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Final report Centre for Culture and Development (CKU)

The Right to Art and Culture 2013-2016

Danish experiences with the power of art, culture and creative industries in development cooperation


The Right to Art and Culture 2013-2016 Danish experiences with the power of art, culture and creative industries in development cooperation

Final report Centre for Culture and Development (CKU)


The Right to Art and Culture 2013-2016 – Danish experiences with the power of art, culture and creative industries in development cooperation Publisher: Centre for Culture and Development (CKU) Chief Editor: Lars Bonderup Bjørn Editor: Maria Bierbaum Oehlenschläger Contributors: Kathrine Storgaard Carlsen, Ulla Jepsen, Berit Anne Larsen, Ereshnee Naidu-Silvermann, Kamilla Bøgesø Kjærgaard and Jacoba Niepoort. Translations: Fourtyfour by Hanne Klintø Layout: Spine Studio Print: Hørdum & Engelbreth ISBN: 978-87-91067-05-1 Centre for Culture and Development (CKU) From 1998 to 2016 CKU was a self-governing institution under the Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs. CKU implemented culture programmes in 13 countries in Africa, Asia and the Middle East. In Denmark, CKU hosted the Images Festivals and stood behind the Images Youth education material and an intercultural workshop programme for Danish youth. The publication can be downloaded free of charge from cku.dk or issuu.com/cku-centerforkulturogudvikling.


Content

9

Preface

11

Art, culture and creative industries make the world richer

13

Let the right to art and culture prevail

16

Danish ambassadors about art and culture

18

18 years of support to art, culture and creative

industries in more than 20 countries

Relevant research, thoughts, and theories on the

benefits of the arts

Professor: Support of culture enhances economic

and cultural development

22 32

34

Empowerment

36

Culture generates empowerment and cohesion

40

No democracy without literature

42

Street artists cover Nepal’s walls with local heroes

44

Kenya’s spoken word artists speak for themselves

46

Creation Out of Crisis

48

Freedom of Expression

50

Art is a thorn in the eye of undemocratic forces

52

Syrian artists fight on in exile

56

Ambassador: Art promotes human rights

58

Images 16: Free to express fear, frustrations and hope

60

Partner overview


70

Cultural and Creative Industries

72

Cultural and creative industries create opportunities

76

African Designers lift each other through network

80

Uganda’s young choose rap as a route to jobs and respect

82

Filling the creative economy data gap in Tanzania

84

Peace and Reconciliation

86

Art and culture can heal and unite nations

90

Peace and reconciliation processes aided by art and culture

94

Artists rebuild hopes and dreams in Gaza

96

Music, poetry and dance are the worst nightmares

of Pakistan’s militant groups

98

Young curators put spotlight on Indonesia’s forgotten conflicts

100

Youth House in Kabul keeps Taliban at bay

102

Intercultural Dialogue

104

108

Multi-voicedness

112

116

Appendix

117

How to measure the effect of including art and culture in

development cooperation?

118

New Images of the Middle East, Africa and Asia When the Syrian war moved into a Danish school

Bibliography


Dance ensembles from Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, were invited to perform in Copenhagen with support from the CKU Art Fund in 2014. Photo: Karina Tengberg.

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Preface

The joy of being inspired by others, as represented by the first Images Festival in 1991 has been a guiding principle behind CKU’s work. As a resource and knowledge centre for culture and development CKU has strived to widen the knowledge base, expanded networks and developed methods to increase the impact of art and culture in a human rights context. This final report is a part of CKU’s mandate to collect, produce and share knowledge about culture and development. Drawing on 18 years of practical experience, theoretical studies and the muchappreciated feedback and conversations that have taken place throughout the years, this report offers a glimpse of the effects of Denmark’s support to art and culture under the auspices of development cooperation. Through cases, articles, interviews and background information about the thematic approach to culture, the report presents an overview of CKU’s work and partners. Time and space do not allow all the stories and outcomes from CKU’s engagement to be included here. However, CKU acknowledges and thanks all the dedicated, loyal and inspiring individuals, institutions and organisations – in Denmark and abroad – for their important and priceless efforts to defend the right to art and culture.

The editor Copenhagen, November 2016

Introduction

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Sunil Sigdel was one of eight contemporary artists from Nepal who reflected the current challenges, traditions and cultural heritage at the Moesgaard Museum exhibition ‘Nepal – Parallel Realities’. Courtesy of the artist.

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Message from former CEO:

Art, culture and creative industries make the world richer

During my time as the CEO of the Centre for Culture and Development, I have experienced how powerful a tool art and culture can be in complex development and conflict situations. With my background in development cooperation I have seen that art and culture offer a refreshing, alternative and effective approach to reach overall development goals. We can at this moment ask ourselves the question: Why did Denmark choose to support art, culture and creative industries in Africa, Asia and the Middle East continuously for 18 years? In my view the answer is quite simple: Art and culture offer new perspectives, alternative and strong communities and unconventional income opportunities. Unlike other development interventions, the focus on providing safe places and activities where people can unfold their creative talent contributes significantly to empower people to take active part in their societies. In this sense art and culture offer a democratised space: Through cultural expressions people get a chance to formulate their traumas, frustrations and opinions and share them with others publicly. In conflict contexts and in an environment of growing xenophobia, art and culture have the ability to evoke curiosity rather than fear, add nuances and offer new perspectives that go beyond the

over-simplification and stereotypes of mainstream media and political spin. It seems to be more important than ever that cultural exchange, artistic collaboration and cross-cultural meetings take place in order to realise globalisation’s inherent promise of profound interconnectedness.

Introduction

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Elsebeth Krogh Former CEO, Centre for Culture and Development (CKU)

Elsebeth Krogh was the CEO of the Centre for Culture and Development from 2012-2016 and led the strategy process that resulted in Denmark’s adoption and implementation of ‘The Right to Art and Culture’.


In January 2016, North Jutland’s largest art museum, KUNSTEN Museum of Modern Art in Aalborg, opened the solo exhibition ‘Idea of Landscape’ by the Pakistani artist Imran Qureshi, who has won global recognition for his blood red mega installations and miniature paintings. Photo: Louise Dybbro.

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Message from former chairman of the board:

Let the right to art and culture prevail

World trade and political priorities change. The Danish Centre for Culture and Development is closing down, and an 18 years era of Danish commitment to art, culture and development has come to an end. Support to culture and development will now have to come from other sources around the world. Hopefully, new collaborations will find their way, new projects will develop and new partnerships will grow. At this turning point, I am proud to name some of the examples of our efforts: We paid attention to Syrian artists before the war and trusted their ability to peacefully negotiate worldviews and express thoughts and feelings amongst ordinary people. We cooperated with the DJs who stood at the Tahrir Square during the revolution in Egypt. We saw the genius and potential of African designers who made it to New York galleries and Paris’ international trade fair. We supported shy schoolgirls who became self-confident performers in Uganda and young men who let their frustrations out through rap music. Just to name a few of those we met on a long journey. We believed in all the creative talents – in curators across Indonesia, contemporary artists in Dar es Salaam, designers in Burkina Faso and musicians in Mali. We supported the realisation of African films that made it to international film festivals and street art that brought back colour to the streets in post-earthquake Nepal. We made it possible that

thousands of artists visited and enriched Danish schools, cinemas, concert halls, museums and cities. We kept faith in the power of art to engage and gather people and witnessed the artists’ ability to transform fear into curiosity. My hope is that the networks and connections established or supported by CKU will live on and develop; that skills obtained in workshops and artspaces are the beginning of new fruitful developments, and that the willingness to fight for people’s right to art and culture will prevail. To all the artists, organizations and institutions we have cooperated with, I would like to express my gratefulness for all you have given us, and express my hope that what we gave you became the start of something that did not make our ending meaningless.

Introduction

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Lars Bonderup Bjørn Chairman of the CKU Board, 2013-2016

Lars Bonderup Bjørn, former chairman of CKU, CEO Thaleia and Dacapo, business economist and Ph.D. on uncertainty, currently featured at Teater Nordkraft, previously chairman of Aalborg University and a promotor of the use of theater methods in business.


CKU programme countries

DENMARK

PALESTINE EGYPT MALI BURKINA FASO GHANA UGANDA

TANZANIA

In cooperation with Danish embassies and representations as well as local organisations and institutions in 13 countries in the Middle East, Asia and Africa, CKU implemented culture and development programmes with support from Danish development aid.

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KENYA


AFGHANISTAN PAKISTAN NEPAL

VIETNAM

INDONESIA

Introduction

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Danish ambassadors about art and culture

CKU has worked in close collaboration with Danish embassies and representations. A long row of Danish ambassadors, both former and current, have been actively engaged in promoting cultural cooperation between Denmark and countries in Africa, Asia and the Middle East. Read, why this is important to them.

CASPER KLYNGE, DENMARK’S AMBASSADOR TO INDONESIA Since the 1st of August 2014, Casper Klynge has been appointed as Denmark’s ambassador to Indonesia. He strives to strengthen the ties between Denmark and Indonesia. Why is support to culture in Indonesia a Danish priority?

Why is cultural cooperation important for the Danish Embassy? “Cultural cooperation is always important – also to a Danish Embassy. It brings people together, opens new doors and widens the scope, when Indonesians want to learn more about Denmark, and Danes come to learn more about Indonesia.”

“Giving artists new opportunities to express themselves can contribute to strengthening creative innovation, enhancing cultural diversity and paving the way for dialogue – also in relation to painful experiences where we believe culture can help reconcile local conflicts,” says Casper Klynge.

“We have a multifaceted partnership with Indonesia and are heavily engaged when it comes to the commercial, the political, development cooperation and the consular activities, but now we can also assist the cultural sector in the fourth biggest country in the world. That complements our other activities and has the potential to be a pathway to political clout and strengthened people-to-people relations.“

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GEERT AAGAARD ANDERSEN, Former Danish Ambassador to Kenya

JOHNNY FLENTØ, Danish Ambassador in Tanzania, 2011-2015

From 2010 to 2015, Geert Aagaard Andersen was Denmark’s Ambassador to Kenya. When he came to Kenya, the background and the consequences of the post-election violence in 2007 to 2008 still hindered peaceful coexistence.

With over 30 years of experience from the Danish development cooperation agency, DANIDA, Johnny Flentø is one of the most experienced Danish diplomats. When it comes to culture, Johnny Flentø is not a novice either.

Why is culture important in a country like Kenya?

From 2008 to 2011 Johnny Flentø was the Danish Ambassador to Mozambique, where he launched a culture programme developed in collaboration with CKU.

“Contemporary Kenyan culture has the ability to contribute to peaceful development, as unifying cultural expressions replace political focus on ethnicity. Kenyans need contemporary artists to identify themselves with.” “Continuous development of contemporary Kenyan art is important. Art is an integral element of building a country’s identity. Culture makes people proud of their country and give them a reason to contribute to development,” says the former Danish Ambassador. How does a culture and development programme contribute to Danish engagement in Kenya? “The Danish Embassy in Kenya is developing the commercial engagement in Kenya as a supplement to traditional development cooperation. New Danish firms and tourists are travelling to Kenya, and they see for themselves that Kenya has a lot to offer in terms of cultural and creative resources. The potential for exporting Kenyan culture is growing significantly,” says Geert Aagaard Andersen.

Introduction

“That was in the old days. The new framework with strategic priorities behind the culture programme (‘The Right of Art and Culture’, 2013-2016, ed.) and the introduction of a local programme coordinator are positive steps to further strengthen the impact of the programme,” says Johnny Flentø. “It is important to support the Tanzanian artists. Through their music, books, pictures or performances they formulate a narrative of Tanzania. They express what they think, experience and feel in a way that is not just rooted in commercial aspirations,” says the Danish Ambassador. Why is a Culture and Development Programme important for a Danish embassy? “Through the Embassy’s commitment to arts and culture, we come into contact with people and communities that are not otherwise part of our network. This network can be useful for the Embassy’s efforts, for instance, to promote Danish business interests,” says Ambassador Johnny Flentø.

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18 years of support to art, culture and creative industries in more than 20 countries

Since 1998, the Danish Centre for Culture and Development has supported art, culture and creative industries in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Middle East. From 2013 to 2016, CKU was the implementing institution of Denmark’s strategic framework for support to culture and development, ‘The Right to Art and Culture’.

Danish priority countries in the Global South. Denmark’s ratification of the 2005 UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions in 2006 further accelerated the integration of culture in Denmark’s development cooperation.

In 2016, Denmark celebrates 25 years of official dedication to cultural exchange and cooperation between Denmark and the Global South. The first ever festival to present contemporary African art and culture was called ‘Images of Africa’ and invited hundreds of African artists to Denmark to enrich and enlighten a Danish audience. The Images festivals held in the 1990s increased the motivation to learn from and support artists and creativity in countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Middle East. In 1998, CKU was established as the key institution to manage cultural cooperation. The objective was thereafter two-sided: To ensure presentation of art and culture from the Global South in Denmark and to support the arts and culture sectors in the

The Right to Art and Culture In 2013, the Danish strategy for culture and development was formulated as a result of an inclusive process that brought stakeholders from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Culture, experts and practitioners from the Global South and CKU together. Based on the sharing of best practices, theoretical insight, political priorities and international conventions, the strategic framework with five main focus areas materialised. In May 2013, ‘The Right to Art and Culture’ was officially adopted as the strategy for Denmark’s support to culture and development. CKU was appointed to implement the strategy in close collaboration with Danish embassies and representations. Through a rights-based approach

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Denmark’s ratification of the 2005 UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions in 2006 further accelerated the integration of culture in Denmark’s development cooperation.

and global partnerships with local cultural and civil society organisations, businesses and institutions, the strategy has been rolled out in 12 countries in the world.

‘The AFRO needs no explanation, no definition, and definitely no hate-eration. For it is just what it is…The AFRO is African,’ said Odidiva in the nightclub theatre concert House of the Holy Afro performed in Copenhagen during the festival My World Images. Photo: Jacob Crawfurd.

Public diplomacy in a smaller world The field of art and culture has since 1991 developed into a public diplomacy tool because of culture’s ability to build bridges, create interaction and encourage collaborations. In 2005, hundreds of thousands of people protested against the publication of the cartoons of Muhammad in the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten. The cartoon crisis of 2005 threatened the planned 2006 festival Images of the Middle East. However the Arab League, in the spring of 2006, officially announced their support to the festival, turning Images of the Middle East into a much-needed diplomatic tool in the efforts to re-establish a good relationship to the Arab world. So ten years ago in august 2006 more than 500 artists and intellectuals

Introduction

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from the Middle East presented their works and perspectives to a Danish public. Danish embassies from Jakarta to Dar es Salaam have since then integrated culture in their programme portfolio to widen their diplomatic reach and increase visibility.

acknowledge artists’ different roles as human rights defenders, documentarists, translators of current political challenges, and art producers enacting citizenship and enhancing empathic reflections.

Long-term cooperation and partnerships CKU was established by an idea of global interconnectedness. Trust, mutual understanding and respect paved the way for long-term partnerships with art and culture organisations, institutions, businesses, and civil society organisations. Long-term partnerships with implementing partners have created a mechanism for reciprocal learning and collaboration between Denmark and programme countries. The majority of all projects were developed through long-term engagement ensuring continuous cooperation and recurrent activities rooted in local communities. South-South partnerships have been a priority because in-country partners are much better at navigating in their specific contexts and analysing the needs and demands. Artist in society CKU has acted as an intermediary between Denmark and a wide range of local partner organisations based in countries in Africa, Asia and the Middle East. Facilitating these partnerships was often the first step to initiate new collaborations and interaction between artists, organisations or institutions in programme countries and Denmark. The support to the art scenes in the Global South has enriched Denmark with dialogue and interaction with artists, intellectuals and opinion makers. Artists from dynamic growth centres and hotspots across the world have been portrayed in education material and invited to facilitate workshops in Danish schools. The aim has been to prepare Danish students to take part in a multicultural and interconnected world. Throughout the years, artists have proven to be change makers in their societies by setting new agendas and expressing the feelings of the people. The 2016 version of the Images festival, Images 16, focused on the artist in society. The wish was to

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UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions 2005, article 13: “Parties shall endeavour to integrate culture in their development policies at all levels for the creation of conditions conducive to sustainable development and, within this framework, foster aspects relating to the protection and promotion of the diversity of cultural expressions.”

