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giving funds which could then result in pressure on a political party to become more accountable. The survey reflects the increasing conservatism in the society banking on radicalism. These opinions reflect the changes that have come and are being brought in Pakistan’s society. What’s most interesting to note is that the radicalism of the affluent class is far more difficult to define. It is more modern in fact post-modern as it replaces the state with a religious identity. In the imagination of these youth there is a Muslim ummah which is connected together despite the differences in historical experiences of individual Muslim states. The ummah has to be guarded by all it members who must contribute towards its growth and security. This minset was essentially not very different from what was produced by General Zia-ul-Haq’s regime during the 1980s. Conservatism, radicalism and extremism are factors which date back to the decade of the 1980s. Pakistan’s government then had encouraged greater religious orthodoxy and entered into partnership with several religious parties. The Zia period is known for creating institutions such as ‘Nazim-e-Salat” or the prayer police who would make sure that male members from every household came and prayed in the neighborhood mosques. The military dictator also brought changes in the curriculum. It is believed that over 700 changes were brought about in the text books. This trend could not be reversed by any of the successive leaders. Furthermore, the continued political instability fed into this process of radicalization and militarization of the society. These results carry an important message of the need for enlightenment in the society through liberalizing the national and religious discourse. Therefore, the underlying conclusion is that radicalism is one of the rising trends in Pakistan’s

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Red Hot Chilli Peppers Islam – Is the Youth in Elite Universities in Pakistan Radical?  

This is a study, by Ayesha Siddiqa, of the socio-political attitudes amongst youth in elite universities in the three major cities in Pakist...

Red Hot Chilli Peppers Islam – Is the Youth in Elite Universities in Pakistan Radical?  

This is a study, by Ayesha Siddiqa, of the socio-political attitudes amongst youth in elite universities in the three major cities in Pakist...

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