footprint……………………………………..12 A Reduced Carbon Footprint Profile Example……………………...19 Different Types Of Energy Around The World………………….20-22 Year By Year Analysis of Game Play + City………………………26-34 Energy Usage Analysis………………………………………………………..35 City Summary Report………………………………………………………...36 Why Conservation Planning?.................................................37 Stake Holders of the City………………………………………………..38-39

INTRODUCTION— Las Piedras, Puerto Rico Las Piedras, is a beautiful city located in near the equator of the earth. It has glamorous resorts and is quite a developed city. But now, the city wishes to develop clean energies to lower their overall costs and to be green to save the earth. With its location, it is ideal for various setups and strategies. The existing power plants are two coal plants and one oil plant. With the great population comes with generous budgets because of taxes and other funds. It is located near the equator so there is strong solar energy and ideal for solar technology. There are other ecological features that make this city great for a wide variety of resources. It is near bodies of water, which is ideal for wind technology as there is more wind there, hydroelectric technology and tidal technology since it is near the ocean and a body of fresh water.

So What Exactly is a Carbon Footprint? A carbon footprint is around how much area of land and ocean that is needed to support your current consumption of foods, goods, services, housing, energy and the total amount of your wastes. Essentially, it is your current lifestyle, the house you live in and how well you eat/live. It is how big of an impact that one has on the earth; the greater the carbon footprint the greater impact. It is expressed in the units of “global hectares” (gba). This unit takes into account the consequences of the environment/ecosystem due to one’s consumption ability. So, for example, if one lives a lifestyle that releases toxic compounds into the ecosystem, then your gba will also increase. The footprint is broken down into four consumption categories; carbon, food, housing and goods and services. Carbon consists of home energy use and transportation; like using natural gas to power the house or driving a SUV, food; if you’re are vegetarian, omnivore and etc. Eating meat greatly increases the gba because it takes lots of energy and contributes to the increase of greenhouse gases; for example a cow. The cows require shelter, food, and this food is transported from somewhere, also, cows tend to release a lot of methane into the air. Thirdly is housing, which includes the size of one’s house, the type of house and the location of the house. If one’s house is larger then, it would therefore require more energy to heat/cool the house during various seasons. It also required a greater amount of material to build the house, which in turn means more energy is used and to transport these materials, more energy is used. The type of house is also important. For example, if the house has extra insulation or solar panels installed than less energy is needed because it can keep the current energy inside the house (heat will not escape as easily if one installs insulation, in contrast to one that doesn’t). And finally, is the location of the house; if it is located in the older suburban areas, then it is not as new and therefore does not have the most efficient and energy saving appliances or systems as compared to newer suburban areas. Lastly are goods and services; these include customer products and services such as trips to the hair salon. These are the average carbon footprints per capita in global Hectares by biome and consumption.

My Carbon Footprint.

Reducing one’s Carbon footprint Reducing one’s carbon footprint can be as simple as taking a few minutes or current investments on energy saving materials to save energy and money in the long term; thus reducing the carbon footprint, reducing the food footprint by buying locally, the housing footprint by choosing sustainable materials/habits and reducing the goods/services footprint by simply buying less. It is not impossible to reduce the carbon footprint to less than 1 earth if everyone lived the same style as me. It is not unrealistic but rather that we are too materialistic; it is hard for us to give up our current lifestyle and comfort for something less uncomfortable or use more money to invest in the long run. To reduce the carbon footprint, this includes using cleaner transport, adding energy saving features to your home, and adopting energy saving habits. Using cleaner transport includes walking or taking public transit whenever possible; turning on the car and using it creates a lot of the greenhouse gases. If it is really necessary, avoid idling the car and making sure that the car is at peak performance; having the emission control systems serviced regular and checking the tire inflation to maximize gas mileage. Adding energy saving features may include installing fluorescent bulbs to reduce the amount of energy used, to extra insulation so that it keeps the energy in the house and insulting the water heater so that it heats the water you use. Along with energy saving, must also come with the saving habits. It is pointless if you buy fluorescent light bulbs but leave it on all day. Keeping the thermoset low on winter and high in summer saves a huge amount of energy. Electronics also sip energy even if unused, so unplugging them is recommended as well as choosing green electricity such as solar energy. Secondly is the food footprint. To reduce it, it is to simply buy more organic, in-season foods from local farmer’s market or organic foods from the supermarket. It saves money and a lot of greenhouse gas production by reducing transportation, planting a garden is also a grand example of that; not only is the food fresh but less trips to the supermarket. Lastly, is eating lower on the food chain; going meatless once a week reduces greenhouse gas emissions associated with meat consumption. For the third category, the housing footprint can be reduced by installing green features such as solar panels and having efficient appliances such as low flow shower heads, energy star stoves, low flush toilets and always using biodegradable, nontoxic cleaning products. This lowers the amount of energy used because it requires less water and as a result the environment will have less waste going into the ponds and etc, same with toxic cleaning products. Some other water saving habits include using the compost instead bags of garbage, running the dishwasher and the laundry when it is full and regularly fixing/looking for leaks. Lastly, to reduce the goods and services footprints are rather simple; buying less and replace only the items that you really need to. You are saving the cost of transporting this furniture and thus reducing greenhouse gas emission. Recycling paper, glass, aluminum and electronics help reduce the total waste sitting in the ecosystem.