Denmark’s support to culture and development has from 2013 to 2016 been guided by the strategy ‘The Right to Art and Culture’, which frames the support within Denmark’s broader engagement in development cooperation. ‘The Right to Art and Culture’ identifies five strategic priorities for Denmark’s support: 1. Empowering people through active participation in art and cultural activities 2. Ensuring freedom of expression for artists and cultural actors 3. Enhancing economic growth through creative industries 4. Strengthening peace and reconciliation in post-conflict areas through art and cultural activities 5. Promoting intercultural dialogue and intercultural collaboration. These priorities were the guiding objectives for CKU’s work, and all activities have been anchored in at least one of the priorities.

This photo was the front cover of the strategy ‘The Right to Art and Culture’ that was adopted by the Danish Parliament in May 2013 – and cancelled again in the beginning of 2016. Photo: Jacob Crawfurd.

Introduction

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Relevant research, thoughts, and theories on the benefits of the arts

By Jacoba Niepoort

What are the links between direct funding and local impact in the field of culture and development? This article provides a useful overview of research and theories related to the benefits of the arts. Today, culture is largely accepted as an aiding environment to development and a key pillar to include when planning development programs (Epskamp 2006, 4, 29; Clammer 2012). However, the value of creativity and art is difficult to pin down and measure, in part due to the necessary unpredictability in artistic production (Merli 2002, 111; Niepoort 2016, 24). This might explain the current scarcity of academic research, theory, and methods on the arts in an international development context. Showing a causal link between funding and local impact thus remains a major challenge for organisations working with art and culture. The following article is meant to aide this challenge, through a very brief overview of some relevant research and theories relating to the field, which organisations can draw on for further research.

The Right to Art and Culture 2013-2016

Cognitive benefits, education and youth The arts have been linked to various beneficial impacts through many fields of study. Within education, student-visits to art museums have shown improved knowledge and ability to think critically about art, overall increased tolerance, and historical empathy (Greene 2014, 86). Art-integrated curriculums have also been shown to improve academic performance and student discipline (Fiske 1999; Remer 1990; in Guetzkow 2002, 2). Further empirical studies on art have claimed some cognitive benefits to be: improved test scores and basic skills, and enhanced ability to learn skills that help the learning process itself (McCarthy et al., 2004). Art has additionally been linked to attitudinal and behavioral changes in youth, including improved school attendance, better self-image, and lower dropout rates (McCarthy et al., 2004). Psychological benefits Participation in art projects has also been linked to improved physical and psychological wellbeing (Guetzkow 2002, 2). One of the more covered topics in literature on art’s role in development comes from

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Visual artist Imran Qureshi from Pakistan reflects the fine line between life and death in his art works. Imran Qureshi: And They Still Seek the Traces of Blood, detail. Photo: Anders Sune Berg. Below: The Copenhagen film festival CPH PIX presented a series of Indonesian movies during Images 16. Still from the movie ‘Another Trip to the Moon’, directed by Ismail Basbeth, 2015.

Introduction

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After the double earthquake that hit Nepal in 2015, artists helped people to overcome their traumas. Artist Sanjeev Maharjan invited people to share their personal stories in a brick and photo collage in one of the collapsed houses. Photo: Mekh Limbu. Courtesy of the artist.

the field of peacebuilding and conflict studies. Academics have linked artistic projects with peace and reconciliation processes, especially because of art’s psychological benefits. According to Cynthia Cohen, the Director of Brandeis’ program on Peacebuilding and the Arts, art facilitates listening and openness beyond words. Cohen sees the benefits of art projects within reconciliation work as primarily individually healing, and less easily applicable in scope across a larger population (Cohen 2005). Shank and Schirch have also examined art-based peacebuilding as a strategic tool for the peacebuilding field, and note art’s ability to transcend trauma, improve self-awareness and self-esteem, and foster dialogue (Shank & Schirch 2008). Activism, Social change and art’s emotional capabilities Michael Shank, NYU professor, and Head of Communications for the UN SDSN, notes the arts as an emotional tool in activism, is capable of convincing

the observer by aiding cognitive tools (Shank 2004). Many other scholars have covered the topic of art activism, affirming arts and creativity’s capability to critique the old ways, and connect people and ideas in new ways (Niepoort 2016). Through New Social Movements theory, feminist geographers Martin, Hanson, and Fontaine emphasize the significance of community identity and lifestyle as an important foundation for movement participation and goals (Martin et. al 2007, 94). Small actions embedded in communities might be part of sparking local change or igniting a greater movement, either of which might lead to social justice. This broadened definition of activism allows participative art projects to be seen as potential tools for community organisation that could lead to longer-term impacts, not immediately visible. Similarly, Guetzkow argues that small-scale art projects can have a positive impact on local agency and community engagement, as art can help regenerate neighborhoods, and serve as facilitators for the

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creation of social capital, economic prosperity, and the attainment of community goals (Guetzkow 2002, 2). Arts as a critical, reflective and communicative tool Paulo Freire’s Critical Pedagogy theory has been used in visual culture, theatre, fine arts, social justice and educational fields, to theorize art’s ability to educate and to instigate community engagement (Freire 1970; Niepoort 2016, 33). Here, it is argued that art can contribute to individual and community empowerment, engagement, and change through providing a platform for active, critical reflections and education of societal norms. The performing arts have further built on Freire’s work through Augusto Boal’s methods of Theatre for Development (TfD), which uses theatre techniques as a laboratory for conscientization and problem solving (Epskamp 2006, 12). TfD approaches arts education as having the potential to “unlock the creative capacity of the individual”, and through this, change the social relations within a community, leading to transformation (Epskamp 2006). Many major NGOs have incorporated TfD routinely into their work and strategies (Epskamp), and multiple artists have also applied Freire’s teachings beyond theatre, to drawing, installation art, and painting (Jurriens 2013, 18). Worth noting is Indonesian visual artist and teacher Moelyono’s “Conscientization art” approach (Niepoort 2016; Moelyono 2016). According to artist and NYU professor, David Darts, critical pedagogy theory, “has long called for an education that approaches everyday experiences, particularly in relation to popular culture, as sites for ideological struggle and resistance” (Darts 2004, 316). Introducing oppositional art into pedagogy may challenge students to reconsider everyday visual stereotypes and structures that reinforce society’s current inequities, creating a space for, “thoughtful opposition and a place for reflective inquiry” (Darts 2014, 317-320). In this sense, oppositional or critical art, presented in the right educational context, is a way to activate and engage the learner in his or her society (Darts 2014). This is because socially engaged art has the ability to pinpoint or critique social structures, to highlight, inspire, offend or engage audiences,

Introduction

awaken the unconscious, and communicate ideas through other means than words (Darts 2014, 319). According to TfD expert, Kees Epskamp, art and cultural activities have the power to impact government structures, and have historically contributed to the fall of numerous regimes worldwide (Epskamp 2006, 1). Breaking down stereotypical imaging in development There exists a long link between arts, culture, politics, and power, (Darts 2004, 313-327) and the arts have historically been used for progressive as well as regressive means (Niepoort 2016). Postcolonial theorists note how artistic production has at times been manipulated through cultural politics to support and construct dominant structures and discourses (Stupples 2011, 15). Polly Stupples, professor at Victoria University, argues that critical agency of art in the Global South lies in art’s capability to stand as an alternative imaginative space to the reductionist framing of development, a space beyond the focus on crises and deficiencies. She builds on political scientist and current senior research fellow at Harvard University, Achille Mbembe’s, ideas; that art and cultural criticism are powerful sites for agency for those usually defined as ‘subjects of development’, through which to construct alternative cultural imaging (Stupples 2011, i-1). The value in cultural history While it might be hard to pin down the ‘power’ of art, it is easier to see the loss to society at times when art is missing. It is a pattern throughout history, that at times of war and suppression, cultural sites have been destroyed and artistic voices silenced. Writer and cultural critic, Lewis Hyde, describes this silencing of the arts and culture as the genocide of a people’s creative spirit. “Those parts of us that extend beyond ego cannot survive unless they can be constantly articulated” (Hyde 2007, 199). In the words of cultural diplomacy expert Cynthia Schneider, “without the foundations of identity through culture and history, people can more easily be dominated...” (Schneider 2016).

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Public benefits The conventional view in art discourse is that all intrinsic benefits of the arts are purely private (McCarthy el al 2004, 69). However, writers like Lewis Hyde, have pointed out that individual art goes beyond the individual, as it is inspired and supported by the work of former artists. Artists participate in a circular production; receiving inspiration from previous artists and the world, and giving back to future artists and the world (Hyde 2007; in Niepoort 2016, 25). McCarthy, Ondaatje, Zakaras and Brooks similarly explain that the traditional view ignores the individual and intrinsic benefits’ wide-reaching public value, where, in actuality, “the arts can create and foster a range of intrinsic benefits that are primarily personal, but they can also generate private benefits that have indirect, spillover effects on the public sphere, as well as direct effects on the public sphere” (McCarthy el al 2004, 69). The above points have been summarized in the following table by Jacoba Niepoort (2016), which draws from work by Joshua Guetzkow (2002).

Jacoba Niepoort is a practicing visual artist and holds an MSc in International Development from Roskilde University. All references are listed in the bibliography.

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Maika Elan’s award winning photo project ‘The Pink Choice’ focused on personal life of gay couples in Vietnam. Photo: Maika Elan.

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The artist Norbu Tenzing working in his studio in Kathmandu, Nepal. Photo: Jens Kirkeby.

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“There is no discipline that nurtures and sparks the cognitive ability to imagine, and unleashes creativity and innovation, more than arts and culture. There is no approach that breaks barriers, connects across cultural differences, and engages our shared values more than arts and culture. There is no investment that connects us to each other, moves us to action, and strengthens our ability to make collective choices more than arts and culture.� — Eric Friedenwald-Fishman, 2011.

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Benefits of INDIVIDUAL/GROUP BENEFITS Material/Health

Cognitive/ Psychological

Increased empathy Better critical thinking Better test scores Better ability to learn how to learn Increased ability to make connections across differences Increased self-expression methods/identity shaping New views: alternative understandings of structural imaging and stereotypes Empowerment (individual or group) through increased awareness of and resistance to norms Stress-relief Working with personal trauma Self-awareness Self-esteem Increased communication outlet (alternative/additional way of transmitting info) Artistic production Empowerment through personal choice (better health) Increased interpersonal ties Individual benefits / intrinsic motivation Alternative individual value systems

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the ar ts SOCIETAL/COMMUNITY BENEFITS Cultural

Social

Political

Economic

Peacebuilding and conflict evasion through increased tolerance across differences in society Cognitive, imaginative and innovative expansion could contribute to individual talents in arts and non-arts fields whose works influence society at large Common identity and interest in getting along through cultural symbols and heritage Diversification + increased understandings / images of realities Challenge oppressive structures in society

Increased social, political and economic equality

Better environmental equality

Peacebuilding and reconciliation tool Resistance or propaganda tool Increased communication could mean better cooperation/ decreased chance of being misunderstood

Better cultural production as attracting money through e.g. tourism

Diversification in cultural production Better social networks

Alternative income source / diversifying economy

New social gatherings/networks

Spill-over to contribute benefits to society at large Alternative value system to balance economic/consumer value systems Source: Niepoort 2016

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Professor: Support of culture enhances economic and cultural development

While we are waiting for a unit to measure the value of culture, Professor David Throsby explains how and why the value of culture should be assessed.

opment but also to cultural development. The link between the cultural and economic development is significant,” says David Throsby.

“You can put in a transport system and see economic value. Cultural projects have other dimensions such as personal well being in a broad cultural sense, whereas a transport project only applies to the economy. You can argue that the cultural value is just as important to the economy,” says Professor David Throsby. As a professor of Economics at Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia and member of the expert team behind the UNESCO Culture for Development Indicators Project (CDIS), Professor David Throsby has worked intensively with the question of how to measure the value of culture – especially in a development context. “Poverty alleviation is the real tangible thing, when talking about support to culture in a development context. The positive thing is that projects with culture do not only contribute to economic devel-

Measuring culture’s contribution to development “Cultural development is important to the sense of identity, to peoples’ cultural participation, and the capacity to participate in the cultural life and traditional practices in their countries. It is possible to identify the value of culture, but it is hard to put numbers on it.” David Throsby developed the methodological framework for the UNESCO CDIS and has experienced how the indicators prove to be very useful for countries, where UNESCO case studies have been implemented. “Economic indicators are limited. So the special thing about the CDIS is that indicators on communication and gender are included. In that way, it makes a suite of numbers that show how culture relates to the development processes,” says David Throsby. “The CDIS extends further in terms of value by including social participation as a policy area.

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It is possible to identify the value of culture, but hard to put numbers on it, says professor Throsby. Abdellatif Snoussi: ‘The Line of Life – Laaroussa’. Photography. Courtesy of L’Art Rue, Madrassa Collective and the artist.

And it is obvious that social benefits add value to the economy. It is not just about the number of films produced. It is a bit more diffuse than that. You can’t just rush out and count cultural value,” explains David Throsby. The CDIS Project includes the development of cultural statistics such as number of the contribution of cultural activities to GDP and the role of culture as an employer. “If countries have statistics about the cultural industries and cultural employment then they have come a long way. Statistics are able to push for the inclusion of culture – underlining that culture should be a part of the whole picture. So in a hard sense the economic contribution is important,” says David Throsby.

economics, the economics of artists, and the relationships between economic and cultural policy. Publications include Economics and Culture (2001) and The Economics of Cultural Policy (2010), both published by Cambridge University Press.

Culture for Development Indicators The UNESCO Culture for Development Indicators (CDIS) is a pioneering research and advocacy initiative that aims to establish a set of indicators highlighting how culture contributes to development at the national level fostering economic growth, and helping individuals and communities to expand their life choices and adapt to change. This project contributes to the implementation of Article 13 (Integration of Culture in Sustainable Development) of the Convention for the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions.

David Throsby is a Distinguished Professor of Economics at Macquarie University in Sydney, Australia. He is internationally known for his research and writing in the economics of art and culture. His current research interests include culture in sustainable development, the creative economy, heritage

Introduction

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Empowerment

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Strengthen empowerment through active participation in art projects and cultural activities Challenges: Limited access to art and creative activities for socially, economically and geographically marginalised population groups; limited options for participating in contemporary and age-appropriate cultural activities. CKU supported: Projects that included marginalised populations groups in creative and cultural activities; easier access to art and culture for the wider population through festivals, art in public space, workshops and clubs in schools; cultural activities expressing sensitive and controversial subjects.

“Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.� — The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, paragraph 27.1

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Culture generates empowerment and cohesion

Inclusion of marginalised population groups in cultural activities and communities has been one of CKU’s most important objectives. The purpose is to promote empowerment and cohesion. It rarely produces headlines in Europe that everybody’s right to an active part in art and culture is defined as a human right in UN’s declaration. In Europe, there are rich opportunities to enjoy concerts and theatre, to be challenged by new poetry and installation art, to enrol in art college, join a reading or film club and so on. But in countries in Africa, Asia and the Middle East, the neglect of this human right is striking. In the capitals of countries like Tanzania, Uganda and Nepal, small cultural elites visit galleries, go to cinemas and watch new performance art at the national theatres. But by far the main part of the population of these countries is rarely offered opportunities to participate in the cultural life. Therefore CKU has supported the accessibility of cultural activities and events particularly for those who do not belong to the privileged class.

