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City of San Marcos Comprehensive Environmental Stewardship Policy

By The San Marcos Green Team Collette Jamison Chance Sparks Richard Mendoza Rebecca Britain Steve Sands Chris Jones

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City of San Marcos Comprehensive Environmental Stewardship Policy The City of San Marcos recognizes responsible environmental stewardship as part of its core mission in serving the citizens of this community. The City’s environmental policy is intended to create long-term environmental benefits and to conserve natural resources. The policy is also intended to ensure the protection of City employees, residents, and members of the broader global community. While the focus of this policy is environmental stewardship, many of the programs discussed provide significant ancilliary benefits, such as economic & real estate development, and attracting knowledge workers/businesses. The City is committed to reducing its use of natural resources, to investing in green buildings, vehicles and materials, to saving taxpayer dollars through wise energy use and resource conservation, and to improving the overall quality of life in the City. In order to be a responsible environmental steward, the City has adopted this environmental policy focusing on the following main areas and totaling more than 80 separate initiatives:  Land Use Management, Urban Forestry and Water Quality  Transportation Planning & Clean Air  Green Power & Energy Efficiency  Green Building  Water & Wastewater Management  Recycling & Waste Reduction  Education & Outreach Each chapter will have its own unique set of performance criteria to assess the success and impact each program has. However, the overall Environmental Stewardship Program will use citizen/employee survey research and carbon footprinting. In addition, the programs presented can be funded as one-time expenses or set-up as recurring programs.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1: LAND USE MANAGEMENT, URBAN FORESTRY AND WATER QUALITY ................... 5 Acquiring Green/Open Space ............................................................................................................................ 5 City Space Tree Planting Program ................................................................................................................... 6 Citizen Tree Planting Program ........................................................................................................................... 6 Tree City USA Program ....................................................................................................................................... 6 Strengthened Tree Preservation Standards ................................................................................................... 6 Infill Development Incentives ............................................................................................................................. 7 Downtown County Building Redevelopment ................................................................................................. 7 Water Quality & Detention Retrofits ................................................................................................................. 7 Business Attraction .............................................................................................................................................. 7 “Green Valley” Economic Development ......................................................................................................... 7 Promote Mixed Use Development .................................................................................................................... 8 Alternative Infill Development Standards ....................................................................................................... 8 Promoting Conservation Development ........................................................................................................... 8 Historic Preservation Tax Incentive ................................................................................................................. 9 Bank & Vegetation Restoration Program ........................................................................................................ 9 Schoolyard Habitat Program .............................................................................................................................. 9 Encouraging Transfers of Development Rights............................................................................................ 9 General Stormwater and Water Quality Standards ...................................................................................... 9 Stream & River Corridor Water Quality Standards ..................................................................................... 10 Edwards Standards ............................................................................................................................................ 10 Parking Standards .............................................................................................................................................. 10 Street Trees .......................................................................................................................................................... 10 Alternative Paving ............................................................................................................................................... 10 Living Poles Program ........................................................................................................................................ 11 CHAPTER 2: TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND CLEAN AIR ................................................. 12 City Fleet Fuel Reduction Program ................................................................................................................ 12 Low VOC Roadway Striping ............................................................................................................................. 12 Heavy Motor Vehicle Idling Regulation ......................................................................................................... 12 Traffic Signal Snychronization ........................................................................................................................ 13 City Employee Flex Hours ................................................................................................................................ 13 City Employee Mass Transit Supplementation ........................................................................................... 13 Business Employee Flex Hours Incentive .................................................................................................... 13 City Employee Telecommute Program .......................................................................................................... 14 Business Employee Telecommute Incentive ............................................................................................... 14 Business Employee Carpool Program .......................................................................................................... 14 Employee Carpool Program ............................................................................................................................. 14 Alternative-Fuel Vehicle Fleet Replacement ................................................................................................ 14 Establish Motor Pool Program and Vehicle-Needs Assessment Program .......................................... 15 Trail System Connectivity ................................................................................................................................. 15 Sidewalk Retrofit Program ................................................................................................................................ 15 Bicycle Facility Retrofit Program .................................................................................................................... 15 City Biofuels/Propane Fuel Station ................................................................................................................ 15 Municipal Mass Transit ...................................................................................................................................... 16 Intermunicipal Commuter Rail ......................................................................................................................... 16 Open Burning Prohibition ................................................................................................................................. 16 Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities in New Development ............................................................................ 16 Alternative Urban Street Designs ................................................................................................................... 16 CHAPTER 3: GREEN POWER AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY ....................................................... 17 Baseline Purchase of Renewable Energy ..................................................................................................... 17 Voluntary Purchase of Renewable Energy ................................................................................................... 17 City Hall Office Occupancy Sensors .............................................................................................................. 18 Business Office Occupancy Sensors Incentive .......................................................................................... 18 LDC Lighting Standards/Dark Sky .................................................................................................................. 18 On-Site Renewable Energy Program ............................................................................................................. 18

