Culture, Human Rights and Social Change An evaluation of the international engagement of the Danish Centre for Culture and Development (CKU) 2007 to 2016
Consult4Change Cecilia M Ljungman Britha Mikkelsen Pamela Batenga Mohan Thapa
Acknowledgements Under my leadership, this evaluation was conducted by Britha Mikkelsen (Palestine study and quality assurance), Tina Sherwell (Palestine study), Mohan Thapa (Nepal study), and Pamela Batenga (Uganda). On behalf of the team, I would like to express sincere thanks to former CKU staff and the many CKU stakeholders who provided the team with time, patience, advice, and inputs. CKU’s partners in Nepal, Palestine and Uganda were especially helpful in supporting the evaluation process. The evaluation team highly appreciated the invaluable support from CKU’s country level programme officers – Fred Musisi in Uganda, Yara Odeh in Palestine, and Sareena Rai in Nepal – whose efforts enabled the team to collect lots of data during a limited time-frame. Finally, special mention and deep gratitude goes to June Taboroff who provided constructive comments and editorial support in the last stretch of the evaluation process.
Cecilia Magnusson Ljungman Consult4Change
Photo and graphic credit: CKU: pp 42, 48 Al Hoash: p 49 AM Quattam Foundation: p 34 WAVE Magazine, Nepal: p 31 Finn Wergel Dahlgren: cover and pp 19, 20 Cecilia Magnusson Ljungman: pp 5, 13, 21, 40, 41, 52
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .......................................................................................................................................................... 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................................................................................................. 3 ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS........................................................................................................................................ 5 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................................................... 6 1
INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................................... 11 1.1
PURPOSE AND SCOPE ................................................................................................................................... 11
STRUCTURE OF THIS REPORT .......................................................................................................................... 13
OVERVIEW OF CKU .................................................................................................................................................... 14 2.1
BACKGROUND ............................................................................................................................................ 14
NEW STRATEGY ........................................................................................................................................... 16
CKUâ€™S NEW ROLE ........................................................................................................................................ 16
FINANCIAL DISBURSEMENTS ........................................................................................................................... 17
RESULTS ...................................................................................................................................................................... 21 3.1
CHANGES FOR INDIVIDUALS AND GROUPS ......................................................................................................... 21
CHANGES FOR ORGANISATIONS ...................................................................................................................... 30
CHANGES IN COMMUNITIES ........................................................................................................................... 34
NATIONAL LEVEL CHANGES ............................................................................................................................ 38
INTERNATIONAL RESULTS .............................................................................................................................. 40
ORGANISATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS ........................................................................................................................ 41 4.1
STRUCTURE ................................................................................................................................................ 41
PARTNERSHIP APPROACH .............................................................................................................................. 43
PROGRAMME PREPARATION .......................................................................................................................... 44
RESULTS BASED MANAGEMENT ...................................................................................................................... 45
HUMAN RIGHTS BASED APPROACH .................................................................................................................. 46
HUMAN RESOURCES..................................................................................................................................... 47
GOVERNANCE ............................................................................................................................................. 48
CONCLUSIONS AND LESSONS LEARNT .................................................................................................................. 50 5.1
TRANSFORMATIVE RESULTS ........................................................................................................................... 50
LESSONS AND GOOD PRACTICE ....................................................................................................................... 53
OVERALL CONCLUSIONS ................................................................................................................................ 56
ANNEX 1: TERMS OF REFERENCE ...................................................................................................................................... 57 ANNEX 2: EVALUATION FRAMEWORK ................................................................................................................................ 64 ANNEX 3: EVALUATION METHODOLOGY ........................................................................................................................... 66 ANNEX 4: LIST OF INFORMANTS ......................................................................................................................................... 69 ANNEX 5: DOCUMENTS REVIEWED .................................................................................................................................... 77
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ANNEX 6: PARTNER PROFILES............................................................................................................................................ 84 ANNEX 7: CHANGES FOR INDIVIDUALS, GROUPS, AND COMMUNITIES ........................................................................ 86 ANNEX 8: SUMMARY OF STRATEGY PROCESS ................................................................................................................ 91 ANNEX 9: LIST OF TEMPLATES IN CKUâ€™S PROGRAMME MANUAL .................................................................................. 93 ANNEX 10: CAST TOOL ......................................................................................................................................................... 96 ANNEX 11: OUTCOME MAPPING TOOL ............................................................................................................................... 97 ANNEX 12: SURVEY QUESTIONS......................................................................................................................................... 98
ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
Abbreviations and Acronyms CAST
Change Assessment Scoring Tool
Danish Centre for Culture and Development
Civil society organisation
Danish Representative Office
Human rights based approach
International Network on Cultural Diversity
Quality Assurance department, Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development, Development Assistance Committee
Results based management
South Asia Communications
Siddhartha Arts Foundation
Terms of reference
United National Education, Science and Culture Organisation
Yafa Culture Centre
Executive Summary CKU Origins CKU was a self-governing institution established by the Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) in 1998. It worked to strengthen the role of art, culture, and freedom of expression as an integral part of Danish development cooperation. After 18 years, it will be closed at the end of 2016. During its existence, it contributed to some noteworthy results in developing countries and applied several effective approaches. This evaluation, which was undertaken during the second half of 2016, identifies, analyses and assesses the results to which CKU contributed in three case study countries – Nepal, Palestine, and Uganda – and draws some conclusions about the lessons learnt and good practices applied. Between 2007 and 2012, CKU developed a large and diverse portfolio of projects that were generally relevant, innovative and produced some visible results – not least in relation to developing capacities and expanding networks. Some of the efforts were unconventional, experimental and engaged disadvantaged people in artistic activities. However, since CKU effectively served as consultants for embassies on a demand basis, the support was often piecemeal. The heavy involvement of Danish cultural practitioners who were paired with cultural organisations in developing countries was a key feature of the support. This approach had mixed results. The support was comparatively expensive, opportunistic and ownership by the developing country partner was sometimes undermined. A few of the Danish partners were ill-equipped for partnership management, particularly in a development context. When it worked well, however, Danish organisations successfully built capacities in their counterpart organisations related to technical skills and progressive pedagogic approaches. The latter were especially well received. Good examples of successful efforts from this period include support to the folkloric music ensemble Kutumba and the photography platform Photo.Circle in Nepal; the Yafa Culture Centre in Balata camp and the Nablus Circus School (Assirk Assaghir) in Palestine; and, the Bayimba Cultural Foundation and Maisha Film Lab in Uganda. A Strategy for Human Rights and Culture In August 2012, the Danish government deemed that a new strategy for culture and development was needed which partook in the stronger human rights perspective characterising Denmark’s approach to development. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and CKU launched an intense six-month process that drew input from a wide range of sources and involved different stakeholders. The resulting strategy, The Right to Arts and Culture, is both progressive and comprehensive in its scope, outlining how societies can be transformed through people’s participation in a vibrant cultural sector based on free artistic and creative expression. It is the only bilateral culture and development strategy that links clearly to a human rights-based approach. The Strategy marked a new departure for CKU. Its expanded responsibility for Denmark’s culture and development resources required a new structure, new systems, and a new approach. The overhaul was a painful process but with the competent leadership from the Board and the CEO, it led to a robust organisation with a suitable structure. The new structure allowed CKU to programme its support to partners in a much more relevant and results-
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY focused manner; and to conduct effective monitoring and dialogue with the partners along the way. Between 2013 and 2016, CKU established programmes in 13 countries. It applied a timeconsuming but ultimately effective planning and preparation process for each country’s programme. A comprehensive independent analysis of the arts and culture sector that was based on human rights served as the foundation for each country programme. Careful assessment allowed CKU to select committed partners that were for the most part innovative, dynamic, and relevant. There was usually good complementarity among them. CKU focused strongly on youth and was willing to take risks of partnering with youth-led organisations. Applying the same basic procedure in each country facilitated comparisons between programmes and cross-country learning. CKU’s partnership approach was an important asset. Multi-year grants promoted ownership among partners, who could plan implementation processes with incremental steps over time. It also allowed for suitable six-month reporting intervals. Having a full-time country level presence enabled regular interaction with partners. CKU could more easily seize opportunities and adjust the programme to changing circumstances. CKU’s country programme officers were knowledgeable about the culture sector in the country. The relationship with partners was built on mutual trust and respect. Partners considered CKU as “more than just a donor”. CKU’s Structure, Management, and Approaches CKU’s reorganisation led to a logical internal structure staffed with qualified staff who had backgrounds in development assistance and the culture sector. The organisation was characterised by a non-hierarchical and open communication policy, which generally led to a quick turnaround time for decisions. CKU developed comprehensive and user-friendly systems to run its programmes that were generally highly appreciated by its staff. The programme manual was of high standard and it included a range of easy-to-use guides and templates. Along the way, CKU adjusted these tools, adding new ones in line with emerging needs. While this improved the manual, the retrofitting that ensued was sometimes frustrating for both staff and partners. CKU’s programme manual included a solid system for results based management – with a set of tools to capture achievements. The organisation was under constant pressure to account for results to provide evidence that support to arts and culture in the development context was indeed worthwhile. CKU’s different interventions, however, were relatively small and the social transformation they aimed for needed time to take effect, rarely followed a linear predictable chain of developments, and typically led to several unexpected results. Given that CKU aimed to achieve complex change processes, applying Outcome Mapping – a resultsbased management system that more usefully measures contributions to complex change processes – would have been more suitable. CKU was unique in the culture and development community in its adoption of a human right-based approach. It produced human rights based country assessments prior to programme formulation and introducing key human rights principles into the agreements with the partners. It also promoted inclusion, non-discrimination, gender equality and participation. It did not have adequate time, however, to develop, apply and adjust its rights-based approach. Most of its staff needed training in the area while partners were generally lacking
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY in experience in how to apply a human rights approach systematically in their work. Specific tools had yet to be developed. Nor had CKU reached the stage where it could engage in country level advocacy and policy dialogue on freedom of expression and cultural rights. Moreover, its non-status at country level could have hindered such efforts. Transformative Change With relatively small financial contributions to partner organisations, CKU played a catalytic role in producing a range of transformative changes for individuals, groups, communities, and cultural and arts organisations. In a handful of cases, the support also contributed to changes at a national level – despite that this level was not targeted in a comprehensive way. CKU’s most significant achievement was its efforts to empower people – often youth – through active participation in arts and culture activities. Thousands of stakeholders in Nepal, Uganda and Palestine acquired skills and knowledge in film, television, visual arts, creative writing, performing arts, and arts management. A sizable proportion had their competences validated by participating in festivals, obtaining scholarships, winning awards and even acquiring fame. Some are now making a living as cultural practitioners. We are changing society. We are now mixing dance styles and art and embracing indigenous languages. – Bayimba alumni, Uganda
The social resources that people gained from participating in CKU-funded activities – meeting peers, building networks, forming groups, engaging with communities – were impressive and useful, particularly in Nepal and Uganda. Perhaps the most striking finding was the level of confidence and aspiration of young people who had engaged with CKU’s partners. For many, the resources gained at the individual level have been transformative – strengthened capacity, new perspectives, higher ambitions, and improved self-esteem. The war never ended in my head. Only the shooting stopped. For me there was still war. Until I saw a hip-hop performance. For the first time, I felt peace! It was incredible! It changed me deeply. I knew I needed to do hip-hop. It is now my life. I now work with children at the (youth) centre to teach them how to dance and rap. – Bayimba alumni, Uganda When I joined the Tukosawa Club I felt that…..I can change my nation with writing. I wrote about how women live in poverty, so the world can know that there is someone living a life other than yours. When I write my piece…. I criticize the leaders with my true stories. When I became the President of the Tukosawa Club, I challenged the boys, who looked at me as incapable. – Tukosawa member, Uganda
The efforts also led to changes in communities, that in some cases have also been transformative. CKU is considered in Uganda to have played a role in transforming the Ugandan hip-hop scene by encouraging Bayimba to promote rapping in indigenous languages – a trend that appears to be here to stay. In addition, as the dominant donor, CKU gave buoyancy to the budding street art and spoken word poetry movements in Nepal. Artists are positive agents for change. They have left the white cube of the gallery. – SAF, Nepal
Noteworthy were the changes to the physical cultural landscape through street art in Nepal and the lighthouse installation in Gaza, which has positively influenced how people interact with their surroundings. Meanwhile, the support to the creative and astute South Asia Communications sent rippling effects through Nepalese society, while inadvertently influencing the content of a variety of media actors.
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY CKU’s partners contributed to a significant transformation among some of the Palestinian conservative communities – leading to an acceptance of girls taking part in performing arts. CKU’s partners worked hard to build up trust and engage with communities to encourage them to broaden their perspectives. This change in values and norms was achieved within a few years of CKU’s support – a comparatively quick process for a change of societal attitudes. Through the shows, we realized that we provoked people and society. The performance has touched sensitive problems within Palestinian society…. I think that theatre has modified and changed mindsets in the community. – Yafa Culture Centre member, Palestine
CKU and its partners succeeded in strengthening the voice and creative expressions of marginalised groups through active participation in art and cultural activities. CKU’s staff was conscientious in advocating for inclusion and gender equality. Most partners too, made concerted efforts to include women and girls and reach out to disadvantaged groups. Youth were a group with which CKU’s activities successfully engaged. Jointly, CKU partners also reached ethnic minorities, religious minorities, children, school dropouts, war-torn communities, poorer communities and occasionally people with disabilities (autism, hearing impairment, blindness, and physical disabilities). The support in Palestine was to a significant extent directed at more disadvantaged conservative communities in the northern West Bank. In Uganda, the support addressed the post-conflict north. In Kathmandu, the support was concentrated in Kathmandu, although some activities took place outside the capital. While disadvantaged communities were reached, the poorest of the poor were rarely involved in the activities. There are two main reasons: the very poor could not easily make themselves available for creative activities; and poor people in remote areas were not easy to access given the budget limitations. CKU’s support gave young people in Nepal, Palestine, and Uganda the direct experience of exercising the human right of free expression. This experience was powerful for many. The stories and testimonies gathered by the evaluation team indicate that for some individuals, the experience of finding one’s voice was transformative. To not copy a text was new to me. I get to write what I feel! I can change people’s lives! I can write about living in poverty and act as a helping hand. – Tukosawa member, Uganda I've experienced drastic changes since this workshop. Before I would be wondering alone, unable to express myself. I didn’t know how to express myself. I would try to write, and I couldn't. I just didn't know the right words…Then after these workshops I learned to express myself, giving importance to each word. – Word Warrior participant, Nepal
An important aspect of this was the safe spaces that CKU’s partners provided, which enabled participants to express themselves freely among peers. This was tremendously valuable for children and young people in Palestine to help them process the difficulties in their environment. I wasn't helpless anymore. The circus work has given my life meaning. I began to feel that I was capable of making a change - and a big one. Focusing on the younger generation and providing them with non-violent alternatives, like the ones I was searching for, is something that will feed into a positive cycle. The generations after us, possibly my children, will benefit. – Nablus Circus trainer, Palestine
While the evidence for CKU’s impact on economic growth is largely anecdotal, due principally to the small scale of the initiatives, there are examples of entrepreneurship and income generation. CKU worked to strengthen entrepreneurship among artists and cultural actors, by supporting training, mentoring and networking in Uganda and Nepal, and to a
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY much lesser extent, Palestine. CKU’s support to cultural management and entrepreneurship was strategic in that it linked up with most of CKU’s other partners in the country, acting as an umbrella. Partners in this area were committed and dynamic. The stakeholders that they nurtured were motivated and in Uganda a few were starting to make a living through their new skills. Because the contemporary arts sector is small in Nepal, the strengthened capacity is likely to make a difference to the arts scene, particularly in relation to curation and art critique. From an overall perspective, however, the support in both countries was too small and too short lived to have a transformative effect on the broader creative industries and arts practitioners. Some of CKU’s support strengthened income generation. A significant proportion of former participants of Maisha Film Lab, SAC, Photo.Circle and Bayimba could make a living in film production, media, journalism, photography, and music. Of note was the support to Photo.Circle which successfully lobbied the daily press to include photo journalistic material. Subsequently, a small market for photo journalism was created – with both a growing demand and supply. CKU strengthened and consolidated its partners. CKU’s partners grew or were consolidated during the partnerships. While CKU had a proportionately larger effect on younger organisations and organisations it supported over a longer period, all CKU’s partners strengthened their staff capacities, developed their approaches, improved their administrative systems, and/or expanded their networks. CKU was furthermore successful in influencing its partners to reach out to communities, strive for inclusiveness, target disadvantaged groups, and promote gender equality. This is unlikely to have happened without CKU involvement. Prospects for Sustainability Post-CKU The extent to which CKU’s partners were left in a sustainable state varies. Since CKU favoured less established organisations, many partners will struggle. Without finding new donors, none of CKU’s partners will be able to continue the programmes at the same level. Nevertheless, the partners that are registered as not-for-profit business entities aim to weather the change by covering some costs through income generating activities. The 2015 announcement of CKU’s closure came at a time when CKU had begun to hit its stride and it partners were also about to shift to a higher gear. If the successful initiatives from between 2007 and 2012 offer us any indication, given the overall higher quality of the support provided after 2014, the prospect of these interventions to achieve greater transformative changes in the future were remarkably good – should the support from CKU have continued.
1 Introduction Development – which essentially involves poverty reduction along with the realisation of human rights – is achieved by changes in society and its structures. In most cases, economic efforts alone are not enough to reduce poverty since its causes are not only economic, but also social, cultural, environmental, and political. A successful approach to the multidimensional nature of human rights and poverty therefore requires a broad range of efforts that target the multiple causes and manifestations of poverty and the absence of human rights. Recognising this, the Danish government funded the Danish Centre for Culture and Development (CKU). It worked to strengthen the role of art, culture, and freedom of expression as an integral part of Danish development cooperation. CKU was a self-governing institution established by the Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) in 1998. After 18 years, it will be closed at the end of 2016. The new government that came to power in 2015, campaigned on the promise to reduce support to development assistance as a response to the increased level of asylum seekers entering Denmark. The centre was among several Danish development cooperation efforts selected for closure. Since 2002, CKU supported arts and culture in 16 different countries in partnership with Danish Embassies. The support generally promoted freedom of expression in innovative ways and over time more focus was given to inclusion, youth, and children. In 2013, CKU’s mandate was strengthened by the launch of Denmark’s culture and development strategy – The Right to Art and Culture (hereinafter referred to as the Strategy). Its support became more comprehensive: its budget increased; it undertook systematic country analyses; it entered longer-term partnerships at country level; it developed results based management systems; and, it introduced a human rights-based approach. Undertaken during the second half of 2016, this evaluation was commissioned to take stock of the results, good practices, and lessons learnt during CKU’s last ten years. In accordance with the Terms of Reference (ToR), the report places emphasis on identifying transformative results. The audience in mind for the report is Danish, partner country and international development practitioners in the area of culture and development. The report may also be of interest to organisations that work with human rights based approaches, youth, disadvantaged groups, social change, and development policy.
PURPOSE AND SCOPE
The purpose of this evaluation is to: 1. Establish an overview of the results achieved – in particular transformative results - and possible effects of CKU supported initiatives on the ground. 2. Identify lessons learnt and document good practices for the benefit of national and international development practitioners in the area of culture and development. The evaluation covers the years from 2007 until 2016. The analysis and assessment of results achieved are based on case studies of three countries from three regions – Nepal, Palestine,
INTRODUCTION and Uganda – that were selected based on criteria set in the ToR. The analysis and assessment of CKU’s practices focus on the years 2013 to 2016 since i) in this period CKU introduced new approaches of potential interest to a wider audience; and, ii) data and institutional memory from the previous period is limited. 1.1.1 TERMINOLOGY The report uses the terms below as follows:
Participants, trainees, members, alumni, rights-holders, target groups: Depending on how they were organised and what activities they were undertaking, the partners used different terms to describe the individuals that they were trying to influence. The report uses these terms interchangeably.
Partners: The report uses this term to refer to the partners that received multi-year support. These are listed in Annex 2. There were also other partners at country level. CKU also had flexible funds at its disposal from 2014 to 2016, with which it supported other organisations that undertook smaller initiatives.
Danish support /CKU support: Before 2013, CKU had some funds for initiatives in development countries, but usually combined these with larger in-country resources from Danish embassies. The report therefore calls the support “Danish”. After 2013, the initiatives discussed in this report were funded with CKU’s resources only, and are referred to as “CKU’s support”. Ultimately, of course, the entire support that the team has evaluated has been financed by the Government of Denmark.
Community: The report uses this term in a general way to refer to a group of people living in the same place or having a characteristic or interest in common – such as a village, a school, a neighbourhood, cultural practitioners, and artists.
1.1.2 METHODOLOGY At the core of this evaluation’s methodology was a modified form of outcome harvesting. Outcome harvesting collects evidence of what has been achieved, and then works backward, using triangulation, and exploring the counterfactual to determine whether and how the project or intervention contributed to the change. The strengths of this approach included that it collected unintended results, which are often not considered by evaluations. The team undertook extensive desk studies (see Annex 5 for a list of documents reviewed); interviewed a range of stakeholders; and, held focus groups in Nepal, Palestine, and Uganda (see Annex 4 for a list of informants). Two staff surveys were also conducted, which received a solid response rate (see Annex 12 for the questionnaires). The evaluation faced a few limitations. The findings and conclusions regarding CKU’s results are based on data from three countries only. The time for data gathering in the case countries was relatively limited. Furthermore, assessing effects from the pre-2014 period posed some challenges. Institutional memory and documents were sometimes lost. In some cases, locating former partners and other involved stakeholders was difficult. Finally, in line with the ToR, the methodology focused on results – and not on efforts that did not produce changes. Lessons that relate to the lack of results are therefore not strongly featured in this report. Annex 3 contains more information on the methodology applied by the evaluation team and the limitations that it faced.
STRUCTURE OF THIS RE PORT
Organized into six chapters, the report begins with an overview of the inter-relationships among culture, development, and freedom of expression as evidenced by the CKU experience. This is followed by a description of CKU, covering its history, discussing the making of the new Strategy, and providing an analysis of financial data. Chapter 3 (and Annex 7) presents the findings of country visits to Nepal, Uganda and Palestine and an analysis of micro, meso and macro results that CKU has achieved. Chapter 4 analyse CKUâ€™s organisational effectiveness, with attention to the adjustments made post 2012 with the introduction of the Strategy. The final chapter provides conclusions regarding results and lessons learnt from CKUâ€™s experience of planning, implementing and monitoring culture and development support.
OVERVIEW OF CKU
2 Overview of CKU This chapter provides an overview of CKU’s history and mandate. The first section sets out the background to the organisation. In accordance with the ToR, this is followed by an account of the process that led to a new Danish Strategy for culture and development. The final section presents an overview of CKU’s disbursements since 2007.
The changed world order at the end of the Cold War led to new possibilities and perspectives within development cooperation. In this context, culture was increasingly seen as an important factor. By 1992, UNESCO had established the World Commission on Culture and Development under the leadership of former UN Secretary General, Javier Perez de Cuellar. The Commission produced the report Our Creative Diversity in 1995. Sweden hosted the Intergovernmental Conference on Cultural Policies for Development in Stockholm. Some 2500 government officials, cultural leaders, artists, scholars, and media personalities came together from 149 countries to interact, debate and explore practical ways of cultural cooperation and recasting cultural policies within a human development framework. It adopted an Action Plan entitled The Power of Culture. Meanwhile, Danish support to cultural exchange and collaboration began expanding in the late 1980s. Much of the support was small-scale projects administered by Danish embassies. In the 1990s Denmark also hosted a succession of increasingly popular festivals – Images of Africa – which later encompassed other countries of the world – with contemporary art and artists from developing countries. These festivals were deemed successful at exposing Danes to the cultures of developing countries and promoting cross-cultural collaborations. The Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs recognised the importance of maintaining and building upon the experiences gained through the Images festivals. With increased international focus on culture and development and a growing portfolio in the area, in 1998 the Ministry established CKU with an autonomous governance structure, but fully dependent on the Ministry for funding. In 2002 The Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs launched its Strategy for Culture and Development which aimed at mainstreaming culture into Danish development assistance activities. It provided the framework for the cooperation between CKU and the Ministry and led to the Centre’s work with Danish embassies in Africa, Asia, Middle East, and Latin America. In addition to organising Images festivals, CKU staff served as advisers on a demand basis for embassies and helped broker partnerships between Danish cultural actors and counterparts in developing countries. At the same time, CKU had begun working at an international policy level. In 2002 it hosted the first international conference of the International Network on Cultural Diversity (INCD) – a civil society network that held meetings in conjunction with the International Network on Cultural Policy, a forum for ministers of culture initiated after the Stockholm conference by
OVERVIEW OF CKU
Canada. The following years, INCD played a part in the work leading up to the UNESCO Convention on Cultural Diversity. By 2007, CKU had a three-year budget of 42 million DKK provided by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to promote: 1. Awareness and interest for the arts and culture from developing countries in Denmark; Box 1 Strategic priority areas 2. Cultural exchange and dialogue to encourage mutual understanding, inspiration and enrichment; 1 Empowering people through active 3. A systematic integration of culture in Danish developparticipation in art and cultural activities ment co-operation, including support to the implemen2 Ensuring freedom of expression for tation of development activities; and, artists and cultural actors 4. Organisational development within CKU. 3
Enhancing economic growth through creative industries
Programmes were implemented with Danish embassies in 4 Strengthening peace and reconciliation Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Ghana, Mozambique, in post-conflict areas through art and Nepal, Palestine, Tanzania, and Vietnam. A key feature of cultural activities the support was the heavy involvement of Danish cultural 5 Promoting intercultural dialogue and practitioners who were paired with cultural organisations in intercultural collaboration developing countries. A review undertaken in 20091 found that within a short time-span, the Centre developed a large and diverse portfolio of projects that were relevant, innovative and producing visible results – not least in relation to developing capacities and building of networks. The review found the support to groups in Palestine to be particularly unconventional and experimental in the way it engaged disadvantaged people in artistic activities. Moreover, CKU made headway in sensitising Danish development cooperation actors about the role of culture in development. The review, however, found that typically CKU’s projects were not based on a diagnostic analysis of the country’s cultural sector that could inform Danish programming by identifying interests and needs at country level. There was a need for involving more local actors in the identification, preparation, and implementation of projects to enhance relevance, ownership, and sustainability. In addition, some partnerships between Danish and developing country culture actors were not well balanced, which could undermine local ownership. A few of the Danish partners were ill-equipped for partnership management, particularly in a development context. In addition, while the review praised the professionalism of CKU’s staff, it found that it was over-stretched and needed to develop systems to capture wider results achieved by the support. A new framework agreement was signed with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs for 2010 to 2012. From 2007 to 2012, CKU handled projects in developing countries worth close to 80 million DKK.