Creative communities Vulnerable youngsters in the formerly civil war area of Northern Uganda and in central Nepal share a common trait when they choose poetry readings or rap music as a means to gain respect and work: Both have chosen a beneficial and educational alternative to extremism, boredom and isolation. Through participating in cultural activities they have found a community where their voices are heard, their creativity stimulated and traumas processed, all while they contribute meaningfully to their society. The skills they achieve bring them closer to a real chance in a competitive job market. In Northern Uganda, where children have grown up in the shadow of a 21 year long civil war, only 20 percent of the population have finished the first six years of school. Youth unemployment is nearing 80 percent. When young people in Northern Uganda get an opportunity to take classes in hip-hop, they bring transferable skills, a new network and renewed confidence home with them. The result is greater freedom and choice, and alternative income opportunities. The young people are presented to various

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“Young people who participate in cultural activities become part of a community where their voices are heard, their creativity stimulated and their anger and traumas processed.”

contemporary forms of expression, including globally trending genres such as the hip-hop movement, all through projects with CKU-funding. It is much harder for violent extremist groups like Al-Shabaab and other undemocratic, conservative forces to gain hold of the young, when they have a community behind them, a voice in society and have gained both skills and confidence.

The 2013 Images Festival OCCUPY UTOPIA presented art exhibitions, concerts and talks on one of the busiest inroads to the city of Copenhagen, the Queen Louise Bridge. The singer Alo Wala was one of the featured artists. Photo: Sanel Hadzic.

Youth in focus In countries such as Uganda and Nepal, certain population groups are excluded from the social, political and economical sphere. They might belong to a minority, live far from the country’s economical or cultural centre or they live below the poverty line. When CKU’s programmes mainly focus on the young, it is because young people in many countries are overlooked in the political work, all while the education level is low and youth unemployment is growing. The young people that CKU targets, often live far from the big cities and the cultural elite’s range of cul-

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tural events, and they are seldom included in activities where they can express themselves freely. Therefore, activities that are tailor-made for the young, their interests and proficiency level are in high demand. Discrimination, lack of equality and conservative family patterns often weaken girls’ and women’s motivation and opportunity to participate actively in society. But when a female rapper like Lady Slyke takes the stage, the population starts transforming its view of women. And then it becomes easier for young girls and women to become artists in their own right.

Method CKU ensures that cultural activities lead to positive experiences for the participants through the following: 1. Safe and neutral locations 2. Artistically and didactically gifted instructors 3. Mobilisation of a suitably sized group of participants and audience.

Culture creates cohesion There are strong traditions for cultural policy, international festivals and cultural events throughout Europe. Traditions that bind together each country as a nation and evoke strong feelings in most citizens. In a country like Burkina Faso, similar bonds are established through cultural events, despite high cultural diversity and extreme poverty. The big pan-African film festival FESPACO in the country’s capital, Ouagadougou, has become a national pride. Like the music festival Sauti za Busara on Zanzibar, the film festival in Ouagadougou attracts guests from all over the world and boosts both economy and confidence. When populations gather around cultural events, their national belonging and cultural identity is confirmed. CKU supports cultural events in the world’s poorest countries because it is essential to a country’s national feeling and to establishing social cohesion.

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In collective processes with an artistic outcome, CKU follows three steps: 1. Training in the artistic form of expression 2. Collective creative process with exchange of ideas, and artistic expression in a safe learning environment 3. Presentation of the final artistic outcome for an audience with a possibility for a subsequent debate.

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The female rapper Safaa from the West Bank in Palestine performed in Denmark with Rapolitics and the Images Youth programme. Courtesy of Rapolitics and the artist.

“Experience shows that when marginalised groups are given opportunity to express themselves creatively, they become active contributors to both social and economic development.” — Denmark’s UN ambassador, Ib Petersen, at the UN General Assembly’s debate on culture and sustainable development, May 2014

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No democracy without literature

To foster critical thinkers and engaged citizens literature should be at the heart of the Ugandan school system, says Femrite-founder Hilda Twongyeirwe. “When politicians don’t understand and support literature’s contribution to development, it is very problematic. If you cannot express yourself and interpret what other people have written or said, it is like walking in the dark. Creative writing is one of the best ways to make us walk in the light. Writing is a way to sharpen our visions and opinions and make sense of what is going on around us.” Hilda Twongyeirwe says this to the students who participate in the CKU-supported Tukosawa Reading and Writing Clubs established by Femrite in Northern Uganda, where the literacy rate is the lowest in the country at 64%, compared to 92% in Kampala. By reaching out to youth in Northern Uganda, the organisation Femrite aims at building a new reading and writing generation. According to Femrite it is impossible to create and maintain democracy without literature. “If our leaders are interested in building true democracy, then they must promote the arts in order to build a critical community to engage in national development. Most of our neighbouring countries, like Kenya, Zambia and South Africa do teach literature at schools. I don’t understand why we cannot create a section for Ugandan literature in the Ugandan school systems. Literature is just as important as science,” says Hilda Twongyeirwe.

CKU in Uganda Since 2010, CKU and the Danish Embassy in Kampala have cooperated with Bayimba Cultural Foundation, Femrite and Maisha Film Lab. CKU has supported projects that give young people in north and northwest Uganda access to art and cultural activities. In Northern Uganda, the culture and development programme had a special focus on activities that strengthen exchange and dialogue between different groups of the population.

No snow in Uganda Schools in the Gulu district do not have libraries, and creative writing is not a part of the national curriculum. Curriculum titles are often out-dated and British. Works by the British authors Charlotte Bronte and Charles Dickens are mandatory reading. Only one author on the national curriculum is Ugandan. “Why do you think many young people in Uganda include snow in their writings,” Hilda Twongyeirwe asks the students. “Because we are mostly being exposed to Western literature,” one of them answers. “We don´t have much home-grown Ugandan

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literature on the syllabus. What students read is often reflected in their writings. The literary settings that the students know are either American or British and full of snow, blue eyes and long blond hair dancing in the wind,” says Hilda Twongyeirwe and explains that literature is a major contributor to shaping societies’ identities. “We have to encourage Ugandans to both read and write Ugandan literature,” she says.

Spoken word artist Crystal Tettey has sung and recited poems all over the world. In the performance ‘MadaGhana – @your bus stop’ she reflects the two countries, Madagascar and Ghana, where her parents come from. Photo: Nii Odzenma.

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Street artists cover Nepal’s walls with local heroes

CKU in Nepal Since 2010, CKU and the Danish Embassy in Kathmandu have supported organisations, artists and cultural entrepreneurs who contribute to widen access to cultural activities and create job opportunities for youth. The aim has been to foster innovation, income-possibilities that appeal to Nepali youth.

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The artist group Artlab inspires young people to contribute to their country by decorating Nepal’s walls with colours and national heroes. 25-year-old Kiran Maharjan shakes a spray can from side to side before adding the final touch of black to the upper lip of his portrait of one of Nepal’s most influential authors. The large black-and-white portrait is the twelfth portrait Artlab has painted on Kathmandu’s walls. By identifying and painting portraits of national heroes and role models, Artlab is working to show the youth that many in Nepal have made and continue to make a difference for the country’s development. “Every day, thousands of young Nepali men and women leave the country. They don’t believe that there are any opportunities in Nepal. But if the opportunities are missing, they should take responsibility and create them. That’s what we’ve done,” says Romel Bhattarai: “A few years ago, there was no street art in Nepal. But then we created it. In collaboration with local communities, we want to show young people all over Nepal that urban landscapes can be canvases without limitations. And we want to expose heroes in our society, that can motivate young people to make a difference.” Most of the heroes portrayed by Artlab can still be found on the walls of Kathmandu. Artlab’s response to the earthquake The huge earthquake that struck central Nepal on 25th April 2015 did not stop Artlab and many other Nepalese street artists from working. After the earthquake there was an explosion of art along Kathmandu’s roads with messages of loss and hope. Artlab launched a CKU-supported project called ‘Re-Color’ to bring back social harmony through art therapy. Passers-by were invited to join the artists with brush strokes on the walls to make it a healing community activity.

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Artlab, a collective of young street artists, covers the walls of Kathmandu with paintings of role models and local heroes. Photo: Rajneesh Bhandari.

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Kenya’s spoken word artists speak for themselves

CKU in Kenya Since 2013, CKU and the Danish Embassy in Nairobi have supported art, culture and creative industries in close cooperation with Kenyan Poets Lounge, Docubox (EADFF), The Nest and Sarakasi Trust. The Danish support contributed to increasing access to cultural activities outside privileged areas and exploring new opportunities in the growing creative economy.

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With the pen as their most powerful weapon, a mic as their lifeline, and explosions of emotions and experiences on stage, spoken word artists are widening the democratic space in Kenya. When spoken word artists share stories, a conversation suddenly takes place between thousands of young Kenyans. “Every day I wish my writing was more powerful than it is. Every other time I try to imagine my pen in its most powerful form of a weapon. So my mind doesn’t rest. In fact, my tongue is aflame because of all these fires the society dares me to spit.” The young Kenyan spoken word artist Mufasa draws on his own experiences, or comments on current issues, when he enters one of the many emerging stages for spoken word in Kenya. “Poets share their minds, thoughts and opinions on stages. It is an explosion of your mind, the thoughts trapped in your head and an activation of your passive clicks on the internet. On stage, the conversations, you have started in your mind suddenly take place between 2000 people. Poets are there to make people listen. And when I perform, people are silent,” says Mufasa, when CKU meets him in Nairobi. Democracy in action Mufasa’s emotional pieces and unique performance style has made him one of the most popular poets of Kenyan spoken word. “Spoken word is extremely relevant for both the individual and the society. The trustworthiness of spoken word artists is high, as they share their own authentic experiences and capture the current situations in words. The best spoken-word artists are closer to reality than politicians,” says Mufasa. According to Mufasa, spoken word crosses ethnical, religious, urban-rural and social divides, and his poems are deeply rooted in a Kenyan urban reality, his own life and experiences. New spoken word forums for youth The spoken word scene is still closely associated with urban spaces, but the Nairobi-based spoken word

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and poetry forum Fatuma’s Voice have with the support of CKU been extended to the districts Nakuru, Machkos and Nyeri. Chris Mukasa initiated Fatuma’s Voice as a forum for young poets where they share stories, poems and texts. Stories that had been kept as secrets or traumas, and they had never found the courage or opportunity to tell anyone else. “Poetry comes in as an antidote in form of release therapy for the writer and acceptance for the listeners. When you see yourself in someone else’s words, you realize that you are not alone,” says Chris Mukasa.

“The multiplying of diverse voices pushes the boundaries for a democracy. The creative and critical young thinkers of Kenya get their own channel with spoken word from where they can start new, relevant conversations.” — Christoph Lodemann, CKU

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Creation Out of Crisis

The report ‘Creation out of Crisis’ authored by the distinguished cultural analyst and activist Moukhtar Kocache sheds light on the dynamics between art, culture, social change and development in the Arab region. A circus school offers a platform for over 500 young people from marginalised groups and refugee camps; a Syrian artist collective creates satire and challenges the oppressive Syrian regime; while locally based cultural initiatives offer safe platforms for testing new discourses and counter narratives opposed to the violent culture promoted by political propaganda machines. As the title Creation out of Crisis suggests, the report offers a deeper understanding of the connection between culture, creativity and change processes. Illustrated by a comprehensive mapping of more than 30 artistic and cultural initiatives in Tunisia, Egypt, Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria, the report gives an overview over the diverse ways in which the creative sector responds to the current crisis in the region. “Art and culture offer platforms for social interaction; they help build civic experience by advancing collective work and problem-solving, experimentation in coexistence, dialogue, and respect for diversity. All crucial in moments of transition and reform,”
the report concludes.

“In an authoritarian environment of excessively dominant power structures, the ability to visualise and articulate alternative narratives is essential.” — Creation Out of Crisis, p. 11

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Focus on the micro level
 A crescendo of creative activities and expressions has, according to the report, characterized the Arab region during the last 10 years. Independent art spaces and venues have dramatically multiplied. They attract young people of diverse backgrounds and offer safe spaces for experimenting with new discourses and encourage civic engagement. “When larger paradigms at the level of the state are failing or chaotic, it becomes essential to focus our support at the level of communities to ensure their vibrancy and the development of new creative and visionary leaders and decision makers,” Moukhtar Kocache says and emphasizes that changes take place at the micro-level.

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Disadvantaged communities – in refugee camps, informal settlements or geographically and economically marginalised communities – depend on civil society interventions. Art and culture have proven to contribute to the creation of alternative livelihoods and revitalisation of these communities. This is especially the case in Syria’s neighbouring countries. “The creative sector empowers people and communities and reminds them of their humanity and their sense of self which helps them be active rather than passive in times of crisis,” Moukhtar Kocache says. About the report Creation out of Crisis – A Historic Moment to Leverage Arts and Culture’s Contribution to Social Change in the Arab Region By Moukhtar Kocache Editorial team: Maria Golia, Ulla Jepsen, Ditte Dalgaard and Muna Buhr CKU, November 2015, 44 pp. The creative sector empowers people and communities, says Moukhtar Kocache. An example is the Dream City Biennale, Tunisia 2012. Photo: Saif Chaabane. Courtesy of L’Art Rue and the photographer.

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Freedom of Expression

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Safeguarding freedom of expression for artists and cultural agents Challenges: Scarcity of platforms for cultural and artistic activities; censorship and limited opportunities for free expression for artists and organisations; inadequate or non-existent government funding of art and culture. CKU supported: The establishment of platforms and networks; exhibitions and publications with artists in exile, who can not express themselves freely in their home country; intercultural collaborations where artists are given access to international networks and media; communication of the violation of the artists’ freedom of expression.

“Everyone shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of his choice.” — The UN’s International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Article 19.2

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Assad’s henchmen killed the popular protest singer Kashoosh by cutting out his Adam’s apple. Khalil Younes: ‘About A Young Man Called Kashoosh’, 2011, 30 x 40 cm, ink on paper. Courtesy of the artist.

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Art is a thorn in the eye of undemocratic forces

Artists’ opportunities for free and safe expression are limited in several countries. Through means ranging from murder to bureaucratic barriers, the space for free expression and access to art are shrinking. Islamic extremists cut the hands off musicians in northern Mali. Assad’s henchmen killed a popular Syrian protest singer by cutting out his Adam’s apple. A Taleban suicide bomber attacked during a concert at the French Cultural Institute in Kabul and killed four people. The free artistic expression is often trampled in conflicts involving undemocratic forces. In Afghanistan, Mali and Syria, brutal violent regimes and extremists target and attack artists. In conservative interpretations of Islam, music is an immoral diversion, and critical art is a thorn in the eye of all the dictators of the world. CKU has supported artists by establishing networks that help safeguard artistic freedom and expose the violations of freedom of expression.

strained because censorship, deliberate bureaucratic harassment and restrictive legislation limit their artistic freedom of expression. In Kenya, a film department under the Ministry of Culture has sued the director of a film that documents homosexuals coming out. Allegedly because it was produced without authorisation. In Egypt, artists are still limited by censorship and bans when they address themes like religion, politics or sex in their art. CKU supported cultural agents’ defence of freedom of expression. A free and dynamic cultural sector is important for a society’s ability to safeguard human rights and keep an open debate. When artists address the taboos of society in their art, they help stretch the limits for a society. And they help enhance reconciliation processes and challenge people to see the world from a different perspective.

Narrow space for artistic expression Artists and cultural organisations in countries like Egypt and Kenya see their space for action con-

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Syrian artists fight on in exile

The war has forced Syria’s artists out of their home country. They continue to criticise and comment on the situation from their new homes in Europe and Syria’s neighbouring countries. A man gives birth to a weapon and human skin is used as sewing thread in a military uniform. This is what the motifs look like in some of Syrian artist Sulafa Hijazi’s illustrations. Death, violence, destruction and military assault are reflected in many of the works, she and other Syrian artists have posted on social media and exhibited during the years of the raging war in Syria. Until 2012, many of the Syrian artists still worked in the country, but after the war broke out many of the country’s galleries and art spaces closed. Many artists have been imprisoned, tortured and even killed for expressing their criticism of Syria’s President Bashar al-Assad. This happened to, among others, the popular singer Ibrahim Kashus from the city of Hama. After having inspired the city’s population to sing: “Get out, Bashar!” in 2011, he was found dead in a river outside the city. Nobody is saved by a painting Fearing the same fate and because of fading prospects of peace in Syria, the majority of the artists fled. From their new homes in exile many of them continue to use art to criticise the Assad regime and Islamic State. Others paint and write in order to process the pain and anger planted in them by the war. Through satire, poetry, hip hop, paintings and installations they add their perspectives to the consequences of war and put words and pictures to their own and the Syrian people’s trauma. “People are killing each other and nobody is saved by a painting. But it is important that emotions are handled and that we will continue to express our views through art,” says Sulafa Hijazi, who fled from Syria at the end of 2012. From her exile in Germany, she has an outlet through art for the frustrations and the pain that she and other Syrians bear from Syria. “The Syrian people need to process the anger, grief and fear of the future. Art gives us this possibility,” says Sulafa Hijazi.