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Cool-Smart Rebate Program ............................................................................................................................ 18 CFL/LED Bulb Program ..................................................................................................................................... 19 Tiered Electrical Rates ....................................................................................................................................... 19 Net-Metering Program ........................................................................................................................................ 19 Comprehensive City Office Practices Evaluation ....................................................................................... 19 Wall/Attic/Ceiling Insulation Rebate ............................................................................................................... 19 Energy Star Window Replacement Rebate ................................................................................................... 20 Window Solar Screens/Film Rebate ............................................................................................................... 20 Duct Testing/Repair/Replacement Rebate .................................................................................................... 20 Solar Attic Fan Rebate ....................................................................................................................................... 20 Attic Radiant Barrier Rebate ............................................................................................................................ 20 Cool Roof Rebate ................................................................................................................................................ 21 Solar Hot Water Heater Rebate ........................................................................................................................ 21 Green City Buildings Initiative ......................................................................................................................... 22 Adopt USGBC’s LEED Standards for Green Building ............................................................................... 22 Adopt NAHB/ICC Green Building Standards ............................................................................................... 23 Adopt Energy Star for Homes Standards ..................................................................................................... 23 Weatherization Program .................................................................................................................................... 23 CHAPTER 5: WATER AND WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT ...................................................... 24 Water Audit/Leak Detection and Repair ........................................................................................................ 24 Water Waste Prohibition ................................................................................................................................... 24 Water Conservation Coordinator .................................................................................................................... 24 Water Conservation Pricing ............................................................................................................................. 24 Residential Plumbing Retrofit Program ........................................................................................................ 25 Wash-Smart Rebate Program .......................................................................................................................... 25 Flush-Smart Program ......................................................................................................................................... 25 ICI Conservation Program ................................................................................................................................ 25 Treated Effluent Reuse Program ..................................................................................................................... 25 Rainwater Harvesting Program ....................................................................................................................... 26 CHAPTER 6: RECYCLING AND WASTE REDUCTION .............................................................. 27 Direct Deposit ...................................................................................................................................................... 27 Electronic Government and Co-locations .................................................................................................... 27 Paperless Agenda ............................................................................................................................................... 27 Construction Materials Recycling Center ..................................................................................................... 28 Household Hazardous Waste Collection ...................................................................................................... 28 Recycling (Solid Waste) .................................................................................................................................... 28 Citizen Composting Program ........................................................................................................................... 28 CHAPTER 7: EDUCATION AND OUTREACH .......................................................................... 29 Interactive Energy Use Analysis ..................................................................................................................... 29 Energy Analysis .................................................................................................................................................. 29 Energy Efficiency Education ............................................................................................................................ 29 Marketing Energy Conservation...................................................................................................................... 29 Adopt-a-Park ........................................................................................................................................................ 29 River Clean-ups ................................................................................................................................................... 30 Organic Vegetable Donation Program/Community Gardens ................................................................... 30 Environmental Education Programs and Services .................................................................................... 30 Water Conservation Education Programs and Services .......................................................................... 30 Residential Water Survey Program ................................................................................................................ 30 New Home Green Brochure .............................................................................................................................. 30 General Green Brochure ................................................................................................................................... 32

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Chapter 1: Land Use Management, Urban Forestry and Water Quality Increasingly, many communities are designed in such a way that residents are living farther from places of work, school and services. This growth pattern fosters an increasing dependence on motor vehicles. This community design, commonly known as sprawl, translates into higher air and climate change-inducing pollution associated with higher rates of car travel. Development also exerts pressure on a city’s open space and urban forest resources. Many scientific studies confirm that trees and vegetation are valuable resources for cooling our communities. Local government, residents and businesses can profit from the development of dense, mixed-use neighborhoods. These measures save green spaces and money by cutting fuel, utility and infrastructure, and service delivery costs. Potential Performance Measures Percentage of tree cover compared to 2007 levels Number of trees planted participating in the program Value invested in designated infill areas Acres of open space acquired Acres of open space per 1,000 population compared to 2007 levels Water quality measurement at particular points in area rivers and creeks compared to 2007 levels Work versus Live survey (including commute time/distance) periodically compared to 2007 levels Acres placed on conservation easements/deeds resulting from conservation development subdivisions Acres of development participating in conservation development methods Acres of infill development/redevelopment Acres of transit oriented development/redevelopment within ½ mile of fixed transit station Employers brought to San Marcos since 2007 Total number of employees Number of employees to be San Marcos residents Green Employers brought to San Marcos since 2007 Total number of employees Number of employees to be San Marcos residents Acres of residential-commercial-office mixed use projects developed Acres of development rights transferred Linear feet of river bank restoration Number of Certificates of Appropriateness obtained annually since 2007 Acres of alternative paving surfaces used Percent of overall paving each year using alternative surfaces compared to 2007 Value of renovations in historic districts compared to 2007 (based on Certificates of Appropriateness) Acres of schoolyard habitat created Number of schools participating in schoolyard habitat program Acquiring Green/Open Space Type: capital Target: internal Status: existing Description: Acquiring green/open space for habitat conservation, passive recreation, etc. City has 867 acres of parkland classified as green space or open space. Improvements: GSI recommends 23 acres of open space per 1,000 population. City should acquire 283 additional acres by 2016. Ensure this is discussed in coming Parks Master Plan.

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City Space Tree Planting Program Type: capital Target: internal/policy Status: new Description: Plant trees throughout the city to reduce urban heat island effect. Planting them along sidewalks makes people more likely to use them, creating a better pedestrian environment and reducing reliance on the automobile. Trees also function as excellent carbon sinks. Council could develop a policy on tree planting by new sidewalks based on feasibility. Improvements: Citizen Tree Planting Program Type: capital Target: community/policy Status: new Description: City would provide trees/reimburse for trees to plant at commercial businesses, residences and apartments. Planting trees throughout the city to reduces urban heat island effect. Planting them along sidewalks makes people more likely to use them, creating a better pedestrian environment and reducing reliance on the automobile. Trees also function as excellent carbon sinks. Council could consider using trees from the TDS contract to achieve this goal! Improvements: Tree City USA Program Type: capital & development code or policy Target: internal, community, policy Status: new Description: Arbor Day Foundation Program. Basically gives recognition based on having a tree board/department, tree care ordinance, community forestry program with annual budget of at least $2 per capita (possibly the tree planting programs mentioned elsewhere), and an Arbor Day observance and proclamation. Improvements: Strengthened Tree Preservation Standards Type: development code or policy Target: community/policy Status: existing Description: Encourage tree preservation, rather than just focusing on replacement. Current standards provide guidance for replacement, but are lacking in providing an incentive/requirement to keep existing trees on-site. As the council evaluates the LDC this might be an area to mention. Improvements: Could be done as a new requirement i.e. trees over 12� in caliper shall be preserved, or as an incentive i.e. if 6 trees over 12� in caliper are preserved, then 15% of required landscaping may be waived.