Consequences of a Large Footprint The larger the carbon footprint means more impact on the planet. This could mean the types of waste going out into the environment. Toxic compounds leeching into the environment is adverse for the organisms in the ecosystem as they can be ingested and may have mutations/ malformations or when a higher organism in the food chain consumes this, bioamplification occurs. This is when a predator eats many of a prey that has ingested toxic chemicals from their prey. Humans are regular predators of the food chain and as a result, we ingest these chemicals and adverse effects can take place. A second possible consequence may be the increase of greenhouses gases. Since the carbon footprint includes things like transportation and the release of greenhouse gases with activates such as the consumption of heat, it would make sense for the levels of greenhouse gases to increase as the carbon footprint increases. A major greenhouse gas that we produce is CO2 and is one of the main ones in the atmosphere. If they continue to increase, we will continue to feel the consequences of a phenomenon known as Global Warming. Global warming is the increase of global temperatures and consequently the ice caps/glaciers are melting at a extremely fast rate, ocean levels are rising an droughts and forest fires are becoming more common. But how does global warming work? Heat and light enter the Earth’s atmosphere and some heat is absorbed by the land, water and greenhouse gases. The Greenhouse gases trap this heat and therefore heating our atmosphere. The greenhouse gases then re-emit the heat in all directions and some back into space, as it re-emits other greenhouse gases then trap this heat and keep in the atmosphere of earth, thus increasing the temperatures. The land and water also absorb heat and emit it in every direction, and as a result greenhouse gases can again trap this heat. This heat is thermal energy, and comes from the sun. So as the amount of greenhouse gases increase, so does the amount of heat trapped by these greenhouse gases, so as a result the temperature of earth will continue to rise. This is called a positive feedback loop, when the original stimulus encourages or increases the feedback loop.

Example: Reduced Footprint Profile Here is a good example. I realized that it is possible to have a foot print of less than 1, but it is rather hard as developed cities and citizens are hesitant to give up certain privileges and spend large sums of money just to get that extra green energy. I have created a footprint that is 1.29 earths.

Different Types of Energy—Choices Type of Energy

How it Works - Simple




Large windmills are placed on land or over the ocean and as winds blow the propeller blades, it turns the generator that is connected to a transformer

- proper spacing of wind turbines are important to ensure most efficient method of harnessing the wind and as a result increases wind farm footprint - Extra costs/production to put wind turbines on oceans, as they need to reach the bottom of the ocean

Concentrated Solar

As the name implies, it redirects all of the sun’s rays/beams onto one focal point. This is done by utilizing an array of adjustable mirrors to reflect the sunlight to a tower/pipe filled with liquid. As the liquid heats from the intense heat, it generates steam that turns the turbine and produces energy

- Wind turbines are technology mature - they emit no pollution of any kind and does not require the use of water - They take up little space on the ground - The assembling/production cost of wind turbines is significantly less than others EX: hydroelectric plant - Wind is renewable and is abundant and can be found in a variety of locations - The materials for the array are not hard to find, as they are mirrors and the heating liquid is usually water - There is no emissions or waste products as they use the sun’s natural light and heat - Sun light is abundant and we are harnessing the power of it with minimal environmental impact - renewable energy source


Wells are drilled into seismically active areas (volcano’s) to reach superheated water under the surface. The steam from the water is pressurized upon reaching the surface and as the steam reaches the surface, it turns a turbine to generate electricity. The water is then cooled and returned underground to be heated once again by the bedrock.