Danida. ”Review of the Danish Centre for Culture and Development”, Sept 2009.
OVERVIEW OF CKU
In 2012, the Danish government launched the Right to a Better Life, its policy for development cooperation. In this context, the government deemed that a new Strategy for culture and development was needed which partook in the stronger human rights perspective that characterised Denmark’s approach to development. In August 2012, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) and CKU introduced an intense six-month process to produce the new Strategy. This well-structured process drew input from a wide range of sources and involved different stakeholders. CKU also initiated actions to foster ownership for the Strategy in Denmark and in development countries (See Annex 8 for more details about the Strategy process). In spring 2013, Danida’s Development Cooperation Council, the Foreign Affairs Committee, and the Danish Parliament approved the final draft. The resulting Strategy stands out in its emphasis on human rights. At an overall level and within each strategic priority area (listed in Box 1), it outlines how societies can be transformed through people’s participation in a vibrant cultural sector based on free artistic and creative expression. It furthermore emphases creativity as a driving force in development. The Strategy is both progressive and comprehensive in its scope, reflecting a thoughtful and informed strategy formulation process.
CKU’S NEW ROLE
To implement the new Strategy with its stress on human rights, participation and creative expression, CKU required a changed role. The Culture Fund/Danish Financial Act from 2013 transformed CKU’s function from serving as a consultant to Danish embassies in the implementation of their respective culture programmes, to overseeing the Danish culture and development resources that were pooled in the Culture Fund that was placed under CKU's charge. This change – and the fact that the organisation had experienced a few years of management and systems challenges – led to a significant organisational overhaul in relation to approach, structure, staff, systems, and leadership. This is discussed further in Chapter 4. In accordance with the MFA’s framework agreement with CKU for 2013 to 2015, new culture and development programmes were formulated and launched in seven countries: Uganda, Nepal, and Palestine (initiated in beginning of 2014) and in Indonesia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Burkina Faso (initiated in the second half of 2014). Programmes in Egypt and Ghana were approved by the CKU Board in March 2015. A regional African Creative Industries Programme, which was a continuation of a project from before 2013, was also approved by the Board. The choice of countries was based on Danish embassies declaring their interest for a culture programme to CKU, whose selection of countries was endorsed by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and then approved by CKU’s Board. Embassies signalling interest after 2013 could be accommodated only if they used their own bilateral funds, as was the case with Pakistan.
OVERVIEW OF CKU
FINANCI AL DISBURSEME NTS
Since 2007, CKU managed culture and development programmes in 16 countries as well as 2 regional programmes. The support amounted to over DKK 231 million.2 Half of these funds were disbursed after 2012. Just over 40 percent went to programmes in Africa; about a third financed programmes in Asia and 21 percent went to Egypt, Palestine and the regional Middle Eastern programme that ran from 2006 to 2012.
South America Middle East Asia Africa
Figure 1 Disbursements 2007-2016 by region
The disbursements for Vietnam before 2010 and Afghanistan after 2013 are not included in this amount. The data was not accessible to the team as this support was administered at the embassy level.
OVERVIEW OF CKU
Post 2013 Strategy
*Indirect CKU involement Figure 2: CKU Support from 2007 to 2016 by Country (millions DKK)
Since 2014, the average size of grants to longer-term partners have been around DKK 200,000 to 300,000 a year. Thematically, the Danish support has covered a range of areas. The two infographic representations below cover the 16 main countries that CKU worked in between 2007 and 2016. They show the relative importance of thematic areas grouped by colour-coded clusters: media (film, amination, and television); performing arts (dance, circus arts, music, hip-hop, jazz, theatre, spoken word poetry, theatre); literary arts (literature, creative writing, poetry); visual arts (street art, photography, art); the creative economy (creative industries, cultural entrepreneurship, art management, design and crafts); the arts as a meeting place (art spaces, exchanges, festivals, networks); cultural heritage ( diversity, archives); and, social groups and structures (women, children, youth, schools, civil society, cultural policy).
OVERVIEW OF CKU Infographic 1: CKU support to Africa 2007-2016 by thematic area
OVERVIEW OF CKU Infographic 2: CKU support to Asia and South America 2007-2016 by thematic area
3 Results Although culture is only a part of many factors that can bring about change in society, the Danish Strategy identifies that support to culture has the potential to strengthen: Human resources such as knowledge; skills; the ability to solve problems and to create; and, a positive sense of being – including dignity, self-esteem, and self-confidence; and, Socio-political resources such as groups, networks, civil society fora for dialogue and debate and platforms for expression - be it artistic, economic, social, cultural, civil or political; and, Economic and material resources through employment and growth of cultural industries. Along with agency and outcome, these resources are considered essential to the process of empowerment.3 This chapter examines the effects that CKU’s culture and development efforts have produced since 2007, with emphasis on human, social and economic resources. It focuses on three case study countries – Nepal, Palestine, and Uganda, highlighting examples of direct and indirect results. The results are discussed in relation to five broad categories that roughly correspond to the micro, meso and macro levels in society: the first section examines different types of the results at the level of individuals and communities (micro level). The second section looks at results and changes at the organisational level (meso level). The third section focus on changes within communities that CKU’s partners work with (meso level). Section 3.4 discusses changes at national levels (macro level). The final section identifies results at international levels (macro level).
CHANGES FOR I NDIVIDUALS AND GROUPS
There is ample evidence that CKU’s support has directly or indirectly contributed to changes for individual rights-holders and communities. In this section, the data on results has been grouped in relation to resources that are essential to individual empowerment:
See for instance, Naila Kabeer, “Reflections on the Measurement of Women’s Empowerment”; in Discussing Women’s Empowerment – Theory and Practice; Sida Studies no 3, 2002.
knowledge and skills; exercising of free expression; confidence and aspiration; recognition (human resources); income (financial resources); and, social linkages (social resources). Annex 7 gives further detailed evidence to support the analysis. 3.1.1 KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS Almost all support reviewed involved some form of training, knowledge-sharing, and/or learning of skills in a range of cultural areas, namely media, visual arts, creative writing, and performing arts as well as arts management. Through CKU’s partners in Nepal, Palestine, and Uganda over 200 individuals have gained basic, intermediate, and/or advanced skills related to film and television production since 2014. For instance, in Nepal, South Asia Communications (SAC) built up a cadre of young people and equipped them with skills to run a monthly documentary programme, Pattern Breakers, on national television. (See also Box 7.) In Palatine and Uganda youth gained skills in storytelling, script writing, sound, production, photography direction and cinema critique. They have since produced films, some of which have been entered in film festivals. Regarding increased capacities in visual arts, artists, school children and members of local neighbourhoods of Nepal became proficient in different urban art approaches – wheat pasting, stencils, graffiti and spray techniques –through CKU’s support to Artlab, a collective of young street artists. Since 2010, dozens of Nepalese also became competent photographers, participating in festivals, and had their photos published in newspapers and magazines, through training provided by Photo.Circle. Meanwhile, in Palestine, Al Hoash’s work to produce artwork in public spaces that involved collaboration with Danish artists contributed to individual development among the Palestinian artists. It was of a great importance to work with Danish artists on this project. Since they come from a free and independent country, they have no identity issues. They deal with public spaces organically. In Palestine in general, and in Jerusalem specifically, the situation is the opposite. We grow up and live under the Israeli occupation, which controls all public and private spaces. Artists in Jerusalem were never able to work in public spaces before: we are aware of the dire consequences. Palestinian and Danish artists together brainstormed ideas to legally justify the installations in public spaces to the Israeli authorities. The exchange of experiences was enriching and eye-opening for both sides. – Participant artist in Al Hoash Art Walk
CKU’s support allowed children and young people to explore creative writing from different angles. Creative writing is not in the national school curriculum of Uganda and in Nepal it is typically taught with a formulaic approach. In northern Uganda, Maisha Film Lab alumni enthusiastically embraced the art of script-writing. Meanwhile, school children developed writing, presentation, and critiquing skills though Femrite’s Tukosawa creative writing clubs, which helped them win awards for their schools. In Nepal, Word Warriors members improved their poetry-writing, in addition to skills related to performing and competing in spoken word poetry slams. I've experienced drastic changes since this workshop. Before I would be wondering alone, unable to express myself. I didn’t know how to express myself. I would try to write, and I couldn't. I just didn't know the right words…Then after these workshops I learned to express myself, giving importance to each word. – Word Warrior participant
Since 2007, CKU’s partners built individual capacities in different performing arts – dance, music, theatre, hip-hop and/or circus arts. Palestine has seen the most training in performing
RESULTS arts. In total, 250 teachers/trainers and 1,500 children have benefitted from dance, drama, music, and circus training. Oushaq in East Jerusalem has trained children and youth in dance – fusing traditional dabke dance steps with ballet, contemporary and hip-hop dance forms – through both summer camps and year-long programmes. The teachers at the Yafa Culture Centre in Balata Camp, with initial partnership support from the Danish Betty Nansen Theatre/CONTACT in 2011, learnt a new approach to dramaturgy (see section 3.3.1). I found out that (theatre) is a great weapon to change society. I have a tool to use. Theatre helps me to understand better and deeply both myself and others. I sense I can do something for my society and people and that I can change them. Furthermore, I have learnt to face people better, thanks to performances. – YCC training participant
In Uganda, over 1,000 youth were introduced to hip-hop since 2010. This included four intense and rigorous boot camps that trained 80 youth in writing, dancing, playing music, rapping, performing, recording and entrepreneurship. The mentoring approach applied by the Bayimba trainers imparted a range of practical knowledge: how to work with their communities; open and manage a savings account; and, how to approach and speak to authorities. In the last programme period, CKU emphasised enhancing knowledge and skills in curation and arts management: contemporary art in many developing countries is hampered by a dearth of academically (or vocationally) trained art managers, curators and writers who can critically assess the opportunities and challenges faced by artists and the sector and develop initiatives to further the accessibility, professionalism, and economic contribution of the arts. In Nepal, the Siddhartha Arts Foundation (SAF) Education Initiative in Nepal created twoyear-long vocational and academic training programme with master classes, workshops and project work in arts administration, curation, and criticism. Targeting young graduates, art students, art enthusiasts, journalism students, and those currently employed in the art industry, SAF prioritised the development of practical and technical skills through placements. In Uganda, Bayimba trained and nurtured selected youth from different parts of the country who showed a keen interest in cultural entrepreneurship. Through mentoring and training, the youth enhanced their understanding of developing and sustaining a (creative) business idea; improved their planning, marketing, and communication skills; and achieved basic financial and legal knowledge specific to the creative sector. I really learnt to organise myself and lead other people. I learnt to schedule, deal with money and administrate. – Bayimba entrepreneur trainee, Gulu
In Palestine, CKU itself organised a series of media marketing workshops for ten staff members from its core partner organisations. The workshop covered how to write press releases; produce media content; develop media plans; network with Palestinian, Arab and international media outlets; and, how to hold press conferences. 3.1.2 EXERCISING FREE EXPRESSION In addition to learning new skills and knowledge, CKU’s partners have given rights-holders the opportunity to express themselves. Societal barriers – marginalisation, gender norms, and discriminatory practices – and political factors greatly reduce the scope for free expression in most countries where CKU works. Safe spaces where people can express views among peers are often scarce. Schools, for instance, usually do not fill this role as they are normally teacher-centred top-down didactic education systems in which students are required to be passive. The past/continuing conflicts in all three countries also affect the ability to practice free expression. This experience has been powerful for the young people with whom CKU and its partners engaged.
The combination of i) gaining skills and knowledge; ii) being exposed to new ideas; and iii) having opportunities for expression; and/or the chance to create something, has the potential to improve people’s confidence, self-worth, and capacity to aspire. At the same time, the capacity to aspire – a fundamental aspect of empowerment – can be regarded as reciprocally linked to voice – “with each accelerating the nurture of the other”.4 A Word Warriors stakeholder interviewed by the team called it “mental strength”. Stakeholders interviewed in the different countries often referred to their newfound confidence and stated that they felt a sense of accomplishment and a new direction for their life. The examples of individual rights-holders exercising expression and discussing their confidence because of CKU’s support are plentiful. Below are examples from each country (see Annex 7 for more detail). NEPAL
Robert* was a painfully shy young man from Kitgum, northern Uganda. He regularly attended Maisha Film Lab film screenings. At the Kitgum Film in a Day festival, he stayed in the background, working as a runner. Eventually he submitted a script for Maisha’s screenwriting workshop, but only spoke to read his draft and even then, very hesitantly. However, with every draft of his script his confidence grew. By the time his script was selected for production, he seemed transformed. He directed and starred in the film. When it was shown at the Gulu Film Festival he answered questions from the audience with assurance. At the end of the festival he said he couldn’t wait for the next festival because he had five more stories. *The name has been changed.
Word Warriors is a Nepalese spoken word poetry organisation targeting youth between the ages 14 to 25, with a focus on marginalised women. Its open mic poetry gatherings and spoken word poetry slams encourage free expression. Some performed poems that discussed topical issues such as chaupadi,5 identity, caste, ethnicity, and gender. For the first time, some took the step to write and perform in their own indigenous language. I have found a voice and people are listening to me. I say things in poetry that I cannot otherwise say. And I feel such satisfaction that people can relate to me. – Word Warrior member I was asked to apply with a poem and got selected as one of the 20 participants for the "Write to Speak" project. This changed my entire outlook towards poetry. I now find it a very powerful medium to communicate with large masses of people on various contemporary issues, using one's inner voice and personal opinion. – Word Warrior member UGANDA
In Northern Uganda brutal war raged for two decades causing death and destruction, as well as forcing people to flee; hindering children to attend schools; and, blocking access to land and means to make an income. In this part of the country, there is a tradition to not express true feelings and fears, hampering the healing process. Femrite’s Tukosawa creative writing clubs in schools, however, offer a safe space to open up. Children read out their poems and expose their works on notice boards at schools, which other children could read from.
Vijayendra Rao and Michael Walton Culture and Public Action. Stanford University Press, 2004, p24. Chaupadi is a tradition in Nepal which prohibits women from participating in normal family activities during menstruation because they are considered impure. Women are kept out of the house and forced to live in a shed.
RESULTS To not copy a text was new to me. I get to write what I feel! I can change people’s lives! I can write about living in poverty and act as a helping hand. – Tukosawa member
The experience of writing and reciting has been a liberating experience for some: When I joined the Tukosawa Club I felt that…..I can change my nation with writing. I wrote about how women live in poverty, so the world can know that there is someone living a life other than yours. When I write my piece…. I criticize the leaders with my true stories. When I became the President of the Tukosawa Club, I challenged the boys, who looked at me as incapable. – Tukosawa member
Stakeholders interviewed mentioned that through telling their own stories, participants released traumatic experiences and structured the narratives of their lives. Much of the writing produced by the school children (ages 12 to 18) included pressing societal issues, mostly from a personal perspective, such as memories of the war, alcoholism, HIV/AIDS, sexual predation, neglect, corruption, and domestic violence. Hip-hop also offered relief to many young people in northern Uganda. While CKU’s partner Bayimba introduced hip-hop to help youth get on with their lives and look forward – rather than a trauma-counselling mechanism – the healing effect of free expression was nevertheless important. We have got freedom to express ourselves now (since Bayimba worked with us). I can speak out! This is the peace I have been looking for. – Bayimba participant
Among the young people trained by Bayimba that the team met was Denim6, a former child soldier who lost his closest family. For him, free expression was life changing: The war never ended in my head. Only the shooting stopped. For me there was still war. Until I saw a hip-hop performance. For the first time, I felt peace! It was incredible! It changed me deeply. I knew I needed to do hip-hop. It is now my life. I now work with children at the (youth) centre to teach them how to dance and rap.
Maisha Film Lab also offered youth a means of expression in northern Uganda. The trainees produced short films about issues that affected them – drug addiction, gender issues and government legislation. I must write about what happened in northern Uganda. If not, no one will. – Maisha Film Lab trainee
Women filmmakers interviewed felt particularly strongly about the expression that film offered them. They mentioned that they could convey what really happened in the displaced camps and give it a women’s perspective. PALESTINE
The oppressive and often traumatising environment that characterises much of the areas that CKU’s partners work in, made free expression particularly important. The theatre at the Yafa Culture Centre, provided the only platform through which Balata Camp youth could express views and engage in dialogue on sensitive social and political matters– drug-abuse, security, violence and internal fighting, inequality, and gender roles. Members of the Oushaq Culture
This is not his actual name.
RESULTS Centre demonstrated free expression by performing a daring flash mob dance on the streets of Jerusalem. Even performing circus tricks served as a vehicle for free expression in the conservative community of Nablus: …The world has seen Palestinians as dehumanized violent terrorists. The circus and the cultural sector in Palestine are providing a huge resistance to that, both in our own community and abroad. We want to show that there are many ways of being patriotic and working for your country. Resistance fighting and being an Israeli political prisoner is not the only way. – Circus participant
Box 2: From film screenings to debate successes A teacher at a school where Maisha Film Lab undertook screenings, film critiquing sessions and film production; was highly sceptical and resistant to the introduction of film at the school. Slowly he changed his mind as he saw the many positive effects on the students – engagement, confidence, and creativity. One of the films screened at the school was Denzel Washington’s The Great Debaters, which inspired some students to engage in debate. The students entered a national competition. They ended up coming fourth.
3.1.3 RECOGNITION A significant number of individuals in all three countries have received recognition for their achievements which directly or indirectly stems from the support of CKU and its partners – through training, networks, opportunities and/or spaces for expression. Examples include individuals invited to participate in national, regional, or international festivals (participants of Word Warriors, Artlab, Photo.Circle, Karkhana, Filmlab Palestine, Qattan Foundation, Maisha Film Lab and Bayimba). Some individuals have achieved a measure of national fame. These include the anchors of SAC’s monthly television programme Pattern Breakers (see Error! Reference source not f ound.), the actors of the children’s television series Max and Maya (Box 6), the musicians of Kutumba (see Box 3) and Ugandan hip-hop artists such as MC Benny, Black MC and MC Wang Jok who have all been supported by Bayimba. In Gaza, the band Typo, became the first Gazan rock band to be recorded through support from CKU’s partner, the AM Qattan Foundation: Having the chance to carry out the recording project opened many opportunities for us and for people around us. Of course, the main change was simply that we became the first Gazan Arab rock band with its own album, and we succeeded in carrying on and producing our own product under the worst-case scenario conditions. – Typo member, Gaza
Prasiit Sthapit, a Nepalese photographer who benefitted from training at Photo.Circle and is now a core trainer for the organisation, has received impressive international recognition for his work. His photo essay published by National Geographic in 2016 concerned the plight of the people in the small almost forgotten village of Susta on the river Gandaki/Naryani. As this river changes course, the border between India and Nepal; changes too, placing 14,000 hectares under dispute and leaving the villagers in limbo without nationality. Sthapit since became a recipient of the Magnum Emergency Fund Grant and was chosen as one of 12 photographers to attend the prestigious World Press Photo Joop Swart Masterclass. 3.1.4 INCOME Making a living in the arts and culture sector is challenging in most economies, all the more so in developing countries where the public sector spends minimal amounts for arts and cultures. Indeed, many of the CKU stakeholders were struggling to find means to derive an income from the arts. Nevertheless, there are individuals in Nepal and Uganda who are earning an income as a direct or indirect results of their engagement with CKU’s support. Most of these are stakehold-
RESULTS ers from the support provided before 2013. This suggests that it takes time for people to develop their skills and identify opportunities. In Nepal, the pool trained photographers and photojournalists has increased since Photo.Circle first received support from CKU in 2010. Around 30 to 40 of those trained by Photo.Circle are making a living out of photography. Meanwhile, artists trained and nurtured by Artlab are regularly offered commissions to paint external or internal murals. There is an increased demand with the growing popularity of street art and prices are rising. A commissioned mural used to cost USD 180. Artlab artists can now get up to USD 750. A third example from Nepal is the music ensemble Kutumba which has had a total annual turnover of around DKK 260,000 in the last six years, despite the set-back caused by the earthquakes in 2015. This amounts to more than 15 times what Denmark initially granted the group in 2007 to 2009 (around DKK 11,000). While the talent of Kutumba’s musicians might well have resulted in them gaining fame and financial success sooner or later, the musicians themselves maintain that the Danish support was catalytic, if not critical.
Box 3: Fame and social responsibility Kutumba , one of Nepal’s foremost folk instrumental ensemble group, is credited with making traditional music “cool” in Nepal, particularly among the youth, inspiring many other similar folk music groups to form. After their promotional tours in France, the US and the UK they have even garnered an international following. When Kutumba first received support from Denmark in 2007 it was a new group of six hip young men schooled in western music that came together for the preservation of Nepalese musical heritage. The Danish support allowed Kutumba for the first time to travel to areas outside of Kathmandu to meet master musicians of Nepal’s varied musical landscape, learn from them and perform together in their respective communities. Kutumba’s travels and music has built bridges across ethnic groups and sub-regions. The Danish support was critical for us. At the time, we thought we were a band, but we were amateurs. We did not have resources to travel. (The support) opened the door to explore our own music. It made us feel more responsible for changes in society. It made it possible for us to be who we are.
Today identity and diversity are at the core of its music, which has garnered a national following that crosses ethnic and sub-regional divides. Kutumba has also retained a sense of social responsibility, by supporting schools and working with the private sector in corporate social responsibility initiatives.
The support to hip-hop in Uganda has allowed some talented youth to pursue a music career. Bayimba estimates that around two dozen of its alumni make a living largely through hip-hop – performing at concerts, working as DJs, selling CDs, and/or producing tracks for ring tones. Until the recent conflict in Southern Sudan, some of the musicians associated with Bayimba could allegedly earn up to USD 2,000 USD for a single concert in Juba.
Several of the youth trained and mentored in film by Maisha Film Lab have also managed to pursue careers in the business. Of the 20 trained between 2011 and 2013, 12 are working in the business. Examples include one alumni who worked as a 2nd Assistant Director for the Disney film “Queen of Katwe”, while two former alumni have established Nuhood Films in Gulu.
