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First Wave: 1947‐77  Religion has a deep connection with Pakistan’s state and society due to religious identity being the basis of the country’s creation in 1947. During these twenty-one years, the state and society were systematically injected with greater dozes of religious narrative especially in politics. The anti-Ahmadi riots during the 1950s, the constant reference to Islam by both the civilian and military leadership culminating with religiously motivated laws and rules by the Bhutto government set the scene for further Islamization brought later by General Zia-ul-Haq’s government. The Munir Report on the anti-ahmadi riots held in Punjab in 1953 indicated how political parties including the Muslim League indirectly supported Majlis-i-Ahrar-i-Islam xiv which was responsible for in fanning riots. xv  A senior police officer, Qurban Ali had stated before the Justice Munir Commission that the Ahrar were keeping the anti-ahmadi movement and sentiment alive so they could capitalize on it later and build greater influence in the society. These events, which resulted in the first martial law in the country, was beginning of the trend towards religiosity that was demonstrated at the lower rungs of the society but with support provided by the ruling elite.  

No political force (civil and military) tried to curb the religious right or

provide an alternative narrative. Partly due to the fact that the ruling elite, especially the educated ‘salariat’ class, which was not particularly religious, was uncomfortable with the religious discourse and so there was a tendency to appease religious clerics or the religious political groups and parties. The ‘Objective Resolution 1949’ was one of the first cases of such accommodation. The above document laid out the grand plan of Pakistan’s state as a religious entity that would confine itself to the principles of Islam. Moreover, this document became the guiding principle for all three constitutions of the state. Initially, the first military government of General Ayub

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Red Hot Chilli Peppers Islam – Is the Youth in Elite Universities in Pakistan Radical?  

This is a study, by Ayesha Siddiqa, of the socio-political attitudes amongst youth in elite universities in the three major cities in Pakist...

Red Hot Chilli Peppers Islam – Is the Youth in Elite Universities in Pakistan Radical?  

This is a study, by Ayesha Siddiqa, of the socio-political attitudes amongst youth in elite universities in the three major cities in Pakist...

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