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silent spring

bird songs


silent spring

r achel c a r son

b ird songs (poetr y about birds) various voice s


copyright Š1962 silent spring rachel carson poems about birds various voices this book was printed and bound in providence, rhode island all rights reserved. no part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means without written persmission


table of contents a fable for tomorrow 1 elixirs of death 2 needless havoc 3 and no birds sing 4 the other road 5


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a fable for tomorrow


sure

Anonymous When spring came whistling in, I heard a brown-bird hum, As he sat on a bare oak branch, “I knew it would come—come. I knew spring would come.”

There was once a town in the heart of America where all life seemed to live in harmony with its surroundings. The town lay in the midst of a checkerboard of prosperous farms, with fields of grain and hillsides of orchards where, in spring, white clouds of bloom drifted above the green fields. In autumn, oak and maple and birch set up a blaze of color that flamed and flickered across a backdrop of pines. Then foxes barked in the hills and deer silently crossed the fields, half hidden in the mists of the fall mornings.

silent spring 

3 


Along the roads, laurel, viburnum and alder, great ferns and wildflowers delighted the traveler’s eye through much of the year. Even in winter the roadsides were places of beauty, where countless birds came to feed on the berries and on the seed heads of the dried weeds rising above the snow. The countryside was, in fact, famous for the abundance and variety of its bird life, and when the flood of migrants was pouring through in spring and fall people traveled from great distances to observe them. Others came to fish the streams, which flowed clear and cold out of the hills and contained shady pools where trout lay. So it had been from the days many years ago when the first settlers raised their houses, sank their wells, and built their barns.

orus the bird ch

4 

bird songs

kson Charles E. Jac

THROUGH

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Singing to all a morning hymn.

Fair a


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Some evil spell had settled on the community: mysterious maladies swept the flocks of chickens; the cattle and sheep sickened and died.

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born day!

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Then a strange blight crept over the area and everything began to change.

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silent spring 

5 


Everywhere was a

“Louder seems each bird

In the brighten


T

shadow of death.

ning branches heard

Still to speak some ever more delightful word.�


one blackbird

Harold Monro

The stars must make an awful noise In whirling round the sky; Yet somehow I can’t even hear Their loudest song or sigh

So it is wonderful to think One blackbird can outsing The voice of all the swarming stars On any day in Spring.

The farmers spoke of much illness among their families. In the town the doctors had become more and more puzzled by new kinds of sickness appearing among their patients. There had been several sudden and unexplained deaths, not only among adults but even among children, who would be stricken suddenly while at play and die within a few hours.

There was a strange stillness.

The birds, for example,

where had they gone? Many people spoke of them, puzzled and disturbed. The feeding stations in the backyards were deserted. The few birds seen anywhere were moribund; they trembled violently and could not fly. It was a spring without voices. On the mornings that had once throbbed with the dawn chorus of robins, catbirds, doves, jays, wrens, and scores of other bird voices there was now


On the farms the hens brooded, but no chicks hatched. The farmers complained that they were unable to raise any pigs, the litters were small and the young survived only a few days. The apple trees were coming into bloom but no bees droned among the blossoms, so there was no pollination and there would be no fruit. The roadsides, once so attractive, were now lined with browned and withered vegetation as though swept by fire. These, too, were silent, deserted by all living things. Even the streams were now lifeless. Anglers no longer visited them, for all the fish had died.

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In the gutters under the eaves and between the shingles of the roofs, a white granular powder still showed a few patches; some weeks before it had fallen like snow upon the roofs and the lawns, the fields and streams.

No witchcraft, no enemy action had silenced the rebirth of new life in this stricken world. The people had done it themselves.

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elixirs of death


goldfinch

Charles E. Jackson MAY time ! Play time ! Oh, but the full of each day time ! Together quite, Feather light, And a glint of gold in the weather bright. Wing time ! Sing time ! And all the glory of spring time. Sound of spring,— Bound of spring,— Rush of spring,— Flush of spring,— With smile the while o’er each living thing. With soft advance, And kindly glance, The south wind sings while the violets dance,—

12 

bird songs

per-chic-o-ree per-chic-o-ree per-chic-o-ree


e, e, e.

For the first time in the history of the world, every human being is now subjected to contact with dangerous chemicals, from the moment of conception until death. In the less than two decades of their use, the synthetic pesticides have been so thoroughly distributed throughout the animate and inanimate world that they occur virtually everywhere. They have been recovered from most of the major river systems and even from streams of groundwater flowing unseen through the earth.