RESULTS 3.1.5 SOCIAL LINKAGES Social resources – benefits that flow from the trust, reciprocity, information and cooperation that are associated with social networks – enable people to improve their situation beyond what would be possible through individual efforts. Social resources are therefore considered important for individual empowerment and overall development. This section examines the extent to which the social resources of participants have been enhanced. MEETING PEERS AND TEAMWORK
In all three countries, the support was effective in bringing people together, establishing linkages among peers and learning teamworking skills. The opportunity to meet, engage with, and learn from peers was for many stakeholders interviewed of great importance. Word Warrior members talked of a “hugely supportive community” having been established among the aspiring spoken word poets, including helping peers who were suffering from abuse or alcoholism in the family. Through the processes of meeting, sharing, reading, and providing feedback, empathy was built across people from different economic and ethnic backgrounds. I really liked the teamwork, the frankness…I've learnt to be sociable and I've learnt how to live in harmony/equality in society. – Word Warriors member We forged relationships through this project. We listened to one another, and that’s the best kind of collaboration. – Karkhana stakeholder. The culture thing. It brought us together. – Hip-hop participant of Bayimba
The efforts of Word Warriors, Artlab, Photo.Circle, Femrite, SAC, Maisha and Bayimba forged and strengthened relations among participants locally, but also created a web of connections with other participants across the country. Festivals, competitions, exchanges, workshops and events were a way of bringing people together. Bayimba and Maisha regularly assembled hip-hopper, cultural entrepreneurs and/or filmmakers from across the country, leading to exchanges, friendships, informal networks and cooperation. Social media was used diligently as a way of maintaining and strengthening these relations. The national, regional, or international festivals, fairs and exhibitions offered a means for partners to introduce their participants/members/alumni to promoters, event organisers, funders, directors, the media etc. In some cases, this led to collaborative efforts among artists – including across disciplines; invitations to other festivals; and, even funding opportunities. The stakeholders of the Palestinian partners had comparatively less exposure to networks because of prevailing travel restrictions and conditions in the country. Nevertheless, Filmlab PalBox 4 Breaking down social barriestine, Al Hoash and YCC provided some neters among students working opportunities to individuals associated Many of Femrite’s Tukosawa students with its activities. had never travelled beyond their home town. When they brought together students from different parts of the country, the children highlighted the experience of getting to know children from other parts, and the prejudices they subsequently dropped. Some continue to be in touch. Students in the different high schools of Gulu supported by Maisha experienced similar connections.
FORMING OF GROUPS
Much of the support focusing on youth contained important team-building elements that further forged relationships. According to the partners, working in a team as equals was new and enlightening for many participants. Hip-hop (Bayimba), film (Maisha, SAC), circus (Nablus Circus School) and theatre (YCC) – promoted cohesion
RESULTS and team spirit. Interviews revealed that participants learnt to collaborate, divide tasks, and trust and rely on one another. Artlab’s activities also hinged on teamwork.
Box 5: New Groups When in 2009 the young hip Nepalese folkloric ensemble Kutumba engaged with the community in Panuati in Kavri district – a small town outside Kathmandu – to learn from an almost forgotten maestro drummer, local youngsters began to take notice of the musician. (So did the national press who gave the master full page coverage in a daily newspaper when Kutumba visited.) After Kutumba left, the young people started to take lessons with the master., formed a group and a few years later entered a sub-regional traditional music competition in India and won first place.
Forging new bonds and teamwork resulted in several formal and informal groups forming among former participants and alumni. In Nepal, Artlab’s efforts outside of Kathmandu led to participants establishing new groups. In Pokhara where urban art and the demand for it are burgeoning, informal groups of artists are taking shape. Similarly, Word Warriors activities in Chitwan led youths to ban together with the intention to undertake spoken word poetry events in their town. Kutumba’s interaction in Panuati led to the formation of a traditional youth ensemble that later went on to win a regional award (See Box 5).
In Uganda, where CKU’s support to Maisha Film Lab and Bayimba took place over six years, groups had time to form. Former Bayimba participants in northern Uganda continue to hold hip-hop workshops together and several bands have formed there. They have become known across the country. In Lira some artists organised themselves under the youth initiative Lango Artists on the Move. In Soroti a dance group that was formed following training conducted in 2012 is still active. In Kitgum the Northern Uganda Hip Hop Culture Initiative was formed, which organises hip-hop training for children and regular events under the name “Kiti Gat Krazy” – a combination of live performances, interactive workshops, educational discussion, exhibitions and video screenings it undertakes in partnership with local organisations. Other groups of former alumni have organised local festivals, concerts, or poetry slams. They have performed in villages in local languages, garnering fans among the very young and the old. In Gulu hip-hoppers are engaging with prisons and orphanages, performing with social messages about drugs, alcohol, social problems, unemployment, HIV/AIDS, and malaria. Maisha Film Lab’s alumni formed film associations in Gulu, Lamwo (Life Race Films Organisation) and Kitgum (Wangor films). The latter group consists of over a dozen men and women from different backgrounds who have come together to make film. They put their savings in a collective account every week and are raising poultry to make income for their films. My hope is strengthened because together we have several ideas. We are moving step-by-step.... We are coming up with rich and powerful stories. One day, you outside Kitgum will be surprised. We will make something that will change our community and touch all corners of the world. – Wangor Films member
The formation of spin-off groups was not as common in Palestine. The political context created barriers. Nevertheless, in Silwan, six youngsters formed the hip-hop group Hurriya as an off-shoot of CKU’s support to Mada Silwan.
CHANGES FOR ORGANISATIONS
The last period of CKU’s support, characterised by its new partnership approach (see section 4.3), gave many partners the opportunity to think bigger and longer-term and pursue their key priorities. It allowed for flexibility in situations of changing circumstances or prospects. Partners explained that the longer-term grants from CKU enabled them to spend more time implementing and less time constantly searching for funds. Most of CKU’s partners grew or consolidated themselves in some way during the partnership. They improved the individual capacity of their staff (Maisha, SAC, YCC, Ya’bad); established better administrative systems (Artlab, Femrite); expanded their networks (Al Hoash, Filmlab Palestine, Word Warriors); or, obtained equipment (Karkhana, Cultural Forum Society). Generally, CKU had greater overall effect on organisations that i) were young; ii) for which it constituted the largest donor; and/or iii) it supported over several years. Examples include the Nablus Circus School, Artlab, SAF, SAC, YCC and Photo.Circle which have all developed their administrative and managerial structures; acquired equipment; trained their staff; and advanced their programmatic content with support from CKU. Photo.Circle offers a notable example of organisational achievement. With CKU support, which in the early years included a formal partnership with the Danish School of Journalism, the following was achieved:
Box 6: Maya, Max and TV Profits Creative Statement’s research showed that Nepalese television had very little Nepalimade content for children. What existed was of poor quality. With support from senior staff at Danish Television and Danish funding, media professionals were trained in children’s TV and a team was assembled to make a new programme. The programme featured a boy and a girl from Kathmandu who travelled to different parts of Nepal, investigating the lives and cultures of children across the country, thus capturing both rural and urban audiences. After research, recruiting of child actors, careful planning and shooting across the country, a set of 13 high quality, educational and entertaining 20-minute episodes were produced. The showed aired nationally on public television three times a week with two repetitions, over three months. It was watched across the country and some schools used the programme in lessons. Despite these results, the project did not reach its objectives of influencing Nepalese television stations to include more content for children. First, since the personnel trained for the TV programme were project based, they have not been able to affect change in media organisations to any significant degree. Second, advertisers not find child viewers an interesting target group. Third, accustomed to donors paying to have programmes aired, commercial and state television channels refused to run the programme again unless they were paid. Since 2015, the episodes have been available on Youtube instead. Perhaps the project would have been more successful if more episodes had been completed, creating more demand and thus greater interest. Working more closely with the management of national television may also have produced better results – although the project tried this to some extent, without much success.
Built and strengthened its administrative and managerial capacities; Developed a group of core trainers and a network of thirty to forty photographers; Established the Nepal Picture Library, a digital photo archive that aims to document an inclusive history of the Nepali people and stimulate dialogue on issues of memory, identity, and history through images. The archive has collected over 24,000 photographs from over 102 contributors from different parts of Nepal and contextualises them with personal narratives. The library gained importance in post-earthquake Nepal, as a repository of photo collections from cultural institutions damaged or collapsed by the disaster;
Organised Photo Kathmandu, Nepal’s only international photography festival, which serves as an alternative platform for conversations between visual storytellers and local audiences; Established its income-generating arm by developing a range of services: quality photography and multimedia production services; curation and management of exhibitions; and, communication and advocacy projects for Nepalese CSOs, international NGOs and UN organisations.
The following sub-sections further discuss how CKU’s support has helped partners develop. 3.2.1 STAFF CAPACITY AND NEW APPROACHES Staff and trainers of many partners (Photo.Circle, SAC, Bayimba, Yafa Culture Centre, Mandala Theatre, Maisha Film Lab and Artlab) developed progressive and democratic teaching approaches during the partnership with CKU. Some of these pedagogic approaches came from working with Danish peers. For instance, Artlab, which attended workshops in Denmark under the auspices of Images, took home knowledge of how to better facilitate and teach by breaking down concepts into steps. Meanwhile, through partnership with the Danish Film Institute in 2010, Maisha Film Lab in Uganda learnt how to work with and teach children – a group with which they previously had never engaged – using democratic, participatory, and mentoring methods. Not all capacities built through Danish partnerships, however, were retained in organisations to affect change. An example of this is provided in Box 6. While some partners have forged close and durable relations with Danish counterparts, a few experienced strained or unfruitful relations with Danish counterpart organisations, causing frustrations and leaving behind negative impressions. Through engagement with CKU, most partners also strengthened their approaches to outreach and gender equality. Since 2007, CKU emphasised the importance of gender equality and inclusion, and this gained greater priority after the 2013 Strategy. Since then organisations in Palestine, Uganda and Nepal were generally conscientious in targeting marginalised groups. In some cases, CKU’s insistence on this point forced organisations out of their normal comfort zone, only to discover new perspectives. Katumba was initially half-hearted about the idea of engaging with whole communities as suggested by CKU, rather than working solely with the master musicians. The experience of engaging with communities was enlightening and awakened the desire to engage in social action (see Box 3). Similarly, Artlab members expressed to the evaluation team that working in the rural community of Beni became the single most rewarding activity it undertook. Maisha Film Lab, who were geared to operating in Kampala had to devise new approaches when working in northern Uganda the criterion for CKU’s support from 2014. Maisha staff explained that it gained new useful perspectives and insights from this experience and plan to continue to work in northern Uganda.
Reaching out and including women and girls remained a challenge for all partners, particularly for those partners working in male-dominated sub-sectors such as street art and hip-hop. During the first years, Bayimba managed to have only a small female participation in hip-hop activities. After much work on the issue and insistence by CKU, it managed to reach 27 percent by 2015. Even partners with strong female leadership struggled. Maisha’s participants were at best around 35 to 40 percent female, despite its own overwhelmingly female composition. Nevertheless, most organisations, particularly those in Palestine, improved the participation of women and girls in their activities over time. A good example is YCC that eventually achieved a greater number of female participants than male participants – starting from a position where girls on stage, particularly with boys, was frowned about by community members. Some partners also showed commitment to providing space for gender issues to be raised in the context of cultural expression. Gender issues were raised in the cultural expressions in productions, writings, or performance of Maisha Film Lab7, YCC, Word Warriors and Femrite; while SAC’s programmes addressed gender equality in different ways. 3.2.2 NETWORKS The support from CKU has led most partners to extend their networks within the country and abroad. In the last programme period, linkages among the partners developed because of their connections with CKU. While this was evident in all three countries, these linkages were strongest among the Nepalese partners who have engaged with each other in several constellations. For instance, SAF drew trainees from the other organisations and collaborating during events; Artlab and Word Warriors worked together at performances and exhibits; Karkhana and Word Warriors joined up at the Innovation in Education Fair in 2016; and, Photo.Circle interacting with most of the other partners in different ways. As Word Warriors put it: CKU is a catalyst to connect with the other partners. Because of CKU we meet more frequently with the others and our core network has expanded.
In Palestine, CKU’s Cluster Initiative for arts management training brought partners together. Logistical issues, restrictions and fewer mutual areas of interest, however, made networking of partners more difficult in Palestine. Partners like YCC, nevertheless, engaged in collaborations, since it has a fully equipped theatre that attracts other organisations and practitioners – including foreigners. Organisations in Nepal and Uganda like Maisha, Bayimba, Artlab and Photo.Circle hosted festivals that drew international participants. CKU’s support played a part in these events. In
The young men in one of Maisha’s workshops in northern Uganda all produced scripts that contained rape scenes. In some cases, the rape was gratuitous, and did not add to the storyline. This not only reflects the severity of gender equality in the society, it also reveals the psychological impact of the past war on people.
RESULTS Palestine, the security situation makes hosting festivals with international participants, particularly from the region, very difficult. Likewise, the political challenges make networking with other Arab countries challenging for most Palestinian organisations. Nevertheless, some organisations experienced some successes. For instance, with support from CKU, Al Hoash could partner with an Egyptian organisation and YCC hosted foreign performers. The support from Denmark also made networking with Danish organisations possible. Maisha, Bayimba, Artlab, Mandala Theatre, Photo.Circle, the Nablus Circus School, YCC, SAC and Photolab Palestine visited Denmark as part of Images and/or enjoyed relations with a Danish counterpart organisation. 3.2.3 MATERIAL RESOURCES The partnership with CKU allowed several organisations to procure important equipment and improve art spaces. Photo.Circle obtained quality scanners and other equipment for its digital library; Maisha Film Lab bought film equipment that now is to be housed in Gulu for its alumni to access free of charge; YCC used funds to fully equip its theatre; Karkhana purchased educational equipment; and, Culture Forum Society bought 22 musical instruments for its music school. Bayimba negotiated with CKU to use remaining funds from 2016 to purchase real estate where it plans to establish a hip-hop school. 3.2.4 ORGANISATIONAL SUSTAINABILITY The closure of CKU has had serious implications for the sustainability of its partners. Many planned on continued collaboration. Indeed, the team found much evidence that most initiatives would have been able to produce more far-reaching results had the support not ended prematurely – after two years, many organisations had ironed out wrinkles and had reached a position where they could adjust processes and approaches to obtain the greatest effects. This is particularly true for the partners in Nepal and Uganda. In Palestine, CKU’s partners are strongly donor dependent. Partners such the Nablus Circus School, which was almost completely funded by CKU over some time, risks having to close. On the other hand, organisations such as Filmlab Palestine, with stronger international connects may have access to other sources of funding. Significantly, even though culture actors are often regarded as the epitome of civil society,8 most of CKU’s partners in Uganda and Nepal – Karkhana, SAC, Artlab, Word Warriors, Photo.Circle, SAF, Maisha Film Lab and Bayimba –for different reasons were not registered as civil society organisations, but as non-for-profit business entities. It appears that this status makes the partners potentially more resilient in face of the discontinued funding from CKU. It allows the organisations to pursue income generating activities, while also offering the advantages of avoiding government scrutiny (Uganda) and additional bureaucratic processes (Nepal).
Even The Right to Art and Culture states “A dynamic cultural life is a central element in an independent civil society.”, p 3.
RESULTS The partners in Nepal have identified different means to stay afloat, although at a reduced or very reduced level. For instance, Karkhana and Word Warriors plan to focus on selling their services to private schools. Artlab hopes to obtain income from commissioned work. Photo.Circle will offer services to CSOs, the UN and the private sector (multimedia production; curation, and expertise for communication and advocacy projects). SAC aims to finance its programme by renting out its TV studio. The extent to which the organisations manage to continue is, however, uncertain. For instance, SAC has already closed its website.
CHANGES IN COMMUNITIES
Most of CKU’s partners engaged actively with communities – schools, youth, students, villages, neighbourhoods, religious minorities, and people with disabilities. The country level data indicates that CKU’s partners established a good rapport with communities over time. Building relationships with communities was, however, not always easy. Both in Uganda and Nepal there were instances when potential trainees expected payment from CKU’s partners to attend workshops – an effect of too many international organisations paying for participants. In Palestine, a few partners faced resistance from conservative communities in relation to stage performances – particularly when girls were involved. In Jerusalem, convincing audiences to participate in Al Hoash Art Walk was challenging; not only was it difficult to advertise an event that did not have full approval of the Israeli authorities, people were worried about taking part. In Nepal, Word Warriors wanted to engage with the LGBT community (in particular, Hijras, transgender women), but finding common ground proved too challenging. The following sections provide examples from each of the three case study countries of effects achieved at community level. 3.3.1 PALESTINE Two important ways that the Palestinian partners have engaged with communities include: 1) reclaiming public space for art; and, 2) engaging communities in performing arts. RECLAIMING PUBLIC SPACE
Efforts related to art in public spaces were made both in Gaza and East Jerusalem. Given the effect that the Israeli-Palestinian conflict has had on public spaces in the form of bombardment, insecurity and restricted and forbidden access, this subject is highly topical in the Palestinian context. In Gaza, the nine-meter-high lighthouse installation in the port area that was supported by CKU and its partner AM Qattan Foundation changed the physical environment and has become a colourful landmark. Gazans have flocked to the waterfront to see the public artwork, taking photos and selfies, making it a space for socialising. Sharif Sarhan and a team of artists, students, and engineers, constructed the public installation over nine months with the aim
RESULTS of taking art from the closed exhibition space into the streets. The structure is made of waste materials resulting from Israel’s bombardments creating a cultural memorial to the destruction. To have a lighthouse in a city that for years has been besieged and under attack from the Israeli occupation is a message of hope, freedom, peace, and love… It stands as a witness that art can have an important role in changing the lives of the people for the better…. We have turned something ugly into a beautiful piece that is changing the face of the city and is encouraging more artworks in the public space. – Sharif Sarhan
In East Jerusalem, CKU’s partner Al Hoash also worked to place art in public spaces to allow greater access to a broader audience. Al Hoash, with the input of international and national artists, devised an “art walk” through the city, staged inside cultural institutions, a shopping centre and in outdoor spaces. The project faced many difficulties specific to an occupied city – obtaining permits, bringing people to East Jerusalem, and reticent audiences. Innovative solutions, such as placing artwork on wheels and obtaining parking permits, were applied. Public attendance was broader than usual; however, the audience numbers were lower than hoped. I wanted….to recreate a safe space for the East Jerusalem’s residents, and change the stigma put upon this space. After the project, I saw people caring for the garden, those who live only 10 meters away from it but never visited before. – Al Hoash artist (The garden has subsequently been closed off with a wall by the Israeli authorities.) PERFORMING ARTS
Most of CKU’s key partners in Palestine are local organisations involved in the performing arts – the Oushaq Arts Centre, Yafa Culture Centre, Ya’bad Cultural Centre, Cultural Forum Society, Nablus Circus School and the Creative Madaa Center in Silwan – that interact closely with their respective communities, which experience high levels of poverty among children, school drop-out, drug-use, violence, insecurity, demolition of homes, and the risk of being detained by the Israeli security forces. Through performing arts, CKU’s performing arts partners aimed to offer children and youth relief, a safe and supportive space; an opportunity to process emotions; a chance to exercise free expression; enjoyment; and, learning some useful skills along the way. In the last two years, these groups have performed to many thousands of people, including in conservative villages and towns in the northern parts of the West Bank. The Nablus Circus School provided a safe place to learn, play and foster creativity through freedom of expression. The physical exercise, camaraderie and discipline made it so popular there was a waiting list to join. By training and hiring female instructors, the participation of girls at the circus school eventually reached 50 percent. The school also worked with children living in remote conservative areas. In 2016, the school conducted a workshop for 18 autistic children and their parents in cooperation with the An-Najah University Child Institute. The effect on the autistic children, their parents and teachers was, according to reports, exceptional, resulting in a new level of engagement and dialogue. Another example is Yafa Culture Centre, which undertakes theatre with dance and music in the overcrowded camp of Balata. It influenced communities in several ways. First, with inspiration and support from Danish counterparts in 2011 (see section 3.1.1), YCC developed an approach to drama that involved collecting everyday stories from children living in the camp. This story-telling approach was subsequently adopted and replicated by other amateur drama
RESULTS groups in the area. Second, the centre made considerable efforts to influence the prevailing conservative values in both the camp and its neighbouring villages – particularly in relation to gender. The plays themselves and their content exposed communities to new perspectives on gender, but the centre also directly engaged with the communities to gain their trust to promote female participation. Although resistance was initially high, the theatre eventually gained a high level of acceptance in the community, with more girls than boys participating. In addition, the theatre also offered a space for discussion of sensitive issues such as drugabuse, security, violence and internal fighting, inequality, and gender roles. The theatre moreover served as a platform for children to communicate to their communities about their thoughts, perspectives, and concerns on sensitive social and political issues. In 2015, YCC was recognised for “outstanding efforts” to improve the lives of children and awarded the Stars Impact Award by the British Stars Foundation. Through the shows, we realized that we provoked people and society. The performance has touched sensitive problems within Palestinian society…. I think that theatre has modified and changed mindsets in the community. – Yafa Culture Centre member
3.3.2 NEPAL CKU’s partners in Nepal since 2014 expressed strong commitment to social engagement, inclusion and being positive agents of change, particularly for youth. This commitment seemed to have grown over the last programme period. Although small budgets, complicated logistics, non-existent arts infrastructure, earthquakes, civil unrest and economic blockades limited the extent that the partners could achieve a solid presence outside of Kathmandu, outreach efforts to communities outside of the capital were made. In addition, disadvantaged communities in the capital were targeted. Some interviewees felt that a snowballing effect of art activism for social change was taking place. As one stated: Artists are positive agents for change. They have left the white cube of the gallery.
Word Warriors reached over 600 people in different parts of the country with its workshops. Its poetry slams audiences over two years were estimated to be 8,000. It actively encouraged women and disadvantaged groups – people of ethnic or religious minorities, indigent citizens, people with disabilities and members of the LGBT community – but their longer-term engagement was often hard to achieve. SAF’s students were expected to conduct projects that involved local communities: one student engaged with an orphanage on the outskirts of Kathmandu; another group of SAF students worked with children of a poor neighbourhood to build a creative space under a bridge; and other students worked with communities in other regions of the country. Artlab’s work focused on creating awareness about migration through street art, workshops, festivals, and exhibitions. Concerned about the heavy flows of young people leaving the country, it aimed to use urban space to trigger the mindset of youth and find solutions. Artlab members thus painted images of Nepalese who have made a difference to the country – from activists and female mountaineers, to singers and cartoonists – on urban walls. In the process, Artlab engaged with neighbourhoods, local officials, army officers and schools in different towns and conducted open art workshops and beautified the environment. It’s magic. Magic to (our town) Tansen. I’m hopeful. I think it is changing the city already. – Profes-
Artlab and its associated artists have in recent years produced a considerable amount of art on Kathmandu’s streets. In 2016 it organised minibus tours of the street art for a modest fee.
RESULTS sional signboard painter who joined Artlab workshop in Tansen
Schools have been an important interface with communities. Photo.Circle, Karkhana and Word Warriors have had regular engagements with a handful of public, charter, and private schools. Photo.Circle developed an arts education programme for schools called retelling histories. Karkhana combined science, technology, engineering, arts, and maths to develop over 60 “Beecreative” class sessions that it ran with around 400 students in about a dozen schools. Word Warriors exposed children to spoken word poetry and literary techniques in about 40 schools in different parts of the country. Interviews revealed that some of these schools are integrating these new approaches into their schools. The 2015 earthquakes impeded most of the partners plans in one way or another, but all partners redirected attention to addressing its effects on communities – including volunteering, fund-raising, establishing camps and running art activities for children. Photo.Circle played lead role among CKU’s partners, mobilising dozens of small volunteer networks. Artlab set out to help communities heal through its ‘Re-Color’ initiative, which invited passers-by to join the artists with brush strokes on the walls. Meanwhile, Karkhana went on-line to gather knowledge of best practices for addressing children with post-traumatic stress at schools after a natural disaster. Through documentsharing and skype calls to experts around the world (Latin America, USA etc.), Karkhana developed an emergency curriculum for schools. By connecting with a prominent private school, it built a core of volunteer teacher trainers that subsequently trained 6,685 teachers at public schools in nine districts in 14 days. Initial funding came from CKU, but the roll-out was later financed by a grant of US$ 180,000 from the Asia Foundation. Box 5 provides an example of changes at community level as a result of CKU’s support before 2013.
Box 7 Pattern Breakers In 2008, two Danish experts held creative workshops in photography and multi-media with Nepalese youth in collaboration with South Asia Communications (SAC). It resulted in production of a series of youth documentary TV programmes shown on national television channels covering youth issues such as youth unemployment, the brain drain, drug abuse and trafficking. The programmes were filmed in rural areas of Nepal involving youths from rural organisations in the planning, research, filming and editing processes. Afterwards, former students began working in professional media houses in Nepal as producer assistants and photographers and journalists. SAC received support from CKU in 2014 to build on the past initiative and bring it to scale, producing a monthly television programme called Pattern Breakers. Around 100 youth were trained – including a core production team, technicians and anchors. In also trained youth based in Nepal’s five regions to amplify the TV programme through local radio stations. Pattern Breakers raises pertinent issues in Nepalese society and features young people who are trying to address issues such as sex trafficking, farming, social entrepreneurship, political cartoons, gender stereo types, fusing musical genres, visual arts, addressing drought issues and earthquake effects. The estimated viewership is 2 million, with up to 5 million people being reached by radio. In addition to producing the monthly shows, CKU’s funding was used to build a quality television studio. SAC plans to rent it out to earn an income to produce more shows after the Danish funding has ended. SAC may no longer have enough resources to travel around the country, but with backdrops, phone-ins and other techniques, it aims to maintain a national coverage approach.
3.3.3 UGANDA Bayimba’s and Maisha’s activities have had a profound effect on elements of the urban youth community in northern Uganda. Through mentoring and training, a critical mass of young people has gained confidence, energy, and aspirations to change their communities. They are building networks, forming groups, and interacting with the community.