- utilizing resources in a concentrated area in specific areas, thus reduces the cost of transportation of fuel and equipment - Takes up very little space to operate, a small factory is required and that is all - Generals a lot of power with no pollution and very low emissions - Using a natural resource of the earth; Volcano’s and seismically active areas are natural and are renewable

Solar Photovoltaic

This differs from concentrated solar because, these panels have 3 layers with a conductor material like silicon in between plates of metal coated glass. Sunlight that hits the silicon atoms dislodges electrons, and is then made into a flow by the plates. This results in a current stored in batteries or connected to the power grid

- The positioning of the solar panels is flexible and the sun is an abundant source of renewable energy - can be placed anywhere, from rooftops or on the ground - can be used on rooftops or windows of sky scrapers so that they can generate their own power

- large foot print because the amount of reflectors needed to make a concentrated beam in a solar plant - most solar plants use water for cooling, and as a result cause a strain on local water resources, affecting civilian life - Are not effective in areas with low amount of sunlight - Maintenance of the water tower because it is constantly undergoing temperature changes. - Due to the specific areas that allows geothermal energy to work, this type of energy is not readily available everywhere - The amount of energy that an individual well produces fluctuates because of the different seismic activity in each area thus, the amount of steam produced cannot be controlled and is not constant - The drilling of wells is extensive and sometimes require explosives, contributing to carbon footprint - take up a lot of space due to the size of the panels needed to create a strong enough current - ineffective in bad weather, for example on a cloudy day, the sun does not shine as much and so the electricity generated


Wave power is harnessed by attaching generators on floating devices in the ocean. The buoy on the ocean carries magnets that move up or down due to the waves over a stationary coil. This lifts the coil up and down and as a result a current is generated as the magnetic fields are constantly changing.

- Take up very little space, as a result the footprint is very small - an inexhaustible resource, as it relies on the waves on the ocean - does not affect the fresh water supply because it relies on salt water, and thus not putting a strain on local resources - can be placed almost anywhere on the ocean and the placing is flexible - the most mature , and advanced renewable power generation - the most relied on type of power generation than others - renewable and since it uses fresh water, it does not corrode the parts - Dams are strong and built to withstand erosion and the battering of water


Dams are built and the flow of water is restricted. The water is then forced through a turbine that turns the generator, which produces power


Turbines are placed on the seabed of oceans or areas with high current, and as tides move in and out, it spins the turbines thus generating electricity

- Tidal power is predictable, reliable and is measurable with instruments and can be predicted years in advanced -It is Renewable energy utilizing tidal waves - emits no pollution


These plants harness the power of enriched uranium. Uranium is an unstable radioactive element that decays naturally over time. The plant shoots neutrons that breaks apart individuals atoms, that also release more neutrons and so creates the cascade effect. This produces an enormous amount of heat. The heat boils a fluid that boils water and produces steam that turns the turbine to generate electricity.

- Generates an enormous amount energy - generates minimal air pollution and direct carbon emissions - relatively new and advanced technology

- Require frequent maintenance because of the constant battering the buoys experience because of the waves - The sea water corrodes and damages the buoy, hence more maintenance is required

- Most of the world’s suitable rivers have already been dammed, so very few rivers are now suitable and are able to dammed - gRivers are subject to fluctuating levels of water, depending on the rainfall and temperature. If there is more sun and heat, the water levels of the river may be lower - with river levels fluctuating, the power produced from hydroelectric plants also fluctuate. This makes it hard to predict. - require a lot of maintenance because the salt corrodes the metal of the turbine - more maintenance means more materials and transportation - The emissions of mining, transporting, and enriching uranium are significant. This releases carbon emissions directly to the environment - There are radiation effects of mining and the disposal of toxic waste - There are terrorism and security concerns as the plant could melt down and explode (like Chernobyl)