Residues of these chemicals linger in soil to which they may have been applied a dozen years before. They have entered and lodged in the bodies of fish, birds, reptiles, and domestic and wild animals so universally that scientists carrying on animal experiments find it almost impossible to locate subjects free from such contamination. They have been found in fish in remote mountain lakes, in earthworms burrowing in soil, in the eggs of birdsand in man himself.

For these chemicals are now stored in the bodies of the vast majority of human beings, regardless of age. They occur in the mother’s milk, and probably in the tissues of the unborn child.

silent spring 

13 


All this has come about because of the sudden rise and prodigious growth of an industry for the production of man-made or synthetic chemicals with insecticidal properties. This industry is a child of the Second World War. In the course of developing agents of chemical warfare, some of the chemicals created in the laboratory were found to be lethal to insects. The discovery did not come by chance: insects were widely used to test chemicals as agents of death for man. The result has been a seemingly endless stream of synthetic insecticides. In being man-madeby ingenious laboratory manipulation of the molecules, substituting atoms, altering their arrangement they differ sharply from the simpler insecticides of prewar days. These were derived from naturally occurring minerals and plant productscompounds of arsenic, copper, manganese, zinc, and other minerals, pyrethrum from the dried flowers of chrysanthemums, nicotine sulphate from some of the relatives of tobacco, and rotenone from leguminous plants of the East Indies. What sets the new synthetic insecticides apart is their enormous biological

14 

bird songs

potency. They have immense power not merely drinking them, taking them into the very to poison but to enter into the most vital pro- marrow of our boneswe had better know cesses of the body and change them in sinister something about their nature and their power. and often deadly ways. Thus, as we shall see, Although the Second World War marked they destroy the very enzymes whose function a turning away from inorganic chemicals is to protect the body from harm, they block as pesticides into the wonder world of the the oxidation processes from which the body carbon molecule, a few of the old materials the mayflowers serenade receives its energy, they prevent the normal persist. Chief among these is arsenic, which Charles E. Jackson functioning of various organs, and they may is still the basic ingredient in a variety of initiate in certain cells the slow and irrevers- weed and insect killers. Arsenic is a highly Tucked in their little snowy bed, ible change that leads to malignancy. Yet new toxic mineral occurring widely in association O, but the air is sweet ; and more deadly chemicals are added to the with the ores of various metals, and in very A hint of white, a glint of red, list each year and new uses are devised so that small amounts in volcanoes, in the sea, and And warm hearts neath each sheet. contact with these materials has become prac- in spring water. Its relations to man are varSing, bluebirds, sing, thy sweetest lay — tically worldwide. The production of synthetic ied and historic. Since many of its compounds Awaken the flowers of spring ; pesticides in the United States soared from are tasteless, it has been a favorite agent of Call, robin, call, the day is long, 124, 259, 000 pounds in 1947 to 637, 666, 000 homicide from long before the time of the Sing, serenaders, sing. pounds in 1960more than a fivefold increase. Borgias to the present. Arsenic is present in The wholesale value of these products was English chimney soot and along with certain well over a quarter of a billion dollars. But aromatic hydrocarbons is considered responin the plans and hopes of the industry this sible for the carcinogenic (or cancer-causing) enormous production is only a beginning. action of the soot, which was recognized A Who’s Who of pesticides is therefore of nearly two centuries ago by an English physiconcern to us all. If we are going to live so cian. Epidemics of chronic arsenical poisoning intimately with these chemicalseating and involving whole populations over long periods

are on record. Arsenic-contaminated environments have also caused sickness and death among horses, cows, goats, pigs, deer, fishes, and bees; despite this record arsenical sprays and dusts are widely used. In the arsenicsprayed cotton country of southern United States beekeeping as an industry has nearly died out. Farmers using arsenic dusts over long periods have been afflicted with chronic arsenic poisoning, livestock have been poisoned by crop sprays or weed killers containing arsenic. Drifting arsenic dusts from blueberry lands have spread over neighboring farms, contaminating streams, fatally poisoning bees and cows, and causing human illness. ‘It is scarcely possible... to handle arsenicals with more utter disregard of the general health than that which has been practiced in our country in recent years,’ said Dr. W. C. Hueper, of the National Cancer Institute, an authority on environmental cancer. ‘Anyone who has watched the dusters and sprayers of arsenical insecticides at work must have been impressed by the almost supreme carelessness with which the poisonous substances are dispensed.’