Bayimba’s approach centred on encouraging young people to take charge of their own destiny and affect change in their communities. They offered training, mentoring, team-building, exposure, networks, and role models. As detailed in section 3.1.5, as individuals or as groups, former Bayimba participants are engaging with their communities – as entertainers, entrepreneurs, volunteers, bearers of social messages and instructors – and in small ways, making a difference. We got started because of Bayimba. Something is happening in our lives. We never expected this. – Bayimba hip-hop participant It is a movement with which we can change the community. –Bayimba hip-hop participant
Maisha’s filmmaking participants have been similarly inspired to make art and affect change in their communities. Maisha’s film festivals in Gulu (attended by around 700 members annually) and regular film screenings in Gulu and Kitgum at schools and community centres (averaging around 60 participants at community centres, and 500 at schools) have had effects. The screenings – included facilitated discussions with study guides – affected the community participants in four main ways. First, it exposed them to realities of other parts Africa and the world. Second, introduced them to analytical methods and critical media consumption. (Indeed, with these skills, some former participants disclosed that they could no longer tolerate watching west African soap operas because of their poor quality.) Third, the discussions gave participants the opportunity to engage in discourse and self-expression. Over the years, the vibrancy of the discussion grew, with participants making connections to their personal lives and their own communities. Fourth, the screenings sometimes offered an outlet to digest the past conflict and its effect on individuals and social relations. A local church leader in Kitgum told the evaluation team that he was thrilled by the activities of Maisha Film Lab, the effect on the youth and the initiatives in the community that the youth have since taken. He offered former participants access to his churches community spaces any time. He said: They have learnt so many skills. These people are not same as before. They are now very dynamic. They are changing the community around us.
Femrite’s efforts, which have only taken place over two years, saw more modest results. Most results are within schools. Several schools reported that the Tukosawa clubs improved performance academically, in the schools’ debate clubs, and in school magazine productions. In addition, a radio station in Gulu created space for literary engagement after learning about the Tukosawa clubs in Gulu and invited Tukosawa members as guests on the show.
NATIONAL LEVEL CHANG ES
Evidence of changes at national level resulting from CKU’s support is limited. This is not unexpected given that CKU’s support did not explicitly target the national level in any comprehensive way. Indeed, in the three countries visited, CKU did not engage in policy dialogue –for instance, in relation to freedom of expression and cultural rights – with duty-bearers, or support capacity development of national cultural institutions. Furthermore, the financial support from CKU to partners was modest averaging DKK 300,000 a year (US$ 40,000) to key partners. Most of the support was replicable, but was typically not support that could be easily scaled up. Nevertheless, the team uncovered a few instances in which the effects of CKU’s support were far-reaching. These include the support to Photo.Circle, Bayimba, Maisha Film Lab and SAC.
The support to Photo.Circle has contributed to Box 8: CKU’s effect on the arts scene in Nepal changing the approach to and use of photoAs a donor, CKU’s support appears to Nepal to journalism by the Nepalese daily press. In have had a comparatively greater effect on capacity 2010 Photo Circle and their members met with development of the art scene compared to the national newspaper editors to convince them other case study countries. This can be ascribed to of the value of photo journalism and showed that there are very few donors supporting culture in them their skills as photographers, after having Nepal (those that exist mostly focus on exchanges); Denmark having supported culture in Nepal for a received training from the Danish School of long time (since 2005); and, CKU having ensured a Journalism. By 2011 a few of the national spread of support to several sub-sectors over the newspapers started to publish occasional phoyears – visual arts, performing arts, cultural herittos produced by Photo.Circle trainees and by age, literary arts, film, and media. The second pro2012 photo journalistic material became a reggramme period was particularly effective in this regard, especially with its support to arts manageular feature for three daily newspapers. By ment that gave the partners a common point. In2016, some newspapers produced centrefolds deed, one cultural activist (not from a partner orwith large photo journalistic spreads. Moreoganisation) commented on the final phase of Danver, with Photo.Circle’s efforts, the awareness ish cultural support as follows: of photojournalism has grown and the demand We had never seen that level of support for the Nepali art scene. It was huge! for photo-journalism as a medium has increased. In part due to advocacy by Photo.Circle, photo-journalism was integrated into the Fine Arts curriculum at Kathmandu University’s School of Arts and there have been discussions of establishing a full-fledged diploma course in photography. Evidence suggests that CKU’s support to Bayimba was at least a main contributor to – if not the main cause for – the sharp rise of indigenous languages on the Ugandan hip-hop scene. The importance of free expression and the use of indigenous languages was discussed between CKU and Bayimba when the first support to hip-hop was provided in 2010. When training youth, Bayimba began emphasising the importance of local languages; and, highlighted the advantage of local tongues to connect with their communities. Rap in indigenous languages started to feature at Bayimba’s festivals. Currently, indigenous rap is popular across language groups. We are changing society. We are now mixing dance styles and art and embracing indigenous languages. – Bayimba alumni
In Uganda, Maisha Film Lab is considered to be one important factor in the emerging Ugandan film industry, having provided 550 film scholarships and produced 50 films that have been screened at 20 international film festivals. By promoting a cinematic culture and training filmmakers it has been contributing the industry’s capacity. Disney was persuaded to film “Queen of Katwe” on location in 2015 using Ugandan actors and crew – including several of Maisha’s alumni – in part because of the film making capacity that Uganda has developed. South Asia Communications affected public discourse, perspectives, markets and the media throughout Nepal through its monthly TV programme Pattern Breakers that was aired on national television (see Box 7). The evidence that SAC gained a broad viewership which it managed to influence include: an entrepreneur who had developed irrigation drip system received ten times the number of his previous orders soon after appearing on the show;
a shelter that was featured on Pattern Breakers’ episode about sex trafficking was offered funding from different sources after the show aired; and, SAC’s programme was the first to draw attention to the issue of insecurity for women and children living out in the open after the earthquake, which was subsequently covered by other media.
As part of its format, SAC typically included interviews with relevant government officials and politicians. Thus, the topics it covered often connected with the policy level. There are also indications that some of CKU’s initiatives may have national level effects in the future – although the closure of the organisation has reduced the probability. The street art scene and spoken word poetry in Nepal both have the potential to become a broader movement among youth in the country. Likewise, CKU’s support to SAF’s arts management initiatives and Bayimba’s cultural entrepreneurship have the potential to shape the cultural sector respectively in Nepal and Uganda in tangible ways. It is also possible that Karkhana’s efforts to promote critical and creative thinking may yet influence education policy-makers in Nepal.
INTERNATIONAL RESULT S
While CKU engaged to some extent in the lead-up to the Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions (2005), CKU became active on the international scene only in recent years. Since the Strategy was launched, CKU’s international level efforts includes the following actions. First, CKU raised awareness and advocated for Denmark’s Strategy – the Right to Art and Culture. CKU was invited to discuss Denmark’s strategy and the work with culture and development at the Prince Claus Foundation, with the British Council and at UNESCO World Cultural Forum. Second, CKU engaged with UNESCO: it shared its experience on results based management and theory of change and engaged in dialogue on culture and sustainability, an interaction that greatly raised Denmark’s profile within UNESCO. Third, CKU was invited to share the experience of developing and implementing the Danish Strategy at several meetings in the EU, to serve as inspiration for integrating culture in foreign relations and development policies of the EU. Fourth, CKU produces two quality publications in 2015 – Creation out of Crisis, A Historic Moment to Leverage Arts and Culture’s Contribution to Social Change in the Arab Region, by Moukhtar Kocache; and The Contribution of Art and Culture in Peace and Reconciliation Processes in Asia – A literature review and case studies from Pakistan, Nepal, Myanmar, Indonesia, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, and Bangladesh, by Ereshnee NaiduSilverman (The effect of these studies has been beyond the scope of this evaluation)
4 Organisational effectiveness 4.1
With its new mandate, CKU went through an extensive internal restructuring to gear up to new demands. CKU's CEO was the driving force, but the Board played a crucial role throughout the organisational change. The chairperson's professional Boardroom background was an advantage in this process. This included the following: Job descriptions, lines of command and mid-management level were introduced in the international section and a team-based structure was developed A clear logic to the regional division of labour in the structure (West Africa, East Africa, Middle East, and Asia) was established to deepen regional knowledge and widen local networks. CKU hired a locally based programme officer in the countries where it established programmes. Links among the international section, the communication department, the administration department, and the Danish section of CKU were strengthened. The new structure was significantly more suitable for an effective implementation of the Strategy. The division of labour was clearer, a team-based approach combined with crosscutting thematic responsibility improved the potential to promote intra-organisational learning. Having a local presence enhanced the development of a country perspective, allowing for greater engagement with partners and permitted opportunities/threats to be identified in a timely manner. Officers in the field generally found there to be a quick turnaround time for decision making and easy accessibility to headquarters staff. The open communication policy – which enabled field staff to pick up the phone and call even the CEO if needed – was seen as a strength. Nevertheless, staff mentioned that there was still room for improvement in the structure. The sharing of knowledge and exchange of experiences within the organisation could have been better. Some staff regarded the project committee meetings in headquarters as not sufficiently efficient – the hours put into preparations did not match the outcome of the meetings. A significant challenge for CKU’s structure was the implications that its new role had regarding its legal status at country level. It could not be registered as a government agency or a civil society organisation. Sorting this out was time-consuming and delayed the start of the programmes. In most countries, CKU found a workable, but somewhat fuzzy solution in which it came under the embassy’s umbrella. The set-up was neither ideal for programme officers, the country level partners nor the embassies. It furthermore hampered CKU’s visibility at country level.
ORGANISATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS CKU had agreements with the Danish embassies in each country it worked in (see section 4.8). The relations between the two were generally good. However, the involvement of the Danish embassies in the programmes was minimal. In Nepal, the CKU programme officer briefed the embassy every two months on developments and issues. In Uganda, the interaction was infrequent. In Palestine, the Danish Representative Office was regularly informed about the CKU supported activities.
CKU also made significant strides in consolidating its systems during the last programme period. It developed a comprehensive 32-page programme manual for its international effort and devised over 60 different tools and templates. The table in Annex 9 provides a schematic overview of the the tools produced to ensure a uniform, predictable and structured approach. It included, for example, ToRs for different consultancy assignments, formats for monitoring missions and various reporting formats, financial reporting, and partner agreement templates. The tools constituted a comprehensive system that allowed CKU's work to be managed and administered smoothly. Staff highly appreciated the programme manual. It was user-friendly and clear. The templates and tools were also greatly appreciated in headquarters and at country level. In fact, staff considered the manual, tools, and templates to be CKUâ€™s top strength. Since programmes were developed through the same procedure, they were comparable and could more easily draw inspiration from each other. At the same time, staff found it challenging that the tools and templates were developed as programmes were starting implementation. While it was a strength that CKU improved its tools along the way, bringing in new systems along the way was challenging. For instance, log-frames and theories of change at different levels had to be retro-fitted a year into the programmes. The process was particularly frustrating to partners who found the continually changing requirements burdensome.
Figure 3: Most frequently cited strengths of CKU in staff survey
HQ staff expertise & leadership Internal communications Results based management Partnership approach In-country programme officers Country analysis & partner selection processes Systems - progamme manual & templates 0
CKU developed a partnership approach that was articulated in its manual. It was based on:
long-term engagement rather than short term projects; need, demand, and local ownership of projects and activities in programme countries; a clear understanding of roles, expectations, rights, and obligations between partner and CKU; a common understanding of the direction of the partnership; and, support to reach out to other relevant partners and to network.
The approach placed much less attention on involving Danish cultural actors in the assistance, a break from a key feature of CKU’s support in the previous years. This was a significant change for many Danish partners who had grown accustomed to running Danish culture projects in developing countries. Taking the departure in the needs and demands of countrybased partners, however, enhanced local ownership. Having a country level presence was crucial to CKU’s partnership approach. It fostered trust and dialogue with the partners. It enabled CKU to be more flexible with its support if circumstances required this. Furthermore, programme officers on the ground made frequent and fruitful communications with partners possible and monitoring of the support more effective. Partners found CKU to be responsive. The regular dialogue with CKU was regarded as productive and helpful. Organisations who had been partners before and after 2013 noted that CKU was more “tuned in” after it embarked on a partnership approach. They maintained that CKU showed greater understanding and engagement. When circumstances changed (such as restricted movement in Palestine and the earthquakes in Nepal) CKU worked with the organisations to adapt the programme accordingly.
ORGANISATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS In some countries, nearly all existing partner contracts had at least one addendum. This attests to our adaptability and responsiveness to partners’ needs (e.g. modifications to project timelines, budget revisions). – CKU Programme Manager
Partners considered their relationship with CKU as significantly different than those they maintained with other donors, with whom they barely interacted beyond sending reports. Between 2013 and 2015, CKU pursued building networks internationally and at country level. It engaged with foundations, multilateral organisations, civil society organisations and other donors at the international level. At country level, it tried to identify opportunities for collaboration and strategic dialogue with other donors. Just as momentum was gaining, the closure of CKU was announced. At country level, the evaluation team found little evidence of any networking initiatives.
Box 9 Criteria for partnership with CKU Partners CKU collaborate with must: 1. Have a board or a similar leadership structure; management team and structure; a written constitution; clearly stated values, vision, and mission. 2. Have a mission and vision that have a clear link to one of the focus areas in the Danish strategy The Right to Art and Culture (common ground). Exist (mission and operation) within the legal framework in the specific country of operation. 3. Have methods and means for basic and up-to-date information and accountability about their work (e.g., annual reports) 4. Have a bank account 5. Have constituencies and communities it works for and with (mandate to speak on behalf of them) 6. Be free from prejudice and intolerance to the different sex, race, faith, political affiliation 7. Have capacity for project implementation
In the earlier years, CKU tried to establish networks and broader ownership for its efforts by establishing country level advisory boards. Advisors were not remunerated and their engagement was usually poor. The boards ended up adding little value. The structure was later abandoned.
PROGRAMME PREPARATIO N
After CKU’s programme countries were chosen by the Ministry, CKU began the programme preparation process in each country by undertaking a comprehensive analysis of the culture and arts sector in the country from a human rights perspective. A specific template for study was devised. Nepal was the first country to finish the analysis. The consultant began by gathering about 40 stakeholders for a workshop – including academics, government officials, practitioners, etc. – to discuss their concerns about the culture and arts sector and identify gaps. The format appears to have been applied in subsequent country analyses processes. CKU’s programme managers found the thorough analyses that involved local actors to be a significant strength that provided some local ownership of the process. Indeed, organisations – also those that did not receive funding – expressed gratitude for being included and consulted. Having it undertaken by an independent consultant, typically based in the country in question, was also seen as a considerable advantage. After completing the analysis, the country programme was drafted, in line with guidelines and a template presented in the Programme Manual. This was followed by the hiring of a country programme officer partner; after which project proposals were requested and partner assessments undertaken. Organisations were expected to meet the minimum criteria for partnerships (see Box 9). With the help of an “applicant overview and ranking matrix”, the core
ORGANISATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS partners were selected. Dialogue with partners in this process focused on strengthening project proposals as necessary and clarifying expectations, activities which enhanced ownership. Most of the partners interviewed by the evaluation team were committed, dynamic and competent. Many were unique and innovative in their approaches and knowledgeable in their field. This indicates that the partnership selection process developed by CKU was effective. The composition of partners in each of the three countries visited seemed well-structured and balanced – although not in a formulaic way. It also showed a measure of risk-taking. In each country, the selection reflected the country context, specific needs and country programme priorities. A few stakeholders maintained that an open call for proposals would have been a more democratic and fair means of selecting partners. For instance, a programme manager expressed that too much time was spent assessing strengths and weakness of the potential partners. On the other hand, open calls can be difficult to administrate (too many proposals) and costly for the many applicants who are not selected. Moreover, a partnership approach – particularly in the arts and culture sector – requires good rapport and mutual understanding of common goals. CKU’s selection process that involved dialogue and interaction allowed CKU to determine whether the fit was right. In contrast, the flexible funds allocated to most countries for smaller short-term projects could perhaps have been based on a limited call for concept notes. There were some challenges with the preparation process. For instance, in some countries, there were difficulties in finding a consultant with the required qualifications to lead the analysis process. Second, in countries like Egypt the Danish Embassy required that significant parts were rewritten to not hamper its relations with the government. This problem stemmed from CKU’s ambiguous status that is discussed further in section 4.8. Third, the appraisal and formulation process was time consuming and could take up to a year until activities could start.
RESULTS BASED MANAGEMENT
CKU devised an overall results framework and specific results frameworks for each country programme. The frameworks were of solid quality. The programme frameworks clearly stated the outputs and expected outcomes for each component and included qualitative and quantitative indicators. Disbursing funds to partners twice a year gave partners adequate time to implement activities before submitting accounts, but was a short enough timeframe to allow for the detection of inconsistencies. Programme officers conducted ongoing monitoring, while programme managers undertook programme and financial monitoring visits a couple of times a year. The partner assessments made it possible to tailor the monitoring in accordance with the partner’s specific needs. Staff found the systems and tools for monitoring results to be well-designed and useful. Programme officers at country level highlighted that the reporting formats/templates simplified the reporting from partners. With standardised forms for reporting, programme officers found it comparatively easy to support partners through the reporting process. The monitoring toolbox that CKU had devised included SWOT analysis and most significant change stories. The latter methodology of monitoring results was applied in the three countries visited by the evaluation team.
While CKU’s results-based management system was robust, there were challenges. As discussed above in section 4.2, formats and tools changed along the way, which was frustrating to all parties. Some partners had weak reporting capacities. Reporting in English was especially demanding in some countries, such as Palestine. Some partners were weak in their reporting capacity. Difficult country contexts also affected implementation – Nepal, Palestine, Mali, Burkina Faso, and Egypt faced one or several national level crises during the last two years of CKU’s operations. Because of the pending closure, opportunities were missed to connect partners across borders to encourage internal learning and exchanges. At the same time, CKU was under constant pressure to account for results. We (I) operated under continuous stress to produce results. As managers, we spent too much time reporting to the Board and to the Ministry, to produce results from partners to continuously defend the value of arts and culture as a tool for development processes. – CKU staff member
Each intervention was relative small and the social transformation they aimed for needed time to take effect. Indeed, during this evaluation it was clear that partners who worked with CKU for more than three years had greater potential to show more substantial results. Moreover, while it was relatively easy for partners to report on quantitative outputs, identifying and articulating qualitative outputs and outcomes was often difficult – particularly in the short-term. Even qualitative results of projects that had been implemented over longer term could be challenging to report on –some changes were not linear as a results-based management (RBM) framework typically presupposes, or consisted of effects that were not originally envisaged.
Linkages between programmes Pressure of showing results Country context Weak partner reporting capacities CKU's non-status in countries Frequent RBM systems changes Exit & closure 0
Figure 4 Most frequently cited CKU challenges in staff survey
HUMAN RIGHTS BASED APPROACH
CKU drafted a paper on its human rights-based approach (HRBA) at the end of 2013 that aligned with the Ministry's guidance document on the human rights based approach. It guided the country analyses – which all included a human rights situational analysis. Many staff members highlighted the strength that this gave the analyses. CKU also used the core human
ORGANISATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS rights principles of transparency, accountability, participation, and non-discrimination as criteria for the selection of partners. Indeed, the partnership agreements included a clause concerning adherence by the partners to these four principles. Only a few staff of the international section had experience of applying HRBA at country level. Country level staff had even less, but some had a good grasp of the principles participation and non-discrimination. CKU was beginning to develop its practical approach to HRBA; train the international section and programme officers; and devise implementation tools for this area of work, but these efforts were dropped when it was announced the organisation would be closed. One area it had been discussing at the time was how to promote a new productive discourse on human rights in view of the shrinking civil society space in many countries. Partners interviewed during the case study visits showed at best a limited understanding of the approach. It had not been made explicit to them how CKU perceived its role in this approach and what the implications were. They were, nonetheless, generally conscious of being inclusive and promoting gender equality. Developing a credible human rights-based approach takes time. It not only requires conceptual clarity and relevant analysis, it also requires developing and testing practical approaches. A human rights-based approach is also most effective when it involves a two-pronged strategy of supporting rights-holders to exercise and claim their rights; while also strengthening the capacity of duty-bearers to fulfil their obligations. The latter typically involves advocacy and policy dialogue. CKU had yet to develop this dimension of HRBA – something that would have been appropriate after partners at country level had begun to internalise HRBA in their work. Given CKU’s intertwined relationship with Denmark’s MFA (see section 4.8), however, evidence suggest that at least some Danish embassies might have objected if CKU played a stronger advocacy role in relation to freedom of expression and cultural rights at country level.
4.7 HUMAN RESOURCES CKU’s new role required a staff composition and structure to match. These pending changes along with circumstantial factors led to a turbulent and conflictual atmosphere reigning within both the organisation and its Board in 2013. Since that time CKU turned itself around. A harmonious ambience and evidence of constructive collaboration was established. Staff were highly motivated and committed. Within a year of the organisation reaching its stride, however, CKU were informed of its imminent closure. In total, CKU had the equivalent of around eight to nine fulltime positions working with its international development effort. Staff of the international department had a pronounced development profile with ground-level experience from developing countries. They combined academic backgrounds in social anthropology, gender studies and international relations with those of cultural industries, literature, dramaturgy and cultural dialogue. The team also had experience of humanitarian assistance in conflict settings and civil society support. Staff members spoke four to six languages each, enabling the section to work in Arabic, French, German, Khmer, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish and Swahili – in addition to Danish and English. In broad terms the skills set of the international section matched those needed to manage development programmes in the culture sector and engage in cultural/developmental discourse. CKU staff had at a minimum basic understanding of specific artistic genres, as well
ORGANISATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS as knowledge of where to access more in-depth technical expertise. In the staff survey, programme officers mentioned their high regard for the professionalism and competence of CKU’s headquarters staff: They brought wisdom, experience, and good understanding.
CKU’s programme officers – one in each country of operation – were regarded as a significant asset by CKU and its partners. Indeed, it was one of the top strengths mentioned by staff in the survey. It allowed CKU to practically implement its partnership approach and supported CKU’s solid monitoring effort. Good communications were achieved between HQ and the programme officers. CKU was informed of its closing before it could bring its programme officers together for a workshop to share knowledge, experience, challenges, and opportunities. This could have led to stronger cross-country relations which were somewhat weak.
CKU was governed by a board consisting of (apart from the chairperson) non-remunerated individuals appointed in their personal capacity (from civil society, academia, the culture sector and including a couple of professional board members) by the Minister of Development Cooperation. Since 2012, an elected representative of CKU staff attended meetings as an observer. CKU’s relationship with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs was multi-layered and intertwined: Institutionally, CKU was an independent organisation under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, with the Department for Public Diplomacy being its main point of entry. The Ministry was not part of CKU’s Board but it attended Board meetings as an observer. The regulations for CKU (Vedtægter), the MFA administrative guidelines for CKU and the Results Contract 2013-2015 delineated CKU's setup, purpose, mandate, functions, rules of operation and its relationship with MFA. The Ministry was also CKU's most important donor, and as such has considerable influence. The Danish allocation for CKU was part of the Finance Act, which can only be changed by an act of parliament. This was believed to have provided an important safeguard for its core funding. Danish embassies had direct relationships with CKU. They related to CKU through formalised agreements that outlined respective roles and responsibilities. In a few cases embassies also engaged CKU as an implementer of bilateral programmes (e.g. Pakistan). At country level, CKU was neither a Danish NGO, nor an arm
ORGANISATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS of the embassy, nor a standard project implementing agent – but in practice operated like a mix of all three roles, depending on the context and the country.9 CKU programme officers had no official office or presence, which proved awkward at times. The set-up gave the Ministry different means for it to exert considerable influence over CKU when it desired. CKU was, in effect, a hybrid organisation, with no parallel anywhere. The complex set-up – which would be unimaginable in most other more hierarchical and formalistic government cultures – inevitably created problems and confusion that had to be addressed on a regular basis. The Ministry (Department for Public Diplomacy and Communication) dedicated a lot of time to explaining CKU's status and addressing the implications of its unusual status. In most cases, workable outcomes were achieved in a spirit of goodwill, reasonability, and the practical approach of individuals on all sides. After all, the setup had important advantages for both the Ministry and CKU: the latter enjoyed the benefits of institutional linkages with the Ministry, but was not formally under the Ministry's control; while the Ministry could keep CKU within its sphere, but at an arm's length. Removing the ambiguities was regarded as a potential loss for both parties. In hindsight, CKU’s ambiguous status was, however, its Achilles heel. CKU had no choice but to close when the Ministry ceased its funding. In the two years before the closure, CKU had ambitions to seek funds from other donors. The Board preferred to wait on the grounds that the organisation was not sufficiently consolidated. Meanwhile, the idea did not appeal to the Ministry, who were understandably threatened by the prospect of other funders given the institutional set-up.
Its unusual status meant that CKU was classified as an international organisation within the Ministry system.
CONCLUSIONS AND LESSONS LEARNT
5 Conclusions and Lessons Learnt This chapter summarises the transformative, and sometime catalytic results of CKU work. It then provides some lessons learnt that can guide future culture in development initiatives.