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Infill Development Incentives Type: development code or policy Target: community Status: existing Description: Current incentives function more like an affordable homeownership program, with maximum sales prices. Restricts likelihood of use, but also prevents widespread gentrification. Improvements: Could relax or eliminate sales price for city-wide incentives. Also, could better define eligible area (map) and open up additional options for incentives. There should be an amount cap which then triggers when incentive proposal should come to council. In addition, before this incentive reaches council should have a recommendation from the green team. Downtown County Building Redevelopment Type: capital & development code or policy Target: internal Status: new Description: Work with county to redevelop sites downtown when they leave for new campus. Also cleanup environmental problem sites (Jeremiah) to make them available for redevelopment. City could purchase/joint-venture buildings with County, then issue RFQ/RFP for redevelopment to certain specifications. Improvements: In order to pay for environmental clean ups work with federal lobby group to acquire brown field funds & private grants Water Quality & Detention Retrofits Type: capital Target: internal/university partnership Status: new Description: Retrofitting existing portions of the City with water quality and detention for stormwater runoff, such as downtown. Improvements: Business Attraction Type: development code or policy Target: internal Status: new Description: Work to attract higher paying jobs (white collar & grey collar) that attract people to commute from San Marcos to Austin. Increase San Marcos worker skills to attract better jobs. Improvements: “Green Valley� Economic Development Type: development code or policy Target: internal/policy Status: new Description: City has the potential to become the Silicon Valley of Green research and development. Focus on Green industry manufacturers, etc. Will need to get comments back from the ED San Marcos Improvements:

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Promote Mixed Use Development Type: development code or policy Target: community Status: existing Description: Existing LDC mixed use district is not particularly effective or popular due to low impervious cover permitted and restricted residential density. Most effective mixed use has a PUD overlay, which makes the process less predictable and appealing to developers. Improvements: Consider changes to the LDC to promote mixed uses. Could consider form-based, as an additional option rather than use-based zoning. In addition to downtown could create 1-2 more intense mixed use districts. Incentives for mixed use, such as reduced on-site parking, density bonuses, increased height, etc. might help. A stronger move would be to adopt form-based zoning as a replacement, which gives the citizens the ability to regulate the impact of the use more than use-based zoning. Alternative Infill Development Standards Type: development code or policy Target: community Status: new Description: Similar to promoting mixed use development. LDC is designed mostly for greenfield, suburban-style development. Infill redevelopment is difficult as a result. Improvements: Establish alternative parking standards, zoning, lot coverage, setbacks, etc. Promoting Transit Oriented Development Type: development code or policy Target: community Status: new Description: Similar to promoting mixed use development. Used near transit stations, allows much higher densities and mixed uses, less focus on car and more on pedestrian. Improvements: Only way this is currently possible is through using a PUD. This is a problem as many infill sites are less than two acres. Establish TOD as a base zoning or as an overlay district.

Promoting Conservation Development Type: development code or policy Target: community Status: new Description: Similar to current form of cluster development permitted in LDC, but stronger. At least 50% of the property would be set aside in a conservation easement. Urban densities would then be used where houses are developed, but surrounded by large open spaces. Imagine a golf course community, but with green space instead of a golf course. Council should consider making this a requirement for developments over the recharge zone, as a condition to utility extension, etc. If the council would like to take the carrot approach this could be done as an incentive with a density bonus. Improvements:

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Historic Preservation Tax Incentive Type: development code or policy Target: community Status: new Description: Provide a tax incentive to restore buildings in a historic district. For example, the building is not taxed on value increased as a result of restoration for five years. Improvements: Evaluate this concept relative to the Downtown Smart Code Bank & Vegetation Restoration Program Type: citizen programs Target: community Status: existing Description: with Lion’s Club, restoring eroded banks and removing invasive material so they can be replaced with native vegetation. With the newly re-negotiated contract in lieu of tube fee see how much of this could be funded as a partnership with the lions club. In addition, how much of an impact with the ERIP have in RB restoration Improvements:

Schoolyard Habitat Program Type: citizen programs Target: community Status: existing Description: working with area schools, nature center provides consultation on how to locate funds and design/install a schoolyard wildlife habitat. Improvements: Could partner with Texas Wildscapes program. Could also include Hays school district. Encouraging Transfers of Development Rights Type: development code or policy Target: community Status: existing Description: allows developers to transfer development rights (density/impervious cover) from one area, assumed to be environmentally sensitive, to another area. Improvements: Code is completely unused. Formula does not allow complete transfer—some lost along the way. Could be set up as a bonus to encourage people to use it, such as allowing them to transfer 125% of the development rights. General Stormwater and Water Quality Standards Type: development code or policy Target: community Status: existing Description: requires erosion control and best management practices for drainage and water quality. Improvements:

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Stream & River Corridor Water Quality Standards Type: development code or policy Target: community Status: existing Description: establishes water quality zones along streams and rivers, placing impervious cover restrictions, chemical use limitations, ground cover requirements, etc. Improvements: Edwards Standards Type: development code or policy Target: community Status: existing Description: places restrictions on development over the Edwards Aquifer Recharge Zone and Transition Zone. Requires protection of sensitive features, restricts impervious cover, best management practices, etc. Improvements: Compared to other places, our restrictions have become weaker on impervious cover. The Edwards presents an excellent opportunity to require conservation development. Parking Standards Type: development code or policy Target: community Status: existing Description: City has established minimum parking ratios for various land uses. Many businesses choose to significantly exceed the standard. Improvements: Some ratios are too high, as evidenced by the large number of empty spaces. Some businesses intentionally choose to overpark their sites. City could reevaluate the parking ratios based on real world experience. In addition, City could set a maximum parking ratio as a standard not to be exceeded, or make it subject to penalty (additional parkland dedication, etc.) Street Trees Type: development code or policy Target: community Status: existing Description: City requires new developments to plant trees along the road. This creates a more pleasant environment for pedestrians and helps reduce the urban heat island effect. Also, it can provide shade to the homes/businesses to reduce utility use. Improvements: Alternative Paving Type: development code or policy Target: community Status: existing Description: LDC allows consideration of alternative, more pervious paving choices for parking lots, improving drainage and water quality on a case-by-case basis. Improvements: City should make efforts to encourage this, perhaps through incentives.

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Living Poles Program Type: operations and maintenance Target: internal Status: new Description: Electric Utility would plant a tree for every electrical pole they replace. Improvements:

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Chapter 2: Transportation Planning and Clean Air Automobiles are a leading contributor to climate change-inducing pollution. Nationally, the transportation sector is one of the largest sources of U.S. emissions, representing nearly one-third of total emissions. Every gallon of gasoline burned emits 20 pounds of carbon dioxide, the principal climate change pollutant. Many local governments are increasing their jurisdictions’ fuel efficiency by making alternative forms of transportation more accessible to residents and employees. Potential Performance Measures Mass transit ridership City fleet MPG compared to 2007 levels Gallons of gasoline/diesel used per vehicle compared to 2007 levels Number of city employees participating in flex hour program Number of companies participating in flex hour program Number of employees participating Number of city employees participating in carpool program Number of companies participating in carpool program Number of employees participating Number of city employees participating in telecommute program Number of companies participating in telecommute program Number of employees participating Miles of trails constructed Miles of sidewalks rebuilt Miles of new sidewalks Miles of bike routes identified Miles of bike lanes installed Miles of bike trails installed Average traffic signal idling time compared to 2007 Percentage of vehicles in City fleet that are alternative fuel

City Fleet Fuel Reduction Program Type: operations & maintenance Target: internal Status: existing Description: Implemented in FY 06-07. Goal was to reduce fuel consumption 3%. Implemented proactive measures to enhance fuel efficiency, including fleet utilization and acquisition review, operator awareness training, idling restrictions, ongoing fuel conservation measures, fuel management tracking system, progressive preventative maintenance, long drain program, synthetic products, and alternative fuel systems. Compared to previous year, reduced fuel consumption ___% Improvements: None identified. Low VOC Roadway Striping Type: operations & maintenance Target: internal Status: existing Description: Uses roadway striping materials with fewer volatile organic compounds, reducing negative impact on ambient air quality. Improvements: None identified. Heavy Motor Vehicle Idling Regulation Type: operations & maintenance Target: community Status: existing Description: Prohibits vehicles with a gross weight of 14,000+ pounds from idling. Improvements: Enforcement?

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Traffic Signal Snychronization Type: capital Target: internal Status: existing Description: Synchronize traffic signals to reduce idling. In progress. Improvements: City Employee Flex Hours Type: operations & maintenance Target: internal Status: new Description: Employees could work four 10hr. days rather than five 8hr. days, reducing a day of commuting each week. As an alternative, employees could shift hours early or later and keep the 8hr. day, reducing emission peaks at 8 and 5, and potentially allowing extended hours and better citizen access. This could be offered with incentives to businesses in San Marcos as well. Improvements: City Employee Mass Transit Supplementation Type: operations & maintenance Target: internal Status: new Description: Provide City employees free use of mass transit. Improvements: Business Employee Flex Hours Incentive Type: operations & maintenance Target: community Status: new Description: Employees could work four 10hr. days rather than five 8hr. days, reducing a day of commuting each week. As an alternative, employees could shift hours early or later and keep the 8hr. day, reducing emission peaks at 8 and 5. Improvements:

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City Employee Telecommute Program Type: operations & maintenance Target: internal Status: new Description: Based on characteristics of job, city employees could office from home full-time or a portion of their time. Improvements: Business Employee Telecommute Incentive Type: operations & maintenance Target: community Status: new Description: An incentive to businesses to provide telecommute job options. Could be distributed as a cash incentive per employee telecommuting. Improvements: Business Employee Carpool Program Type: operations & maintenance Target: community Status: new Description: City encourages businesses to adopt carpooling programs using some kind of incentive. Could be targeted to areas of the city with parking problems, such as downtown. Improvements: Employee Carpool Program Type: operations & maintenance Target: internal Status: new Description: City employees that participate in carpools or use non-motorized transportation to get to work given some kind of reward, such as an extra vacation day. Improvements: Alternative-Fuel Vehicle Fleet Replacement Type: operations & maintenance Target: internal Status: new Description: Would formalize some informal efforts already underway. Program would establish a policy in which all non-specialized vehicles (specialized = fire trucks, heavy trucks, etc.) would be required to use alternative fuels or operate as gas- or diesel-electric hybrids. Plug-in electrics would also be eligible. Requestor would have burden of proof to show that an alternative fuel vehicle could not perform the necessary tasks adequately. In addition, decentralized fleet would transition to a motor pool, allowing maximum use of the more expensive alternative fuel vehicles and retiring the older vehicles.