Modern insecticides are still more deadly. The vast majority fall into one of two large groups of chemicals. One, represented by DDT, is known as the ‘chlorinated hydrocarbons. The other group consists of the organic phosphorus insecticides, and is represented by the reasonably familiar malathion and parathion. All have one thing in common. As mentioned above, they are built on a basis of carbon atoms, which are also the indispensable building blocks of the living world, and thus classed as ‘organic’. To understand them, we must see of what they are made, and how, although linked with the basic chemistry of all life, they lend themselves to the modifications which make them agents of death. The basic element, carbon, is one whose atoms have an almost infinite capacity for uniting with each other in chains and rings and various other configurations, and for becoming linked with atoms of other substances. Indeed, the incredible diversity of living creatures from bacteria to the great blue whale is largely due to this capacity of carbon. The complex protein molecule has the carbon atom as its

basis, as have molecules of fat, carbohydrates, enzymes, and vitamins. So, too, have enormous numbers of nonliving things, for carbon is not necessarily a symbol of life. Some organic compounds are simply combinations of carbon and hydrogen. The simplest of these is methane, or marsh gas, formed in nature by the bacterial decomposition of organic matter under water. Mixed with air in proper proportions, methane becomes the dreaded ‘fire damp’ of coal mines. Its structure is beautifully simple, consisting of one carbon atom to which four hydrogen atoms have become attached: Chemists have

the windhover

Gerard Manley Hopkins I CAUGHT this morning morning’s minion, kingdom of daylight’s dauphin, dapple-dawn-drawn Falcon, in his riding Of the rolling level underneath him steady air, and striding High there, how he rung upon the rein of a wimpling wing In his ecstasy! then off, off forth on swing, As a skate’s heel sweeps smooth on a bow-bend: the hurl and gliding Rebuffed the big wind. My heart in hiding Stirred for a bird,—the achieve of; the mastery of the thing! Brute beauty and valour and act, oh, air, pride, plume, here Buckle! AND the fire that breaks from thee then, a billion Times told lovelier, more dangerous, O my chevalier! No wonder of it: shéer plód makes plough down sillion Shine, and blue-bleak embers, ah my dear, Fall, gall themselves, and gash gold-vermillion.

silent spring 

15 


the swan

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discovered that it is possible to detach one or all of the hydrogen atoms and substitute other elements. For example, by substituting one atom of chlorine for one of hydrogen we

16 

bird songs

fec

dage of its win be gs; a into the bon k leaned sno t i c s a wb a inen an bl nd l k, a s ilk a s t f b i o ank th of l tion wi ilies mo ,Bitin m air o e h t c g t

produce methyl chloride: Take away three hydrogen atoms and substitute chlorine and we have the anesthetic chloroform: Substitute chlorine atoms for all of the hydrogen atoms and the result is carbon tetrachloride,

the familiar cleaning fluid: In the simplest possible terms, these changes rung upon the basic molecule of methane illustrate what a

hi nd w ing a t u l f , it Did you hear

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chlorinated hydrocarbon is. But this illustration gives little hint of the true complexity of the chemical world of the hydrocarbons, or of the manipulations by which the organic chemist creates his infinitely varied materials. For

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instead of the simple methane molecule with its single carbon atom, he may work with hydrocarbon molecules consisting of many carbon atoms, arranged in rings or chains,

with side chains or branches, holding to themselves with chemical bonds not merely simple atoms of hydrogen or chlorine but also a wide variety of chemical groups. By seemingly slight changes the whole character of the substance is changed; for example, not

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only what is attached but the place of attachment to the carbon atom is highly important. Such ingenious manipulations have produced a battery of poisons of truly extraordinary power.

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DDT (short for dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane) was first synthesized by a German chemist in 1874, but its properties as an insecticide were not discovered until 1939.

silent spring 

17 


Almost immediately DDT was hailed as a means of stamping out insect-borne disease and winning the farmers’ war against crop destroyers overnight. The discoverer, Paul

18 

bird songs

MĂźller of Switzerland, won the Nobel Prize DDT is now so universally used that in most minds the product takes on the harmless

aspect of the familiar. Perhaps the myth of the harmlessness of DDT rests on the fact that one of its first uses was the wartime dusting of many thousands of soldiers, refugees, and prisoners, to combat lice. It is widely

believed that since so many people came into extremely intimate contact with DDT and suffered no immediate ill effects the chemical must certainly be innocent of harm.


the happiness of birds

Francis Quarles

This understandable misconception arises from the fact that unlike other chlorinated hydrocarbons DDT in powder form is not

readily absorbed through the skin. Dissolved in oil, as it usually is, DDT is definitely toxic.