Coal with carbon capture

Coal is burned through a furnace; this is where the power is generated. And instead of the smoke being released into the atmosphere, it is pumped into an underground cavity and is stored indefinitely

- this process removes carbon dioxide, which is a greenhouse gas and is a large factor in contributing to global warming - It removes and reduces CO2 emissions by 85 to 90 percent - Coal is abundant in the earth as of right now, and is easy to burn

Natural Gas

Natural gas is extracted and is burned, to heat. This heat then boils water and produces steam that powers turbine generator

- It is the cleanest-burning fossil fuel - natural gas releases less CO2 than other fossil fuels, like coal or oil - it is still abundant in the world - stable and mature technology


Gasoline falls under this category as well, as it is the refined version of oil. They are both burned to produce steam where it turns a turbine generator

- oil is plentiful and has a variety of uses across many industries. It is even used for powering cars - one of the main energy sources in the energy industry

Corn and Cellulosic Ethanol

Corn, prairie grass, and other plant matter are harvested. They are then fermented and distilled to produce a pure ethyl alcohol. This alcohol is a flammable liquid that can be used in an internal combustion engine.

- Ethanol burns more cleanly than other fuels used in internal combustions - releases a lot less CO2 into the atmosphere

- 25 percent more energy is needed to power the equipment and to pump the carbon emissions underground. This means more coal needs to be burned to support this operation - The process of this does not reduce emissions associated with coal mining and transportation. This means that a lot more carbon emissions are produced to get to the process of burning the coal - No commercial scale carbon capture plant exists yet. Most of the coal plants are without carbon capture - produces pollution that pollutes the air - the extraction process produces even more air pollution and toxic by products - Transportation costs are high, as barrels of gas must be transported, directly contributing to direct emission of CO2 - If there is a spill, damages ecosystem around it - Since it is one of the main sources of the industry, it is one of the largest causes of air pollution and CO2 emissions. - large transportation costs as it is one of the most used energies - the creation of oil drills is large - the generation of air pollution is significant because of the life cycle of plants, and the energy expended to plants. To grow them, harvest, and then to process the plants so it can become ethyl alcohol is a lengthy and energy expensive process. - this increases the carbon footprint and generates more waste products than any other power generation.

An Alternative Energy City - Las Piedras

Type of energy used: In Las Piedras, the city starts off with only 2 coal plants and an oil plant. So in the beginning year, I had no energies to rely on, so as a result I used all the energies of the coal plant and 2 pumps of the oil plant. As a result the energy diversity is only consisted of exhaustible energy. I have fulfilled the whole bar by reaching to 100 energy. Local Air Quality: Coal and oil are exhaustible energies and therefore lower the air quality. They release CO2 into the atmosphere that degrades the air quality as we inhale them. I initially started off at 60 and because of my use of coal and unclean energies, it decreased to 50 in the first year. Global Environmental Health: Using resources have an effect on the world not just on the city. By using unclean energy like coal and oil, it takes up fresh water and contributes to acid rain which regions are affected. As a result my year 1 reading went from 100 to 30 because of my reliance of non-clean energy. Budget: Because I started off with only coal plants and one oil plants, I needed to research new technologies to aim for an alternative energy city and so I spent a great deal of money. Things done: 1) upgraded my coal plants (2) with carbon capture to reduce the emissions released. Without the carbon capture system, I would lose one air quality and 2 earths each time. Once upgraded, I would only lose 1 air quality. The trade off was that I would only get 8 energy each use instead of 13, but it was worth it because my Global health environment along with my air quality was suffering 2) researched wind farm #1 and solar resources  this was done because it said that it was rather sunny, so it was beneficial to install solar resources. I would gain energy, and at the cost of no environmental impact.  Same with wind farm #1 and , these resources are inexhaustible

