Page 80

ƒ

transformation of the overall social environment from being open to becoming closed and more laced with the ideology of the religious right

ƒ

shifting emphasis of the societal discourse from secular politics to a puritanical representation of Islam

Religiosity was perpetuated further through a parallel process of turning society towards becoming apolitical and adoption of neo-liberalism as a guiding principle for the economy. Hence, the only dominant discourse pertained to religion. Although people resisted Zia’s enforcement of religion, his efforts managed to bring a subtle change in the environment which became much more obvious in the third phase. Third Wave: 1990‐01  Although there are hardly any studies available to link the rise in religious conservatism with the Zia period, the impact cannot be undermined. The propagation of religion through print and electronic media, the publicity of the Afghan war, conscious co-option of the public through proliferation of Deobandi and Wahabi madrassas (representing puritanical Islam) and Islamizing the overall social environment is bound to have left an impression on people. Moreover, the process of Islamization did not end with Zia’s death in a mysterious air crash in 1988. Jihad was still popular at state level and was aided and abetted by the army and its intelligence agencies. It was during this decade that conservative religious forces began to engulf the society and market puritanical Islam. The popularity of preachers like Farhat Hashmi and others who converted the upper class, upper-middle and middle class women and households to puritanical interpretation of Islam, grew rapidly in most urban centers.  

80

Red Hot Chilli Peppers Islam – Is the Youth in Elite Universities in Pakistan Radical?  

This is a study, by Ayesha Siddiqa, of the socio-political attitudes amongst youth in elite universities in the three major cities in Pakist...

Red Hot Chilli Peppers Islam – Is the Youth in Elite Universities in Pakistan Radical?  

This is a study, by Ayesha Siddiqa, of the socio-political attitudes amongst youth in elite universities in the three major cities in Pakist...

Advertisement