If swallowed, it is absorbed slowly through the digestive tract; it may also be absorbed through the lungs. Once it has entered the body it is stored largely in organs rich in fatty substances such as the adrenals, testes, or thyroid.

Relatively amounts are deposited in the liver, kidneys, and the fat of the large, protective mesenteries that enfold the intestines.

silent spring 

19 


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Th is t c s to fo o r ( le o d w h nc e a g e ve st i i c o v u ff h ls i s a bl f D a s ac re r ) a n pre e i n D T in t a ea t s d t co en a k e beg s b ch in a ke of i n io e d . nt i t a s o th f a log Th nue res t he s w i e i th id sl e ca d s o to c r e n e h 1 5 i e t r it t l l m f a t t u nt u e s h e m t h e fe il pa on ag y es e a u ic or renc nd r r ts u lts s o n i fi stor qu i m al te f e o a p e t e d s i 1 g h e , m r o s e p s o fold r m n s t p a r s , s e d h i g t s u l i k t of h a r c om or i l l i or a t p o t h e p o h er ch e a ts m on g e a m us ma o , of m i t a n q u s u b v e r y . O c olo onp r e . a n th l a l n b e b a n sta g i l ac Th inc ou ion n sm e p s e t e o r le s

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zym ei t nh eg r r pr l s ea a d ie isi n t io it y n o r t mu ld r g. bet i f li In sc l na w ver e; o t nd u s a e en c he n n ly cel c h o nd au s l r l s o 5p m ;o rd a t hs ea al ar n n ch sm l nd of y e em 2 .5 ts p e all d id ag e rm ist am ra m ffec t pa t he ry illi r ts .F ou thr o spe s on a nt s o f p e at me re t he er l ls ha o x . o m f am t fc h s sv h i p u l ed est l io h ro ma pl e er y n i i c , n ff n ic id e o aq rea ere b f od po ua l. nc yt iso s a re nt i eb he nin cu t e y re tw mu of ga is io d l atO een nd ivne he i n de e a l lyy lt geCn a uetra wsittore h a nd s titniv h d a g eo c h a nd ut a n g a g es o en f

s m ng ,a a vy s t iA ) l e a s k a n I HEAR th fA n ar hom h e ee, hear th e ld aWn. Moy T e a d - tna’s nd so well I ma ee, heat h As if eart rk the pla t ew n d J o E DT ( r thiem e! h were dra ce, roh uosmt t sky, e e to s a e t p th wing nea o I h f i e m p o r h n ig ss n i ; t nelnug eon ht thy co o sa eb r thee ; holg d T ogt fm m c e O o d th e v e m e r b h r a o In s n t moereup wealrialy : trace, to tSFh ro ow hy anmitth otnohguosucomelstikoena th nd afar, And I n f y t Doflw a u l f st l ie e ihn’gun , ripen n gt s ta r e d wh : eat.


Keeping still my eyes there r e s t i n g , Find where thou art warmly nesting.


When morning dawns, and the bless’d sun again

Lifts his red glories from the eastern main,

Then through our woodbines, wet with glittering dews,

The flower-fed Humming-bird his round pursues ;

dawn

Sips, with inserted tube, the honied blooms, Scientists do not agree upon how much DDT can be stored in the human body. Dr. Arnold Lehman, who is the chief pharmacologist of the Food and Drug Administration, says there is neither a floor below which DDT is not absorbed nor a ceiling beyond which absorption and storage ceases. On the other hand, Dr. Wayland Hayes of the United States Public Health Service contends that in every individual a point of equilibrium is reached, and that DDT in excess of this amount is excreted. For practical purposes it is not particularly important which of these men is right. Storage in human beings has been well investigated,

And chirps his gratitude as round he roams.

and we know that the average person is storing potentially harmful amounts. According to various studies, individuals with no known exposure (except the inevitable dietary one) store an average of 5 .3 parts per million to 7 .4 parts per million; agricultural workers 17 .1 parts per million; and workers in insecticide plants as high as 648 parts per million! So the range of proven storage is quite wide and, what is even more to the point, the minimum figures are above the level at which damage to the liver and other organs or tissues may begin. One of the most sinister features of DDT and related chemicals is the way they are passed on