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“I come directly from a war zone and from a society in which people have been exposed to different forms of oppression,� says the artist Sulafa Hijazi, who fled from Damascus in 2012. Sulafa Haijazi: Untitled, 2012. Courtesy of the artist.

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CKU has supported Syrian artists since 2011 Syria Speaks – Art and Culture from the Frontline Sulafa Hijazi is one of more than 50 Syrian artists and writers who have contributed to the publication ‘Syria Speaks – Art and Culture from the Frontline’. It was launched and published in 2014 with support from the Prince Claus Foundation and CKU. Syrian artists teach Danish youth In October 2015 and 2016 Refugees of Rap and the artists Sulafa Hijazi, Wael Toubaji and Fadi al-Hamwi took part in Images Youth’s annual workshop programme in Danish schools. Syria’s Art of Resistance at Rundetaarn In 2013 some of the most innovative artists and creative activists in the Syrian uprising exhibited at the Round Tower in Copenhagen. The group exhibition ‘Syria’s Art of Resistance’ was curated by Malu Halasa, Aram Tahhan, Leen Zyiad and Donatella della Ratta and supported by the Prince Claus Foundation and CKU.

“The Syrian people need to process the anger, grief and fear of the future. Art gives us this possibility,” says Sulafa Hijazi, who is now living and working in Berlin. Sulafa Haijazi: Birth, 2012. Courtesy of the artist.

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Ambassador: Art promotes human rights

In Vietnam, The Danish Embassy has for decades supported artists who put challenging subjects on the agenda. Former Danish Ambassador in Vietnam, John Nielsen, believes that support for artists promotes both civil rights and the democratisation process – for relatively little money.

Cultural development and exchange fund The Danish Embassy in Vietnam supported the strengthening of artistic freedom of expression for Vietnamese artists. Through means from the Danish fund, artists were given opportunities to produce new art. Through facilitated exchanges between Danish and Vietnamese artists, the Danish fund also helped establish an international network and Vietnamese connections to global art movements.

The TV is on in a hotel room where two young men are having sex. A young woman is checking herself out under her skirt, while another observes her, giggling. A man sitting in a pink tub reaches out to wash his male partner’s hair. Through her gentle lens Vietnamese Maika Elan has portrayed homosexual couples in their homes in her World Press Photo winning series ‘Pink Choices’. And even though it has never been forbidden to be homosexual in Vietnam, it is still taboo for most Vietnamese people to be confronted with homosexuality. Maika Elan is one of the artists that Denmark’s former ambassador in Vietnam, John Nielsen, highlights when he speaks about the embassy’s cultural efforts. John Nielsen has no doubts that art and culture are important ingredients in the Danish development cooperation. “The cultural programme in Vietnam has without a doubt contributed to stretching limits and moved human rights further up on the agenda. Stretching limits is what artists do and therefore the programme has been able to achieve far more than the heavy good governance programmes,” says John Nielsen. Cultural development programmes at Danish embassies often have small budgets compared to other embassy initiatives, but according to John Nielsen they are no less powerful: “If you compare good governance programmes and cultural programmes, there is no doubt that the cultural efforts move more ground in the rights work and give stronger branding to the embassy. Cultural efforts are therefore important to maintain as a part of the Danish development aid: Art can shift the entire human rights agenda with very little means.”

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The award-winning Vietnamese photographer Maika Elan has with Danish funding documented homosexuals’ love life in Vietnam. Photo: Maika Elan.

CKU in Vietnam The Danish Embassy in Vietnam has, since 2006, been actively involved in creating exchanges between Danish and Vietnamese artists, and in strengthening the cultural sector in Vietnam. The Danish Embassy in Vietnam has with CKU assistance supported further education of teachers responsible for creative courses in elementary school. Also, exchanges between Danish and Vietnamese children’s book authors and illustrators – with a focus on creative processes and teamwork – have helped strengthen the market for illustrated books in Vietnam.

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Images 16: Free to express fear, frustrations and hope

Artists exhibiting at Images 16 in Denmark found a safe ground to use their freedom of expression. Across the world, intolerance and fear of foreign cultures, religions and people are growing, and as a reaction to the increasing flows of refugees, more and more nations choose to isolate their countries with walls, increased security measures and stricter asylum and immigration laws. That is the opinion of Senegalese curator N’Goné Fall who stands behind the group exhibition ‘When Things Fall Apart: Critical Voices on the Radars’ at the art museum Trapholt in Kolding. Isolation and bloody footprints as protest In a part of the exhibition, the young Palestinian artist Nidaa Badwan shows a series of pictorial photographic self-portraits that she produced in her room in Gaza City. She decided to isolate herself in a protest against Israel’s blockade of Gaza and Hamas’ discrimination against women. Lesbian artist and LGBT-activist Babirye Leilah from Uganda uses sculptures built from charred books, crosses, chains and burnt plastic to illustrate the fear and pain that she and other homosexuals live with in Uganda. In a video performance, the Guatemalan artist Regina Galindo walks through Guatemala City on bare feet, covered in human blood. Her bloody footprints in the streets and in front of Parliament illustrate the many human lives that were lost in the country’s civil war. And with paintings and installations, three Vietnamese artists, Ding Q. Le, Thái Tuân Nguyen and Tiffany Chung, bring evidence of the Vietnam War and a life under censorship to the exhibition.

Images 16 presents contemporary visual art from Africa, Asia and the Middle East focusing on global challenges and the role of the artist in society. More than 30 exhibitions and events in 16 cities in Denmark have been realised in cooperation between more than 25 cultural institutions, the municipality of Holbæk, 16 international curators and CKU.

Comfort zones
 “We must reflect and ask ourselves if we can allow ourselves to ignore the global challenges that displace people. And we must ask each other; is it really all right that we’re only concerned with our own welfare?” says N’Goné Fall. The question is particularly important to raise in Denmark and other parts of the world that N’Goné Fall categorises as “comfort zones”.

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Indonesian artist Arahmaiani Faisal’s installation ‘Do not prevent the fertility of the mind’ was featured in the exhibition ’When Things Fall Apart – Critical Voices on the Radars’ at Trapholt in Kolding as part of Images 16. Photo: René Mastrup. Courtesy of the artist.

“Our societies will collapse if we continue to build walls and if we don’t work to develop empathy but simply turn our backs on the world and people who don’t look like ourselves.”

“By comfort zones I mean realities without war, military coups, dictatorships, censorship and natural disasters that displace people. Countries where the people predominantly trust that the democratic rules are followed, and sexual minorities are not persecuted. Our societies will collapse if we continue to build walls and if we don’t work to develop empathy but simply turn our backs on the world and people who don’t look like ourselves,” says N’Goné Fall.

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Partner overview

CKU’s work has since the beginning been built on partnerships with organisations, institutions and associations in Africa, Asia and the Middle East. With their loyal, dedicated and professional effort it has been possible to realise the overall objective of enhancing people’s access to art and cultural activities. The overview of partners enlists CKU’s primary collaboration partners in the period 2013-2016. Apart from these partners, CKU has consulted and collaborated with individuals, embassies, organisations and institutions both in Denmark and abroad that have contributed with recommendations, reports, and most generously shared their knowledge.

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PAKISTAN AHAN AHAN’s primary objective is to alleviate poverty in rural and peri-urban areas of Pakistan by supporting rural-based micro and small enterprises producing non-farm goods. The One Village One Product (OVOP) concept of Japan and One Tambon One Product (OTOP) of Thailand serve as inspiration.

Ajoka Theatre Ajoka Theatre works to empower the Pakistani population through theatre, by producing thematic plays on gender, peace, religious tolerance and human rights. Ajoka Theatre facilitates theatre workshops on writing and improvisation and theatre festivals for youth groups. Alhamra The Alhamra Arts Council is a promotional body that provides space and opportunity for artists. It is the largest art space in Punjab and has art shows all year round. The Alhamra supports private cultural groups, international troupes and other official and non-official programs. Beaconhouse National University (BNU)/ Lahore Biennale Foundation (LBF) BNU is the first Liberal Arts University in Pakistan offering undergraduate and graduate programmes in Liberal Arts. It is a non-profit, apolitical, non-sectarian, equal-opportunity institution offering degree programmes in modern disciplines not offered elsewhere.

Partner overview

College of Youth Activism and Development (CYAAD) CYAAD is a school dedicated to make a contribution for poverty alleviation, positive local engagement of our youth in the political system, imparting education and technical training to encourage entrepreneurship and social development, as well as to counter extremism and radicalisation. Community World Service Asia (CWSA) CWSA works with marginalized communities, refugees, internally displaced, host communities, civil society, non-governmental and community-based organisations, teachers, religious and community leaders, journalists, women and youth to address the needs of health care, education, livelihoods, peace-building, civic engagement, and vulnerability to disasters and conflicts. Freemuse Freemuse, The World Forum on Music and Censorship, is an independent international membership organisation advocating and defending freedom of expression for musicians and composers worldwide. Freemuse has Special Consultative Status with the UN Economic and Social Council. Hashoo Foundation Hashoo Foundation has set goals to empower the people of Pakistan by providing education, better health and opportunities of growth. Their mission is to enable and empower communities to be independent by facilitating equitable access to opportunities. Khwendo Khor Khwendo Khor works to enhance economic growth through creative industries and improve the livelihoods of women, youth and marginalized groups. It is a participatory development initiative, focusing on the active involvement of communities, especially women and children.

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The Little Art (TLA) TLA is an arts education organisation with the mission of establishing arts in Pakistan as a major facilitator for children and young people to realize and achieve their dreams. TLA provides arts education and creative learning opportunities to children from different backgrounds.

INDONESIA

Punjab University Punjab University intends to be a lead public university in providing affordable educational opportunities to develop leadership in all areas. Through learner-centred teaching and research the university strengthens students’ identity at national and international level. Shirkat Gah Shirkat Gah is a leading organisation that advocates women and human rights through a feminist, participatory and democratic model, in which every voice matters and on-ground research drives project outcomes. Shirkat Gah has presence across all four provinces of the country. UNESCO UNESCO’s work in Pakistan focuses on the Right to Education, Promotion of Science, Disaster Risk Reduction, Cultural Heritage Promotion and Safeguarding, Freedom of Expression and Press Freedom, Journalists Safety, Human Security, Mainstreaming Human Rights, Gender and Peace.

Jakarta Biennale Foundation Independent institution behind the Jakarta Biennale, a contemporary art exhibition held biannually in Jakarta. The Biennale serves as a platform for showcasing contemporary art that push the boundaries for free artistic expression in Indonesia. Kelola National non-profit organisation founded in 1999. Kelola’s goal is to create opportunities for the Indonesian art sector by providing access to learning and funding opportunities. Kelola works directly with artists across Indonesia and provide grants to artists in remote areas. Koalisi Seni Indonesia (KSI) Umbrella organisation advocating for support to the art sector and its stakeholders in Indonesia. Koalisi Seni works with collecting and managing resources as a part of art development, and supporting a public policy in accordance with art development. Search for Common Ground (SFCG) International NGO, working in Indonesia since 2002, with the overall aim of ending violent conflict. SFCG’s focus is to build tolerance and mutual understanding by disseminating alternative narratives to violent extremism and empowering victims.

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NEPAL Artlab Art collective who explores constructive solutions to societal challenges through community-based art and cultural activities. Artlab’s Prasad Projects feature community workshops on techniques like stencilling and basic letter design and create new open-air galleries across Nepal.

South Asia Communication (SAC) Media company producing youth television shows, public outreach programmes and training programmes. SAC produced the TV series ‘Pattern Breakers’ broadcasted at NTV Plus portraying young Nepalese who decide not to migrate but stay to make a difference in Nepal. Karkhana A collective of young programmers, engineers, artists and hackers dedicated to the integration of interdisciplinary teaching method. Experimentation, collaboration, and play are the cornerstones of Karkhana that has a maker space in the Gyaneshwor neighbourhood of Kathmandu. Photo.circle Established in 2007, photo.circle is a platform for photography in Nepal.​Nepal Picture Library (NPL), a digital photo archive run by Photo.circle, documents an inclusive history of Nepal by encouraging individuals to contribute to a national narrative. Since 2011, Photo.circle has collected over 24,000 photographs from more than 100 contributors. Siddhartha Arts Foundation (SAF) NGO promoting the contemporary art of Nepal and engaging in the community through debate on social issues. SAF has conducted vocational and academic training under the programme Developing Academic Infrastructure in the Administration of the Arts.

Empowerment Partner overview

Word Warriors Word Warriors are a Kathmandu-based group of young poets leading the spoken word movement in Nepal. Word Warriors perform and conduct events, competitions and workshops all over Nepal, sharing the platform that spoken word provides for youth expression and voice.

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AFGHANISTAN

KENYA Docubox (EADFF) A filmmakers’ space in Nairobi, where filmmakers receive training and funding to produce quality documentaries. Docubox is hosting a network of East African documentary filmmakers and develop audiences for documentary films based on stories that reflect the diversity of East Africa.

Afghan Photography Network Afghan Photography Network is a network of independent Afghan photographers brought together at the 3rd Eye Photojournalism Centre in 2011. The modular exhibition ‘Afghan Tales’ with the photographers’ works has travelled to New York, Copenhagen and other cities.

Kenyan Poets Lounge A network for young Kenyan poets. Kenyan Poets Lounge is the organiser of the poetry and spoken word event Fatuma’s Voice that takes place once a month at PAWA254 in Nairobi and has established poetry clubs in the districts of Nakuru, Machkos and Nyeri in Kenya.

The Afghanistan National Institute of Music Ahmad Sarmast, an Afghan music professor educated in Russia and Australia, founded the National Institute of Music in Kabul in 2010 to bring music back to Afghanistan after it was banned in the name of the Taliban’s extreme interpretation of Islam.

The Nest An interdisciplinary artist collective and hub for operators in the cultural and creative industries in Nairobi. The Nest promotes and produces films such as ‘Stories of Our Lives’ about the Kenyan LGBTI-community and works to enhance income opportunities for artists in Kenya. The Afghanistan Youth Centre Young people in Afghanistan like all other young people need a space, where they can play music, talk, dance, learn and get to know each other. At the first ever youth centre in Afghanistan the youth found a place to develop their talent and enhance their job opportunities.

Sarakasi Trust A performance arts development organisation based at the Sarakasi Dome in Nairobi. Sarakasi stands behind the annual Sawa Sawa Festival in Nairobi, where young underground artists share their art with youth groups from the underprivileged areas of Nairobi.

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TANZANIA

UGANDA

Bagamoyo Arts and Cultural Institute Taasisi ya Sanaa na Utamaduni Bagamoyo (TaSUBa) is a semi-autonomous governmental organisation for training, research and consultancy service in arts and culture.

Bayimba Cultural Foundation Bayimba is a multiple-branched organisation that focuses on lifting arts and culture in Uganda through cultural exchange and creativity. By participating in Bayimba’s hip-hop boot camps in different parts of Uganda many have given their artistic career a kick-start.