Here in Palestine there is a lot of focus on aid for things such as food and water in emergency situations, but development is not just the provision of the things the body needs, it should also focus on the soul, and that is where culture comes in - it feeds the soul. If there are no programs and opportunities for a community to experience culture and explore their creativity, then there is no development. – Nablus Circus School participant
TRANSFORMATIVE RESUL TS
As the preceding discussion has demonstrated, CKU’s support achieved results for individuals, communities, and organisations and to a lesser extent for the culture sector at the national level. Due to the design of the programme and the level of funding, the results for individuals and organisations are the most apparent. 5.1.1 EMPOWERING PEOPLE CKU’s most significant achievement was its efforts to empower people – often youth – through active participation in arts and culture activities. Thousands of stakeholders in Nepal, Uganda and Palestine acquired skills and knowledge in film, television, visual arts, creative writing, performing arts, and arts management. A sizable proportion had their competences validated by participating in festivals, obtaining scholarships, winning awards and even acquiring fame. Some are now making a living as cultural practitioners. The social resources that people gained from participating in CKU-funded activities – meeting peers, building networks, forming groups, engaging with communities – were impressive and useful, particularly in Nepal and Uganda. Perhaps the most striking finding was the level of confidence and aspiration of young people who had engaged with CKU’s partners. For many, the resources gained at the individual level have been transformative – strengthened capacity, new perspectives, higher ambitions, and improved self-esteem. The efforts also led to changes in communities, that in some cases have also been transformative. CKU is considered in Uganda to have played a role in transforming the Ugandan hiphop scene by encouraging Bayimba to promote rapping in indigenous languages – a trend that appears to be here to stay. In addition, as the dominant donor, CKU gave buoyancy to the budding street art and spoken word poetry movements in Nepal. Noteworthy were the changes to the physical cultural landscape through street art in Nepal and the lighthouse installation in Gaza, which has positively influenced how people interact with their surroundings. Meanwhile, the support to the creative and astute South Asia Communications sent rippling effects
CONCLUSIONS AND LESSONS LEARNT through Nepalese society, while inadvertently influencing the content of a variety of media actors. CKU’s partners contributed to a significant transformation among some of the Palestinian conservative communities – leading to an acceptance of girls taking part in performing arts. CKU’s partners worked hard to build up trust and engage with communities to encourage them to broaden their perspectives. This change in values and norms was achieved within a few years of CKU’s support – a comparatively quick process for a change of societal attitudes. Whether or not the smaller initiatives in Nepal of engaging with local individual communities, schools, and neighbourhoods by organisations like Word Warriors, Artlab and SAF students will have sustainable effects in the longer term, the support seems at least to have heightened the ambition among the youth who are active in Kathmandu’s art scene to engage in social activism. The commitment to social change, as demonstrated by their efforts to address the effects of the earthquakes, has in turn contributed to a new level of respect for youth culture. 5.1.2 EXPRESSIONS OF MARGINALISED GROUPS CKU and its partners succeeded in strengthening the voice and creative expressions of marginalised groups through active participation in art and cultural activities. CKU’s staff was conscientious in advocating for inclusion and gender equality. Most partners too, made concerted efforts to include women and girls and reach out to disadvantaged groups. Youth were a group with which CKU’s activities successfully engaged. Jointly, CKU partners also reached ethnic minorities, religious minorities, children, school dropouts, wartorn communities, poorer communities and occasionally people with disabilities (autism, hearing impairment, blindness, and physical disabilities). The support in Palestine was to a significant extent directed at more disadvantaged conservative communities in the northern West Bank. In Uganda, the support addressed the post-conflict north. In Kathmandu, the support was concentrated in Kathmandu, although some activities took place outside the capital. While disadvantaged communities were reached, the poorest of the poor were rarely involved in the activities. There are two main reasons: the very poor could not easily make themselves available for creative activities; and poor people in remote areas were not easy to access given the budget limitations. CKU’s support gave young people in Nepal, Palestine, and Uganda the direct experience of exercising the human right of free expression. This experience was powerful for many. The stories and testimonies gathered by the evaluation team indicate that for some individuals, the experience of finding one’s voice was transformative. An important aspect of this was the safe spaces that CKU’s partners provided, which enabled participants to express themselves freely among peers. This was tremendously valuable for children and young people in Palestine to help them process the difficulties in their environment. 5.1.3 ENHANCING ECONOMIC GROWTH While the evidence for CKU’s impact on economic growth is largely anecdotal, due principally to the small scale of the initiatives, there are examples of entrepreneurship and income generation.
CONCLUSIONS AND LESSONS LEARNT CKU worked to strengthen entrepreneurship among artists and cultural actors, by supporting training, mentoring and networking in Uganda and Nepal, and to a much lesser extent, Palestine. CKU’s support to cultural management and entrepreneurship was strategic in that it linked up with most of CKU’s other partners in the country, acting as an umbrella. Partners in this area were committed and dynamic and participants were generally highly motivated. In Uganda, a few were starting to make a living through their new skills. Because the contemporary arts sector is small in Nepal, the strengthened capacity is likely to make a difference to the arts scene, particularly in relation to curation and art critique. From an overall perspective, however, the support in both countries was too small and too short lived to have a transformative effect on the broader creative industries and arts practitioners.10 Many of the CKU stakeholders were struggling to find means to derive an income from the arts. Nevertheless, a significant number of former participants of Maisha Film Lab, SAC, Photo.Circle and Bayimba could make a living in film production, media, journalism, photography, and music as a result of CKU’s support. Of note was the support to Photo.Circle which successfully lobbied the daily press to include photo journalistic material. Subsequently, a small market for photo journalism was created – with both a growing demand and supply. 5.1.4 CULTURAL AND ARTS INFRASTRUCTURE CKU strengthened and consolidated its partners and successfully promoted inclusive approaches. CKU’s partners grew or were consolidated during the partnerships. While CKU had a proportionately larger effect on younger organisations and organisations it supported over a longer period, all CKU’s partners strengthened their staff capacities, developed their approaches, improved their administrative systems, and/or expanded their networks. CKU was furthermore successful in influencing its partners to reach out to communities, strive for inclusiveness, target disadvantaged groups, and promote gender equality. This is unlikely to have happened without CKU involvement. The extent to which CKU’s partners were left in a sustainable state varies. Since CKU favoured less established organisations, many partners will struggle. Without finding new donors, none of CKU’s partners will be able to continue the programmes at the same level.
The 2014 evaluation of CKU’s programme Design Network Africa provided evidence of enhanced commercialisation through mentoring, capacity building and financial support that improved product assortment, marketing, product placement, export strategies and basic business practices.
CONCLUSIONS AND LESSONS LEARNT Nevertheless, the partners that are registered as not-for-profit business entities aim to weather the change by covering some costs through income generating activities.
LESSONS AND GOOD PRACTICE
CKU’s work from 2007 to 2016 offers several lessons and examples of good practice for consideration by other organisations working with culture, development, and/or transformative social change. 5.2.1 CKU’S SUPPORT FROM 2007 TO 2013 From 2007 to 2013, CKU primarily acted as an adviser to embassies with a resultant lack of strategic control over priorities. Furthermore, the support was not systematically based on independent country analyses of the culture and arts sector. The composition of the support was quite opportunistic and piecemeal, in some cases partial to the interests of Danish cultural practitioners and typically lacking in local ownership. Nonetheless the support was often innovative and targeted relevant groups such as children, the youth, and women. “Creating and showcasing art expressions” and “promoting cultural understanding” were common themes and the initiatives were in many cases thoughtfully selected and planned. Some good examples include Photo.Circle and Kutumba in Nepal; YCC and the Nablus Circus School in Palestine; and, Bayimba and Maisha Film Lab in Uganda. These partners produced significant outcomes, inter alia i) introducing photo journalism to Nepal’s media sector; ii) gaining fame as a Nepalese traditional music ensemble with a following abroad; iii) introducing new drama methods promoting children’s expression; and, iv) contributing to the rise of rapping in indigenous languages in Uganda. Except for Kutumba, these partners continued to receive support from 2014 to 2016. Lesson 1: When partner organizations are well selected, small financial contributions to culture and development initiatives can have comparatively large effects – both foreseen and unforeseen – particularly after the passage of time. A key feature of CKU’s support was promoting cultural understanding by pairing Danish cultural practitioners with organisations in the developing world – a comparatively more expensive form of support. Sometimes these partnerships worked well, particularly when the recipient organisation was given the chance to research partner alternatives in Denmark and propose with whom they wanted to work. Other times these north-south partnerships were less successful, especially if the Danish partners lacked experience of partnership management in a developing country context They undermined ownership and created antagonism – despite having the purpose of promoting cultural understanding. When the partnership was successful, one of the most significant contributions were the progressive and democratic methodologies and mentorship practices that the Danish practitioners imparted – whether it were in film, television, fine art, or theatre. CKU’s partners that were most successful in building capacity relied on progressive teaching methodologies– which usually stemmed from previous interactions with Danish partners. Lesson 2: Progressive teaching methodologies can achieve transformative results at the individual and organisational level. Lesson 3: Partnerships between northern and southern cultural organisations have a better prospect of succeeding if partners in developing countries are involved in the selection of their partner and if the northern partner has experience of partnership management approaches in developing country contexts.
CONCLUSIONS AND LESSONS LEARNT 5.2.2 THE RIGHT TO ART AND CULTURE The 2013 Strategy formulation process was a well-planned, ambitious undertaking that produced a thoroughly researched and relevant document. The effort to ensure a comparatively broad involvement of stakeholders in the formulation process led to a sense of ownership among some cultural practitioners in developing countries. It is the only bilateral culture and development strategy that links clearly to a human rights-based approach. Its comprehensive and progressive perspective attracted attention internationally. For CKU it served as a valuable guide and ensured that Danish support to culture and development was relevant and effective. Lesson 4: A well-structured strategy formulation process that i) draws input from a wide range of stakeholders; ii) involves the participation of different stakeholders; and iii) provides opportunities for dialogue along the way, contributes to achieving a relevant and robust strategy document. 5.2.3 CKU’S POST 2013 PRACTICES The Strategy marked a new beginning for CKU. Its expanded responsibility for Denmark’s culture and development resources required a new structure, new systems, and a new approach. The overhaul was a painful process but with the competent leadership from the Board and the CEO, it led to a robust organisation with a suitable structure. The CKU of later years had several strengths. First, CKU applied a time-consuming but ultimately effective planning and preparation process for each country’s programme. A comprehensive independent analysis of the arts and culture sector that was based on human rights, served as the foundation for each country programme. Careful assessment allowed CKU to select committed partners that were for the most part innovative, dynamic, and relevant. There was usually good complementarity among them. CKU focused strongly on youth and was willing to take risks of partnering with youth-led organisations. Applying the same basic procedure in each country facilitated comparisons between programmes and crosscountry learning. Lesson 5: While time-consuming, basing support to the culture and arts sector on a well-structured preparation process enables a relevant and well-composed selection of partners and initiatives. CKU’s partnership approach was an important asset. Multi-year grants promoted ownership among partners, who could plan implementation processes with incremental steps over time. It also allowed for suitable six-month reporting intervals. Having a full-time country level presence enabled regular interaction with partners. CKU could more easily seize opportunities and adjust the programme to changing circumstances if needed. CKU’s country programme officers were knowledgeable about the culture sector in the country. In some countries, partners drew on CKU’s programme officers as a resource to help them achieve their results. The relationship was built on mutual trust and respect. Partners considered CKU as “more than just a donor”. Lesson 6: A longer-term partnership approach that places emphasis on dialogue and interaction, promotes ownership and relevance of the country programme. It allows for better monitoring, greater effectiveness, and flexibility in face of changing circumstances.
CONCLUSIONS AND LESSONS LEARNT
CKU’s reorganisation led to a logical internal structure staffed with qualified staff who had backgrounds in development assistance and the culture sector. The organisation was characterised by a non-hierarchical and open communication policy, which generally led to a quick turnaround time for decisions. CKU developed comprehensive and user-friendly systems to run its programmes that were generally highly appreciated by its staff. The programme manual was of high standard and it included a range of easy-to-use guides and templates. Along the way, CKU adjusted these tools, adding new ones in line with emerging needs. While this improved the manual, the retrofitting that ensued was sometimes frustrating for both staff and partners. Lesson 7: Dedicating time and resources to develop a high quality user-friendly programme manual with a range of templates and guides is a worthwhile investment. It facilitates smooth administration, fosters effective results based management and enhances staff contentment. CKU’s manual encompassed a solid system for results based management – with a set of tools to capture achievements. The organisation was under constant pressure to account for results to provide evidence that support to arts and culture in the development context was indeed worthwhile. CKU’s different interventions, however, were relatively small and the social transformation they aimed for needed time to take effect, rarely followed a linear predictable chain of developments, and typically led to several unexpected results. Given that CKU aimed to achieve complex change processes, applying Outcome Mapping – a resultsbased management system that more usefully measures contributions to complex change processes – would have been more suitable. Moreover, because it pays attention to process, outcome mapping could have been particularly useful to combine with a human rights-based approach to development. Lesson 8: Culture and development support is likely to be under pressure to show results, particularly since the understanding of the sector is often low. Since culture and development objectives usually aim at social transformation, culture and development actors benefit from applying outcome mapping as a methodology to measure results. CKU was unique in the culture and development community in its adoption of a human right-based approach. It produced human rights based country assessments prior to programme formulation and introducing key human rights principles into the agreements with the partners. As mentioned above, it also successfully promoted inclusion, nondiscrimination, gender equality and participation. It did not have adequate time, however, to develop, apply and adjust its rights-based approach. Most of its staff needed training in the area while partners were generally lacking in experience in how to apply a human rights approach systematically in their work. Specific tools had yet to be developed. Nor had CKU reached the stage where it could engage in country level advocacy and policy dialogue on freedom of expression and cultural rights. Moreover, its non-status at country level could have hindered such efforts. Lesson 9: Developing a credible human rights-based approach takes time. Not only does it need conceptual clarity and relevant analysis, it also requires developing tools for implementations, testing practical approaches and building the capacity of staff and partners in the theory and practice of HRBA.
CONCLUSIONS AND LESSONS LEARNT As self-governing organisation under the Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, CKU’s institutional status was ambiguous and complicated. Although there was some benefit in flexibility, CKU relied on parties taking a practical approach based on a spirit of goodwill to sort out the issues that arose from the ambiguity. This generally worked out well in the short term. Its “non-status” at the country level, however, hurt its visibility and was not conducive to building relations with partners outside the programme or to playing an advocacy role at policy level. Ultimately, CKU’s complex status led to its downfall. Lesson 10: An organisation with a complicated and ambiguous status operates is at risk from changes in political direction in the longer term.
With relatively small financial contributions to partner organisations, CKU’s support to culture and development enhanced human, social and material/financial resources for individuals and organisations. The support played a catalytic role in producing a range of transformative changes for individuals, groups, communities, and cultural and arts organisations. This has in some cases contributed to both individual and collective empowerment – a crucial process in the effort to reduce poverty. In a handful of cases, the support also contributed to changes at a national level – despite that this level was not targeted in a comprehensive way. After 2013, the relevance, effectiveness, and efficiency of CKU’s support were significantly strengthened. Denmark’s Strategy, the Right to Art and Culture, contributed to this improvement by providing CKU with a coherent framework, clearly based on human rights. While freedom of expression, participation, inclusion, and social activism permeated CKU’s successful support since 2007, they featured more prominently in later years. Second, CKU’s enhanced role and its operational responsibility over the Danish culture and development budget enabled CKU to apply a strategic approach to its work. Third, CKU’s internal overhaul from 2013 to 2014 following the launch of the Strategy, made CKU organisationally robust with competent staff, solid management systems and sound implementation approaches in place. It allowed CKU to programme its support to partners in a much more relevant and results-focused manner; and to conduct effective monitoring and dialogue with the partners along the way. The 2015 announcement of CKU’s closure came at a time when CKU had begun to hit its stride and it partners were also about to shift to a higher gear. If the successful initiatives from between 2007 and 2012 offer us any indication, given the overall higher quality of the support provided after 2014, the prospect of these interventions to achieve greater transformative changes in the future were remarkably good – should the support from CKU have continued.
ANNEX 1: TERMS OF REFERENCE
Annex 1: Terms of Reference for Evaluation of CKU’s international engagement to support culture and development in Danida priority countries from 2007 to 2016.
1. Background: The Danish government has decided to stop funding the Danish Centre for Culture and Development (CKU) after 2016, and the Minister for Foreign Affairs has decided to close down the centre by the end of 2016. This leads to the completion of CKU’s ongoing programmes and the closure of the organisation. In this context, the need for a final, external evaluation arises, in order to document the results achieved and the lessons learned. In December 2015, Danida’s External Grant Committee approved the final grant to CKU. At the same time, the Committee observed that CKU during its 18 years of existence has managed to produce results and launch new initiatives in a very difficult field and underlined the need to have these results documented (MFA: Minutes from the External Grant Committee Meeting 2 December 2015). At its meeting in December 2015, the Board of CKU also decided that CKU’s work needs to be documented and evaluated. The evaluation is expected to be useful for international and national practitioners in the field of culture and development and serve as inspiration for agencies and organisations wishing to integrate the area of culture in development cooperation. The Danish Centre for Culture and Development (CKU) was established by the Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs in 1998 as a self-governing institution under the Ministry. CKU works to strengthen the role of art and culture as an integral part of Danish development cooperation. In line with the Danish strategic framework outlined in “The Right to Art and Culture” CKU regards art and creativity as crucial parameters for sustainable, human and societal development and as key factors for democracy, human rights and growth. CKU therefore works for strengthening a vibrant, free and inclusive cultural life in developing countries as well as for enhancing the knowledge in the Danish population. All programmes and projects developed by CKU since the approval of “The Right to Art and Culture” by the Foreign Committee of the Parliament in May 2013 adhere to the human rights and cultural diversity principles as well as the following five thematic priority areas: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Empowering people through active participation in art and cultural activities Ensuring freedom of expression for artists and cultural actors Enhancing economic growth through creative industries Strengthening peace and reconciliation in post-conflict areas through art and cultural activities Promoting intercultural dialogue and intercultural collaboration
In line with this strategic framework, the overall theory of change for CKU’s programmatic work is based on previous experiences and newly developed methods on how art and culture
ANNEX 1: TERMS OF REFERENCE can help create positive change, while at the same time a rich artistic and cultural life has value in itself (‘The Right to Art and Culture’ p. 3). CKU seeks to ensure strong synergies with Danish development efforts in the Danida partner countries through a close alignment with Danida country policy papers and specific components in Danida country programmes. By aligning CKU’s international culture and development programmes to other Danida priorities in the specific countries, CKU hereby aims to contribute to the overall strategic priorities set by Danida in the programme countries, while also taking account of national policies and strategies such as poverty and growth strategies and national cultural policies.
2. Purpose and Scope of the Evaluation: The evaluation will address the following two overall questions: 1. How have CKU’s international programmes contributed to the evidence of the catalytic role of culture in development processes, and what are the results and impact of this? 2. Which tools, methods and approaches have worked for achieving these results and how can they be described to capture lessons learned? The purpose of the first objective is to provide an overview over the results and possible impact that CKU supported initiatives had on the ground. In particular, it is of interest to record results of a transformational nature. It is recognized that CKU’s activities are carried out in cooperation with partner organisations in the respective programme countries. Therefore, it may be difficult to attribute changes and impact directly to the interventions supported by CKU; hence, the emphasis may be on the contribution provided by CKU and the value added from the supported activities. The purpose of the second objective is to provide lessons learned, with a view of documenting best practices for inspiration to national and international development practitioners in the field of culture and development. Focus shall be on evidence of approaches and methods that have proven effective and demonstrate unique added value. Among the five priority areas of the strategy, three have been chosen as focus areas for this evaluation. These are 1. empowering people through active participation in art and cultural activities, 2. cultural and creative Industries, and 3. strengthening peace and reconciliation through arts and cultural activities. The assumptions to each priority areas that the evaluation needs to look into are formulated in CKUs theory of change and summarised as follows: 1. Active participation in cultural activities can mobilise marginalised population groups to express themselves and take part in development initiatives in their areas. Theory of change: Support to art and cultural activities at local level with a focus on involving marginalised groups will strengthen their voice and creative expressions and in turn motivate them to take part in broader development initiatives in their local areas. Participation in art and culture is hence not an end goal in itself but a catalyst for engagement and motivation for broader participation. If processes of skills development and presentation techniques are guided by didactic and artistically skilled trainers in a safe environment, motivated participants are empowered to become active contributors to their community.
ANNEX 1: TERMS OF REFERENCE 2. A boost to cultural and creative industries generates employment and income and strengthens national and international market opportunities Theory of change: Addressing obstacles and limiting factors in the business environment for cultural and creative industries will release the significant potential present in this sector. Known and proven strategies for establishing a conducive environment for business development can be applied to the cultural and creative industry sector in order to make it grow and flourish. Capacity development for cultural entrepreneurs in business development and marketing strategies can lead to local job creation and sustainability of the cultural and creative industries, based on the creative talent already present in most societies. Through increased income and market relations a boost to this sector will contribute to economic development of low- and middle-income countries. 3. Art and cultural activities can strengthen peace and reconciliation in post-conflict areas Theory of change: Improved access of conflict affected and displaced populations to cultural activities can be a way forward for re-establishing a normal life, and support to art and cultural initiatives can lead to increased trust and mutual understanding. The evaluation will include, but not necessarily be limited to the following elements: 1. Map the portfolio of international programmes and approaches applied by CKU in Danida partner countries between 2007 and 2016, and document results. 2. Document successful approaches, methods, and best practices in the three strategic areas of intervention mentioned above. 3. Identify factors that either facilitated or hindered the achievement of results and document lessons learned during implementation, both at the level of country programmes and specific project level. 4. Focus the in depth analysis on three sample countries. 5. Assess the process that led to the Danish strategy The Right to Art and Culture, and the strategic changes that followed in CKUs international programme work. 6. Analyse in which way the rights based approach of CKU has contributed to reach the defined target groups of the programmes. 7. Assess the adequacy in programme preparation, including the preparation of rights based country analysis and the formulation of country programmes. 8. Assess the adequacy of the programmeâ€™s monitoring and evaluation system, results framework, organisational programme set-up, reporting, field monitoring, and review mechanisms of country programme level.
3. Approach and Methodologies: The evaluation shall be conducted in accordance with the Danida Policy for Evaluation of Development Cooperation and the Evaluation Guidelines, as well as the OECD/DAC Evaluation Quality Standards (2010). In line with these, the evaluation must be based on a sound methodology to be unfolded in the Inception Report and briefly described in the Evaluation Report. The work of CKU is strongly influenced by the formulation and approval of Denmarkâ€™s strategy for culture and development from 2013, which was adopted by CKU for all its programmes since then. Before the strategic alignment, CKUâ€™s programmes were funded through the Local Grant Authority of the embassies and followed their respective priorities. This situation has several implications on the evaluation:
ANNEX 1: TERMS OF REFERENCE
The difference in approach in CKUs programmes before and after the strategic approach needs to be taken into account. The process itself that led to the formulation of the new strategy shall be part of the evaluation, understanding the strategic approach in the context of the lessons learnt from the previous way of working. The understanding of culture and development described in the strategy and the Theory of Change of CKU may need to be applied retrospectively on programmes that were planned before the formulation of the strategy.
Intensive data collection will be needed, which includes the review of key documents (list of documents in annex) and engagement with present and former CKU staff, key stakeholders and implementing partner organisations. CKU will assist with preparing and compiling the relevant documents. This includes the elaboration of an overview matrix of projects, and an updated status of results and outcome. The following elements are envisaged to be part of the evaluation methodology:
A review of relevant documentation; Interviews with key stakeholders at CKU, including staff in the partner countries; Interviews with key stakeholders that are part of the implementing partner organisations; Interviews with key stakeholders external to CKU and the implementing partners; multilateral partners, NGOs and researchers Focus group discussions where relevant; Country missions to the three sample countries selected
Sample countries The entire portfolio of CKUs international engagement shall be the foundation for this evaluation. However, for in depth analysis, three sample countries shall be selected. Selection criteria are: 1. Geographic criteria: The country programmes shall represent the three regions of CKU programmes, selecting at least one country fro
MENA region: possible countries include Palestine, Egypt Africa: possible countries include Mali, Burkina Faso, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Mozambique, + regional programmes (DNA, CIA, AMFN) Asia: possible countries include Nepal, Pakistan, Indonesia, Afghanistan, Myanmar, Bhutan, Vietnam, Iraq, Bangladesh,
2. Strategic criteria:
At least two countries shall have a programme focus on empowerment through participation. Shortlisted countries include: Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Burkina Faso, Palestine, Egypt, Nepal, Bhutan. At least two countries shall have a programme focus on cultural and creative industries. Shortlisted countries include: Kenya, Tanzania, Burkina Faso, Nepal, partly also Palestine and Uganda. At least two countries shall have a programme focus on peace and reconciliation. Shortlisted countries include: Nepal, Uganda, Indonesia.