While richest roses, though in crimson dress’d,

Shrink from the splendour of his gorgeous breast ;

What heavenly tints in mingling radiance fly ;

Each rapid movement gives a different dye ;

Like scales of burnish’d gold, they dazzling show,

Alexander Wilson

from one organism to another through all the links of the food chains. For example, fields of alfalfa are dusted with DDT; meal is later prepared from the alfalfa and fed to hens; the hens lay eggs which contain DDT. Or the hay, containing residues of 7 to 8 parts per million, may be fed to cows. The DDT will turn up in the milk in the amount of about 3 parts per million, but in butter made from this milk the concentration may run to 65 parts per million. Through such a process of transfer, what started out as a very small amount of DDT may end as a heavy concentration. Farmers nowadays find it difficult to obtain

uncontaminated fodder for their milk cows, though the Food and Drug Administration forbids the presence of insecticide residues in milk shipped in interstate commerce. The poison may also be passed on from mother to offspring. Insecticide residues have been recovered from human milk in samples tested by Food and Drug Administration scientists. This means that the breast-fed human infant is receiving small but regular additions to the load of toxic chemicals building up in his body. It is by no means his first exposure, however: there is good reason to believe this begins while he is still in the womb. In experimental animals the chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides

(the h


freely cross the barrier of the placenta, the traditional protective shield between the embryo and harmful substances in the mother’s body. While the quantities so received by human infants would normally be small, they are not unimportant because children are more susceptible to poisoning than adults. This situation also means that today the average individual almost certainly starts life with the first deposit of the growing load of chemicals his body will be required to carry thenceforth. All these factsstorage at even low levels, subsequent accumulation, and occurrence of liver damage at levels that may easily occur

in normal diets, caused Food and Drug Administration scientists to declare as early as 1950 that it is ‘extremely likely the potential hazard of DDT has been underestimated.’ There has been no such parallel situation in medical history. No one yet knows what the ultimate consequences may be. Chlordane, another chlorinated hydrocarbon, has all these unpleasant attributes of DDT plus a few that are peculiarly its own. Its residues are long persistent in soil, on foodstuffs, or on surfaces to which it may be applied. Chlordane makes use of all available portals to enter the body. It may be absorbed

through the skin, may be breathed in as a spray or dust, and of course is absorbed from the digestive tract if residues are swallowed. Like all other chlorinated hydrocarbons, its deposits build up in the body in cumulative fashion. A diet containing such a small amount of chlordane as 2 .5 parts per million may eventually lead to storage of 75 parts per million in the fat of experimental animals. So experienced a pharmacologist as Dr. Lehman has described chlordane in 1950 as ‘one of the most toxic of insecticidesanyone handling it could be poisoned.’ Judging by the carefree liberality with which dusts for

humming - bird )

lawn treatments by suburbanites are laced with chlordane, this warning has not been taken to heart. The fact that the suburbanite is not instantly stricken has little meaning, for the toxins may sleep long in his body, to become manifest months or years later in an obscure disorder almost impossible to trace to its origins. On the other hand, death may strike quickly. One victim who accidentally spilled a 25 per cent industrial solution on the skin developed symptoms of poisoning within 40 minutes and died before medical help could be obtained. No reliance can be placed on receiving advance warning which might

silent spring 

23 


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liver ning mor birds This cking d o m l two ng n fie tossi gree e h and t g in n i spinn were

the white ribbons of their songs into the air. I had nothing do r to bette . listen than is an th I me usly. serio

to two st rangers who were , it soon a ppeared, not men at all,

from the a fou nta li in, swe ght pt i nto of t he all cot t tag he co e, rne r

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but their willingne ss to be att entive-but for th is alone the gods loved the m -them ssed e l b and ies, rose l bod they ater orta m when r i s of w e e l h c t i f art out o on p milli a e lik

24 

bird songs

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s

e, g, oupl ndin old c e h ersta t d n u and ith en w ing -shak noth own d d for d e e k s w bo hey a till t but s

but the d ifficult life which th ey had a lready. And the gods smil ed, as th clapping ey vanish their gre ed, at wings.

for

stor

age in

fat. I


ere will be measur

abl

ea

mo

un

ts pt hlo

r in the bo

dy. It a

lso has

the

cur iou

sa

bi

lit

yt

ou

nde

rgo

chang

e into a chemically distinct

tan subs

Whereve r it was I was sup posed to be this morn ing-whatever it was I sa id

ce k

no

a wn

sv

cv

v

th op roug e I w ni h m ng I w as i yo as lea ts d wn n a lis s te ing rk d oul ni , o ng ut; oor s-.

ac

litt

n th

he

s as

of

r

llio

of

If the diet contain

s le a

a 1p

e tp

i rm

g-doin ld be u o g Iw -ndin field s sta f the o I wa e e edg g at th rryin s hu I wa

silent spring 

25 


I t

d o e s

t h i s

i n

s o i l

a n d

i n

t h e t i s s u e s

o f

b o t h

p l a n t s

a n d

a n i m a l s .