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Establish Motor Pool Program and Vehicle-Needs Assessment Program Type: operations & maintenance Target: internal Status: new Description: Decentralized fleet would transition to a motor pool for most departments, allowing maximum use of the more expensive alternative fuel vehicles and retiring the older vehicles. Also, the vehicle needs would be evaluated based on the job it is to perform, i.e. is a full-size truck necessary, or would a Ford Escape Hybrid or a Prius still meet the job needs? Improvements: Trail System Connectivity Type: capital Target: internal Status: existing Description: With assistance from the Greenbelt Alliance, constructs/restores trails throughout city land. ___ feet/miles of trails installed over the last five years. Improvements: Focus on connectivity of trails, creating a city-wide system fully-connected to one another through parks, greenspace and greenbelts. Would allow an alternative to automobile travel. Sidewalk Retrofit Program Type: capital Target: internal Status: existing Description: Installing sidewalks in existing neighborhoods and replacing those in disrepair. This activity promotes pedestrian transportation. ___ feet/miles of sidewalks installed over the last five years. Improvements: Increase funding to develop a more complete sidewalk system at a faster rate. Bicycle Facility Retrofit Program Type: capital Target: internal Status: existing Description: Installing bike lanes, paths, or identifying bike routes on existing streets. Improvements: Currently only done with road reconstruction and widening. Provide signage on all streets where they are ready to be designated bike routes, stripe those roads designated for bike lanes if pavement width sufficient, etc. City Biofuels/Propane Fuel Station Type: capital Target: internal Status: existing/new Description: in 2004, the City and University dedicated a propane fueling station at Texas State to provide alternative fueling for fleet vehicles. Improvements: The City could develop a second propane fuel station at a city facility. As an alternative, the city could provide an incentive to existing private fuel stations to provide a propane pump, biodiesel, E-85, etc. In addition, the City could require a certain level of biofuels when the fuel vendor contract comes up for renewal (require B-20 instead of regular diesel, etc.)

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Municipal Mass Transit Type: capital and operations & maintenance Target: internal Status: existing/new Description: City is currently served by two systems: CARTS and Texas State Tram. Improvements: City rural funding disappearing in 2010 and being replaced with small urban match system. City may look at consolidation and alternative designs for vehicles and routes. Buses could be maintained. Alternatives might include ultra-light rail (faster streetcar) to university, transit hub and outlet mall. Rapid bus would operate like a rubber-wheeled ultra-light rail but not require rails. Intermunicipal Commuter Rail Type: capital and operations & maintenance Target: internal Status: new Description: City has opportunity to participate in Austin-San Antonio intermunicipal commuter rail system, improving access to major economic bases and reducing reliance on the personal automobile for commuting. Open Burning Prohibition Type: development code or policy Target: community Status: existing Description: No person is permitted to burn material in the city limits. Eliminated grills from hundreds of apartments in the City. Improvements: Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities in New Development Type: development code or policy Target: community Status: existing Description: LDC requires all new developments to provide bicycle and pedestrian routes along streets. Improvements: Could establish standards for pedestrian/bicycle connectivity within sites. Could require facilities like covered bicycle parking, etc. Alternative Urban Street Designs Type: development code or policy Target: community Status: new Description: Existing designs are suburban-style. They have wide lanes, shoulders, wide grass strips,etc. that are not always compatible with older parts of the City. Improvements: Amend regulations to create more urban-style street sections for use in older parts of the city. Helps facilitate infill.

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Chapter 3: Green Power and Energy Efficiency Electricity that is generated from renewable energy sources is often referred to as “green power.” Unlike fossil fuel-based power, these sources of energy emit no or low climate change pollutants. Green power can include electricity generated exclusively from renewable resources including wind, hydro-electric or solar power—or electricity produced from a combination of fossil and renewable resources. Cities can source renewable energy through utilities offering green power programs, through the purchase of renewable energy certificates called Green Tags or by installing on-site renewable technologies, such as solar panels. Energy efficiency programs offer one of the best ways to reduce global warming pollutants. A large share of fossil fuel use is dedicated to providing the electricity that powers almost all aspects of our daily lives. Globally, 75 percent of all energy is consumed in cities. In addition, U.S., State and local governments spend upwards of $40 billion a year on energy consuming products and equipment. Performance Measures: Residential/Multifamily Kwh per capita compared to 2007 levels Commercial/Industrial/Institutional Kwh per connection compared to 2007 levels Percent of energy from renewable sources compared to 2007 levels Percent of energy consumers have elected to have from renewable sources in addition to baseline City offices kwh compared to 2007 levels Number of program participants in each rebate program Kilowatts produced from renewable sources inside city (rooftop solar, etc.) compared to 2007 Gallons of hot water capacity reallocated to solar hot water heaters compared to 2007 Square feet of insulation, window film/screen, cool roof, radiant barrier, etc. installed through programs

Baseline Purchase of Renewable Energy Type: operations & maintenance Target: internal Status: existing Description: Of total power, City purchases 6+/-% from renewable sources through LCRA. Improvements: Gradually increase this amount each year, reaching 15% by 2012. As an alternative, the City could purchase Green Tags. Voluntary Purchase of Renewable Energy Type: operations & maintenance Target: community Status: new Description: Establishes a voluntary program, similar to CPS Energy’s (San Antonio) Windtricity Program, allowing each customer to decide how much additional renewable energy to purchase beyond the baseline amount the City already does. Improvements:

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City Hall Office Occupancy Sensors Type: operations & maintenance Target: internal Status: new Description: Could apply to internal city offices as well as some kind of incentive program for commercial businesses. Occupancy sensors are placed in offices and restrooms, replacing standard light switches. The light is triggered by any movement in the room and remains on for a set period of time. Improvements: Business Office Occupancy Sensors Incentive Type: operations & maintenance Target: community Status: new Description: Occupancy sensors are placed in offices and restrooms, replacing standard light switches. The light is triggered by any movement in the room and remains on for a set period of time. Improvements: LDC Lighting Standards/Dark Sky Type: development code or policy Target: community Status: existing Description: Current regulation places some limits on overlighting sites, which causes light pollution. Improvements: Transition to stronger requirements. Require full cut-off fixtures and more stringent maximum light levels on properties. See Tucson, Flagstaff and Ketchum for examples. On-Site Renewable Energy Program Type: operations & maintenance Target: community Status: new Description: Provide rebates for people to install on-site renewable energy facilities, such as solar panels and wind turbines. The rebate would include $3.00 per AC watt based on the calculated expected performance of the system that is less than 100kW. Improvements: Cool-Smart Rebate Program Type: operations & maintenance Target: community Status: new Description: Rebates for replacing older, inefficient AC systems with a new system at least 15 SEER Improvements:

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CFL/LED Bulb Program Type: operations & maintenance Target: community Status: new Description: Provide CFL/LED bulbs to people, similar to toilet replacement program Improvements: Tiered Electrical Rates Type: operations & maintenance Target: community Status: new Description: Similar to efforts in water conservation, adopt a tiered system of electrical rates that encourage energy conservation. Those users that exceed a certain amount of kwh will have the amount above charged at a higher rate. Improvements: Net-Metering Program Type: operations & maintenance Target: community Status: new Description: Establish a formal net-metering policy for those that create more energy than they consume. Improvements: Comprehensive City Office Practices Evaluation Type: operations & maintenance Target: internal Status: existing Description: Evaluates all office practices across the entire city, such as turning off computers at night, turning off lights, temperature management, use of CFL/LED technology (exit signs, etc.), purchasing only Energy Star equipment, etc. Improvements: Wall/Attic/Ceiling Insulation Rebate Type: operations & maintenance Target: community Status: new Description: Provide a rebate of $0.15 per square foot of attic/ceiling insulation installed in an existing house. Existing ceiling must not be higher than R-14 and must achieve R-30 when complete. Existing walls must have no insulation and reach R-13. Improvements:

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Energy Star Window Replacement Rebate Type: operations & maintenance Target: community Status: new Description: $1 per square foot of windows replaced with Energy Star windows. must be Energy Star qualified in the San Marcos area, certified by the National Fenestration Rating Council and have a Ufactor of 0.65 with a Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) of 0.40, or equivalent performance. Improvements: Window Solar Screens/Film Rebate Type: operations & maintenance Target: community Status: new Description: $0.15 per square foot of windows covered with solar window film or screens on west & south faces of structure. Screens must block 65% of solar gain and be installed on single-pane windows. Reflectivity of window film must block 65% of solar gain. Improvements: Duct Testing/Repair/Replacement Rebate Type: operations & maintenance Target: community Status: new Description: 20% of cost up to $50 for testing. 50% of cost up to $250 for repair and sealing. 20% of cost up to $1,000 on duct insulation and replacement. 20% of air that moves through a home is lost to poorly connected & insulated ducts. Improvements: Solar Attic Fan Rebate Type: operations & maintenance Target: community Status: new Description: Rebate 20% of cost up to $200 to install solar powered attic fan in an existing home. Improvements: Attic Radiant Barrier Rebate Type: operations & maintenance Target: community Status: new Description: A rebate of $0.10 per square foot of accessible attic space up to a maximum of 20% of the total cost on Radiant Barrier. Acceptable materials are those that provide maximum reflection of thermal radiation and heat resistance. This includes paint coatings, aluminum foils and thermal shields specifically designed for use in buildings and homes as attic radiant barriers. Can save 8-12% on air conditioning costs. Improvements:

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Cool Roof Rebate Type: operations & maintenance Target: community Status: new Description: The solar water heater equipment installed must be new and must be certified by the Solar Rating Certification Corporation (SRCC). Only solar water heating systems with permanently installed electric backup are eligible to receive the rebate. The rebates will be calculated using the SRCC's calculated Annual kWh Energy Savings Performance table for San Antonio. The listed calculated savings for the system will be multiplied by a rate of $0.30. Rebates for the solar water heating systems will have a minimum of $400 with a maximum allowable rebate amount of $800. Improvements: Solar Hot Water Heater Rebate Type: operations & maintenance Target: community Status: new Description: A rebate of $0.10 per square foot of accessible attic space up to a maximum of 20% of the total cost on Radiant Barrier. Acceptable materials are those that provide maximum reflection of thermal radiation and heat resistance. This includes paint coatings, aluminum foils and thermal shields specifically designed for use in buildings and homes as attic radiant barriers. Can save 8-12% on air conditioning costs. Improvements:

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Chapter 4: Green Building Cities across the country are passing ordinances to mandate that municipal building meet green building standards. One of the most frequently cited standards are those set by the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program of the U.S. Green Building Council and the U.S. EPA and Department of Energy’s Energy Star program. This series of programs for new and existing buildings, as well as community design, provides a framework for cities to begin implementing energy efficiency and green building techniques that save thousands of dollars and avert greenhouse gas emissions. Performance Measures: Number of structures in city certified through one of the green building programs compared to prior to 2007 Number of homes assisted through weatherization Reduction in utility bills resulting from weatherization (before vs. after assistance) Average energy consumption for each new home (per square foot) compared to 2007