ANNEX 1: TERMS OF REFERENCE 3. Criteria of years of engagement: priority shall be given to countries that have been supported by CKU more than one programme phase. These countries include Uganda, Tanzania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Palestine, and Nepal.
4. Outputs and Timeline The deliverables for this evaluation are:
An inception report (not exceeding 10 pages), ensuring mutual understanding between CKU and the consultant about the details of the assignment. This includes a work plan over the assignment of the evaluation. A document presenting preliminary findings after finalisation of the field visits, ensuring that the work is on the right track. A first draft evaluation report, responding to all tasks mentioned in this ToR document. The CKU reference group will provide feedback and comments within one week. A second draft evaluation report, responding to all tasks mentioned in this ToR document. The CKU reference group will provide feedback and comments within one week. A final report, integrating comments from the reference group. The report shall be of approximately 30 pages + the summary and annexes.
All deliverables shall be prepared in English. Time period: The evaluation is expected to start 1st of September and to be concluded by end of December 2016. The following timetable is proposed: Timing
June to August 2016
Start of consultancy
Desk study and review of documents 09.09.2016
Submission of inception report
Intensive data collection and analysis
Field visits to three sample countries 31.10.2016
Submission and discussion of preliminary findings
Further data collection and analysis
Report writing 25.11.2016
Presentation of 1st draft evaluation report. Feedback and comments from CKU within a week.
Presentation of 2nd draft evaluation report. Feedback and comments from CKU within a week.
5. Organisation of the Evaluation:
Submission of final evaluation report.
ANNEX 1: TERMS OF REFERENCE There are three sets of roles in the evaluation process: a) the evaluation management, b) the evaluation team (consultants) and c) the evaluation reference group. Role of the Evaluation Management: The Evaluation will be supervised and managed by CKU. A project coordinator will be appointed by CKU to lead the evaluation process. Together with an external resource person s/he forms the evaluation management. The tasks of the evaluation management are to: Participate in the selection of the evaluation team based on received tenders. Coordinate with all relevant evaluation stakeholders. Ensure that quality control is carried out throughout the evaluation process. Provide feedback to the Evaluation Team. Comment on draft versions of the inception report, work plan, progress reports and the evaluation report. Approve final reports. Organise and chair meetings of the Evaluation Reference Group. Advise relevant stakeholders on matters related to the Evaluation. Role of the Evaluation Team (the Consultant): The DAC evaluation principle of independence of the evaluation team will be applied. The evaluation team will carry out the evaluation based on a contract between CKU and the incumbent company/institution. The evaluation team will: Prepare and carry out the evaluation according to the ToR and the approved inception report. Be responsible to the evaluation management for the findings, conclusions and recommendations of the evaluation. Ensure that quality assurance is carried out and documented throughout the evaluation process. Report to the evaluation management regularly about progress of the evaluation. Organise and coordinate meetings and field visits, and other key events, including debriefing session and/or validation workshops in the field visit countries. The lead consultant is responsible for the reporting, proper quality assurance, and for the organisation of the work of the team. The consultant will participate in all field work and is responsible for the final evaluation product. Role of the Evaluation Reference Group: An Evaluation Reference Group (ERG) will be established and chaired by CKU. The mandate of the ERG is to provide advisory support and inputs to the Evaluation, e.g. through comments to draft reports.
The members of the ERG include, besides the two persons from the evaluation management: a representative from EVAL, a representative from the board of CKU, and the acting director of CKU.
6. Composition and Qualifications of the Evaluation Team: The evaluation will be conducted by one international consultant with substantive knowledge of art and culture in international development. The consultant needs clearly demonstrated expertise and experience in conducting evaluations and impact assessments using a variety of quantitative and qualitative methods in the field of art/culture and development. In addition to the international consultant, one national consultant shall be hired in each sample country of the evaluation.
ANNEX 1: TERMS OF REFERENCE
The task adds up the following number of workdays for the international consultant:
8 consultancy days for desk study and review of documents 2 consultancy days of preparation of inception report 28 consultancy days for data collection and analysis (including 5 days per field trip x 3 countries) 10 consultancy days of report writing 2 consultancy days of completion of the final report after receiving comments on draft report
This makes a total of 50 consultancy days for the international consultant. Each national consultant shall be hired for 8 days, covering
2 days of desk study and review of documents, 4 days of data collection during the mission of the international consultant, 2 days of formulation of meeting minutes and debriefing note with preliminary findings
This makes a total of 24 consultancy days for the national consultants (3 countries x 8 days)
7. List of Key Documents:
Strategy for Culture and Development, Danida, MFA, 2002
Strategic framework for culture and development, The Right to Art and Culture, 2013 MFA administrative Guidelines for CKU, 2013 CKU programme manual and templates Overview of programmes and projects Rights based country analysis documents and country programme documents Annual status reports from country programmes over the years Programme completion reports from completed programmes Results contracts between MFA and CKU o Results contract 2007-2009, December 2006 o Results contract 2013 to 2015 Annual work plans of CKU Reports to MFA on results framework and work plans Preparation of Denmark’s new strategic framework for culture and development: Overview and process plan Review of CKU 2009, Review of CKU 2015 Report: Methods, Results and Experience, Knud Vilby, April 2013
For the three sample countries and besides the above mentioned documents: Project documents Project and programme reports Agreements with embassies
ANNEX 2: EVALUATION FRAMEWORK
Annex 2: Evaluation Framework Evaluation questions
Areas of inquiry/indicators
Methods and sources
Number and type of changes in partner organisations o Organisational capacity, policies and practices o Technical capacity and practices o Networks/relationships o Financial/material resources Micro and meso changes among target groups o Evidence of changed human resources in terms of skills being applied, changed attitudes, different practiced o Evidence of changed relations, networks, social action, social resources o Evidence of changed financial/material resources o Evidence of human rights being realised e.g. inclusion, participation, freedom of expression, Evidence of macro changes to which the support has directly/indirectly contributed Evidence of existence of tools, methods of approaches Evidence of tools, methods and approaches being applied in implementation process Evidence of change between earlier and later programme preparation and implementation.
Identification and analysis of the process leading up to the strategy formulation The extent that the 2013 strategy contributed to a programmatic and strategic changes (negative and positive) in
What have been the results (foreseen and unforeseen, positive and negative) achieved in partner countries between 2007 and 2016?
What external and internal factors (including approaches, methods, and good practices) have contributed to the results achieved or hindered their achievement?
What lessons can be drawn from the implementation of CKU’s projects and country programmes?
Document review Country case studies Outcome harvesting CAST check list Interviews with CKU staff Interview with partners in case study countries Focus group discussion with partners and target groups Interviews with external stakeholders
What were the processes and circumstances that led to the Danish Strategy The Right to Art and Culture, and the strategic changes that followed in CKUs international programme work? What
Analysis of documentation – the 2014 strategy; programme preparation and implementation guides and tools; country analyses and programme reports;
ANNEX 2: EVALUATION FRAMEWORK were the strengths and challenges of these processes? 5.
To what extent has the rights based approach applied by CKU contributed to reaching the defined target groups of the programmes? How?
approaches, target groups and results compared to earlier years The extent to which the principles of HRBA (Participation, Links to human rights framework, Accountability, Non-discrimination, Empowerment of rights holders and Transparency) explicitly or implicitly permeate analysis, planning, implementation processes and monitoring efforts in the work of CKU and partner CSOs. The extent that there is evidence that the target groups reached were identified as a result of a rights based approach Comparison with target groups reached before and after HRBA was introduced
To what extent has CKU’s programme preparation process – including the preparation of rights based country analyses and the formulation of country programmes– been adequate? What were the strengths and challenges of these processes? To what extent has CKU’s programmatic and results based management systems been of adequate quality to support efficient implementation processes?
Evidence of quality in the programme preparation guidelines and processes
Evidence of strengths and shortcomings of the post 2014 programme preparation processes
Analyses of organisational structure and culture Analyses of HRBA guidance and tools Analyses of theory of changes Analyses of approaches used by partners Analyses of groups targeted in case study countries Interviews with external stakeholders in Denmark and at an international level (e.g. UNESCO, other culture and development actors, participants of the pre-strategy formulation seminar in 2012) Interviews with key staff at CKU in Denmark Survey of recent CKU staff in Denmark and at country level Interviews with staff in case study countries Discussions with partners in case study counties Discussions with stakeholders and target groups in case study countries Document review programme preparation and implementation guides and tools; country analyses and programme reports; Analyses of organisational structure Interviews with key staff at CKU in Denmark Survey of recent CKU staff in Denmark and at country level Interviews with staff in case study countries Discussions with partners in case study counties Discussions with stakeholders and target groups in case study countries
ANNEX 3: EVALUATION METHODOLOGY
Annex 3: Evaluation Methodology The two objectives of the evaluation are: 1. Establish an overview of the results achieved – in particular transformational results – and possible impact that CKU supported initiatives had on the ground. 2. Identify lessons learnt and document best practices for the benefit of national and international development practitioners in the area of culture and development. To adequately capture results, a modified form of outcome harvesting formed the core of this evaluation’s methodology. Outcome harvesting collects evidence of what has been achieved, and then works backward, using triangulation and the counterfactual to determine whether and how the project or intervention contributed to the change. The strengths of this technique included that it collected unintended results, which are often not considered by evaluations. The team reviewed a range of documents that included the following: Programme documents, past reviews and reports by CKU and partners from 2007 to 2016; Video clips and news articles of CKU’s work at country level; The body of documents that make up CKU’s programming and results based management system; Statutes, agreements, and financial reports; Past reviews of CKU’s efforts; Significant change stories collected by CKU and its partners; International studies and reports on culture and development. A list of documents reviewed is included in Annex 5. Skype interviews were undertaken with stakeholders in Denmark, South Africa, Lebanon, and France. This included former staff members, the chairman of the CKU’s board, staff at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and participants of the Strategy seminar held in 2012. A list of informants is included in Annex 4. These interviews covered both CKU’s results and its organisational effectiveness. Two surveys were conducted – of programme officers (staff at country level) and programme managers (staff in CKU’s international section). All programme managers and eight of 12 programme officers responded. The questionnaires, which are included in Annex 12, contained open-ended questions in a structured format (“what in your opinion were the three most important…”). The surveys primarily served to gather data regarding the extent CKU’s organisational effectiveness. Before visiting countries, partners and CKU’s country level staff were contacted and sent a set of questions to help them identify intended and unintended results of the support (outcome description, who, what, when, where, the organisation’s contribution). The team met with current and past partners, target groups and other stakeholders. Focus group discussion were held in all three countries. A specially designed Change Assessment Scoring Tool was used
ANNEX 3: EVALUATION METHODOLOGY to help systematise and map out the changes (see Annex 10). The idea of the counterfactual (no CKU support) was raised and discussed with stakeholders to further understand the nature of the contribution. The different contexts required slightly different approaches in each country. In Nepal, the team stayed in Kathmandu and mostly met with CKU partners, target groups and stakeholders alone. In Uganda, the team travelled to northern Uganda for three days with CKU’s programme officer and staff members from each of the three partners. It enabled a participatory and interactive approach, in which the three partners co-opted to facilitate focus groups that ran in parallel – allowing input from a large number of stakeholders in total. During the three days, the evaluation team, CKU and the partners engaged in an ongoing dialogue. In Palestine, for logistical and language rea sons, the team leader was accompanied by the CKU programme officer during most meetings. Despite security concerns, the team was able to meet with most current partners in East Jerusalem and North West Bank, but only met with target groups to a limited extent. CASE COUNTRY SELECTION In line with the ToR, three countries from three regions were to serve as in-depth case studies. The three countries had to represent one region each. In addition, the ToR specified that the following criteria were met for each country: programme focus on empowerment through participation programme focus on cultural and creative industries programme focus on peace and reconciliation countries that have been supported by CKU more than one programme phase
Peace & rec-
As outlined in the table, below, Nepal, Palestine, and Uganda were the only three countries that fulfilled these criteria:
AFRICA X X
Mali Mozambique Tanzania
ASIA Afghanistan Bangladesh Bhutan Indonesia
ANNEX 3: EVALUATION METHODOLOGY Iraq Myanmar Nepal
LIMITATIONS The evaluation faced a number of limitations. First, the findings and conclusions regarding CKU’s results are based on data from three countries only. Second, the time for data gathering in the case countries was relatively limited. The terms of reference allocated only four days for each country visit. Even though the team managed to stretch this time, it could not meet all partners. It prioritised the core partners for the 2014 to 2016 period. It could also not uncover and/or verify all results produced by CKU’s partners in each of the three countries. There are thus potentially additional results not identified or assessed by the evaluation team. Third, assessing effects from the pre-2014 period posed some challenges. Institutional memory and documents were sometimes lost. In some cases, locating former partners and other involved stakeholders was difficult. On the other hand, some partners that received support after 2014 also enjoyed partnerships with CKU in the past, allowing the team to study their former support. Fourth, in line with the terms of reference, the methodology focused on results – and not on efforts that did not produce changes. Organisations such as Lassana and Himal Foundation were interviewed, and although they had achieved important outputs, there was not enough easily accessible data to determine whether changes had occurred. Lessons that relate to the lack of results are therefore not strongly featured in this report. Finally, the changes identified and examined by the evaluation team were generally the result of several factors – such as agency, existing capacity, and opportunities that emerged. The team was not able to quantify the extent of CKU’s contribution among these other factors. However, discussions with stakeholders and analysis of data allowed the team to examine the counterfactual. In most cases, the changes would have been very unlikely to have occurred or would have taken considerably more time without CKU’s support.
ANNEX 4: LIST OF INFORMANTS
Annex 4: List of Informants Global 1.
CKU, Former CEO
2. 3. 4. 5.
Lars Bonderup Bjørn Christoff Lodemann Thomas Spanner Muna Burr
CKU, Board Chair
Malene Nielsen Mansour
CKU, Programme Manager, East Africa CKU, Programme Manager CKU, Programme Manager, Middle East Permanent Delegation of Denmark to UNESCO, Deputy Permanent Delegate United Nations, Denmark, Public Diplomacy and Communication Adviser, former MFA head of Public Diplomacy Centre for Cultural Policy and Management, University of the Witwatersrand; Resource Person, CKU Strategy Workshop
Arab Fund for Arts and Culture, Executive Director; Resource Person, CKU Strategy Workshop
10. Ole Reitov
Freemuse, Executive Director and co-founder, Former CKU; Member of UNESCO Expert Facility; Resource Person, CKU Strategy Workshop
Ms Manju Lama
Danish Embassy, Kathmandu
Mr. Romel Bhattarai
ArtLab, Project Manager
Mr. Kiran Maharjan
Ms. Srijana Singh Yonjan
Creative Statement, Founding Director
Ms. Ujjwala Maharjan
Word Warriors, Project Coordinator
Ms. Yukta Bajracharya
Word Warriors, Project Coordinator
Mr. Pranab Man Singh
Quixote’s Cove, Director
Mr. Kedar Sharma
Himal Association, Member of the Board
Mr. Sakar Pudasaini
Karkhana, Founding Member
10. Ms. Pavitra Gautam
Karkhana, Chief Executive Officer
11. Mr. Sachet Manandhar
Karkhana, Chief Operating Officer
12. Ms. Ashmina Ranjit
13. Ms. Renchin Yonjan
14. Mr. Santosh Shah
South Asia Communications, Managing Director
15. Ms. Renisha Rauniyar
South Asia Communications, Anchor
16. Ms. Aarohaa Satyal
South Asia Communications, Assistant Director
17. Mr. Samman D. Shrestha
South Asia Communications, Camera Person
18. Mr. Sambhu P. Das
South Asia Communications, Camera Person
19. Ms. Shreya Paudel
South Asia Communications, Reporter
ANNEX 4: LIST OF INFORMANTS 20. Ms. Subha Khanal
South Asia Communications, Reporter
21. Ms. Stuti Sharma
Nepal Music Centre Trust, Business Development Manager Photo Circle, Founding Director
22. Ms. Nayan Tara Gurung 23. Mr. Nishant Shilpakar
Photo Circle, Officer Administration
24. Mr. Uttam Tripathi
Lalitpur Madhyamik Vidyalaya, Director
25. Ms. Sangeeta Thapa
Siddhartha Arts Foundation, Director
26. Mr. Nischal Oli
Siddhartha Arts Foundation, Project Coordinator,
27. Mr. Prasant Das
Program Manager, Siddhartha Arts Foundation, Education Initiative
28. Mr. Sujan G. Amatya
Siddhartha Arts Foundation, Project Associate
29. Mr. Rupak Tandulkar
Brikuti Tole Sudhar Samiti, Chaiperson
30. Mr. Pabit Maharjan
Kutumba, Band Member (Percussionists)
31. Mr. Kiran Nepali
Kutumba, Band Member (Sarangi)
32. Mr. Rabin Kumar Shrestha
Kutumba, Band Member (Flute)
33. Mr. Saroj Mahato
Bikalpa, Founding Member
34. Ms. Sareena Rai
Danish Centre for Culture and Development, Nepal
35. Ms. Delphine Pawlik
Danish Centre for Culture and Development, Nepal
36. 2 trainees
37. 8 students
38. 2 interns
39. 2 interns
South Asia Communications
40. 5 participants
41. 4 participants
42. 12 students
Siddhartha Arts Foundation
43. Neighbourhood children stakeholders
Siddhartha Arts Foundation
Programme Officer CKU- Uganda
Lise Abildgarrd SĂ¸rensen
Counsellor, Embassy of Denmark, Kampala
Executive Director, Femrite
Programme Officer, Femrite
Former Programme Officer and Member, Femrite
Anne Rose Ajok
Ojara Martine Mapenduzi
Chairman LC 5, Gulu District
Hon. Amono Rose Abili
Secretary Social Services/Gulu
10. Komakech Ceaser Ochiti11
Population Officer, Gulu District/ Planning officer
11. Anena Jessica
District Community Development Officer, Gulu
Mr. Komakech Ceaser Ochiti is also the Program Manager Administration, Youth and Film Project
ANNEX 4: LIST OF INFORMANTS 12. Faisal Kiwewa
Director, Bayimba Cultural Foundation
13. Sylvester Kabombo
Rapper, Creative Facilitator, Bayimba Cultural Foundation
14. Fibby Kioria
Program Director, Maisha Film Lab
15. Angella J. Emurwon
Youth and Film Project Consultant, Miasha Film Lab
16. Ojok Francis Odong
Program Manager, Gulu, Maisha Film Lab
17. Patience Asaba Katsushabe
Bayimba participants Odonkonyero Emma (DJ Emz)
Inspire Me Africa (Kitgum) -Member
Inspire Me Africa (Kitgum) -Member
Inspire Me Africa (Kitgum) -Member
Northern Uganda Hiphop Culture -Member
6. 7. 8. 9.
Oryema Geofrey Odong Morris MC Cyfa Aneno Jolly (F)
Inspire Me Africa (Kitgum) -Member Inspire Me Africa (Kitgum) –Co Founder Inspire Me Africa (Kitgum) -Member Watwero Hiphop Movement (Kitgum) -Leader
10. Totem MC 11. Aber Racheal Claire (F)
Inspire Me Africa (Kitgum) -Secretary Inspire Me Africa (Kitgum) –Founder Inspire Me Africa (Kitgum) -Member
12. Acora Rebecca (F)
Inspire Me Africa (Kitgum) -Member
13. Acen Bridget (F)
Musician/Rapper (Gulu) Musician/Rapper (Gulu) Niyabo Hiphop Squad (Gulu) -Member
14. Black MC 15. Jay. O 16. Akot Irene Okot (F 17. Jasper Larsen (Danish) 18. Ojok Eddie 19. Omagor Joseph 20. Moses Ouma 21. Mwaka Simon (Adriano) 22. O. Kreezy 23. Candy Love
United Youth Entertainment (Gulu) -Member The Future Is Now (Orphanage Centre in Gulu) Luofame Dance Force (Gulu) –Co Founder United Youth Entertainment (Gulu) –Production Manager Luofame Dance Force (Gulu) -Choreographer Luofame Dance Force (Gulu) -Member Musician/Rapper (Gulu) Dancer/Entrepreneur (Gulu)
24. Atim Sarah (F)
United Youth Entertainment (Gulu) -Member
25. Rubangakene Ronald
Luofame Dance Force (Gulu) -Member
26. Jah Pablo
A. Maisha School Film Club Members 30. Ajok Mercy Juliet
Pope John Paul II College , Editing/Actress
31. Auma Dilish Priscilia
Pope John Paul II College, Writer/ Director
32. Onencan Douglas Drake
St. Joseph’s College Layibi, First AD
33. Okello Samuel Junior
Pope John Paul II College, Editor
34. Komakech Patrick Otto
Gulu Central High School, Sound
35. Laker Faith Login
Pope John Paul II College, Sound
36. Lapobo Gertrude Salome
Gulu High School, Sound
37. Omony Chris
Trinity College, Gulu, Camera
38. Anena Flavia Diana
Pope John Paul II College, Camera
ANNEX 4: LIST OF INFORMANTS 39. Obitre Franco
St. Joseph’s College Layibi, Camera
40. Atyeno Pambelle
Pope John Paul II College, Camera
41. Rwotomiyo Brian
Gulu High School, Camera
42. Mr. Otim Otto
Patron Pope John Paul II College, Head of Club
43. Mr. Okidi George
Patron St. Joseph’s College Layibi, Head of Club
44. Mr. Okello Namson
Patron Gulu Central High School, Head of Club
45. Ms. Christine Bako
Matron Gulu High School, Head of Club
46. Ms. Akello Gloria Latigo
Matron Trinity College, Gulu, Head of Club
Maisha Film Club Members- Gulu 47. Lubangakene Amos
48. Odong Justin
NUHOOD FILMS - Member
49. Kigozi Andrew
NUHOOD FILMS - Member
50. Nyeko Bosco12
51. Akena Dickens
United Youth Entertainment - member
52. Ojok Geoffrey
New Boundaries Films - Founder
53. Okello Stephen
New Boundaries Films – Co-Founder
54. Opiyo Samuel
55. Okello Anthony Odong
NUHOOD FILMS – Co - Founder
56. Candy Omoya Denis
57. Ocakacon Raymond
Rhymes Entertainment - Founder
58. Oryema Andrew
ABBA Films - Founder
59. Odokonyero Roman
60. Patrick Uma
61. Jesse Johnson James
62. Ryekatoo Julius P
NUHOOD FILMS - Member
63. Onencan Deogratious
NUHOOD FILMS – Logistics Officer
64. Okot Robert Mugisha
65. Ocen Brian
66. Akena Patrick
67. Emokor Eric
United Youth Entertainment
68. Achen Rebecca
69. Lakareber Rosemary
NUHOOD FILMS - Member
70. Kebira Janet B.K
71. Oryem Nicholas
72. Acaba Kenneth
73. Ayaa Fivi
NUHOOD FILMS - Member
Note that those without an organization and position are not affiliated to any organization but were trainees of Youth and film project under Maisha Film Lab and are considered as Maisha Film Club Members
ANNEX 4: LIST OF INFORMANTS 74. Opat Christine
NUHOOD FILMS - Member
75. Lawoko George
Revival Worship Centre, Pastor
Maisha Film Club Members- Kitgum 76. Otto Everest
Wang Oo Films - Chairperson
77. Edmond Steven O
Wang Oo Films
78. Komakech William
Wang Oo Films – Finance Secretary
79. Opio Joel Bob
Wang Oo Films - Founder
80. Okot Joel
Wang Oo Films - Founder
81. Agenrwrot J
Life Race Films, Lamwo
82. Lamunu Agnes Jerry
Life Race Films, Lamwo - Treasurer
83. Lakot Beatrice
Life Race Films, Lamwo – Vice Chairperson
84. Lubangakene James Olal
Life Race Films – Lamwo
85. Reagan Lajul
Wang Oo Films - member
86. Toopaco Fred
Wang Oo Films - member
87. Mwaka Bosco
Wang Oo Films-member
88. Ocaya D. Haddheaus
Wang Oo Films - member
89. Oloya Gilbert
Wang Oo Films - member
90. Oyet Sisto
Life Race Films, Lamwo - Chairman
91. Suraya Rajab
Wang Oo Films - Member
92. Canpara Babra Efrance
Wang Oo Films - member
93. Chankara Emmanuel
Wang Oo Films - member
94. Odokonyero Emmanuel
Wang Oo Films - member
95. Amato Nancy
Wang Oo Films - Finance Secretary
96. Oryema Geoffrey
Wang Oo Films - Member
97. Anna Mandis Siras
Wang Oo Films - member
98. Oryem Bosco
Wang Oo Films - member
100. Nyero Jacob
Wang Oo Films - member
101. Anyipar John Praise
Wang Oo Films - member
102. Angee Immaculate
Wang Oo Films - member
103. Watmon Peter
Wang Oo Films - member
Wang Oo Films - member
105. Oketa Martine
Life Race Films, Lamwo - Member
106. Denis Akera
Life Race Films, Lamwo - member
Life Race Films, Lamwo - member
108. Oyoo Samuel Baker
Life Race Films, Lamwo - member
Tukosawa Club Samuel Baker Secondary School 114. Bwambale Mugati Stephen
115. Ocitti Calvin
116. Ocan Stover
117. Okumu Daniel
118. Opira Markey S
ANNEX 4: LIST OF INFORMANTS 119. Rwentngyeyo Joshua
121. Okwir Simon Peter
122. Endriko Bosco
123. Opoka John Walker
124. Akena Herbert
125. Endriko Bosco
126. Oloya Isaac
127. A kena Clives
128. Okene Geofrey
129. Aboce Micheal
130. Anyar Dennis Onyango
131. Ojok Tyson Herberts
132. Ocwingirwot Richard
133. Odong Oscar
134. Odongokara Remmy
135. Otunu Charles
136. Ayebare Patrick
137. Olunyu Johnson
Tukosawa Club Sacred Heart Secondary School 139. Lanyero Winnifred
140.Juan Kevin Lubanga
141. Achola Beatrice
142. Alanyo Patricia Ocaya
143. Auma Flavia
144. Aciro Lisa
145. Ajalo Gloria
146. Ekot Doreen
147. Oroma Phiona
148. Aol Rose Cynthia
149. Aciro Jenny
150. Akello Josephine Catherine
151. Acungkena Charity Ruth
152. Aber Anna Maria
Vice General Secretary
153. Rahima Saidi
154. Alanyo Patricia Ocaya
155. Aneno Esther
156. Atimango Ketty Tracy
157. Adong Juliet
158. Aloyo Lucky Sandra
ANNEX 4: LIST OF INFORMANTS 159. Atimango Vivian Gift
160. Oroma Hope
161. Akech Dorothy
162. Foni Sophia John
163. Lamwaka Sunday Tracy
164. Lakwecwiny Pamela
165. Anena Esther
166. Acen Devia
168. Apiyo Norma
169. Amuge Racheal
170. Atugonza Bridget
Information And Publicity
171. Akot Issabella Oyella
172. Lakeraber Racheal
173. Lakarabe Mirriam
174. Lamara Angel
175. Atimango Scovia Jane
176. Atoo Sheila
177. Aber Diana
179. Atim Gloria
180. Wayasco Night Beatrice
181. Adongpiny Prossy
182. Aber Gloria Emma
183. Adkorach Scovia
185. Oyella Mildred
186. Akwi Winnie Onekalit
187. Aryemo Prisca
188. Laker Lucky Grace
189. Nalumansi Shamim Precious
190. Nakaweesa Shiaba Sheena
191. Ajok Lillian
192. Atimango Fortunate
193. Adyero Anna Oyat
194. Sr. Hedwig Muse
Director /Palestinian Art Court â€“ Al-Hoash
General Director /Mada Silwan
Project Coordinator /Mada Silwan
Artistic Director /Oushaq Arts Centre
Project Coordinator /Oushaq Arts Centre
Mahmoud Abu Hashhash
Director of Culture and Arts Programme / A M Qattan
ANNEX 4: LIST OF INFORMANTS Foundation 7.
