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an inability to review the behavior of one’s own group and hold the other responsible for all ills. Such a view may not necessarily cause people to naturally embark on violence. Nevertheless, this prepares the mind in a certain fashion which could at a later stage turn towards violence or active radicalism. The inability to challenge traditional notions and viewing the world through a bias lens, especially coated with religious overtones or padded with religious belief prepares the mind to accept the message from militant organizations. Although conservative attitudes do not necessarily propagate violence and in this case the youth are likely to measure costs versus benefits of abandoning their status and opportunities to actively participate in jihad, the possibility cannot be rules out. The several cases of young Muslim men engaged in violence such as the hijackers involved in 9/11, the Jaishe Mohammad (JeM) – Al-Qaeeda operative, Omar Saeeed Sheikh, or the 23 years old Nigerian Umer Farouk Abdulmutallib, who tried to blow up an airliner through the devise hidden in his underwear, are some of the cases in which youth from affluent backgrounds were involved in terrorist activities. These cases underscore the fact that radicalism may not necessarily be confined to the poor and less educated. In fact, radicalism is an outgrowth of a peculiar mindset which does not have to be linked with cultural conservatism. Hence, this mindset requires attention.

A Case of Liberal-Religiosity

The description of the various phases of Pakistan’s journey towards 

religiosity was necessary to establish the fact that the survey sample denoted  one end of the social spectrum of Pakistan’s society which is labeled here as  liberal‐religiosity. This attitude is defined as one in which individuals exercise  their choice in following traditional behavior pattern. So, while individual may 


Red Hot Chilli Peppers Islam – Is the Youth in Elite Universities in Pakistan Radical?  
Red Hot Chilli Peppers Islam – Is the Youth in Elite Universities in Pakistan Radical?  

This is a study, by Ayesha Siddiqa, of the socio-political attitudes amongst youth in elite universities in the three major cities in Pakist...