Green City Buildings Initiative Type: capital Target: internal Status: new Description: Retrofit city buildings with green features. Require new buildings meet a particular standard (probably LEED like what Austin has done for its city buildings). Might involve replacing HVAC, installing solar, rainwater collection, green roofs, window awnings, etc. City would serve as an example and also provide an opportunity for community education. Taking action makes green building requirements for the private sector more palatable. Can also do Green retrofits, such as new cooling/heating equipment, reflective roofs, awnings, etc. Improvements: Adopt USGBC’s LEED Standards for Green Building Type: development code or policy Target: community Status: new Description: Specialized green standards for new homes, new construction, institutions and neighborhoods. Could be done as a requirement, or through incentives. Improvements:

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Adopt NAHB/ICC Green Building Standards Type: development code or policy Target: community Status: new Description: A national green building standard still in draft form, being created by International Code Council (source of all of our building codes). Establishes green standards for new homes, multifamily and neighborhoods. Will be a national standard for inclusion in International Codes as an option. Could be done as a requirement or through incentives/rebates. Based on the recent draft of these standards, the houses participating in the City’s HOME program would or came close to qualifying, despite being priced less than $60/square foot. Improvements: Adopt Energy Star for Homes Standards Type: development code or policy Target: community Status: new Description: A very light version of green building. City could require that all new single-family homes meet this standard. This is becoming common among mass-market builders and can be done for little additional cost. At least three of the houses participating in the City’s HOME program are Energy Star Certified and were constructed for less than $60/square foot. Improvements: Weatherization Program Type: capital Target: community Status: new Description: Grants and assistance available to low-moderate income households to replace windows, install insulation, provide weatherstriping, etc. Improvements:

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Chapter 5: Water and Wastewater Management Performance Measures: Gallons of water consumed per capital per day overall Residential only per capita C & I per connection Percent of unaccounted for water use compared to 2007 Number participating in rebate programs Gallons of effluent reused Gallons of rainwater being harvested compared to 2007 Water Audit/Leak Detection and Repair Type: operations & maintenance Target: internal & community Status: existing Description: Monthly and annual pre-screen water audits to determine and control unaccounted water use. System-wide leak detection program. Program has resulted in reducing unaccounted for water use to below 15%, the goal established by AWWA. Universal metering has aided in this effort. Improvements: Become more aggressive, attempting to reduce unaccounted for water to a new goal percentage. Water Waste Prohibition Type: development code or policy Target: community Status: existing Description: Encourages low-water landscape materials, limit turf areas, and properly prepare new landscapes. Water conservation plumbing code includes building standards. Year-round prohibition of waste, use of sprinklers during daytime, charity car washes, non-recirculating water features and athome car washing using open hoses. Improvements: Xeric landscaping required for commercial. Xeric landscaping required for residential. Stronger enforcement. Working with the University to address many of their water waste issues. Water Conservation Coordinator Type: operations & maintenance Target: internal Status: existing Description: full-time employee. Provides public information, customer water audits, public information materials, school education program, develops/implements rebate/incentive programs, water conservation and drought management plans, enforces conservation and drought ordinances. Improvements: Give more tools to use—more incentive programs, etc. Water Conservation Pricing Type: operations & maintenance Target: community Status: existing Description: Increasing block rate structure for all water customers to encourage conservation. Improvements: Consider higher seasonal water rates, steeper tiers to target high water users.

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Residential Plumbing Retrofit Program Type: operations & maintenance Target: community Status: existing Description: Customers that have received a residential water survey or participated in rebate/incentive program receive free replacement showerheads, kitchen faucet aerators, bathroom faucet aerators, and toilet displacement devices as needed. Also distributed at public events. Improvements: Wash-Smart Rebate Program Type: operations & maintenance Target: community Status: existing Description: Encourage use of efficient washing machines through rebate to residential customers that purchase a qualifying efficient clothes washer. Improvements: Expand to multi-family. Increase funding and amount of rebates. Flush-Smart Program Type: operations & maintenance Target: community Status: existing Description: Encourages replacement of existing high-volume toilets with new efficient models. In 2006 implemented a distribution program of 140 dual-flush toilets to qualifying single-family water customers, which was a resounding success. Improvements: Conduct another distribution, opening it up to all users and increasing the amount available. Consider a rebate program for people to purchase their own. ICI Conservation Program Type: operations & maintenance Target: community Status: existing Description: Water audits for ICI customers. Each customer receives a report detailing known water uses, recommended conservation strategies, estimated costs, and expected water savings. Includes an award program for ICI customers that participate. Includes a pre-rinse valve exchange program in increase water efficiency in the food service industry. Improvements: Treated Effluent Reuse Program Type: operations & maintenance Target: community Status: existing Description: Reclaimed wastewater sent to American National Power facility to cool power-producing turbines rather than treated potable water. Improvements: Expand service to other ICI customers. Run parallel lines in new neighborhoods to use effluent for landscaping.