Type of energy used: In year 4, the carbon capture system was implemented and my wind farm #1 has been completed along with its upgrade to maximize its energy. As a result the energy used was a mixture of inexhaustible and exhaustible. My wind farm provided about 40 energy because of its maximized system and the rest of the energy was gathered from the coal plant with CCS. For the prior years until year 2 (when wind farm was completed) the town completely relied on coal/oil plants. Local Air Quality: The air quality started off high and continues to decrease because I am still depend on the coal/ oil. Even though, I have an a wind farm, it is not enough to produce enough energy for the city. Global Environmental Health: In year 2, the global environmental impact continued to decrease because oil/coal plants were only used. In year 3, it rose because a famous architect came in and installed newer technology, also my wind farm provided sufficient energy instead of only relying coal plants. But in year 4, the energy consumption rose, and I had to rely on coal plants more and so a decrease took place. In addition to this, I also built another wind farm that takes space, thus reducing my global environmental health impact. Budget: I still wish to build an alternative city that saves money and uses as much inexhaustible/renewable energy possible. As a result, I have spent a large sum of my money on researching and developing. Things done: 1) upgraded my oil plant to maximize the amount of energy that can be extracted. The rationale behind this was that I have found myself relying on coal a lot and sometimes even used oil. In the case of emergency that I do use oil I might as well get the upgrade that does less damage (air quality and global wise) with more energy output. 2) researched in nuclear power technology - I wanted to research into a technology that gives a significant amount of energy and does minimal impact to the environment. Though exhaustible, this became the backbone of my early city and continued to till year 20. 3) researched in hydroelectric technology - also gives off a great amount of energy and is inexhaustable 4) bought commercial PV panels - this came from solar energy and it raised the air quality which I needed and automatically gave me energy and is an inexhaustible energy

This year 7 of my energy city, it has fully developed into something that can actually be presented. Years 1 to 4 was nothing but a wind farm and the default coal plant and oil plant. As one can see my buildings all have pv panels that automatically give me energy at the beginning. At this point, both my coal plants have CCS (carbon capture system) and my oil plant is further refined. It is visible that I have two wind farms, one that is a wind power farm and the other regular. These wind farms are the main source of my inexhaustible energy. Lastly is the nuclear power plant that is the backbone of my energy city. The nuclear power plant provides tremendous power with 15 energy per dollars. This was the main power source of the energy until my other inexhaustible energies and structures could be built. As one can see, my air quality is not as good as it could be and the same with my global environmental impact. As a result I am attempting to install/research technologies that either raises these values or do not affect them. Examples are residential pv panels and bike paths. These only require money and will raise air quality and global impact by 1 or more each turn.

Type of energy used: In year 7, the shape of an alternative energy city is beginning to live up to its standards. Most of the energy used comes from the nuclear power plant, and the inexhaustible energy comes from the wind farms that were built remain constant along with the solar energy technologies installed (pv panels). Bike paths were also built, thus reducing the energy consumption as people took their bikes. Local Air Quality: For the first time, the air quality is finally rising because the energy used was solar, wind, nuclear and only one pump of coal. In addition bike paths were installed that increases the air quality. So with the energies that do no damage to the environment and technology that raises it, my air quality began to rise. Global Environmental Health: In year 7, I am an almost an all time low, the reason is because a hydroelectric plant is being built that cost 27 of these earths. Besides this, I have energies that do not affect this and technologies that increase this stat. Budget: The energy city is in the middle of its development and so large money consumption is still in use. Things done: 1) building the hydro electric plant—with this, my city can totally rely on nuclear and only inexhaustible/renewable energies 2) Conservation energies were purchased - residential PV panels were installed - Green business Incentives were installed - Green Roofs - these technologies were bought to increase the air quality and global impact stat, as to research/build more plants I need these stats. In addition I will eventually have a positive net of theses stats and they will eventually raise back to 100. 3) Geothermal resources - this was installed because after this technology was researched, I could proceed to install geothermal heating which gives 8 energy each term and does not harm to the environment beside the development.

