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Khan made some effort to keep religion away from politics by declaring the country in the 1962 constitution as a republic rather than an Islamic republic. However, in face of public pressure the general had to withdraw from his stance. The liberal-educated elite of the country could not stop the onslaught of religious right especially when the former had voluntarily surrendered the right of ownership of religious discourse. The lack of educated input into religion left it to be defined by the right-wing religious elite or the army of illiterate mullahs. Those, who could challenge the religious right such as Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, also surrendered to the religious right and its discourse in the name of political expediency. He was responsible for declaring the Ahmedis nonMuslim, introducing prohibition and changing the weekly holiday from Sunday to Friday. Second Wave: 1977-90 From the perspective of the ascendency of religious right narrative, General Zia-ul-Haq’s military government (1977-88) can be considered as a watershed in Pakistan’s social and political history. Zia’s Pakistan used American encouragement, support and assistance to build the religious right especially create jihadis that could fight the Soviet Union in Afghanistan. The decade of the 80s is a major watershed in consolidating the religious right and enhance their influence on social norms in the country. Zia played a major role in transforming both the state and society. He brought in religion into both the state and society. In case of the former, the general brought changes in the economic and legal system of the country through the introduction of his controversial ‘Nizam-e-Islam (system of Islam). Laws such as the Hudood ordinance primed the society towards a divine logic of gender disparity. A glaring example of such disparity pertains to a legal case in 1983 of Safia Bibi, a 13‐ year‐old blind girl, who was allegedly raped by her employer and his son. She,   


Red Hot Chilli Peppers Islam – Is the Youth in Elite Universities in Pakistan Radical?  
Red Hot Chilli Peppers Islam – Is the Youth in Elite Universities in Pakistan Radical?  

This is a study, by Ayesha Siddiqa, of the socio-political attitudes amongst youth in elite universities in the three major cities in Pakist...