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Rainwater Harvesting Program Type: operations & maintenance Target: community Status: new Description: Provide rebates for people to install rainwater collection for roof tops. Could also set up a program to provide rail barrels similar to the toilet program. Improvements:

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Chapter 6: Recycling and Waste Reduction Waste prevention and recycling eliminates climate change-inducing pollution by reducing landfill methane emissions, transportation-related emissions and overall energy savings by reusing items that would otherwise have to be manufactured. Performance Measures: Pounds of waste diverted from landfills Pounds of paper consumed at City of San Marcos Pounds of construction materials diverted from landfills and recycled/reused Pounds of household hazardous waste collected Number of program participants Direct Deposit Type: operations & maintenance Target: internal Status: existing Description: Employee payroll can be deposited directly into bank accounts. 391 employees currently participate. Improvements: Could be enhanced by eliminating the paper stub that is still sent out and distributing the stub electronically. Electronic Government and Co-locations Type: operations & maintenance Target: internal & community Status: existing Description: Online programs include library book renewals, library hold requests, library online catalog, citizen request system, parks & recreation program registration, utility billing and payment, and City Council paperless agenda. Two city-owned utility bill payment centers are available, along with HEB bill payment locations. Improvements: Begin electronic submission of other administrative projects, such as plats, zoning changes, building permits, WPP, etc. to reduce paper se and not force people to visit city hall if it is not necessary. Digitize as many records as possible so buildings become more productive and are not used as much for storage. Paperless Agenda Type: operations & maintenance Target: internal Status: existing Description: City Council uses an electronic agenda packet rather than 30+ packets each with 250+ pages. Approximately 6,800 sheets of paper saved each Council meeting. Improvements: Could be extended to all major boards and commissions with heavy paper loads.

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Construction Materials Recycling Center Type: capital Target: internal & community Status: new Description: To complement a green building initiative. Scrap could be recycled to eventually become MDF, particle board, etc. Improvements: Household Hazardous Waste Collection Type: citizen program Target: community Status: existing Description: Four collection events per year at the permanent HHW collection site and diversion of wastes through education and waste exchange components. Improvements: Integrate with neighborhood cleanups or Bobcat Build to allow more convenient collection. Recycling (Solid Waste) Type: citizen programs Target: community Status: existing Description: Curbside collection of recycling once a week; drop off center for multi-family and commercial. Encouraged through publications, main-outs, youth educational programs. Improvements: Begin curbside recycling for multi-family, such as a blue dumpster.

Citizen Composting Program Type: operations and maintenance Target: community Status: new Description: City could provide composting bins and education to citizens to start backyard composting. Would reduce load on landfill. Improvements:

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Chapter 7: Education and Outreach From how you heat your home to how you drive your car, the daily choices that every citizen makes can impact both local and climate change-inducing pollution. Educating government staff and the public is the crucial first step to changing the behaviors that contribute to climate change. Performance Measures: Number participating in program Website hits Acres of park adopted Number participating in River Cleanup Pounds of litter removed from river Pounds of organic vegetables donated Acres of active community gardens Number exposed to educational materials Interactive Energy Use Analysis Type: citizen programs Target: community Status: new Description: An online tool. It allows the user to logon to check their energy/water use. It also allows them to input building characteristics, the characteristics of the occupants, etc. Creates customized recommendations for ways the occupants can improve their efficiency. Improvements: Energy Analysis Type: citizen programs Target: community Status: existing Description: Full-time Energy Efficiency Specialist conducts no-cost energy audits for residential and commercial customers. Improvements: Additional equipment is always helpful, such as thermal imaging, etc. Energy Efficiency Education Type: citizen programs Target: community Status: existing Description: SMEU presents to civic groups and local school students. Also, have brochures available to educate, including seasonal brochures targeting specific populations. School education programs for kids are more enhanced, including Louse the Lightning Bug, Power House, and Solar for Schools. Improvements: Might need to look at reworking brochures, etc. Marketing Energy Conservation Type: citizen programs Target: community Status: existing Description: SMEU works closely with large users to manage consumption. Targets apartments. Improvements: Perhaps need to get more aggressive. Adopt-a-Park Type: citizen programs Target: community Status: existing Description: Community groups can adopt a portion of a park to help maintain, do light planting, etc. Improvements: Could be extended to adopt a street, median, etc.

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River Clean-ups Type: citizen programs Target: community Status: existing Description: Twice a year, city sponsors a volunteer clean-up program for the San Marcos River. Improvements: Consider extending program to include Blanco River Organic Vegetable Donation Program/Community Gardens Type: citizen programs Target: community Status: existing Description: Nature Center grows and donates organic vegetables to the Women’s Shelter. Individuals can use a small plot at the Nature Center provided a portion is donated. Improvements: Create more locations for community gardens. Environmental Education Programs and Services Type: citizen programs Target: community Status: existing Description: Nature Center provides low cost environmental education programs and services to interested organizations and the community on topics like xeriscaping, sustainable landscape design, native plant identification, etc. Improvements: City could supplement to make the classes free. Could survey residents to see what topics might interest them more.

Water Conservation Education Programs and Services Type: citizen programs Target: community Status: existing Description: Public and school programs to inform them of effective water conservation techniques. Work closely with school teachers on student programs. Improvements:

Residential Water Survey Program Type: citizen programs Target: community Status: existing Description: single and multi-family customers. Includes evaluation of household leaks, flow rates, flush volumes and other uses with home. Customer receives general report and an individual report detaining specific water conservation strategies and their expected savings. Targets homes constructed before 1992. Improvements: Could start looking at post 1992 homes. New Home Green Brochure Type: citizen programs Target: community Status: new Description: A brochure sent out to builders to accompany every new house. Include household recycling opportunities, purchasing renewable energy, benefits of CFL/LED bulbs, habits to optimize water & energy use, local transportation options, maintenance checklist, proper handling & disposal of hazardous materials, and information on organic pesticides, fertilizers and cleaners. Improvements: General Green Brochure Type: citizen programs Target: community

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Status: new Description: Information on greening your house, beyond just water & energy. Could include rd information about 3 party verifiers like Energy Star, Green Seal, Green Label, FSC Certified Wood, etc. Improvements:

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Councilmember Jones Plans to introduce this sustainability proposal sometime in September. Please make comments about this proposal and stay tuned to hear how it goes.

Special thanks to Chance Sparks and his tireless efforts working with the green team to create this document.

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