Project Coordinator /A M Qattan Foundation
Artistic Director /Film Lab Palestine
Programme Manager /Royal Danish Representation Office
10. Esther Lønstrup
Head of Danish Development Cooperation / Royal Danish Representation Office
11. Løne Lassen
Director /Danish House in Palestine
12. Mohammad Hamed
Theatre Director and Trainer /Yafa Cultural Centre
13. Rami Ju’arim
Project Coordinator /Yafa Cultural Centre
14. Abdullah Kharoub
CKU Cluster’s Coordinator /Yafa Cultural Centre
15. Ahmad Amarneh
Project Coordinator /Ya’bad Municipality
16. Group interview*
Yafa Cultural Centre’s stakeholders
17. Marina Barham
Trainer - cultural management training workshop for CKU Cluster’s organisations. Director of Al Harah Theatre
18. Basel Nasr
Founder /Animation Factory
18. Jawad al Malhi
Founder/ The Open Studio
ANNEX 5: DOCUMENTS REVIEWED
Annex 5: Documents reviewed CKU and MFA Documents 1.
Strategic framework for culture and development, The Right to Art and Culture, 2013 One page version Full version MFA and CKU Strategy Process 2012 – 35 documents including memorandums, planning documents, early drafts, workshop documents, inputs from resource people, workshop presentations, comments to drafts 2. Results contract between MFA and CKU, 2013-2015, and activity plans Results Contract Activity Plans 2013-2015 and reporting 2013– 2014 3. MFA Administrative Guidelines for CKU MFA Administrative Guidelines for CKU. CKU Articles Procuration Rules of procedure 4. CKU Programme Manual and Templates Programme Manual Templates covering programme cycle Check list for internal quality assurance Procedures for CKU project committee 5. CKU International Department Job descriptions Bios 6. Budget and finances Accounts 2014 and budget 2015 Financial statement 2014 7. Phase-out Plans, 15 documents 8. Indonesia Culture and Development Programme, 2013-2015 9. Overall programme documents Programme Officer, ToR Project documents Project documents Status and monitoring reports 10. CKU “Portfolio Overview of All Countries” 2007-2016 11. CKU, “Overview of “Projects 2007 to 2009” 12. CKU, “Progress overview, Programmes and projects”, 2015 13. CKU, Board Document “Project Support: Strategic Considerations and Guidance”, 2009 14. Danida, The Power of Culture, The Cultural Dimension in Development, 2000. 15. Danida. ”Review of the Danish Centre for Culture and Development”, Sept 2009CKU, “Status on country programmes”, 2015 16. Krogh, Elsebeth & Christina Papsø Weber Danish Centre for Culture and Development (CKU) Discussion on the Future of Culture and Development, 4 - 5 February 2016 – Prince Claus Fund, Amsterdam 17. Nordicity, “Evaluation of Programme for Creative Industries in Africa (CIA)”, 2014
ANNEX 5: DOCUMENTS REVIEWED 18. Vilby, Knus “Report on Methods, Results and Lessons Learnt in CKU Programmes”, 2013
Other Sources 19. Dill, Alexander, Why Social Capital? April 2016 20. EUNIC.Culture and Conflict – challenges for Europe’s foreign Policy Culture Report. EUNIC Yearbook 2012/2013 21. KEA European Affairs, The Impact of culture on Creativity - A Study prepared for the European Commission (Directorate-General for Education and Culture), June 2009 22. Kocache, Mouktar, Creation out of Crisis, A Historic Moment to Leverage Arts and Culture’s Contribution to Social Change in the Arab Region, CKU 2015 23. Naidu-Silverman, Ereshnee, The Contribution of Art and Culture in Peace and Reconciliation Processes in Asia – A literature review and case studies from Pakistan, Nepal, Myanmar, Indonesia, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, and Bangladesh, CKU 2015 24. Naila Kabeer, “Reflections on the Measurement of Women’s Empowerment”; in Discussing Women’s Empowerment – Theory and Practice; Sida Studies no 3, 2002. 25. Rao, Vijayendra and Michael Walton Culture and Public Action. Stanford University Press, 2004 26. UNESCO, Reshaping cultural Policies, 2005 Convention Global Report, A Decade Promoting the Diversity of Cultural Expressions for Development, 2015
Nepal CKU Documents 1.
Annual Activity Plan 2015
Assessments local projects 2008
Budget Overview 2008
4. CKU programmes 2014-2016 video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RQoVoLAO1YA 5.
Completion report for the Culture Program between Denmark and Nepal 2007-2010
Country Analysis Nepal: An overview of tendencies, needs and potentials in the arts and culture sector, Sept 2013
Danish cultural Programme 2007 – 2009
Danish Culture and Development Programme for Nepal 2010-2012
Danish Culture and Development Strategy for Nepal 2007-2010
10. Danish Programme for Culture and Development in Nepal: 11. Denmark Nepal Culture Development Programme 2010-12, Report from DCCD mission in November 2011 12. Final Budget for Programme 2013-2016 13. Final Report on the Danish Nepali Partnership Programme 2010-12 14. Nepal Culture and Development Programme 2014-19 15. Report from Monitoring Visit – Programme Level, sept 2015 16. Report on Local Initiatives 2007 17. Report on Partnership Projects between Danish and Nepalese partners and local projects in 2008 18. Semi-annual Progress Report, Feb 2015 19. Semi-annual Progress Report, June 2015 20. Status reports on Danish-Nepali partnership projects, 2011 21. Theory of change of each partner 2014-2016 Project Applications 1.
Annemari Borgaard Clausen, Danish Film days in Nepal, 2007
Artlab Project Application 2014-2016 and contract
Bikalpa Arts Centre, Flexible Fund Application Art Community Camp, 2016
Danish Nepali Culture festival, 2011
Danmarks Forfattarforening, Children’s Literature and Illustrations, 2007
ANNEX 5: DOCUMENTS REVIEWED 6.
Karkhana Application 2014-2016 and contract
Kvinder på Varthus, Herstory: Gender Issues Discussed through Contemporary Art in Public Spaces, 2007
Passepartout Theatre Production, Family Theatre in Nepal, 2007
Photo.Circle Application 2014-2016 and contract
10. Photo.Circle, Strengthening Photojournalism in Nepal, 2010 11. Siddartha Arts Foundation Application 2014-2016 and contract 12. South Asia Communications Application 2014-2016 and contract 13. Voices of women Media, Flexible Fund Application “She is the Story”, 2015 14. Word Warriors Project Application 2014-16 and contract Project Reports 1.
Artlab Project Annual Project Progress Report 2015
IFA Film besøg – dækket over rammeaftale med ambassaden i Nepal, 2011
Karkhana Annual Project Progress Report 2015
Photo.Circle Annual Project Progress Report 2015
Siddartha Arts Foundation Annual Project Progress Report 2015
South Asia Communications Annual Project Progress Report 2015
Word Warriors Annual Project Progress Report 2015
Word Warriors Semi-Annual Project Progress Report, July 2016
10. Word Warriors, LFA Additional Sources 1.
Artlab, 5 Significant changes stories
Artlab news coverage, New York Times “Street Art floods Nepal with Color”, Dec 4, 2014
Artlab Youtube channel and social media
SAC Websites and social media
Karkhana, 4 Significant changes stories
Karkhana media coverage
Kathmandu Post “A Creative Get Together”, 2014-11-12
Kathmandu Post “Celebrating Innovation in education”, Aug 2016
Kathmandu Post “The Case of Curiosity”, 2015-05-28
SAC news report: Himalayan Times, “Amplifying Unreard Voices”, Feb 7, 2016.
SAC PowerPoint Presentation of 2016 Episodes
SAC, 3 Significant changes stories
10. SAF, 7 Significant changes stories 11. Word warriors, 3 Significant changes stories 12. Word Warriors YouTube videos and social media:
ANNEX 5: DOCUMENTS REVIEWED
13. Word Warriors Links to media coverage: A report by Aljazeera English, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pxrT_RxqetE https://www.globalcitizen.org/en/content/nepali-youth-are-raising-their-voices-but-not-in-t/
Palestine CKU Documents 1. CKU “Country Analysis of Palestine September 2013” by Tina Sherwell. 2. CKU Palestine Culture and Development Programme 2014-2019 – Phase I: 2014-2016, December 2013. 3. CKU Programme Annual Progress Report (April 2015-June 2016), June 2016. 4. CKU Overview Contracts and Agreements PAL2014-2016, July 2016. 5. CKU Overview for the Contemporary Art Production’s projects – Open Call for Short-Term Projects in Palestine 2016, June and September 2016. 6. Danida “Mid-Term Review of Palestine Programme”, 2014 7. CKU Palestine Programme’s Budgets: Culture Programme, 2008-2009 Cultural Outreach Programme, 2010-2013 Culture and Development Programme, 2014-2016 Project Applications 1. Cultural Forum Society, Music & Choir School, May 2015 2. Film Lab: Palestine: Development of Film lab: Palestine Strategy, Inception Phase, September 2014 Venue and Programs Set Up of FilmLab: Palestine, May 2015 3. Mada Silwan Creative Centre, ProGO: Youth Empowerment, Hip Hop and Creative Expression, October 2014 4. Nablus Circus School – Assirk Assaghir – Spaces of Freedom, June 2014 5. Oushaq Arts Centre, Strengthening participation and sustainability for Oushaq Performing Arts Dance School, August 2014 6. Open Studio, New Avenues Workshop, May 2014 7. Palestinian Art Court – Al-Hoash: Inception Phase, January 2014 Art Walks, October 2014 8. Public Space Lab: Urban Space, Educational Programmes and Creative Industry in Jerusalem, November 2015 9. Ya’bad Municipality – Ya’bad Cultural Centre, Choir and a Musical band Songs of hope Project’s Application, August 2014 10. Yafa Cultural Centre, Space for Change, August 2014 Contracts 1. A M Qattan Foundation, Supporting Contemporary Art Productions and Practices in Gaza 2015 -2016, January 2015 2. Cultural Forum Society, Music & Choir School, May 2015 3. Film Lab: Palestine: Development of Film lab: Palestine Strategy, Inception Phase, September 2014 Venue and Programs Set Up of FilmLab: Palestine, May 2015. 4. Mada Silwan Creative Centre, ProGO: Youth Empowerment, Hip Hop and Creative Expression, April 2015. 5. Nablus Circus School – Assirk Assaghir: Spaces of Freedom, Phase 1, October 2014 Spaces of Freedom, Phase 2, October 2015 6. Oushaq Arts Centre, Strengthening participation and sustainability for Oushaq Performing Arts Dance School, December 2014. 7. The Open Studio, New Avenues Workshop, January 2015.
ANNEX 5: DOCUMENTS REVIEWED The Palestinian Art Court – Al-Hoash: Inception Phase, February 2014 Art Walks, October 2014 Public Space Lab: Urban Space, Educational Programmes and Creative Industry in Jerusalem, January 2016 9. Ya’bad Municipality – Ya’bad Cultural Centre, Choir and a Musical Band: Songs of Hope, March 2015 10. Yafa Cultural Centre, Space for Change, January 2015 8.
Progress, Annual, and Completion Reports 1. A M Qattan Foundation, Supporting Contemporary Art Productions and Practices in Gaza 2015 -2016, January & November 2016. 2. Cultural Forum Society, Music & Choir School, November 2015, February, April & November 2016. 3. Film Lab: Palestine: Development of Film lab: Palestine Strategy, Inception Phase, November 2014 & March 2015. Venue and Programs Set Up of FilmLab: Palestine, September 2015, January 2015 & November 2016. 4. Mada Silwan Creative Centre, ProGO: Youth Empowerment, Hip Hop and Creative Expression, April & November 2016. 5. Nablus Circus School – Assirk Assaghir – Spaces of Freedom: Phase 1, October and March 2015 Phase 2, April & November 2016 6. Oushaq Arts Centre, Strengthening participation and sustainability for Oushaq Performing Arts Dance School, November 2015, June & December 2016 7. The Open Studio, New Avenues Workshop, April, November 2015 & 2016 8. The Palestinian Art Court – Al-Hoash: Art Walks, December 2014 & May 2015 Public Space Lab: Urban Space, Educational Programmes and Creative Industry in Jerusalem, May & November 2016 9. Ya’bad Municipality – Ya’bad Cultural Centre, Choir and a Musical Band: Songs of Hope, February, April & November 2016 10. Yafa Cultural Centre, Space for Change, October 2015, March & November 2016 Significant Change Stories 1. A M Qattan Foundation, Supporting Contemporary Art Productions and Practices in Gaza 2015 -2016: visual and performing artists’ grants : Gaza Lighthouse … a light towards freedom, by Shareef Sarhan, Gaza 2016. Typo Band’s First Rock Album, by Alaa Bassam Al Hamalawi, TYPO Band, Gaza 2016. Mohammad Abu Hashish, Gaza, 2016. 2. Film Lab: Palestine, Venue and Programs Set Up – Script Writing Workshop: fiction script’s winner: A Scripted Life, by Rasha Sansour, Ramallah, 2016 3. Nablus Circus School – Assirk Assaghir – Spaces of Freedom, stories by Lisa Masri: The Power to Change, Baha Swidan (male trainer), Nablus 2015 Learning to Believe in Myself, Khaled Aburezeq (male trainer), Nablus 2015 Community Respect, Ahmad Kullab (male trainer), Nablus 2015 Respect, Mohammad Habash (male trainer), Nablus 2015 Pay it Forward, Diana Assi (female trainer), Nablus 2015 I am Unique, Mother of Circus School’s female student: Rama Najjar, Nablus 2015 Social Interaction through Circus, Zein Assi (female trainer), Nablus 2015 4. The Palestinian Art Court – Al-Hoash, Palestinian artist participated in the Art Walks 2015: Reclaiming the Right to Public Spaces, Ahed Izhiman, by Yara Odeh, Ramallah 2015 5. Yafa Cultural Centre, Space for Change: How My Life Has Changed, Mohammad Saleh, by Sarah Abdel-Qader, Balata Refugee Camp 2015 Self-Expression, Madeleine Hamid Mohamed Said, Balata Refugee Camp 2016 CKU’s Cluster
ANNEX 5: DOCUMENTS REVIEWED 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Cluster’s Meeting Minutes #1, March 2014 Cluster’s Meeting Minutes #2, June 2015 Cultural Management Workshop, trainee’s feedback, November 2016 Media Marketing Workshop trainee’s feedback, November 2016 Video Making Workshop trainee’s feedback, November 2016
Videos 1. Nablus Circus School – Assirk Assaghir – Spaces of Freedom, 2016 2. The Palestinian Art Court – Al-Hoash, Art Walks: Re/reviewing Jerusalem 2015 & 2016
Uganda Programme CKU Documents 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
CKU “A profile of the Ugandan Arts and Culture Section”, by Brian Bamwesigye, 2013 CKU Arts and Culture Programme Uganda, 2014-2016-Programme Framework CKU Narrative of the Theory of Change for the Uganda Culture and Development Programme 2014-2016 CKU Review 2013 CKU Uganda Culture and Development Programme Communication Plan, 2015 CKU Uganda Culture and Development Programme, 2014-2016 Time line in the Programme Management Cycle CKU Uganda Phase Out Plan, 2016 CKU Uganda Programme Completion Report 2010-2013, 2014 CKU HRBA Screening note, 2015
Project Applications 1. Bayimba Partner Assessment, 2014 2. Bayimba Project Application,2014 3. Bayimba Project Budget, 2014-2016 4. CKU Youth and Hip Hop Work plan, 2014 5. Femrite Partner Assessment, 2014 6. Femrite Project Application, June 2014 7. Femrite Project Budget, 2014 8. LABA Festival concept, 2014 9. Maisha Film Lab Budget, 2014-2016 10. Maisha Partner Assessment, 2014 11. Maisha Youth and Film Project Application, 2014 12. Maisha Youth and Film Work plan, 2014 13. Writivism Proposal, 2015 14. Writivism Workshops Call, 2015 Contracts 1. Agreement between RDE Kampala and CKU (Signed Copy), 2015 2. Agreement CACE UG Writivism, 2015 3. Agreement CKU and Bayimba, 2014 4. Agreement Femrite CKU (Signed Copy), 2014 5. Agreement KLA Art and CKU Uganda (Signed Copy), 2014 6. Agreement Maisha CKU (Signed Copy), 2014 7. Project Agreement UYCP, 2010-2013 8. Signed Contract DFI Progress, Annual, and Completion Reports 1. Bayimba Annual Programme Progress Report-2014, 2015 2. CKU Report Youth and Hip Hop Final, 2013 3. CKU Report Youth and Hip Hop, 2014 4. CKU Report Youth and Hip Hop, 2015
ANNEX 5: DOCUMENTS REVIEWED 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.
CKU Review Report, 2015 CKU Progress to date cases, 2015 CKU Uganda Programme Evaluation, 2016 DCCD Report- Bayimba Cultural Foundation, 2011 DCCD Report- Bayimba Cultural Foundation, 2012 DFI Completion Report- Youth and Film, Uganda, 2011-2015 Femrite Annual Project Progress Report-2014, 2015 Internal Country Case Study Report, 2016 KLA-ART-2014 Report Maisha Film Lab Annual Report, 2013 Millennium Development Goals Report for Uganda, 2015 Monitoring Mission Report Uganda, 2014 Report for YTP 2013 Uganda Annual Programme Progress Report-2014, 2015 UYCP Report, the Youth Theatre Project, 2011 Writivism Financial Report, 2014 Writivism Financial Report, 2014 Youth Theatre Project, 2011
Videos Hip Hop Boot Camps 1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bO018MIC-qM 2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L8fL4eDdCGM 3. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f023mx21wSo 4. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vDTOfoWy4Mc 5. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mvKzSG7ik0w 6. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B7ZfRqqfiYw 7. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EY-aLr3Oi7s 8. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0pfFc0NEGyU 9. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HUQxTVDTCyU 10. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jqGDDDB_fB4
ANNEX 6: PARTNER PROFILES
Annex 6: Partner profiles Nepal 1. Artlab Art Collective explores constructive solutions to societal challenges through community-based art and cultural activities. Artlab’s Prasad Projects feature community workshops on techniques like stencilling and basic letter design and create new open-air galleries across Nepal. 2. Karkhana A collective of young programmers, engineers, artists and hackers dedicated to the integration of interdisciplinary teaching method. Experimentation, collaboration, and play are the cornerstones of Karkhana that has a maker space in the Gyaneshwor neighbourhood of Kathmandu. 3. Photo.circle is a platform for photography in Nepal. Through workshops, publications, exhibitions and commissioned assignment work, photo.circle strives to bring together photographers and other visual storytellers to nurture unique voices that document and engage with social change in Nepal. 4. Siddhartha Arts Foundation (SAF) Organisation promoting the contemporary art of Nepal and engaging in the community through debate on social issues. SAF has conducted vocational and academic training under the programme Developing Academic Infrastructure in the Administration of the Arts. 5. South Asia Communication (SAC) Media company producing youth television shows, public outreach programmes and training programmes. SAC produced the TV series ‘Pattern Breakers’ broadcasted monthly on NTV Plus. 6. Word Warriors are a Kathmandu-based group of young poets leading the spoken word movement in Nepal. Word Warriors perform and conduct events, competitions and workshops all over Nepal, sharing the platform that spoken word provides for youth expression and voice. Pre-2013 Nepalese partners interviewed by the evaluation team: 1. Lasanaa is an “artivist” organization founded in 2007. Its main agenda is social reform through art. It seeks to engage the art community in social issues. 2. Kutumba Popular folkloric music ensemble that achieved fame after receiving Danish support. 3. Creative statements: produced 13 episodes of an education and entertaining children’s programme that aired on national television. 4. Himal Foundation creative writing project: radio programme to promote creative writing among children. Palestine 1. Al Hoash Palestinian Art Court A non-profit organisation based in East Jerusalem, in Zahra Street, which historically was a cultural hub of Jerusalem in the first half of the 20th century. Al Hoash’s mission is to provide and sustain a knowledge-based platform for Palestinians to express, strengthen and realize national identity through visual culture.
ANNEX 6: PARTNER PROFILES 2. Assirk Assaghir, Nablus Circus School, Nablus Assirk Assaghir is committed to the principles of freedom of expression, the right to play and the right to education. 500 youth from marginalised communities and refugee camps are trained in circus and performing arts in a safe, educational space. 3. Cultural Forum Society An NGO formed in 2003 with the mission to promote Palestinian culture and education, focusing on youth through arts and cultural activities. CFS plays an important role as the sole provider of space and activities in the district of Qalqilia. 4. Film Lab, Ramallah A Ramallah-based initiative providing production space for filmmakers and audiences to create and experience Palestinian film, in an effort to enhance its uniqueness by offering space, networks, knowledge and providing equipment enabling filmmakers to complete, produce and distribute their personal projects 5. Oushaq Arts Centre Specialized in folkloric arts, dance, and drama. Oushaq aims to promote culture and arts as distant from political affiliations, and supporting a generation of Jerusalemites who believe in their Palestinian identity through arts and culture without discrimination based on gender or religion. 6. The A.M. Qattan Foundation is an independent, not-for-profit development organisation working in the fields of culture and education, with a particular focus on children, teachers and young artists. In cooperation with CKU, AMQF announced an open call for artists in Gaza. 7. Creative Madaa Center, Silwan, East Jerusalem A non-profit and non-governmental community-based centre founded in 2007. Aims to empower the community and build community networks by providing and subsidizing recreational, educational and social activities and courses and to promote dialogue and exchange of ideas by organizing events and activities, which inform and educate. 8. The Open Studio An artist run initiative working in collaboration with local community centres and UNRWA schools. It aims to expose children to the different mediums in art, to develop their competence in various forms of art, and to provide a safe space to explore and express ideas and to develop individual creativity through long-term programmes. 9. Ya’bad Cultural Centre Ya’bad Cultural Centre focuses on providing cultural activities to Ya’bad’s community, surrounding villages and Bedouin community. 10. Yafa Cultural Centre A key player for providing services and activities to a wide range of the population in particular children and women within Balata refugee camp. These include children’s drama, a media center, a library and a psychosocial unit. Uganda 1. Bayimba Cultural Foundation Bayimba is a multiple-branched organisation that focuses on lifting arts and culture in Uganda through cultural exchange and creativity. By participating in Bayimba’s hip-hop boot camps in different parts of Uganda many have given their artistic career a kick-start. 2. Femrite – Uganda Women Writers’ Association Femrite is an NGO based in Kampala and aims at developing and publishing female writers. Femrite works to promote a stronger reading and writing culture in Uganda and has established Tukosawa Writing Clubs (TWC) in 20 schools in Gulu and Kabale districts. 3. Maisha Film Lab Maisha (which means ‘life’ in Kiswahili) is a non-profit training initiative for emerging East African filmmakers. The organisation provides hands-on in-
ANNEX 7: CHANGES FOR INDIVIDUALS, GROUPS, AND COMMUNITIES tensives in screenwriting, directing, producing, cinematography, editing, sound recording, and acting.
