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The above developments took place in a politically repressive environment. During these years, the state governed mostly by a military dictatorial regime clamped down upon relatively liberal political forces and built linkages with parties of the religious right. The military and its intelligence agencies also continued to tactically engage with militant outfits. The overall environment sustained influence of the right wing with deep impact on overall environment of the society. There was growth of religiosity bordering on radicalism on the one hand, and, on the other, was a growing chasm between the self-acclaimed liberal ruling elite and the rest of the population. Â

The above-mentioned developments have a deep impact on the society and in

making it socially more conservative. A trend towards religiosity was also found amongst those surveyed for this study. The sample, however, was difficult to analyse since there were variations in their attitude towards matters that effected personal life versus issues relating to politics and geo-politics.

Conclusion Societal attitudes are a response to multiple events and forces that are taking place in a society, its region and the world at large. The developments, which took place in Pakistan and the geo-political developments have impacted socio-political attitude of its people, especially the youth. In Pakistan, there is a tendency to bifurcate the society between the liberal and the conservative or the religious. People accepting religious norms are considered as conservative or religious. Those that don’t are considered as liberal and secular. Furthermore, a popular assumption is that religious conservatism or radicalism is directly linked with poverty and underdevelopment. The results of this survey-based study question the above assumptions. It is based on

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Red Hot Chilli Peppers Islam – Is the Youth in Elite Universities in Pakistan Radical?  

This is a study, by Ayesha Siddiqa, of the socio-political attitudes amongst youth in elite universities in the three major cities in Pakist...

Red Hot Chilli Peppers Islam – Is the Youth in Elite Universities in Pakistan Radical?  

This is a study, by Ayesha Siddiqa, of the socio-political attitudes amongst youth in elite universities in the three major cities in Pakist...

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