Culture and Development in East Africa (CDEA) The creative think tank CDEA is dedicated to providing services to stakeholders in the culture and development sectors in Tanzania and the East African Region. CDEA has collected data to track the economic contribution of culture to Tanzania’s economy. Nafasi Art Space In 2008, the Queen of Denmark, Margrethe II, inaugurated Nafasi Art Space as a hub for contemporary art in Tanzania. Since then, workshops for visual artists, rehearsal and production facilities for musicians and dancers have enhanced the production of contemporary art in Tanzania. Soma Book Café Soma is a not-for-profit organisation established to promote reading culture in Tanzania by running open book cafés in Dar es Salaam and arranging talks and book fairs in partnership with others. Soma is arranging annual short story competitions for secondary schools nationwide.

Femrite – Uganda Women Writers’ Association Femrite is an NGO based in Kampala and aims at developing and publishing female writers. Femrite works to promote a stronger reading and writing culture in Uganda and has established Tukosawa Writing Clubs (TWC) in 20 schools in Gulu and Kabale districts. Maisha Film Lab Maisha (which means ‘life’ in Kiswahili) is a non-profit training initiative for emerging East African filmmakers. The organisation provides hands-on intensives in screenwriting, directing, producing, cinematography, editing, sound recording, and acting.

Zanzibar International Film Festival (ZIFF) ZIFF is East Africa’s largest film, music and arts festival bringing new talents from all over the world together. The Village Panorama is a part of ZIFF with film screenings and cultural activities in different villages on the islands of Unguja and Pemba.

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MALI

PALESTINE

Cadre de Promotion pour la Formation en Photographie (CFP) The photo school in Bamako has been digitalised and both teachers and students have been trained to get a maximum out of their photographer skills. A film archive at the film school has also been saved through digitalisation.

Al Hoash Palestinian Art Court A non-profit organisation based in East Jerusalem, in Zahra Street, which historically was a cultural hub of Jerusalem in the first half of the 20th century. Al Hoash’s mission is to provide and sustain a knowledge-based platform for Palestinians to express, strengthen and realize national identity through visual culture.

Centre National de la Cinématographie du Mali (CNCM) By supporting post-production facilities for film at the CNCM, the aim has been to ensure that it is possible to produce feature films from A-Z in Mali without having to use expensive foreign post-production assistance.

Conservatoire des Arts et Métier (CAM) Through the Spot sur Mali festival for up-and-coming musicians, a local audience as well as international talent-spotters got the opportunity to discover new talents. Study exchanges and trainings have also been supported by Denmark.

A.M. Quattan Foundation The A.M. Qattan Foundation (AMQF) is an independent, not-for-profit development organisation working in the fields of culture and education, with a particular focus on children, teachers and young artists. In cooperation with CKU, AMQF announced an open call for artists in Gaza.

Assirk Assaghir, Nablus Circus School, Nablus Assirk Assaghir is committed to the principles of freedom of expression, the right to play and the right to education. 500 youth from marginalised communities and refugee camps are trained in circus and performing arts in a safe, educational space. The Creative Madaa Center, Silwan, East Jerusalem A non-profit and non-governmental community-based centre founded in 2007. Aims to empower the community and build community networks by providing and subsidising recreational, educational and social activities and courses and to promote dialogue and exchange of ideas by organising events and activities, which inform and educate.

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Film Lab, Ramallah A Ramallah-based initiative providing production space for filmmakers and audiences to create and experience Palestinian film, in an effort to enhance its uniqueness by offering space, networks, knowledge and providing equipment enabling filmmakers to complete, produce and distribute their personal projects. Oushaq Arts Centre Specialized in folkloric arts, dance, and drama. Oushaq aims to promote culture and arts as distant from political affiliations, and supporting a generation of Jerusalemites who believe in their Palestinian identity through arts and culture without discrimination based on gender or religion. Yafa Cultural Centre A key player for providing services and activities to a wide range of the population in particular children and women within Balata refugee camp. These include children’s drama, a media center, a library and a psychosocial unit. Ya’bad Cultural Centre Ya’bad Cultural Centre focuses on providing cultural activities to Ya’bad’s community, surrounding villages and Bedouin community. Cultural Forum Society An NGO formed in 2003 with the mission to promote Palestinian culture and education, focusing on youth through arts and cultural activities. CFS plays an important role as the sole provider of space and activities in the district of Qalqilia.

EGYPT Cairo Lab for Urban Studies, Training and Environmental Research (CLUSTER) CLUSTER aims at establishing a space for critical urban discourse and design practice. CLUSTER engages critical theorisation while being grounded in professional practice, negotiating the blurred boundaries between formal/institutional regulations and everyday urban informality. The Danish Egyptian Dialogue Institute (DEDI) DEDI is an intergovernmental body with a strong dialogue mandate under the Danish Arab Partnership Programme (DAPP). Established in 2004, DEDI’s core mandate is to promote political and cultural understanding between Denmark and Egypt, and Europe and the Arab World. Medrar for Contemporary Art Art space based in Cairo in 2005 as a non-profit collective. Medrar focuses on young Arabic talent in the visual arts and often organises events, workshops and festivals to promote the production of art in Egypt. Townhouse Gallery of Contemporary Art Townhouse was established in downtown Cairo in 1998 as an independent, non-profit art space with a goal of making contemporary art and culture accessible to all without compromising creative practice. Townhouse supports artistic work in a wide range of media through exhibitions, residencies for artists, curators and writers, educational initiatives and outreach programs.

The Open Studio An artist run initiative working in collaboration with local community centres and UNRWA schools. It aims to expose children to the different mediums in art, to develop their competence in various forms of art, and to provide a safe space to explore and express ideas and to develop individual creativity through long-term programmes.

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BURKINA FASO

Association Burkinabè du Cinéma d’animation (ABCA) Animation film studio in Ouagadougou founded in 2009 as a non-profit association. Has made a series of animation films and is involved in the organisation of the Ouagadougou animation film festival called Les Toiles Animées.

Africalia A not-for-profit organisation founded in 2000 on the initiative of the Belgian Development Cooperation and at the instigation of secretary of state Eddy Boutmans. In 2007 Africalia became a cultural cooperation organisation which promotes sustainable human development by supporting African culture and contemporary art. Association Benebnooma A not-for-profit association running cultural activities including the Atypical Nights of Koudougou (NAK) – an international festival held annually in late November since 1996. NAK attracts a wide audience and gather artists and professionals in the region and from the rest of the world.

Institute Imagine Film institute in Ouagadougou founded by the famous filmmaker from Burkina Faso, Gaston JM Kaboré, who also functions as the general manager. Jazz á Ouaga Founded in 1992 by jazz lovers, the Jazz à Ouaga Association aims to improve the culture of jazz, the music born of black and now universal exile, through training and organization. The jazz festival is held annually in Ouagadougou.

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AFRICA (8 countries in Africa SSA)

SOURCE, South Africa (coordinator) Design Network Africa (DNA) has with SOURCE as coordinator promoted African design and strengthened sustainability of design markets in Africa and enhanced access to the global market for design.

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Cultural and Creative Industries

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Contribute to economic growth through creative industries Challenges: Unemployment (youth unemployment particularly); limited economic growth for the wider population; limited access to the global market; few local markets for creative products; lack of financing for the private sector and entrepreneurs; limited exposure opportunities for artists. CKU supports: Local job creation through strengthened capacity within entrepreneurship, business development, and further education within the arts; festivals and platforms offering exposure opportunities for new talent; mentorships and networks for creative entrepreneurs and companies; focus on growth potential in cultural and creative industries in local and global markets.

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Cultural and creative industries create opportunities

Entrepreneurial designers, productive film makers and talented artists are converting their creative talents into jobs in several of the world’s poorest countries. Continuous growth within the cultural and creative industries is promoted through funding of networks, pilot projects and training in entrepreneurship. While the financial crisis put a spanner in the wheels of most industries, growth continued in the creative sector. The total world trade of creative products saw a growth of 8.8 percent from 2002-2012 and in the developing countries – according to a report from UNESCO – the increase in sales of creative products was 12.1 percent in the same period. “The creative economy is a much underrated bright spot in the global economy,” said Australian scientist Stefan Hajkowicz during the World Economic Forum in Davos in January 2015. And according to Hajkowicz and institutions like the World Bank, Ecowas and UNDP, cultural and creative industries can contribute even further to economic growth. There is still a large untapped potential in the creative economy.

Growing creative industries Guests at the music festival in Mali pump money into the transport, hotel and restaurant industry. Young creative multi-talents in Kenya make money by placing themselves on the cusp between commercial and creative activities, strongly backed by organisations and the country’s blooming digital innovation. All while furniture designer Hamed Ouattara expands his team at the design studio in Ouagadougou in Burkina Faso. The programmes funded by CKU offer many good examples of how growth and job opportunities are created in the creative and cultural industries. Networks are, as the story on Design Network Africa demonstrates, one of the models that help create jobs in the cultural and creative industries. Through the exchange of skills, experience and international connections, designers and other creatives gain better qualifications and a stronger foothold in the global market. CKU combines its support of international networks with education and training for designers, artists and cultural entrepreneurs to strengthen the commercial focus in a sector, where creativity

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and go-to-market strategy must go hand in hand, if a profit is to be made. A fundamental prerequisite whether the creative is a designer in New York or an up-coming writer in Northern Uganda.

Creative and cultural industries are: • Emerging in growth economies • Influenced by growth in other sectors • Providing alternative income opportunities • Recognised politically as a bridge to trade and tourism.

Diversity in a global market Even though CKU’s focus is on job creation and profits, the initiatives also help create cultural diversity in the global market. “Support of the cultural and creative industries is also about safeguarding equal access to the international markets, and widen the supply of cultural products from the new cultural growth centres in Africa and Asia,” says Louise Friis Pedersen, CKU Programme Manager 2009-2016. For artists and designers an international breakthrough is essential to sound sales figures. And it boosts confidence in the countries where new companies and talent are appearing in the cultural and creative industries.

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Creative and cultural industries hold the potential to: • Include young people in economic growth • Contribute to socio-economic development • Prevent conflicts and increase dialogue • Realise cultural diversity on the world market for cultural products • Enhance cultural self-esteem through identification in cultural products.

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“I cannot talk about my work without mentioning my collaborators who are migrants from the Northern part of Ghana,” says Ibrahim Mahama in an interview about his spectacular collage of African jute sacks on the exhibition space Charlottenborg’s façade. The sacks had travelled from Ghana to be exhibited in the exhibition ‘An Age of Our Own Making’ as part of Images 16. Photo: Nii Odzenma.

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African Designers lift each other through network

The DNA family “The majority of DNA beneficiary interviewees used the term ‘family’ in describing their experiences within the network. This sense of belonging to a group of practitioners, who face common constraints in both their business and their art, is a resounding strength of the model and a testimony to CKU’s original intention of keeping a sense of ownership of the network placed firmly in the region.“ – From the evaluation of CKU’s work with creative industries on Africa carried out by consultancy firm Nordicity.

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Design Network Africa (DNA) brings designers from all parts of Africa together and invites them on a journey out of isolation and into a collective sensation. New evaluation carried out for CKU confirms that the network model has been the key to success of DNA. “Design Network Africa is in many ways a unique donor initiative. With Danish support the designers as a collective have won both design awards and international attention, which helps to generate orders and new jobs. At the same time, the network has been rewarding for the individual designer because of a focus on specific market and product development,” says Louise Friis Pedersen, CKU’s expert in cultural and creative industries (2008-2016). Before July 2011, a group of highly talented designers from Africa worked separately and isolated in their offices and workshops in different parts of Africa. They were struggling with the same problems and faced constraints like lack of opportunities for artistic skill development and business development. And they had no one to share their frustrations with, be inspired by or learn from. Zimbabwean ceramic artist Marjorie Wallace, who makes distinct and delicate ceramics design, was just about to close her Matupo Pottery in Harare due to cash-flow problems, hyperinflation and political instability. Then she got the invitation to become a member of Design Network Africa: “Before I entered the DNA arena, I had been cut off because of our political and economic circumstances. I was going under, drowning. It’s as if someone threw me a lifeline,” says Marjorie Wallace. To her, Design Network Africa has been a way out of an isolated existence in Zimbabwe. Now she is a member of the DNA family and sells her ceramics to shops throughout Europe including the Terence Conran Shop, a London-based luxury retailer selling designer homeware and furniture. Collective efforts pay off locally Marjorie Wallace is not alone with her experience of DNA as a real game changer. A significant uptick in sales and new opportunities to hire employees has been the reality for many of the designers.

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The award-winning Design Network Africa features Cheick Diallo from Mali, Adèle Dejak from Kenya, Babacar Niang from Senegal and Hamed Outtara from Burkina Faso. Photo: Richard Keppel-Smith.

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Design Network Africa Design Network Africa is a programme initiated by CKU, funded by the Danish Government and coordinated by Source. The project links designers from East, West and Southern Africa. The programme encourages collaboration between the designers, sharing common difficulties and solutions, mentorship and utilising new manufacturing processes and materials in a true interchange of skills, aesthetics and narratives. DNA is focused on identifying the specific areas of need of each company and is an immediate and business orientated initiative, repositioning the design companies in particular, but also African design in conjunction in the worldwide retail and media arena.

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More than 220 people have found full-time employment in the workshops of DNA designers – while additional part-time and seasonal workers are hired when the workload becomes too big for the permanent staff. Since the launch of DNA in 2011, almost all the network’s designers have increased their number of employees. The DNA family is an example to follow The designers refer to the network as ‘the DNA family’. The sense of belonging to a family is a strong testimony to their mutual understanding and commitment to cooperate, share knowledge and exhibit together. An evaluation on CKU’s work with creative industries in Africa carried out for CKU by the consultancy firm Nordicity, reveals that the network model is key to the success of Design Network Africa. Through the unique mix of joint workshops, knowledge sharing, collaborative projects crisscrossing the continent and individual counselling for each design company, the network has been a win for both the collective and the individual. “As a group we have created more effective change than we could as individuals,” concludes Marjorie Wallace.

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Through his raw mixed-media creations designer Hamed Ouatarra from Burkina Faso aims to bring out design that exposes the realities of modern Africa. Photo: Design Network Africa.

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Uganda’s young choose rap as a route to jobs and respect

A dynamic hip-hop industry is showing young people of Uganda a way out of unemployment. As a teenager, MC Wang Jok used rap music therapeutically. During the 20 year long period when the Ugandan people constant endured terror from the liberation army, Lord’s Resistance Army, who where trying to overthrow the government, MC Wang Jok’s father was shot and killed by a group of LRA rebels. Today, MC Wang Jok is one of north Uganda’s three most influential hip-hop artists. After being taught by some of Uganda’s best rappers at two separate hip-hop workshops, he formed the rapper group Bila Wa Movement in 2012. They write their songs in their local language Luo and mix hip-hop with traditional Ugandan instruments such as the lukeme, the adungu and the awal. The Bila Wa Movement was invited to play at the popular Bayimba Festival in Uganda’s capital, Kampala. Since then, it’s only gone up for them. Bila Wa Movement’s texts in local languages on themes such as unemployment and violence against women are aired on both local and national radio stations, and several of the tracks are sold as ring tones to young Ugandans. The rap music has become a business for the young rapper, and in Northern Uganda, where youth unemployment is over 80 percent; MC Wang Jok has become a role model for young people. Local challenges and local language The Bayimba Cultural Foundation has continuously encouraged young people to rap in the local language and write about the themes and conflicts that people talk about in their areas. “MC Wang Jok did exactly that and is an inspiration to many young people in north Uganda. He is one of the reasons that hip-hop music has become so popular in this part of the country,” says Sylvester Kabombo from the Bayimba Cultural Foundation. With funding from CKU, the foundation stands behind the bootcamps and workshops that gave MC Wang Jok his inspiration to start the Bila Wa Movement.

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Rapping the news The female rapper Lady Slyke, who is a role model for aspiring female rappers, started her own TV programme Newz Beat, where she and other Ugandan hip-hop artists spice up the news with rhythm and beats. “Many still believe that hip-hop culture doesn’t contribute to Uganda’s economy, and that rappers are wasting their time. But hip-hop creates many jobs within a wide range of industries. Newz Beat is a good example of that. Rap also gives the young a strong opportunity to express their beliefs and put social problems into words,” says the director of Bayimba Cultural Foundation, Faisal Kiwewa.