T e s t s

o n

b i r d s

i n d i c a t e

t h a t

t h e

you’ll view,

wing

his painted

scarce

Though

the season through,

Continuously

crude,

and

harsh

Resound his screaming,

wood

his native

who makes

He

Bishop Mant

jay ’ s scream

e p o x i d e .

e p o x i d e

t h a


a t

f r o m

t h i s

c h a n g e

i s

m o r e

t o x i c

t h a n

t h e

o r i g i n a l

c h e m i c a l ,

w h i c h

i n

t u r n

lively

the

crest,

And varied

grey,

and

white

and

With sable barr’d r e s u l t s

i s

f o u r

t i m e s

a s

t o x i c

a s

c h l o r d a n e .

Jay .


as eeionnssnsdu ff h cteunsries m 15 tuim aiytcheeode astphaoekibm esosonistot5tptoirxm us as eD s

u c n of ng t is e t he es d d r in is t h one k nowts e x posep of insec t hat y st y t he Woor ma nt li t he c hem s e em r ious subrld Hea lt hke a slu mbisttio by comepamost toxsicwhet hedr tto a ld r inichides, proje egenerat ivree,c hbauvt nt hesyuaesreadnd m s’ ingewn a lso ein s er in t O a s r ison a lm of a ll t hehe sa me ead fe wer c ts a men n ges in t h ield r o g c il g e a . , n S fo iz u r a c a t h a n io e liver in lt ost ha r m c h lor ina ffec t w il l preg na nc ac ing sha d lc hem ist ichough it n. vAosl h is requair r a nd ktid ies a nd t h dow into less. It is ted hyd ro be seen in e t e s a d iff ra nsfo x ists ne y s . 15 t imes a ca rbons. hu ma n eir you ng t he f ut u r s poisonoA lt houghbeing s, y were sic ke, t he sha A qua nt it yertehnetstizestr.mat io us a s DD c hem icaet t h is c h ly a nd shdow of st e T to ma mlly rat herem ica l ha or t-lived er il it y. Ph of a n . s c e P ma ls, 30 losely relabeen spr uppies b a sa nts t imes a s ted to d ayed f rom or n of poisonou ield r in, a a ir pla n s to fish, lit t le t w a nd a b ou

the major and minor notes of birds

George William Curtis A BIRD sang sweet and strong In the top of the highest tree ; He sang— “I pour out my soul in song For the summer that soon shall be.” But deep in the shady wood Another bird sang— “I pour My soul on the solemn solitude For the springs that return no more.”