Type of energy used: Following consistency, nuclear power now consists of 50% of the energy income, and the rest are solar and wind. In addition, the conservation section is beginning to rise because more technologies are built, such as incentives, bike paths, and pv panels. Local Air Quality: Throughout the years, my air quality has been increasing gradually as no energies that harm the environment was used and conservation planning was used. Year 10 has a large spike because this year there was almost to little no plants being built, so as a result, no earths/air quality stat was used. Global Environmental Health: Consistent with the local air quality, this stat has been recovering steadily until the 10th year. The reason it has dropped this year is because the budget was focused on buying out all the conservation technologies, and some resulted in a loss of this stat. Budget: I now have a stable city and can focus my budget elsewhere like renewable energy instead of energy plants. I have also chose to build one more inexhaustible plant, and researching the tidal technology. Things done: 1) A geothermal power plant was built - it is not good to rely on only one energy and it is good ot have energy diversity. In addition, if I am ever in a pinch for money, this type of energy is very cheap and does no impact to the environment. 2) Researching tidal technology, in the future I plan to build a tidal power plant as I have a large body of water and can also rely on that. 3) Biofuel power plant was constructed - this was constructed because it is a renewable energy and if anything goes wrong with the energy I could rely on this energy and it has barely an environmental imapct

Type of energy used: Nuclear energy was used, the hydro electric plant at this point is finished construction and as a result the hydro electric and wind energy are now the norms for this city. Solar energy remains constant with its geo thermal heating + pv panels. There were years, like year 12 and 14, where the energy consumption was less and it was not required to use the hydroelectric power plant. Local Air Quality: By year 14, the air quality has recovered to nearly 100 because of the efforts made. Conservation technology was all implemented and as a result it recovered. Energies harmful to the environment were also never used. Global Environmental Health: Similar to the local air quality, it has made an astounding recovery as conservation technology was purchased and clean energies were used. Budget: I now have a stable city and can focus my budget elsewhere like renewable energy instead of energy plants. I have also chose to build one more inexhaustible plant, and researching the tidal technology. Things done: 1) Tidal Power plant in construction - This will be my final construction for the city 2) Fuel Cell Technology - this was researched because in the future I plan to buy fuel cell cars, and buses that increase the air quality and global impact stat. This would further raise these stats so that I am not restricted to construct other plants.

In year 14, most of the main energy has developed, in addition to the previous city screen capture, the biofuel power plant and hydroelectric power plant has been built. In addition, one can see the bike paths, green roofs and the pv panels installed. The geothermal energy power plant is also present. The city is efficient. The city main energy source is solar, nuclear, and hydro electric.

Type of energy used: Nuclear energy , hydroelectric and solar energy was used as usual with wind energy. The tidal power plant has finished building, and now these energies are being used for my city. Mostly Nuclear energy, still leading with about 50%. The rest is inexhaustible energy and conservation. Local Air Quality: By year 17, the air quality has fully recovered to 100 because no unclean energies were used and conservation were applied. Global Environmental Health: The global impact has also made a full recovery because of the clean energies and application of conservation Budget: The city is now completely stable, and experimentation could be afforded. In year 15, I also implemented fuel cell cars. There was not much to spend as the city was fully developed. Things done: 1) Fuel Cell Buses - This is the final stage of developing my city, to make it as alternative and green as possible.

The whole city is essentially built, fuel cell buses are implemented and the tidal power plant has been constructed. The energy supply of the city remains the same but since the tidal power plant has been built, it can also accommodate the increase of energy by using clean energy,

Type of energy used: Nuclear energy , hydroelectric and solar energy was used as usual with wind energy. The tidal power plant has finished building, and now these energies are being used for my city. Mostly Nuclear energy, still leading with about 50%. The rest is inexhaustible energy and conservation. Local Air Quality: Air Quality is more or less perfect and has made a full recovery thanks to the strategies implemented. Global Environmental Health: The global impact has also made a full recovery because of the clean energies and application of conservation. Budget: There was nothing to spend except the cost needed to provide energy for the city. Things done: All objects were completed and almost all stakeholders were happy with the results.

The alternative energy city is complete. And it is. A master piece.