Rapper Breanda Nalule is a female hip-hop artist and a role model for girls and young women in Uganda. Photo: Eric Mukalazi.

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Filling the creative economy data gap in Tanzania

CKU in Tanzania Since 2008, CKU and the Danish Embassy in Dar es Salaam have supported organisations and cultural platforms that contribute to an inclusive and diverse arts and culture sector. Providing spaces for artist communities and attracting new audiences to experience and take part in artistic activities have been key priorities. The aim was to strengthen platforms that foster artistic quality, provide access to cultural activities for the youth and strengthen the creative economy.

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The contribution of culture to the Tanzanian national economic growth is not adequately measured. To fill this gap in the national statistics, a creative think tank carries out a value chain analysis and a mapping of the economic contribution of the music and film industry in Tanzania. “Even though the Tanzanian government recognizes the music and film industry, there is still no valid system to track the economic contribution,” says Ayeta Wangusa, the director of Culture and Development East Africa (CDEA), a creative think tank based in Dar es Salaam. The government has officially formalized the music and film industry in Tanzania including the popular Bongo Flava music and Swahilliwood movies. However, the Tanzania Revenue Authority and the National Statistical Framework do not reflect the economic outputs made by the vibrant film- and music industry. The capacity and mechanisms to track all the Tanzanian Shillings that are shifting hands in the creative economy are missing. “The contribution to national GDP is significant, but the lack of data is an obvious obstacle for further recognition and inclusion of the creative economy in the official planning and development of the sector. It is not clear to the government what the economic value of music and film is,” says Ayeta Wangusa. CDEA trained 15 data collectors, who collected data and tracked the economic contribution of music and film. As a starting point, CDEA conducted a much needed value chain analysis of both the film and music industry. The research is focusing on the music and film industry in cities such as Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Kigoma, Mbeya and Mwanza. All these cities are known for their vibrant music and/or film industry. Keeping track of the music and film industry To identify where the gaps are in relation to better conditions for the music industry in Tanzania, CDEA is working intensively on a value chain analysis for the music industry. The value chain analysis feeds into the recommendations for new pilot projects and future support to Tanzanian music.

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Only 12 percent of Tanzania’s work force is employed in the formal sector, meaning that much of the revenues and incomes created by the cultural and creative industries are not sufficiently documented. “It is of course a challenge that cultural and creative industries are often informal. But the formalized part of the sector, registered companies, should be able to contribute with data that are necessary for planning,� says Ayeta Wangusa. The data will make a comprehensive background for planning, allocating resources and monitoring the performance of the creative economy for the government. The private sector will also find necessary information to make fruitful investments in film and music.

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Strengthening peace and reconciliation in postconflict areas through art and cultural activities Challenges: Use of violent and undemocratic means in conflict situations; lack of trust and mutual understanding; radicalisation, fragmentation and inequality. CKU supported: Cultural activities where victims of conflict can process trauma through artistic mediums; creative and cultural activities as an alternative to political or religious extremism; establishment of spaces for dialogue and art; involvement of artists, arts institutions and organisations in dialogue and reconciliations processes.

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Art and culture can heal and unite nations

In former conflict areas, CKU supports peace and reconciliation processes through cultural activities that seek to open traumatised societies to dialogue and processing of the experiences. CKU also supports activities that work to unite nations and prevent violent extremism. The singer Mer Matthew from South Sudan insisted on taking her guitar when she fled from the civil war of her home country. And MC Wang Jok used rap music to release the grief of his father, who was killed during the civil war in Northern Uganda. Today, both South Sudanese Mer Matthew and Ugandan MD Wang Jok help heal and unite societies that have survived civil war. Denmark supports cultural activities that take place after conflicts, wars and civil wars. The post-conflict operation starts as soon as the final salvos of fire have sounded, the media has withdrawn and the population starts returning to rebuild their everyday lives. Populations traumatised by war need to process their trauma and rebuild trust. Art and culture offer

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a neutral space where the traumatised people can release the anger, fear and trauma that typically surface after the end of a conflict. Music, literature, theatre and film help process trauma collectively by inducing meaningfulness and renewed belief in peace within the population. And artists play a crucial role in the collective reconciliation process: “I take responsibility for South Sudan’s future through the music and the songs I write. My father led a political and military battle. My path is different. Musicians have an ability that politicians don’t. We can talk directly to people’s emotions, hearts, their souls. We can unite people,” says singer Mer Matthew, who appears in CKU’s educational materials on art, war and conflict. And MC Wang Jok has, through the popularity of his rap lyrics, become a voice for the collective trauma carried by many people from North Uganda as a consequence of the bloody civil war. Culture unites In between the merciless numbers and facts tied to any conflict or crises are artists like Mer Matthew,

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who hold onto peace, healing and reconciliation through artistic expression. And the artists’ efforts actively help restrain hatred and extremism. There are many good examples of art and culture building bridges between people. When groups that previously stood on either side of a conflict meet eye to eye, gain insights into each other’s realities and unite over a creative process, the result is mutual understanding, identification and often friendship amongst the participants. In the second largest city of Jordan, Irbid, more than 150.000 Syrian refugees have sheltered from the war in Syria. This has led to a tense relationship between the Jordanian citizens and the Syrian refugees. CKU has therefore supported the work to create a theatre play at the local theatre stage in which Jordanian and Syrian children can perform together. The work has managed to override prejudice and make room for dialogue between the young participants. A positive result that has spread to both audience, parents and other members of the affected society.

Many elements influence people’s sense of identity. But art and culture, theatre, film, visual arts and music are pivotal to the formation not only of personal identity, but also that of a society or nation.

Cultural activities counteract extremism CKU supports young people’s opportunity to participate in cultural activities such as music, dance, theatre and literature as a means to engage and include them in the development of their societies. Through artistic expression, the young people find a channel and tool to help them release frustrations or trauma, and to connect with others sharing their experience. “When we launch cultural activities in former areas of conflict, it is to offer the affected population a new sense of community and a place to express the pain that the conflict has inflicted. By strengthening the access to art and culture in the fragile post conflict areas, we help to offer an alternative to extremism and prevent conflicts from reigniting,” says the former Director of CKU, Elisabeth Krogh. “In the community that arises from artistic and cultural events, it doesn’t matter where you are from or how much money you have. Art and culture bring people together and create common grounds across religious, ethnic, economic and social boundaries,” Elisabeth Krogh explains.

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“My guitar is my Kalashnikov. It is the weapon I use to talk to people and to tell their stories,� the South Sudanese singer Mer Matthew says after returning to South Sudan in 2014. Photo: Camille Lepage.

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Peace and reconciliation processes aided by art and culture

By Ereshnee Naidu-Silverman

Based on the CKU-report ‘The Contribution of Art and Culture to Peace and Reconciliation’, this article focuses on the role of art and culture in pre- and post-conflict interventions. Art and cultural activities have as much potential to build peace and facilitate processes of reconciliation as they do to fuel cultures of violence and conflict. However, if strategically harnessed with the goal of rebuilding a just and peaceful society, art and culture can contribute to lasting peace and reconciliation. Art has always played a social role and artists are the voices of some of the most marginalized groups within societies. The meaning of art before and during violent conflicts Art plays an important role during all phases of conflict. In periods of state repression and authoritarianism, art and cultural activity such as music festivals and film can raise awareness about oppression, providing spaces for solidarity with marginalized groups and supporting resistance. Additionally,

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as scholars such as Rama Mani (2011) note, if artists are threatened and intimidated and artistic production is censored and restricted, this could also serve as an early warning of repression and highlight the possibility of future restrictions on civil, political and broader human rights. In periods of active violence, art and cultural activities may be used as a tool to “relativize” conflicts (Fukushima, 2011). Kiki Fukushima (2011) argues that artistic productions, especially those brought in by international actors to a conflict zone, may allow people to feel that they are still part of a global community and that there are others who are interested and concerned about their situation. Additionally, activities such as traditional ritual ceremonies and local arts events during conflict can serve as a coping mechanism and temporary outlet from the actual situation, showing affected populations that there is a community of support, sympathy and care. The contribution of art and culture in postconflict situations The role of art and culture in post-conflict recon-

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Artist groups in Nepal helped people begin processes of healing after the twin earthquake in 2015. Artlab added colourful paintings to the ruins in order to restore hope. Photo: Sisan Baniya.

struction, peace building and reconciliation is well documented. In the aftermath of violence and loss, individuals emerge traumatized and unable to verbalize, let alone able to make sense of the many emotions that they experience. Jenny Edkins (2003) argues that for survivors coming out of situations of gross human rights violations, there is no language that is able to convey the trauma. Since violence destroys all social structures and the very fabric of life, everyday language is incomprehensible and inadequate to relay the extent of trauma and the depth of emotions that survivors experience (Edkins, 2003). Similarly, John Paul Lederach (2005) observes that survivors in post-conflict milieus seldom use language to analyze conflict; instead, they use metaphors and images to make sense of the reality of violence and their experiences. According to Stephanie Wise and Emily Nash (2012), the use of metaphor− such as art and culture activities− in trauma recovery, enables trauma survivors to engage with their experiences of trauma while creating enough distance from the event, to prevent re−traumatization.

Several scholars note that one of the most important roles of art in post-conflict societies is its ability to restore victims’ capacities to participate in reconciliation processes, access their emotions and begin their individual healing processes. It is only through creative acts that are responsive and adaptive to survivors’ needs that survivors of conflict can make new meanings and create new languages to understand their reality (Cohen and Yalen, 2004; Lederach, 2005). In recognizing the potential of art in healing processes, organizations such as Thukhuma Khayeethe in Myanmar, use participatory theater techniques to not only engage communities in issues related to peace and tolerance but also provides traumatized individuals the opportunity to be entertained while engaging in these issues.

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A safe space for dialogue and empathy In addition to providing a new form of communication and a creative tool to address the silences and pain that are often rendered unspeakable, art and culture play a key role in promoting dialogue among


opposing groups and is necessary for rebuilding relationships and sustainable peace. According to Paulo Freire (1997), dialogue is an active process requiring reflection and action that eventually leads to some kind of transformation. For David Bohm (2015), dialogue is a practice that enables people with different ideas and opinions to come together to listen to each other without making judgments or particular conclusions. Through the open sharing of ideas and opinions and listening to one another, dialogue participants are brought closer together− they begin to understand what is important to one another and, by working together on a common issue, begin to trust one another (Bohm, 2015). Since dialogue cannot be “deposited” or “consumed” (Freire, 1997) and is a process in which no one particular view prevails (Bohm, 2015), it requires non-didactic, participatory tools for its full potential to be realized. Art methodologies − by their nature − can provide dialogic spaces for these interactions to take place. Dialogue within the context of art and culture would be a safe and neutral space where people could come together to participate and share in cultural activities, critically reflecting on their own ideas and assumptions related to a specific issue. Participatory forms of theater such as dramatist Augusto Boal’s Forum Theatre, for example, provide these spaces that facilitate dialogue among audience members as well as provide opportunities for former opponents to work together to create joint imaginary solutions to social issues presented by characters. The joint problem-solving and group interaction requires that each individual be open to the other’s input and ultimately develop a sense of hopefulness within the group, since participants expect specific outcomes from their actions (Freire, 1997). Additionally, such participatory art promotes empathy − necessary for peace − by allowing the participants to identify with, and put themselves in, a specific character’s position. By facilitating processes of dialogue and promoting empathy, art can enable opponents to understand the plight and humanity of the other. CKU-supported College of Youth Activism and Development in Pakistan, for example, successful-

ly uses art such as poetry and music as tools for youth from diverse backgrounds to engage in dialogues related to religious extremism, peace and tolerance.

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Awareness and understanding Apart from empathy, reconciliation requires the ability of individuals to understand and develop a cultural awareness of one another as well as an understanding of the social issues that need to be addressed to prevent discrimination and renewed cycles of violence. Art such as spoken-word, for example, can raise awareness around socio-political issues and contribute to broader advocacy and education efforts. Using personal storytelling and wordplay to address pressing social and political subjects, the art form encourages poets and their audiences to engage openly − emphasizing a responsibility to the self and to the community for truth and honesty (Alfonso and Fontanilla, 2014). It provides an avenue for people from different backgrounds to creatively share information and experiences and deliver important social messages. CKU-supported Word Warriors in Nepal, uses spoken-word poetry as a tool for marginalized groups such as women to share their stories, raising awareness about their experiences and allowing their narratives to become a part of a broader national narrative. Paradoxical curiosity In post-conflict societies, it is this understanding of one another and the issues that are important to each other that groups are able to find common ground to live together and begin re-building relationships and trust. Additionally, for groups to live and work together in the pursuit of peace, they need to move beyond the divisions of self and other (Lederach, 2005). They require a “paradoxical curiosity” that mobilizes the imagination, creatively going beyond the divisions highlighted during periods of conflict (Lederach, 2005). Post-conflict art and culture activities such as commemorative events and festivals prompt collaboration, inspire curiosity and enhance cross-cultural fluency and understanding. These activities shift be-


yond the dichotomy of self and other, victim and perpetrator, to contribute to positive identity formation while also building trust and mutual respect among diverse individuals. They can provide the foundation to build a new identity that marks the end of a culture of violence and inspire visions of a future based on peace and harmony. Memorialization initiatives and other artistic endeavors can provide alternate narratives about conflict and through metaphor and symbolism address the silences and taboos that conflict has left in its wake. They can bear witness to the atrocities, recognizing the survivors of the conflict, unmasking the truths about the past and serving as deterrence for future generations. Linking art and peacebuilding In summary, violent conflict is difficult to address. As Lederach (2005) notes, we are essentially dealing with the brokenness of society, community and individuals. Art and cultural activities provide spaces to creatively address the trauma that comes with violent conflict as well as makes accessible the tools such as dialogue, education and awareness to address structural and cultural violence. Despite the links between culture, identity and conflict, art and culture have traditionally been viewed as a soft area of peacebuilding and reconciliation efforts and have been underutilized in these fields. While this may be attributed to the fact that art methodologies are not readily available to peacebuilders or that artists may feel no reason to explain the socio-political nature of their work (Shank and Schirch, 2009), there has been increasing interest in understanding how to maximize the role of art in peacebuilding and reconciliation as artists move away from traditional establishments to take on more active social and political roles (Reichert, 2015). Furthermore, with increasing conflict, the peacebuilding field has begun to look for new and innovative approaches to address violence and its consequences. As Lederach (2005) poetically posits, “Art and finding our way back to humanity [are] connected.”

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Ereshnee Naidu-Silverman has more than 10 years experience working with CSO’s and local communities to undertake research and develop programmes that promote human rights, reconciliation and social justice – often in post-conflict and developing contexts. She holds a Masters of Arts degree in Dramatic Arts and Forced Migration Studies from the University of Witwatersrand in South Africa and a Doctorate in Sociology from the Graduate Centre of the City University of New York. She has a range of published and unpublished works focusing on reconciliation, memorialization and reparations in post-conflict societies. All references are listed in the bibliography.

“For groups to live and work together in the pursuit of peace, they need to move beyond the divisions of self and other. (…) They require a ‘paradoxical curiosity’ that mobilizes the imagination, creatively going beyond the divisions highlighted during periods of conflict.” — Lederach, 2005

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Artists rebuild hopes and dreams in Gaza

Artists and cultural organisations are helping to rebuild the bombarded Gaza strip. More than 2,200 Palestinians lost their lives, 18,000 homes were destroyed, and at least 150 schools were damaged in the Gaza strip during the 2014 war between Israel and Hamas. One year after the 50-day war large parts of the Gaza strip are still in ruins, many are still homeless and according to WHO, unemployment is the highest in the world. While the physical reconstruction has not yet been possible, artists are working hard to rebuild the spirit through various cultural projects, designed to unify the population around art and music. The Palestinian artist Sharif Sarhan has gathered a group of artists and students. They are building a large-scale installation on one of the Gaza strip’s most heavily trafficked squares – with permission from the Ministry of Culture. “After Israel’s bombardments, large parts of the Gaza strip are left in ruins. Arid landscapes of smashed homes and cars, scrap metal, pieces of furniture. We want to build the installation from the damage – use the ruins to create a cultural memorial to the destruction,” says Sharif Sarhan. He is one of six artists and cultural organisations on the Gaza strip to receive funding from CKU and the Arabic culture and development organisation, A.M. Qattan Foundation.