Annex 7: Changes for individuals, groups, and communities KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS Almost all support reviewed involved some form of training, knowledge-sharing, and/or learning of skills in a range of cultural areas. Below are some examples of how CKU has supported individual capacity development in relation to the different cultural areas of media, visual arts, creative writing, and performing arts as well as the cross-cutting areas of arts management and creativity. MEDIA
Through CKU’s partners in Nepal, Palestine, and Uganda over 200 individuals have gained basic, intermediate, and/or advanced skills related to film and television production since 2014. Youth in Palestine have gained skills in storytelling, script writing, sound, production, photography direction and cinema critique though CKU’s partner Filmlab Palestine. A first-time female scriptwriter succeeded in having her short film (“The Chair”) produced by Filmlab which is expected to be shown at national and international film festivals. Similarly, the members of the hip hop group Dandara (four boys and four girls) from Silwan neighbourhood in the heart of conflict-ridden East-Jerusalem, became proficient in using Go Pro cameras and simple film editing after training provided by CKU’s partner Mada Silwan Creative Centre. This has allowed them to produce videos of the group rapping about life in their neighbourhood. The video raises awareness of the plight of children in Silwan – including arrest, detention, and home demolitions. Meanwhile, in Nepal, South Asia Communications (SAC) has built up a whole cadre of young people who are equipped with skills to run a monthly documentary programme, Pattern Breakers, on national television: they research, film, undertaken lighting, produce, anchor and edit. The programmes have been filmed around the country involving local youths in planning, research, and filming processes. The youth have been schooled in interview techniques introduced to SAC by Danish television experts. The techniques include applying a positive attitude when approaching authorities with controversial issues, which allow for open-minded discussions and avoid intimidation on either side. SAC also trained 54 youth from the country’s five regions to amplify the programmes through local radio programmes. SAC reported that 35 former trainees applied their skills by leading local radio debates around the country in the aftermath of each airing of Pattern Breakers. (See also Box 7.) In Uganda, after having participated in film clubs and engaged in cinematic critique, keen youth have received training in the whole process of film production. They have since produced films, some of which have been entered in film festivals. Maisha Film Lab has also worked with students from different high schools in Gulu- Northern Uganda. Interestingly, Maisha observed that the young teenagers were the quickest to pick up knowledge and in the end, they produced some of the best films among the Maisha trainees.
ANNEX 7: CHANGES FOR INDIVIDUALS, GROUPS, AND COMMUNITIES I started watching films when I was young and saw a film about HIV/aids and Idi Amin. This was too hard for me and I feared to God to watch movies. It is not simple to watch. I wondered how they made the film and how they jumped from one roof to another... From the screenings, I have learned a lot... I have stories and feelings (when I watch film) and by the end of the year you are going to watch my films. – Maisha film Lab participant VISUAL ARTS
There is evidence of increased individual capacities in visual arts in both Nepal and Palestine. First, artists, school children and members of local neighbourhoods of Nepal have become proficient in different urban art approaches – wheat pasting, stencils, graffiti, and spray techniques –through CKU’s support to Artlab, a collective of young street artists. Some have used their skills to produce artwork and beautify their environment. One participant has even applied the techniques to his signboard business. Second, several dozens of Nepalese have become competent photographers, participating in festivals, and having their photos published in newspapers and magazines. These were trained by Photo.Circle who first received Danish support in 2010. In the early years, the Danish School of Journalism was a key partner, sharing knowledge and providing inspiration. The partnership still endures. Photo.Circle alumni have since developed from residencies and other opportunities in Denmark. Third, in Palestine, Al Hoash’s work to produce artwork in public spaces that involved collaboration with Danish artists contributed to individual development among the Palestinian artists: It was of a great importance to work with Danish artists on this project. Since they come from a free and independent country, they have no identity issues. They deal with public spaces organically. In Palestine in general, and in Jerusalem specifically, the situation is the opposite. We grow up and live under the Israeli occupation, which controls all public and private spaces. Artists in Jerusalem were never able to work in public spaces before: we are aware of the dire consequences. Palestinian and Danish artists together brainstormed ideas to legally justify the installations in public spaces to the Israeli authorities. The exchange of experiences was enriching and eye-opening for both sides”. – participant artist in Al Hoash Art Walk CREATIVITY
Creativity has been an important underlying theme of most of CKU’s support, but for some of CKU’s partners, building skills in this area has been central. A strong proponent for creative skills among CKU’s partners was Karkhana, an organisation of young programmers, engineers, designers, and artists. Karkhana regards Nepal’s traditionalist education system that emphasises memorisation and regurgitation, as a hindrance to Nepal’s development. It promotes innovative educational approaches that teach students how to think critically and creatively to solve real life problems. Students and teachers in Nepal benefited from Karkhana’s inter-disciplinary pedagogical method that combines science, technology, arts, and maths and encourages inquisitiveness. It also undertook other initiatives aimed at youth, like bringing together engineering students and artists to collaborate at Yantra, Nepal’s five-day national robotic fair. Other notable initiatives focusing on creativity was the Open Studio in Palestine that has provided long-term training for teachers and culture centre staff in Shufhat Camp in occupied East Jerusalem. The aim has been to expose children to art, develop their individual creativity using various forms and techniques of visual arts, while providing a safe space to explore and express ideas. In the process teachers, have developed their own creative skills and learnt
ANNEX 7: CHANGES FOR INDIVIDUALS, GROUPS, AND COMMUNITIES methodologies that enhance creativity into the classroom. The workshops introduced a range of approaches and exercises for teachers to undertake with their pupils, some of which combined creative methods with subjects such as maths and science. Creativity was also a central theme for Cultural Forum Society in Qualqilia district in Palestine. Its summer camp serves disadvantaged children from the Bedouin community. Cultural Forum Society introduced a range of creative activities – creative writing, music, handcrafts, drawing and painting – to children who otherwise severely lack opportunities to engage in creative expressions. ARTS MANAGEMENT
Contemporary art in many developing countries is at a dearth of academically (or vocationally) trained art managers, curators, and writers. The development of the culture sector requires individuals who can critically assess the opportunities and challenges faced by artists and the sector, so that they can develop initiatives to further the conservation, accessibility, professionalism, and economic potential of the arts. Therefore, in the last programme period, CKU emphasised curation and arts management. In Uganda, Bayimba trained and nurtured selected youth from different parts of the country who showed a keen interest in cultural entrepreneurship. Through mentoring and training, the youth enhanced their understanding of developing and sustaining a (creative) business idea; improved their planning, marketing, and communication skills; as well as achieved basic financial and legal knowledge specific to the creative sector. The evaluation team met alumni who are today carving out a career in the cultural sector – from events management to fashion design. I really learnt to organise myself and lead other people. I learnt to schedule, deal with money, and administrate. Bayimba entrepreneur trainee, Gulu
In Nepal, the Siddhartha Arts Foundation (SAF) Education Initiative in Nepal created twoyear-long vocational and academic training programme with master classes, workshops and project work in arts administration, curation and criticism. It included vocational placements and seminars that were modelled on those offered at world-leading art institutions. Targeting young graduates, art students, art enthusiasts, journalism students, and those currently employed in the art industry; SAF prioritised the development of practical and technical skills. All trainees have implemented projects in their neighbourhoods or communities. Examples include a photo exhibition of the lives of orphans with images taken by orphans themselves and the building of a cultural space for children under a bridge in Kathmandu. I learned the value of evolution – growing with the organization, and innovating to create something new without repeating yourself, to keep everything interesting. This means that there is no single formula for innovation, or success, and everything is collaborative. SAF Art and Community Engagement Workshop, participant
In Palestine, CKU itself organised a series of media marketing workshops for ten staff members from its core partner organisations. The workshop covered how to write press releases; produce media content; develop media plans; network with Palestinian, Arab, and international media outlets; and, how to hold press conferences. I have taken part in the Cultural Media course. I learned through this course how to create advertisements for marketing in a creative and different way. The course was focused initially on creative thinking and how to think out of the box in the field of media, especially cultural media. I gained a lot from
ANNEX 7: CHANGES FOR INDIVIDUALS, GROUPS, AND COMMUNITIES this course. It gave me a new opportunity and a new experience, not to mention a new way of thinking”. – Training participant
CONFIDENCE AND ASPIRATION The combination of i) gaining skills and knowledge; ii) being exposed to new ideas; iii) being given opportunities for expression; and/or the chance to create something, has the potential to improve people’s confidence, self-worth, and capacity to aspire. At the same time, the capacity to aspire – a fundamental aspect of empowerment – can be regarded as reciprocally linked to voice – “with each accelerating the nurture of the other”.13 A Word Warriors stakeholder interviewed by the team called it “mental strength”. Stakeholders interviewed in the different countries often referred to their newfound confidence and stated that they felt a sense of accomplishment and a new direction for their life. For some, the experience was eye-opening and a watershed moment. One such stakeholder was actor Dayahang Rai, member of Mandala Theatre in Kathmandu, which received support from CKU back in 2010. Renchin Yonjan, cultural practitioner and former CKU consultant recalls how shy he was, often avoiding eye contact. One day he approached her and explained how the dramatics training with Passepartout had helped him overcome his fears. He is today one of Nepal’s most well-known movie stars. The adjacent boxes and expressions below give other examples of inspiration, confidence, aspirations, and personal development: I wasn't helpless anymore. The circus work has given my life meaning. I began to feel that I was capable of making a change - and a big one. Focusing on the younger generation and providing them with non-violent alternatives, like the ones I was searching for, is something that will feed into a positive cycle. The generations after us, possibly my children, will benefit. –Nablus Circus trainer. I have gained confidence in voicing my opinions. I had many questions regarding my credibility and voice when critiquing art. I was insecure. I thought, “how can I give a critique when I do not have the calibre?”. But there is an extreme lack of art writers/reviewers/critics in Nepal. Even bad art is getting off scot-free, and I want to stop that. It must start somewhere. –Participant in SAF workshop. I believe the project has challenged a set of fears that I and my fellow Palestinians were having; the fear of the outdoor, the fear of the consequences of our presence in a public space. I now feel responsible to undertake further work to change the mindset of the community towards public spaces. I am currently planning for my second project in a public space in the city. –Participating artist in Al Hoash Art Walks She used to be very shy, she was always by herself and didn’t want to be away from me. Now she has self-confidence and she’s more outgoing and independent. She wants to be a famous circus artist and a gymnastics teacher. –Parent of a student at the Nablus Circus School I want to work with a few talented theatre artists in Karnali district of Nepal and create an art hub there with spaces for performance, installations, and exhibitions. I also want to document the intangible and the tangible culture. The notion that values can be changed gives me more confidence to work, and pursue this dream. (The training) has inspired me, and I can use this inspiration many stages of my life. –SAF trainee My personality has changed. Before coming to the circus, I was surrounded by people who weren’t good to each other or respectful. Here in the circus everyone respects and loves one another. There is a
Vijayendra Rao and Michael Walton Culture and Public Action. Stanford University Press, 2004, p24.
ANNEX 7: CHANGES FOR INDIVIDUALS, GROUPS, AND COMMUNITIES sense of safety here. This has allowed me to become more outgoing and self-confident, because I can take risks, both in relation to circus activities and in interacting with people. –Nablus Circus School stakeholder I wanted to be something in the future, to change my life, and to have something nice in my life. I also wanted to do new, fun things. Circus helped me change my personality for the better, from my way of talking to people, understanding people, and knowing how to deal with people. I also learnt how to organise my time better. – Circus student Now she can see right from wrong, and can voice her feelings and needs when she feels she has been wronged. Even though she’s still young, this is a skill that is very important for girls in our society so that they claim their rights and build their futures. – Mother of a circus student
ENGAGING WITH COMMUNITIES Word Warrior participants in Chitwan reached out to the private sector: We have approached the district chapter of the Federation of Nepalese Chambers of Commerce and Industry to provide us with a venue to organise an event on spoken poetry. The president, who also writes poems, has been very receptive to our idea. He has promised to provide us a space at their annual trade fair. – Word Warrior participant
One SAF student engaged with an orphanage on the outskirts of Kathmandu run by a person with disabilities. She ran a camera donation drive and then worked with the orphans who photo-documented their lives. The results were exhibited. Another group of SAF students undertook a “homestay” project: lived with rural families, co-created artwork together, produced a film about it and then screened it locally. A third group of SAF students worked with children of a poor neighbourhood to build a creative space under a bridge – with playground structures, a modest library and art materials – by using local waste materials. The evaluation team met the children who use the space. The children expressed that they greatly enjoyed their new space, they used it daily and loved working with SAF students when they were constructing it. The SAF students have since begun engaging with a local youth group to address the high level of pollution in the river. Bayimba actively urged young people to communicate with parents, children, and elders and to perform for them. It partly encouraged rapping in indigenous languages for this reason. In a brotherly way, it furthermore mentored participants about drug use, HIV/AIDS, and selfdiscipline Femrite also undertook two Uganda Writers’ Caravans. Ugandan authored books were donated to schools with Tukosawa clubs and Uganda authors, travelling with the Caravan engaged with students. As one author wrote after participating in the Caravan: It was happy to be part of the caravan when it came to Kabale. As a writer, I was happy that students were able to meet authors that come from their areas, speak their language …and they are still all alive! I remember meeting students who openly told me that they thought all authors were dead. If you think that all authors are dead, then you cannot aspire to be one! I was also happy to see some spontaneous talent exhibited by some of the students we met to write poetry not only in English but also in their mother tongue. – Ugandan author, Femrite
ANNEX 8: SUMMARY OF STRATEGY PROCESS
Annex 8: Summary of Strategy Process In 2012, the Danish government launched the Right to a Better Life, its policy for development cooperation. In this context, the government deemed that a new strategy for culture and development was needed that took departure in the stronger human rights perspective that characterised Denmarkâ€™s approach to development. In August 2012, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) and CKU devised a detailed six-month process to produce the new strategy. It involved forming a project group within the Ministry, establishing a resource panel of culture and development cooperation experts, forming a team, including consultants to work on drafting the strategy; and, holding an international participatory seminar to feed into the strategy work. The drafting team drew upon a range of inputs to produce the first strategy draft. CKUâ€™s experience of what had worked and not was examined. The team also analysed relevant international research, reports, processes, and policies produced over the last decades and studied the support provided by other donors. UN documents, human rights conventions and feedback from partners around the world further informed the strategy text. The first draft was presented to participants at the seminar held in Copenhagen in November 2012. Over 50 participants attended, including the Danish ministers for both culture and development cooperation; officials from different departments in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Danish ambassadors; the Danish Culture Board, experts, academic and partners from Afghanistan, Barbados, Egypt, Ghana, Lebanon, the Netherlands, Norway, Palestine, South Africa and Zimbabwe; Danish cultural practitioners and partners representing film, photography, visual arts, literature, music and theatre. Seven keynote speakers from seven countries covered freedom of expression; participation in culture and social change; cultural diversity; creative industries; culture in reconciliation and peace-building; intercultural understanding and cooperation; and, culture and development in the international context. Session were held in which participants discussed in small groups. According to the participants that were interviewed, the atmosphere was constructive, open and focused, although the time set aside for discussion was relatively short. Nevertheless, ideas and perspective deliberated in the workshop fed into the final strategy draft. Holding a participatory workshop with cultural practitioners from the north and south and have them work side by side with Danish officials on domestic policy was relatively unusual â€“ both in Denmark and internationally. It ensured that the strategy was informed, relevant and considered diverse perspectives. The inclusive approach garnered ownership both within Denmark and in partner countries.
ANNEX 8: SUMMARY OF STRATEGY PROCESS
During the spring of 2013, the final draft was approved by Danidaâ€™s Development Cooperation Council, the Foreign Affairs Committee, and the Danish Parliament. The resulting strategy stands out in its emphasis on human rights. At an overall level and within each strategic priority area (listed in Box 1), it outlines how societies can be transformed through peopleâ€™s participation in a vibrant cultural sector based on free artistic and creative expression. It furthermore emphases creativity as a driving force in development. The strategy is both progressive and comprehensive in its scope, reflecting a thoughtful, informed and relevant strategy formulation process. Box 10 Strategic priority areas
Once the Strategy had been adopted, CKU continued to enhance ownership. It organised three public debates in Copenhagen, Aalborg, and Aarhus, to discuss how the strategy could promote human rights as well as social- and cultural development. Speakers from programme countries such as Kenya, Egypt and Nepal participated along with key partners from the Danish culture community.
Empowering people through active participation in art and cultural activities
Ensuring freedom of expression for artists and cultural actors
Enhancing economic growth through creative industries
Strengthening peace and reconciliation in post-conflict areas through art and cultural activities
10 Promoting intercultural dialogue and intercultural collaboration
ANNEX 9: LIST OF TEMPLATES IN CKU’S PROGRAMME MANUAL
Annex 9: List of Templates in CKU’s programme manual List of templates for CKU Culture and Development Programmes Document templates and formats for the different stages in the process are available in the annex to the programme manual. The templates have been developed based on DANIDA’s general guidelines and follow the phases of the programme cycle. Phases
Tasks (key actions)
Related documents from tool box
MFA enters into dialogue with its representations Representation send EOI to CKU
4-6 months Call of EoI's for country analysis.
Country analysis report presented
Contracting of consultant for country
ToR External Country Analysis
Contract Short Term Consultant
Annex B CV Short Term Consultant
Annex C Rate Short Term Consultant
Inception Report for Country Analysis
ToR for Programme Formulation Mission
ToR for Consultant for Programme Formulation Mission
Contract for Consultant for Formulation Mission (with
analysis. Approval of inception report for country analysis.
Conducting formulation mission.
Formulation mission conducted
Drafting of Culture and Development Programme.
Country Programme formulated
Annex B CV Short Term Consultant
Annex C Rate Short Term Consultant
Debriefing note with Embassy at end of formulation mission
Country Programme Document (index outline)
ANNEX 9: LIST OF TEMPLATES IN CKUâ€™S PROGRAMME MANUAL Preparation of presentation of Country
Programme presented and approved by
Programme for the board
Sign agreement between Embassy and CKU
Agreement signed plan
Employ Country Programme officer PO employed
C6 Programme Communication Plan C5 C7
Vacancy Announce Country Programme Officer
Applicant Overview and Ranking Matrix
Contract Country Programme Officer
Annex A ToR Country Programme Officer
Annex B - CV
Annex C Rate
Framework for Calculation of Hours (CPO)
Country Programme Officer Time Registration
ToR Country Programme Officer
Assessment of potential partner organizations
Comment on project proposals from
Programme Executive Summary Agreement with Embassy
Formulate Programme Communication Ageed on and approved communication Plan
Programme one pager for the board proposal
Partner Profile and Assessment tool Partners assessed
Approval of Partner portfolio
Proposed Partner Portfolio
partners Finalise project proposals from partners
Project Document Format D1 D2
Project Budget Format
Budget Format - Partnership Projects
Annual Activity Plan
General Contract format between Cooperation Partners
Guide to Formulation of a Partnership Project
ANNEX 9: LIST OF TEMPLATES IN CKUâ€™S PROGRAMME MANUAL Presentation of project proposal to PK
Request for Approval by Project Committee (English)
Signing agreement with partner
Request for Approval by Project Committee (Danish)
Agreement with Partner
Collect semi-annual progress reports
Semi-annual Progress Report
Collect annual progress reports from
Annual Progress Report
Annual Project Accounts
Annual Financial Status - Partnership Projects
Programme level: Programme Implementation and reporting
Back to office report Programme activities monitored
Semi-Annual Programme Progress Report
Annual Programme Progress Report
Flexible funds allocated
Criteria for Flexible Funds
Grant Letter for Flexible Funds
ToR Local Audit
Agreement Local Audit Firm
Question List for Financial Monitoring Visits
Financial Monitoring Visit Report
Local Audit secured
Financial Monitoring Programme Review Completion
4-6 months Project Completion
ToR for Programme Review D8
Project Completion Report
Final Accounts Local Projects
D11a Final Accounts - Partnership Projects Programme Completion
Programme Completion Report Closure of Programme accounts report
ToR for External Programme Evaluation
ANNEX 10: CAST TOOL
Annex 10: CAST tool Name of Organisation:
Artistic / creative skills/knowledge Organisational/management skills Personal development (confidence, selfesteem, identity)
Community cohesion Intra- and inter-community dialogue Inter-generational linkages Interaction/ connections with local authorities/schools by groups, organisations, communities Organisational growth formation of organisations/ groups/cooperatives Development/strengthening of networks, partnerships among groups/organisations
Income (including funding) Employment for target groups (Range of) products for sale Access to markets / audiences Access to inputs for cultural production (e.g. film equipment) Access to spaces for cultural expression Access to trained personnel
Participation in cultural activities Women and girls Disadvantaged groups Children: Boys and girls Rights-holders exercising human rights (e.g. free expression, information, education) Duty-bearer/rights holder relations Democratic processes Group agency / social action – exercising voice
Evidence of changes in:
CHANGE No change
Change Assessment and Scoring Tool
ANNEX 11: OUTCOME MAPPING TOOL
Annex 11: Outcome mapping tool Outcome Description: In one or two sentences, summarize the observable change in the behaviour, relationships, activities, or actions of a social actor influenced by the activities and outputs of the partner, programme, or project. That is, who changed what, when and where? Who: Be as specific as possible about the individual, group, community, organisation, or institution that changed. What: State concretely what changes were noted in behaviour, relationships, activities, policies, or practices. When: Be as specific as possible about the date when the change took place. Where: Similarly, include the political or geographic locale with the name of the community, village, town, or city where the actor operates – locally, nationally, regionally, and/or globally. Organization’s contribution: In a few sentences, what was the “change agent’s” (CKU’s/the partner's) role in influencing the outcome? How did it inspire, persuade, support, facilitate, assist, pressure, or even force or otherwise contribute to the change in the social actor? Specify CKU’s/the partner’s activities, processes, products, and services that you consider influenced each outcome. Keep in mind that, while the outcome must be plausibly linked to the organisation's activities, there is rarely a direct, linear relationship between an activity and an outcome. Also, one activity may influence two or more outcomes. Equally important, outcomes often are influenced by a variety of activities and other social actors over a period longer than 12 months.
ANNEX 12: SURVEY QUESTIONS
Annex 12: Survey questions Questions for former CKU Staff International Section 1. For those of you who have direct or indirect experience of the pre-2014 work: Since the 2013 Strategy “The Right to Art and Culture” was adopted, what in your view were the 3 most important: changes that CKU undertook? challenges that CKU faced? 2. Regarding the programme preparation process (e.g. expression of interest, country analysis, stakeholder input to programme drafts, inception etc.) since 2013, What in your opinion were the 3 most important: Strengths? Challenges? 3. Regarding CKU’s programme implementation process (monitoring, reporting, results based management, relations with partners, etc), what in your opinion were the 3 most important: Strengths? Challenges/shortcomings? 4. Regarding CKU’s organisational structure and systems, what in your opinion were the 3 most important: Strengths? Challenges/shortcomings? 5. Regarding CKU’s human rights based approach what in your opinion were the 3 most important: Strengths? Challenges/shortcomings? Questions for former CKU POs 6. Regarding CKU’s programme implementation process (monitoring, reporting, results based management, relations with partners, etc), what in your opinion were the 3 most important: a. Strengths? b. Challenges/shortcomings? 7. Regarding CKU’s organisational structure and systems (e.g. reporting structures and formats, templates, communications within the organisation, etc.) what in your opinion were the 3 most important: a. Strengths? b. Challenges/shortcomings? 8. To what extent were you able to apply human rights based principles to your work? a. Please explain. b. What did you find useful and/or challenging about the human rights based approach?
An evaluation of the international engagement of the Danish Centre for Culture and Development (CKU) 2007 to 2016. Evaluation by Consult4Cha...
Published on Dec 29, 2016
An evaluation of the international engagement of the Danish Centre for Culture and Development (CKU) 2007 to 2016. Evaluation by Consult4Cha...