In The End‌ - Energy used most The energy used most in the city is evidently Nuclear energy, followed by wind, solar, and then hydroelectric; but why nuclear? Although nuclear energy is not renewable, the fuel needed to power the plant is abundant and since we are in Canada, we used Uranium 238, which can even be found in the ground. The energy it generates is enormous as it splits the uranium atom with neutrons, which in the split atom releases another 3 neutrons that go split other atoms. Each atom split generates a lot of energy because of the formula e=mc2, this formula states that the energy an atom has is equal to the square of the speed of light times the mass defect of the atom, which equals to a lot of energy only from one atom. Now, if there are thousands, or hundreds of thousands of these atoms being split (this is called the cascade effect) at the same time, then an immense amount of energy is generated. All this energy creates heat, which is used to heat heavy water, which is then used to boil normal water and generates steam to turn a turbine. This is why nuclear power plants can provide 15 energy per click, and about 5 clicks in each year. The next used energy is wind power. Nuclear energy cannot sustain the whole city every year as the city demands more energy. So, another renewable, and type of energy is the wind energy. Wind energy is cheap, and provides a moderate amount of power. The maximized wind farm provides 8 energy at the click of only 1 dollar. In addition wind energy is the new thing of the decade, its little impact on a global scale and can be placed almost anywhere on the world, makes this an ideal inexhaustible energy. Thirdly, is solar energy; this technology is another technology of the decade as it is still rather new and can go under development even more. The sun is inexhaustible and is almost always visible, the pv panels installed on my city can harness the power of the sun and convert it to energy with no impact on the environment. Hydroelectric is also used, as it is a stable technology, water is dammed and is run through a turbine. It also has no impact on the environment. This is used as a last resort if the three energies cannot sustain the city yet.

Overall City Summary Report Over 20 years, I have made my city completely alternate city with alternative energies. This was not always the case, and my statistics in the city were not always at an all-time high of 100.In terms of energy diversity, it was not always this diverse. In the beginning, I only started off with 2 coal plants and an oil plant, eventually at year two, my wind farms and CCS were built and now I could slowly rely on my inexhaustible energy. At year 5, my conservation technologies have finally started to kick in, and so less energy is required for the city because people are using alternatives methods. Eventually, my nuclear power plant was built and my city was stable. I then proceeded to focus on conservation plans, like residential planning and green businesses that improved my air quality and global impact. Hence the bike symbol on my energy diversity. In the midst of that, a hydroelectric power plant was built to assist in the increasing demand of energy. After this was built, the solar energy (pv panels), wind energy, nuclear energy and hydroelectric were the only energies that were needed to sustain my city. So why, you may ask, did I build all the other unnecessary power plants like geothermal and biofuel? The reason is that if I was to make a realistic alternative city, I would include all types of these energies. Cities often encounter crises and the game did make reference to that; some years it lowered my money, or a disaster happened and one of my stats lowered. In the real world. Incidents like this happen and so, it is safer to have other types of energy in case that the energy demand increases while the disaster happens. In addition, energies like solar and wind are dependent on the environment. To support my decision of using nuclear power plant, it is the second cheapest energy to use with 2 dollars power 15 energy. The cheapest is hydroelectric, with one dollar per 10 energy, but; the nuclear energy can produce more pumps of energy than hydro in one year. In the game, the local air quality and the global health impact stat are closely related as the production of unclean energies harm the local air quality and sometimes the global health impact. But the building of all energy plants or even the conservation ones cause damage; but the conservation plans have a net income of positive stats because they offer an increase of air quality and global environmental impact. As a result, when I only depended on unclean energies in the beginning both my air quality and global impact sharply declined, but as I invested in conservation for 2 years, the numbers of both stats greatly rose.

Why Conservation Planning? Conservation planning consists of three sub categories; residential planning, commercial planning, and transportation planning. Residential planning contains geothermal heating, which solar resources is a prerequisite, residential pv panels and green rooftops. Geothermal heating automatically gives you 8 energy each turn, while residential pv panels increase energy by 6 and 2 earths each turn. Lastly is the green rooftops that provide 1 of energy and air quality. The benefits are obvious, not only do the air quality and global health impact increase each turns, but they reduce the amount of CO2 and other greenhouse gases that are produced to the environment. As mentioned in the carbon footprint analysis, the global warming phenomenon is a positive feedback loop, meaning the original stimulus continuously increases the effect and the effect in turn increases the original stimulus. Commercial planning is relatively the same as residential planning, as pv panels are encouraged to obtain a portion of the energy from the sun, rather than using unclean energies. Another technology in this sector is green business incentives. This a simple act of giving rewards such as tax breaks to encourage a greener environment such as recycling. This reduces the amount of global health impact by a factor of 2 and also provides energy by 2 each turn. Again, this reduces the amount of paper and other products that companies use, thus reducing the amount of products needed to produce. Lastly, is transportation which consists of bike paths and after investing in fuel cell technology; fuel cell buses. Bike paths increase local air quality and global impact by 2 each turn, while fuel cell buses increase the stats by 1. It has almost the same benefits. By using fuel cell technology, they depend on batteries and are off the grid, thus reducing the emission of greenhouse gases. By installing bike paths, this encourages people to bike as an alternative method of transportation. All in all, I believe that the investment of this planning has led to the success of my city in addition to the clean energies invested in.