CKU in Palestine Since 2010 CKU has supported art and culture in Palestine with the aim of increasing access to art and cultural activities for youth and bring artists, creative talents and cultural operators out of their isolation. In close cooperation with the Danish House in Palestine, CKU has supported activities in Ramallah, Gaza, the Northern West Bank (Nablus, Jenin, Qalquilia), and East Jerusalem.

Art is important for the rebuild “The latest war against Gaza has worsened the population’s living standard dramatically. We want to offer the Gaza artists an opportunity to unleash their creativity and talent in a meaningful way and create hope for Gaza. Culture and art plays a pivotal part in the rebuilding,” says Mahmoud Abu Hashhash from A.M. Qattan Foundation – CKU’s partner on the Gaza strip. Sharif Sarhan is building the light tower that Gaza never had, to make people reflect on what it is like to live in total confinement. “Throughout the Gaza strip there are only two sculptures. With the installation I want to involve as many people as possible and inspire other artists in Gaza to fill our public space with art.”

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The 4th of June 2016 the Gaza lighthouse at the seaport of Gaza city created by the Palestinian artist Sharif Sarhan was inaugurated. The lighthouse is made from remnants of the Israeli offensive on the Gaza Strip in 2014. Courtesy of the artist.

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Music, poetry and dance are the worst nightmares of Pakistan’s militant groups

CKU in Pakistan Peace and stabilisation through inter-cultural dialogue, poverty reduction, and better access to culture for women, youth and marginalized groups are some of the key elements in the Danish cultural programme in Pakistan. Support to the cultural sector will help reclaiming and reviving public space and use the culture as a tool against radicalisation, extremism and lack of tolerance not only in the large cities of Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad but also in the conflict affected provinces of Baluchistan, Khyber, Punjab and Sindh.

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In Pakistan, theatre is a matter of regaining public space and creating a forum for tolerance and dialogue that will create social change and reinforce pride in the culture and history. What happens in a country like Pakistan if you make fun of the fatwas issued by the Mullahs? If you show sympathy for a homosexual American soldier or question honour killings and the suppression of women? Shahid Nadeem, director of the Ajoka Theatre in Pakistan, argues that most people might actually agree with you, as long as it is part of a play – and seasoned with a lot of laughter, dancing, poetry and music. “If I went out and said some of this on my own today, I would be in big trouble. But somehow people don’t question these statements when they are part of a play,” says Shahid Nadeem, who continues the Ajoka Theatre’s thirty year long tradition of using theatre as a tool to change social norms and attitudes. The most dangerous places in the world Pakistan is a country plagued by political, economic and social instability. A multitude of religious and ethnic conflicts and local sectarian violence has made certain provinces of Pakistan some of the most dangerous places in the world to be an activist, a woman, a politician or a member of a marginalised minority. Add to this a multitude of different foreign financed militant groups that carry out terror attacks on public busses and spaces throughout the country, and target anyone who dare stand up against them. To make matters worse, Pakistan has a very tense relationship with its neighbours: India, Afghanistan and Bangladesh. One of the fundamentalists’ goals is to enforce a strict and conservative version of Islam – and to prevent people from gathering in public or enjoy century-old festivals, musical and poetry traditions. You can laugh, but it is serious business For the brave director of the Ajoka Theatre and his actors, it is not only a matter of offering a culturally enriching experience. It might be a lot of fun to watch but to Ajoka Theatre this is a serious business.

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The theatre’s plays always touch upon and promote sensitive and complex issues like religious tolerance, gender justice, peace, and human rights. It is a matter of reclaiming the public space, creating a counter-narrative to that of the militants, and of making people reflect and wonder. By engaging the audience in a dialogue, the theatre effectively it makes people reach for a more tolerant society instead of just accepting the role as silent bystanders. According to Ajoka, it is essential for the survival of Pakistan as a civilized society to reclaim the country’s genuine cultural identity and promote a sense of pride in the religious and secular heritage. “When you see the audience, you start believing that there is hope for Pakistan. People are not that conservative – they are simply doing certain things out of fear,” says Shahid Nadeem.

“When you see the audience, you start believing that there is hope for Pakistan. People are not that conservative – they are simply doing certain things out of fear.” — Shahid Nadeem, Director, Ajoka Theatre

“People don’t question controversial statements when they are part of a play,” says Shahid Nadeem. Photo: Ajoka Theatre.

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Young curators put spotlight on Indonesia’s forgotten conflicts

Young curators from different parts of Indonesia are included in the curatorial team behind the Jakarta Biennale. With art works that illustrate violent conflicts happening far from the capital, the curators bring attention to forgotten conflicts. From the top of Sumatra to the bottom of Sulawesi. The two young curators Putra Hidayatullah and Anwar ‘Jimpe’ Rachman live 3000 kilometres apart in the cities of Pidie and Makassar and are two of nearly 250 million people making Indonesians the world’s fourth largest population. The two curators sit in the six-person curator panel of the Jakarta Biennale established to create awareness of art from more of the thousands of islands that together make up the Indonesian Republic. “We need to make room for other voices. Indonesia’s problems don’t stop at Jakarta’s terrible traffic,” said Putra Hidayatullah at the press conference for the 2015/16 Jakarta Biennale. Charles Esche – the lead curator of the Jakarta Biennale – embraced the idea of collaborating with young curators, who contribute with knowledge and insights to widen the scope of the biennale. “The idea of the curator panel is to bring people together across the archipelago and thereby include some of the places that are under-represented – both politically and economically,” Charles Esche said.

CKU in Indonesia CKU and the Danish Embassy in Indonesia support key Indonesian stakeholders and their efforts to develop an arts and culture sector, where cultural actors have space and capacity to freely express themselves and where art contributes to the promotion of mutual understanding and trust. The programme focuses on establishing networks for artists and art organisations that connect the organisational hub of Java with other areas in the country.

The road to ‘unity in diversity’
 Growing up in the Aceh province, Putra Hidayatullah has been confronted with far worse problems than the traffic jams in the capital. His home province has been tormented by violence and killings through three decades of conflict between the Free Aceh Movement, GAM, and the Indonesian government. An estimated 12,000 people were killed during the conflict that ended ten years ago through a peace agreement – shortly after Aceh was hit by the tsunami that claimed the lives of 170,000 Indonesians. “People’s perception of Aceh is shaped by the media’s misleading portrayal of the province. The Jakarta Biennale is Aceh artists’ opportunity to tell their region’s story themselves and provide different perspectives,” says Putra Hidayatullah.

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“The de-centralised choice of curators provides a lot of new knowledge – for me as well as for the Jakarta Biennale. It is bizarre how we easily name long lists of international artists, yet we struggle to name just a few of our own from provinces like Aceh and Makassar,� says curator Asep Topan. Together, the six curators will make sure that the biennale will be more diverse and widely qualified, as their diverse backgrounds with regards to geography, gender and artistic orientation, serve as a guarantee for a new diversity. With art from the top of Sumatra to the bottom of Sulawesi.

Artist Idrus Bin Harun from Aceh was one of the selected artists for the 2015-16 Jakarta Biennale. His works reflect the violent conflict in his hometown. Courtesy of the artist.

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Youth House in Kabul keeps Taliban at bay

The Youth House in Afghanistan CKU has supported the Youth House in Afghanistan since 2009. There are 1400 registered members and around 270 members engage in the house's activities on a weekly basis. Between the active members, 60% are young men and 40% women. The most popular activities in the Youth House are graffiti, TV subtitling, music classes, which are hard to come by, language courses and business administration.

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In Afghanistan’s only youth house Kabul's young men and women meet each other on equal terms, seizing every opportunity for further education. But like any other youth generation they also need a free haven to play music, dance and talk. At the youth house they can find alternatives to a life in the shadow of war, extremism – and their parents. Every week from morning till evening, except Friday, the Afghanistan Youth House opens its doors for young people in Afghanistan's capital, Kabul. Throughout the autumn they could follow classes driven by volunteer teachers in the use of Excel, social media and film subtitling. Photography, graffiti and dental hygiene also featured. And of course the young people also arrange table tennis tournaments with several competing teams, just like at any other youth house. 21-year old Shahira Mohseni, who is the current youth leader, is ready to welcome her peers every day when they arrive from school or university. According to her, the Youth House's many activities make for a healthy and useful alternative to wandering the streets at great risk of falling into the wrong circles: “Young men are easily influenced by people who wants to exploit them and convince them to become criminal, extremists or even members of the Taliban.” The Youth House, which Denmark has supported since 2009, is a haven for young Afghans, where they can meet without pressure from criminals and extremists. Instead, they are given the tools to develop their talents, strengthen their position on the job market and improve their possibilities to contribute to social change in their war-torn country. “I love the Youth House, because it allows us to be ourselves and do and learn what we want. I went to the University of Kabul and I am proud that I can share my knowledge with my brothers and sisters,” says Shahira Mohseni, who teaches literature and English, among other subjects, at the Youth House. Women break taboos That Afghan women under the extreme conservative Taliban rule from 1996-2001 could neither receive education nor leave their homes without the company of a man, is still at the forefront of Afghan women's

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minds. Despite democratisation and international attention, Save the Children and other international organisations still name Afghanistan as one of the worst places in the world to be a woman. “Many things are considered taboo for young women in Afghanistan. But at the Youth House we can play music, sing, use the fitness room and participate in sports activities. Women leave feeling empowered, because no other place offers these opportunities. We experience a sense of freedom because our parents aren't here to tell us what to do and not,” says Shahiri Mohseni. Like many women of her generation, Shahira Mohseni is a true first mover: She has taken an education, she contributes actively by teaching other young people languages and social skills, and she's striving for a Ph.D. She believes that the future is in the hands of the young generation: “Afghanistan needs its youth. It is the young generation that drives change in a country. I feel a big responsibility in that regard and I see this as my contribution to my country: To help other young Afghan men and women and share my knowledge with them.”

Hanifa Alizada is one of the strong female voices of an emerging, but also dangerous, art scene. Photography in Afghanistan still suffers from Taliban’s bans, and in particular women’s possibilities of expressing themselves freely are limited. Hanifa Alizada: ‘Scream’, 2014.

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Intercultural Dialogue

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Promoting intercultural dialogue and intercultural collaboration Challenges: Demand of international dimension and international projects in public schools; high demand of intercultural competences in the education system, on the labour market and in civil life; limited access to art from the Global South in Denmark: limited global outlook from the Danish art scene; narrow understanding of the Global South and limited knowledge of art from the Global South. CKU supported: Production of education material and facilitation of workshops in schools; presentation of art from the Global South in Denmark; establishment of global networks for artists, cultural organisations and institutions; large-scale festival for contemporary art from the Global South every third or fourth year.

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Jannat Ali, a transgender dancer and LGBTI activist from Pakistan, performs and dances with youth at a school in Denmark. Photo: Vincenzo Flamano.

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New Images of the Middle East, Africa and Asia

In 2016, cultural institutions all over Denmark hosted Images 16 – an art programme realised in close cooperation with recognised curators from Asia, Africa, the Middle East, the municipality of Holbæk and CKU. Through art exhibitions and workshops in Danish schools the aim was to strengthen intercultural dialogue. When CKU in 2014 introduced the internationally acclaimed curator N’Goné Fall from Senegal for Karen Grøn, the director of Danish museum Trapholt, some defining steps towards Images 16 were taken. The exhibition ‘When Things Fall Apart – Critical Voices on the Radars’ curated by N’Goné Fall displayed at Trapholt from February to October 2016 is just one of more than 25 collaborations that CKU facilitated between cultural institutions in Denmark and international curators. The framework is an illstrative example of how CKU worked to build sustainable partnerships between cultural organisations in Europe and countries in Africa, Asia and the Middle East. Regions that many Europeans do not necessarily associate with art.

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When Danish cultural institutions invite international artists to Denmark, it is still primarily artists from the western hemisphere that dominate the exhibitions. And it is most often Danish curators who decide on theme and execution. “A global outlook is vital for the Danish art scene, if it is to reflect international tendencies and compete with cultural centres such as London and new cultural growth centres such as Jakarta in Indonesia,” says Christina Papsø Weber, Director of CKU’s National Department (2015-16). CKU has therefore been striving to make it natural and attractive for Danish cultural institutions to look to art scenes and artists that are rarely represented in Denmark. Global outlook and intercultural skills in Danish schools Intercultural dialogue is the heart of Images. It reflects a development that is happening both in the corporate world and within education. European corporates increasingly look for candidates who can communicate and solve assignments in cooperation

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with employees in foreign locations, and who can integrate foreign workers in the Danish organisations. Equally, educational institutions are implementing strategies to ensure that students develop a global outlook, strong language skills and intercultural competencies. Since 2010, Images Youth has contributed to the internationalisation of education by offering workshops with international artists in schools all over Denmark. Most of the cultural institutions that participate in the Images 2016 collaborate with Images Youth by bringing artists and art from Asia, Africa and the Middle East to the schools.

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The exhibition ‘Merchants of Dreams’ at Kunsthal Viborg and Brandts 13 presented 18 artists with Moroccan roots and their perspectives on migration, mobility and the sense of belonging. Photo: Asbjørn Sand.

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Multivoicedness By Berit Anne Larsen

The art programme Images 16 was realised in collaboration with more than 25 culture and arts institutions in Denmark. One of the Images 16 core partners was SMK – the National Gallery of Denmark. “To contribute to redefining the museum as an institution in the 21st century” and to be “an agent in society as such”. These are some of the obligations of The National Gallery of Denmark as stated in the agreement between the Danish Ministry of Culture and us. This requirement is one of the many excellent reasons why we collaborate with Images 16. The partnership allows us to present exhibitions that introduce a greater variety of voices, including unconventional ones, in our exhibitions and activities. We have done this by letting CAMP (Centre for Art on Migration Politics) curate an exhibition on migration and by letting Pakistani artist Aisha Khalid reflect on the encounter between two different visual regimes in the exhibition Two Worlds as One. And in our SMK employee scheme we have engaged many new voices in dialogue by bringing together the permanent staff and temporarily employed new Danish citizens to work with the museum exhibitions. As an organisation, we are curious and keen to explore this field of diversity and multivoicedness, precisely because it is very much about introducing more narratives, about identity and about negotiating meaning. At a lecture held in Copenhagen in connection with this year’s Chart Art Fair, the French curator and art critic Nicolas Bourriaud said: “What is a subject if not narration? It is not being born here or there. What we are is our destination.” We see an opportunity to move away from the discussion about integration and inclusion, about new voices as additions. Instead, we want to move ahead to discussions about hybrids. In other words, we see diversity as a fundamental order today. A new reality
 Perhaps the raison d’être of cultural institutions resides in the opportunities they provide for rethinking the images and structures we know only too

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Aisha Khalid’s works reflect her experiences in Pakistan and in the Western world alike. She contemplates encounters between the two worlds in her art. Photo: Sah Zaham Bloch.

well? To be open towards the citizens’ contributions to changing established orders, just like artists are known for doing. This perception of democracy describes a movement away from the democratic society as a state of which each citizen is a member, with the main emphasis placed on duties and rights. A movement towards a democratic society where the key element is shared cultural experiences and constructions of meaning. A movement away from viewing the citizen as a disciplined subject towards seeing the citizen as a critical, reflecting co-creator of society. A key aspect of our formation and growth as human beings emerges out of the narratives we use to find meaning in the lives we lead and the communities of which we are part. The open-ended spaces of art and culture allow us to meet and confront all those aspects that challenge, inspire and evade everyday pragmatics, thereby giving us opportunities to relate to our current era, society and history in new ways. According to the philosopher Zygmunt Bauman,

an included individual is an individual who moves freely around the global network, constantly searching for new personal challenges in their encounters with various communities. The relationships within those communities play a central part, as morals and values are negotiated through such relationships. Today, the concept of enlightenment – which gave rise to the museum institution – is undergoing change. Enlightenment is not just about learning a cultural canon, but equally as much about creating foundations that allow all citizens in society to ask questions, use their senses in critical ways and enter into dialogue with others: i.e. to act within the framework of the art field. By collaborating with Images 16, the museum seeks to reflect and evolve in keeping with the society that surrounds it. As SMK director Mikkel Bogh puts it: “Our collaboration with Images 16 is a perfect fit for our strategic promise to the wider world about continually exploring what being a national gallery means. As the entire nation’s gallery we

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have an obligation to take an explorative approach to our practice and our collections. This holds true in terms of the exhibitions we make, the works we collect and the languages we speak. We have dedicated ourselves to being particularly aware of how Denmark is more diverse now than ever. It is our task to present the cultural heritage in our care, and to do so in ways that are relevant, vibrant and interesting to wide audiences. The activities we create with Images are symbolic and an important mainstay of our strategy.” As Denmark’s National Gallery of Art, SMK’s role is primarily to collect and exhibit European art. But what does this mean in an art world that has become extremely globalised and looks very different today compared to just 20 years ago? This issue is also among those raised by Mikkel Bogh. In its collaboration with Images 16, SMK asks: What does being a national art gallery mean today? And what nation are we an art gallery for?

Hopefully, our encounters with the works of Aisha Khalid, CAMP’s exhibitions on migration politics, and our temporary staff of new Danes can bring us closer to answering these questions.

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Berit Anne Larsen is Director of Learning and Interpretation at the National Gallery of Denmark (SMK).

Displacement, border crossing and asylum politics are themes addressed in the exhibition series Migration Politics: Three CAMP exhibitions at the SMK. Many of the featured artists have migrant or refugee background. Barat Ali Batoor: ‘The Unseen Road to Asylum’, 2013. Courtesy of the artist.


Hypnotic patterns, embroidery made out of thousands of stitches, meticulous brushstrokes and bristling needles. Pakistani artist Aisha Khalid’s works are simultaneously poetic and packed with political punches. Asiha Khalid: The container and the contained (2011). Courtesy of SMK and the artist.

“We have dedicated ourselves to being particularly aware of how Denmark is more diverse now than ever. It is our task to present the cultural heritage in our care, and to do so in ways that are relevant, vibrant and interesting to wide audiences.” — Mikkel Bogh, Director, SMK

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When the Syrian war moved into a Danish school

Pupils at an independent school in the Southern region of Denmark transformed pillows into explosions, peacekeeping troops and ghosts of war, when two Syrian artists brought the Syrian war to the classroom for a day. The sound of bombers is drowned out by the loud engine of a motorboat carrying Syrian refugees across the Mediterranean from Turkey to Greece. But the desperate screams of parents calling out for their crying children overpowers even the engine. In a classroom at Søgaard Independent School near the Danish city of Aabenraa, students from the 6th to 9th grade are lying on the floor with their eyes shut, their heads resting on each their pillow. For five minutes they listen to a soundtrack containing sounds from a reality very far from everyday life at the little school. A reality dominated by war, fear and flight, and one which the pupils until today only know from the media and from the day when a large group of Syrian refugees came marching up the Jutland highway, not far from the school. Sounds of war and flight Behind the soundtrack are two Syrian artists, Sulafa Hijazi and Fadi al-Hamwi, who have been invited to Denmark by the CKU’s Images Youth programme to bring a global perspective to Danish schools. Their workshop is called ‘Syrian Art in Exile’ and is a collaborative with the Danish designers Fanni Baudo and Signe Lupnow held at educational institutions all over Denmark putting Syria on the curriculum for a day. Before the two artists ask the pupils to lie back on their pillows and let their thoughts and associations of war, fear and flight wander, they present an overview of the war in Syria. Why more than 250.000 Syrians have lost their lives since 2011, why more than half of the Syria’s population, including the majority of the country’s independent artists, have fled to neighbouring countries and wider Europe. And which part the Syrian artists and art play in the civil war and the revolution, which started as a peaceful protest against the Assad regime. “When I closed my eyes, I saw parents with their children on the way across the Mediterranean in

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small, primitive boats. And I imagined them arriving in Greece, and that there were people helping them there,” says pupil Oliver Risager. Transforming pillows into peacekeeping troops When the pupils are done listening to the soundtrack and the artists have explained how they work to highlight the consequences of the war through installations, illustrations and paintings, the pupils are asked to transform their pillows into works of art, reflecting on the war in Syria. Oliver Risager dresses his pillow in a military vest. He paints a black peace symbol on one of the vest’s breast pockets and sticks a bunch of rowanberries in the other. He calls it “Soldier of Peace”. “We need people fighting for peace. The rowanberries symbolise life and the symbol signifies peace,” he explains. Another pupil, Frida Julia Loges, transforms her pillow into an explosion. “It symbolises war and the feeling of being blown up yourself. The artists told us how many people have died and of all the chaotic

feelings that the war has brought to the Syrian people. It made a big impression on me,” she says. We understand why Syrians flee The pupils agree that the meeting and work with the artists have given them a new perspective on the consequences of half a decade of war. “I was surprised by how violent the conditions are in Syria. After meeting the Syrian artists, I understand why people have to flee,” says another pupil, Signe Bøje Hansen. She adds that it’s much easier to understand the war, when you get to express it through an interpretive work of art. “I think it is very interesting to express myself through art. While I transform the pillow into a work of art, I get to reflect on everything that the artists have told us about themselves and the war,” she says. A fourth pupil, Luca Grau, is surprised that the Syrians who are critical of the Assad regime can’t express their opinion. “You hear a lot about Syria in the national news “After meeting the Syrian artists, I understand why people have to flee,” says the pupil Signe Bøje Hansen. Photo: Lene Esthave.

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broadcasts, but there are so many details they say nothing about. For instance that people go to jail for expression their opinion,” says Luca Grau. Thyra Junker Andersen, who is a teacher at the school, appreciates the artists’ visit greatly. She believes the workshop has given the pupils a chance to form their own opinions of the war’s consequences. “Opinions that are formed neither by the media or the parents. It makes a big difference that they’ve had a chance to talk to the Syrian artists themselves,” she says. Art challenges media storytelling Sulafa Hijazi believes that it is important that young Danes have access to alternative sources of information on the war and refugees. “Young people need to learn to remain critical of what the media broadcast. The way artists and the media portray the situation are miles apart,” says the Syrian artist and adds: “And it is also important to me that the pupils are told that it is possible to find a solution to the war – and that we, all the refugees, want to return one day. Syria is our motherland.” Prior to the artists’ visit, the pupils worked with the learning materials on Syrian artists available on CKU’s education platform. Among other works, they read the critical rap lyrics written by Refugees of Rap from Syria – another group invited to Denmark by Images Youth. “Having worked with the materials and met the artists, they’ve been inspired to write rap lyrics, create artworks and express their opinions. And they’ve gained many alternative perspectives on the war in Syria,” says teacher Thyra Junker Andersen.

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“It is important to me that the pupils are told that it is possible to find a solution to the war – and that we, all the refugees, want to return one day. Syria is our motherland,” says Sulafa Hijazi. Photo: Lene Esthave.

Like many other Syrian artists, Fadi al-Hamwi has continued his artistic career in exile. In 2015 and 2016 he was a part of the Images Youth workshop programme. Photo: Signe Lupnow.

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Appendix

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How to measure the effect of including art and culture in development cooperation? Anecdotal stories versus hard-core economic statistics. These are the two extremes in the search for evidence on the positive contribution of art and culture to development. Despite the positive potentials of art and culture in development cooperation, it is often challenging to assess whether art and cultural activities do indeed fulfil overall objectives as well as contribute to larger goals of development. Often the biggest challenge is to isolate the effect of one particular activity – the so-called attribution gap. Donors are required to document the effects of development projects in order to justify governmental budget spending on art and culture in development cooperation or humanitarian responses. In order to grasp what difference a project that links art and culture to development objectives does, individual experiences as well as the theoretical frameworks can be resources to single out the value of a project and identify the contribution to over-all development goals. Most Significant Change (MSC) is a monitoring technique that is able to point out the changes on individual level initiated by a project. As a qualitative set of few questions, Stories of Change are collected systematically from participants (both primary and secondary target groups). Project managers and assistants can offer much needed documentation and new information about the outcomes of a project on individual level – and held together can offer a new perspective on the project outcome. The domains (or patterns) that appears when analysing collected Stories of Change can guide the adjustment of input, objectives and bring focus in the crosscutting areas of interest.

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Theory of Change spells out the programme logic by defining long-term goals and then mapping backwards to identify changes that need to take place (preconditions), the underlying assumptions, and the theories that explain why change takes place. Theory of Change is able to show the complexity around a development intervention and is more explanatory about the change process. Theory of Change can be applied and adjusted in the implementation process by testing the initial assumption: If art and culture are integrated in peace and reconciliation efforts, then mutual understanding and respect will be strengthened, because art and culture can provide spaces for dialogue, promote healing and empathy, build tolerance, rebuild trust and present non-violent tools to address conflict. In development cooperation, Logical Framework Approach or Results Matrixes are often used to capture the progress of programmes or projects. Essential for these approaches is the choice of indicators. Applied to projects where art and culture are linked to peace and reconciliation, some indicators might be the following: Indicators: (Qualitative) Level of awareness (audience, participants); partners’ capacities in conflict resolution, peaceful communication; level of motivation to build peace; level of practical knowledge about conflict solution. (Quantitative) the number of events, festivals, meetings about conflict and peace in communities; number of participants.

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Bibliography

Relevant research, thoughts, and theories on the benefits of the arts Clammer, John. 2012. Culture, Development and Social Theory: Towards an Integrated Social Development. London: Zed Books Ltd. Cohen, Cynthia. 2005. “Creative Approaches to Reconciliation.” The Psychology of Resolving Global Conflicts: From War to Peace Volume 3 Interventions, edited by Mari Fitzduff and Christopher E. Stout, 69-102. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group. Darts, David. 2004. “Visual Culture Jam: Art, Pedagogy, and Creative Resistance.” Studies in Art Education 45(4): 313-327. Epskamp, Kees. 2006. Theatre for Development: An Introduction to Context, Applications & Training. London: Zed Books. Freire, Paulo. 1970. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Herder and Herder Greene, P. Jay, Brian Kisida, and Daniel H. Bowen. 2014. “Value of Field Trips: taking students to an art museum improves critical thinking skills and more.” Education Next. April 13, 2016. Educationnext.org Guetzkow, Joshua. 2002. “How the Arts Impact Communities: An introduction to the literature on arts impact studies”. Paper presented at the Taking the Measure of Culture Conference, Princeton University, June 7-8. Hyde, Lewis. 2007. The Gift: Creativity and the Artist in the Modern world. New York: Vintage Books. Jurriens, Edwin. 2013. “Social Participation in Indonesian Media and Art: Echoes from the Past, Visions from the Future.” Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 169:7-36. Martin, Deborah, Susan Hanson, and Danielle Fontaine. 2007. “What Counts as Activism?: The Role of Individuals in Creating Change.”
 Women’s Studies Quarterly 35(¾): 78- 94.

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McCarthy, Kevin, Elizabeth Ondaatje, Laura Zakaras, and Author Brooks. 2004. Gifts of the Muse: reframing the debate about the benefits of arts. Santa Monica: RAND Corporation. Accessed on July 25, 2016. Merli, Paula. 2002. “Evaluating the social impact of participation in arts activities: A critical review of Francois Matarasso’s Use or Ornament.” Accessed April 4, 2016. http://www.variant.org.uk/19texts/socinc19.html Moelyono. 2016. Last accessed November 10, 2016. http://moelyonoart. blogspot.dk/ Niepoort, Jacoba. 2016. “The Power of Art: Art’s Role in an International Development Context.” Masters Thesis, Roskilde University, Denmark. Schneider, Cynthia P. 2016. “Why Culture is Essential for Conflict Recovery and Sustainable Development.” The World Post. Accessed July 28, 2016. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/cynthia-p-schneider/why-cultureis-essential-_b_9596542.html. Shank, M. and L. Schirch. 2008. “Strategic Arts-Based Peacebuilding.” Peace & Change 33: 217–242. Shank, Michael. 2004. “Redefining the Movement: Art Activism.” Seattle Journal for Social Justice 3 (2): 531-559. Stupples, Polly. 2011. “Breaking the Frame: Art in International Development.” PhD Dissertation, Massey University, New Zealand.

Peace and reconciliation processes aided by art and culture Alfonso, Allysa Alexandra Y. and Alexa Grace B. Fontanilla. 2014. “Running Head. Spoken Word: Integrating Discourse into Contemporary Literature.” Retrieved August 20, 2015 (http://www.academia.edu/11316553/ spoken_word_poetry). Bohm, David. _ “On Dialogue.” Retrieved August 22, 2015 (http://sprott. physics.wisc.edu/Chaos−Complexity/dialogue.pdf). Cohen, Cynthia with Lesley Yalen. “Recasting Reconciliation through Culture and the Art: A Virtual Collection. Posting a Theoretical Framework”. The international Centre for Ethics, Justice and Public Life at Brandeis University. Retrieved June 3, 2015 (http://www.brandeis.edu/ ethics/peacebuildingart/pdfs/peacebuildingart/recasting_framewk.pdf).

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Dagmar, Reichert. 2015. “The Role of Art on Peacebuilding – Recent Developments” in Art and Peacebuilding. KOFF Newsletter. No.136. Swiss Peace Foundation. Retrieved June 3, 2015 (http://www.swisspeace.ch/fileadmin/ user_upload/Media/Publications/Newsletter/2015/NL_136_en.pdf). Edkins, Jenny. 2003. Trauma and the Memory of Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press. Freire, Paulo. 1997. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Continuum. Fukushima, Kiki. 2011. “Peace and Culture: Fostering Peace Through Cultural Contributions.” Edited by Joint Research Institute for International Peace and Culture, Aoyama Gakuin University and The Japan Foundation, New York. Retrieved June 5, 2015 (http://www.jripec.aoyama.ac.jp/ english/publication/pdf/nyrt_conference_report.pdf). Galtung, Johan, Carl G. Jacobsen and Kai Frithjof Brand−Jacobsen. 2000. Searching for Peace: The Road to Transcend. London: Pluto Press. Lederach, John P. 2005. The Moral Imagination: The Art and Soul of Building Peace. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Mani Rama. 2001. “Creation Amidst Destruction: Southern Aesthetics and R2P.”p.96−129 in Responsibility to Protect: Cultural Perspective in the Global South edited by Mani, Rama and Thomas G.Weiss. London: Routledge. Shank, Michael and Lisa Schirch. 2009. “Strategic Art−Based Peacebuilding.” Retrieved July 3, 2015 (http://escolapau.uab.es/img/programas/ musica/strategic_art.pdf). Wise, Stephanie and Emily Nash. 2012. “Metaphor as Heroic Mediator: Imagination, Creative Art Therapy, and Group Process as Agents of Healing with Veterans.” p.99−114 in Healing War Trauma: A Handbook of Creative Approaches edited by Scurfield, Raymond Monsour and Katherine Theresa Platoni. New York: Routledge.

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Nidaa Badwan: ‘One Hundred Days of Solitude’ (2014). Digital photography. Courtesy the artist.

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Empowerment

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Since 1998 the Centre for Culture and Development (CKU) has been the core implementing institution of Denmark’s support to art and culture in development contexts. Guided by UNESCO principles and Denmark’s overall development objectives, CKU supported art, culture and creative industries in more than 20 countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Middle East. From 2013-2016, CKU followed the strategy ‘The Right to Art and Culture’ that replaced a focus on art forms with a focus on thematic priorities: Empowerment – freedom of expression – creative industries – peace and reconciliation – intercultural dialogue.

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The Right to Art and Culture 2013-2016  

In this final report from the Centre for Culture and Development (CKU) you can read about Danish experiences with the power of art, culture...

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