Stake Holders of the City In energy city, there are 4 groups of stake holders that demand different and specific things throughout the game. The first one are the health stake holders; they typically demand in the general interest of the local air quality and how to reduce it and may sometimes focus on alternative transportation methods to improve the health of people. The student stake holders which demand a wide range of changes such as reducing the impact of the world, the healthcare of friends and family, and personal issues that have been affected by certain energies. Thirdly is the science stake holders whose primary goal is to get as much understanding of new technologies as possible and to do so, they need budget/money to invest in these technologies. They will typically request for you to invest in a type of technology. Fourthly are the residential stake holders; they demand requests that have relevance to the city budget and would include upgrades on plants, and some conservation planning so that they can save money. Lastly, are the business stake holders. They make very little demands and often have to do with the increase of spending so that it better benefits their business, as well as some green technology

Health Stake holders During the game play of the town, the health council has made frequent requests only early in the game. They often keep interest in health and local air quality. In the third year, they made a request to invest in renewable energy, which was done because it was also a beneficial choice to me too. Later on in the years, at around year 8, they requested that I invest in transportation planning and the following year, requested bike paths. Transportation planning is a prerequisite for bike paths and lastly, in the year 11, they request that I do not invest in any polluting technologies. This was also completed because by year 11, my city was stable with the income of a nuclear energy and wind farm energy. Their actions reflect concern of the health because by building renewable and not polluting technologies ,they are improving the local air quality and thus reducing the amount of smog/acid rain producing which improves the health of the people.

Residential Stake holders These stake holders are ones that are most rewarding if you complete their objectives. They will support your energy policies and also give you an increase of stats. They typically request in middle to late game. During year 8, they requested no power plant upgrades for that year and the punishment was a money increase per upgrade. Because of the harsh and unbearable consequences, I accepted the request and only invested in conservation planning for that year. In year 10, they requested residential pv panels and a reward is an increase of local air quality and so this was also accepted. In year 11, they requested that I spend less than 50% of the budget and this was done by only investing in the things I only needed such as investing in one conservation energy or research. And lastly, is at year 13, they requested fuel cell cars so that they can get to work without spending so much money on

Stake Holders of the City - Continued Student Stake holders As mentioned above, the student council will make various requests that tend to improve the overall impact of the city toward the earth and local air quality with relation to their personal issues. During year 2, one student requested that I do not build or research in tidal power plants in that year because his friend in another city can no longer enjoy some recreational activities such as fishing, and a result they do not want to lose this privilege. In year 7, another student requested that I do not invest in any technology that lowered the air quality because there are other students that are suffering from asthma. These two requests were completed as first, I had other interests of renewable technology such as wind, instead of tidal and the air quality in year 7 was not in tip top shape, so not reducing it will also do me benefits. During year 9 they requested that commercial pv panels be built on buildings to improve global environmental health as they wanted to change the world and start by improving the factor that extends beyond our city. This was accomplished as my global environmental impact bar was running low in that year and it did me benefits. Lastly is in year 15, where they requested fuel cell technology to get to school. I accepted because I had spare money and my city was already fully developed.

Science and Business Stake holders These types typically do not ask for much throughout the game. The science stake holders request in early to mid-game, whilst business stake holders tend to request during middle to end game. The science community only had one request, which was to research in technologies, but this was requested more than once throughout the years. The first one was in year 8 while the other was in year 11. I completed this request because my alternative energy could be more diverse with more research. Lastly are the business stake holders that request that I spend over 50% of the budget, this was done with mass research and upgrades that allowed me to spend about 80% of my budget and the last final request was in year 12 with green business incentives and their motives was that they wanted tax refunds if they become more environmentally friendly.

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