28 

bird songs


osh nisethh m hehilloiedrrlliineyastpesdd lthohayfrdioiuilgn.hsM sdettiaisesn . nItyp paurereoasmdoainunrgodeutrhsttetrsieh,ss;ifadondurcteihhsew ooetnw ovriutekglbsianleitloim aA fierseetodtrsadch n m ipsdaaototenihsrxnssm ethsotreh eo4tirtn eyeeaspm pw oaeeoam snhtcsw tefnirtednytpw liisnt acrotqel w on odnftor.nyhauoaTh ustnrtaodrocleian l.fiff n extrh radtutteyoaeh d nscohnm ee.lid eiseivdcch say.oodd kn itTh retfeO en .iasm m nhsetnegum dlteeqglruisrh tneeoaium ah aefesslra,thoeetaht,aff .nereaA tos afrolsnloelw Sertrld.H lsexbw ttlldeuetsdedaigssnrtfdsetveod asnd te oadrm k t A d hecsa e s h o u a d b f a ewlcd m e m o rd mb kiincin h o c a e ocafre o v f n e d . c e i t t md s l e e s d a o a t htu i i w s i n r n e i h e o r n e i o nru itffyofe e c a n s e o g e m a o t n 0 p o l t s h E t s e b s e l p o d t i e t r d t l v y , s e i r a w e o o d c i n s w o . u h e s g 0 h i r d d s v u s n g t a n c i s o i n c o r e n d i a k h io h m y r c p e e n s M s c lu e o e h s g s e s n r a r fi a in e t d , n e n n v w w o o q le i u e opelkduonrfa oieilw afeesroload oasIim gn te h tiiolleoyn lsuinshaitasgh eiiw th gioe1sa5ntnnrettulyirtcaprottiish otrn n rorsiien aeotycefrtrblw ly iovnem deh itdrobdpounderueasoarpsbiealnlapoffyrotafehrsiartetesnh,bstiieofsndaor,tusoieaetnm eoestcorieoseftntff niutoooacnbh axsM einflipgrfopinolllsioeeswcrtoeicedneittsihsgieucsgsekes.lolA,nsygta,io-tnpner.drmIot eftisjenhcouttosrm assirc;nnehsadlgunaaaedtrah aTh tsice, us.rb ,m iod fidfsp ihh s afnoar, lo v isa u z n t c t , o a a f t i s h d s i a e . s u i r l i e c t n u . i l r olnm e e y o s n p u s n e ly k n e u o u n s s l s lt i i t i o n e g s e fi s r s o y o s d r u v r i o . t m n a n a e i o n e r n h m o n h t n o i n e c e p h r A e l n s u m i t a s f s i t a r c h w ff , a ff n id m o t d a tlevdtbem etlsvod D t esiytp sldtce0heacregdettrii,cylcii,lbivfodouisaaertefsscleydp DoanD ps odrieoaitsldeeorinncrewohuaupslaosinn ohrecyrfrcoerateuuhcln for e cets c shbtuiah ieinscsogiaqn m geed aagIoillvketsidtlnehsidasieosgerhoieliynsd w ntohrabarggxvoaaeityn recfoftiornon einoaeitnrr.sltoslm th s aT irceeoerm noessn ed in sitreiosaohdtgasvesoedolof rspnfhtgasetsan ottd teoysfhgw deoh aod si,in ro ctaluisdc nucsm ika teeesoiw srteh etolpusuegurcatotoevecrf3osnh 0 lgossoaeyi pe toelesoem an girndipttonw n urcigidrebacseebtsa,n iichn en dshrt,or5 ff hrsun p iacnneasttvfeaiosastcgiyb i bh h l r qp t eksessvtn n i ee r e uo x t cn e s d aa c gob ntfrt an s hsaevpeat l i ilrh t c l ur n e r s n e e e m enta s a a o , b h t o r , t r e g i k e o n l n u e . i s Th g u h t n n h ly n d m t D e u i m d d s i t s r it e d e s , e h e I v r s id m a . f t e e led tom d a e o y n p a u m m o u y o b s d t h r t Th l m o e , e u n e l h D t a n s i r d a t y a it i i j h u t y h r a a h e io r d e h e d e o e d s s e a a a n m h t e s k r b d fok llnaoiifn ggn beaa t geatotc eanurfnalid dq wo yedrtloeh ioloa sflrofeD cfivtoxcseprrhahdarn nwgrichteasla.akssnN drtgkitiiccieluosiylsld nircsrrnaibiratoleeeosuecffsD ltyihissvotpehongocaiflihT ahbeicbn a.ntP vonaain ftinoe.orm go sel odaG ma ny em a ib raoae,irvns,esdm trieih ailrp adosvres,reT r deiff icc hdogcarauhsin hdteio tedas,.td ivdittn crc n a d o i r i p ae so, ituh ab n w t htn e w uip e lasatrrn u a spir in ta h i e l s a h o e sr a t eod t elee e s t g l s hp r ronreslotsuh,se r3a e o m r lib l c ld e e u p e e a i d s n h la 0 e s r r e s l n ff s o i t e p e in r p d t s b f e w . n p io r r H s s o n e o o t o , o p Th s le o r n s h r a o m i n b t o h e o o d a u i a d d v r t e n W n c a t u s r d v c i t l le c m ld g h n e y m e g p n n e r o a o e o t n t s g i r o e e i h i h r repor ts, fof aeltser a d c u a k e t is enoug e o s i r e lo s k a e a o t a e n g e d n r u n s e w s o n s e in k r n h i t r m o r t e p e s u o h o d n o i . s a ff t n i k e s y o a t t r d o t r , A i f t d a s) g r s a m d e h e b s s g n e c b n , e d a A t f h t n n t e g n s fed qua i i s t e i.,ffieA vrc eionsldf otirhintneomrleotnodhayfffodefrcuaawdgrshih egso o o tsyueitdbsrttuaoesnrtcbfpdaoaarraenrhleirnsaaln ivltcvaesiaen estwlro roew oatstfysqm eraa5det0iot.itenniuTh aintntlsudcpphaporreaiposrntgh ttsaeeebw w etk,rqehD oo h to k il l uecesrffrvtroeeieuscidg,sff yneltldysm aa m s.d yb rsoi)neninonnspfcrtoteeohm m m tshued ic.e,sehkaIh riahxnsaadpesm berd.dN hmn s3ad eftisid4noect0ndttrusioth nt s t o n ocsftne es ere.h e t o P o uptoc eA ite ovn s.u e n m c s more t ha r if a c hemtp ttee . h s ptuoh e o nih istd, ie .o h a t t A a s it i u d s t e W e im a o r n q n e s s d t t d l l u o r 0 nerseaotveedr moittie k a e c s r h u n a o s d f fl i l u h . h e e m m n w e s e a l e a b s n e i e s , e c t o s a u e i i h n a w s s a r d o e t t e a n t c a s a w s v s t m w ff t i r l o n o t i e t o ll o a h i t o r b s i 4 e a d n o h s t . r c d e t h t n i i i in l a w o 00 erei,usain sg nn niem a r rfi ailnltlhdtbohS tnhotm joercoocn lDsaedDicadsTt.iineoo er lvoelr eokrbouaeeow oatxd euacncbt hitohhoedeliyv,asintn m tnrhsectctsettarp g h yrosrain s.5iztA w ist in it subu rbas nd ied w it thoink il l t hem ottssiah ic w obbphlgooew k pltkgaon e iaesud r tum octaoho sy.gM t cn n d ae c e n w ooinnc n r srh u i h f e g p a t e f vp m e m f i r ua u taa a r g r ls f s molec u a rea s a n t h ree d ne ver t h qua il. Ma ny ca ses a ld r in haan s p ut 300 t im s m a e l o io o t e e s c b r o n e t i r n e p r f g e s s d d h o m e h n l h s u w e i e a r c w f i c m r r a e a r o n n ff l s a f e k a e h i o o e i fi e g n olrrtiiiotnya.teiPff w xeoecliskvrnmeo.teecdt,tsw mcaaobm actlwoew invedemdsre.im todh e enheco of d dsnipetd xn ipstiss naavspupalilesdia,otlan es a s polaisr st r uc t udr fa r m la nady s. By onele ,oiiritltlh an ciih huim uenrddtpitdtinsran ityanuodsaodefsartfsuonatashontslerlfiatih m ld oassehxh ihD hhebaien esb t eelad 3deseiao0ssgetweefe0vndilecpwsrr.atthitlciiH h ie e ss la id fe w yhdcm f onous to e ma kes its. y w,etl a p n dd c b e h i s s .sde c r i i r a S a o o r r a e r g e nso.nTh o s n t d i n l o m e s o n ing siassreeopatssrfo r h h s D e v s e , o g r e l e a , . e d c t some bird 5 t imes mea ns or a negogt hs,era nd t he c hrhioa h t a t ld v o D u i r e e s a e d h a c a c a R a nisitnsto’ hiybusem reobfxesopdnsqo, uutnhasdslyaibp ietso lobsiT elm cahpnarencagotreed, eomnostvitel yrbeaidlterdcreiriivseineedddath.in .feaBtabhynoaeutosm seoSytupoadD em tyro,etednsso , a s poison ic k s t hb s. vdeeihrb b t e y e wi gk s e w ttouoesaeen en tehean n i d n ous. It m t he nL n stoesisn h e r ee g p t d c t t ned i c o c l b d h n m i 4 h n o i f ratiaio n c u u b d e e e y 0 e t , m a d u h r t a d s t e t e a i s a kes tA W s h c i r i e m , nd oon d ie i n t t e s o n o e s sruiffne,r fo i y o t l l in h n o n m e i t g 5 b s t i h a r a s 0 he lpdrorge s s l ivhing teisrelatdioconvludo otrh dteiov, iysietntigm m a letsoesffafeo ltsoaw istrsrooal.gefw dd nul m eneaoslpd nweever t hinen,itolrikofea llmth arldthreipnndo.dishTh ginsotso btahayisrrO n ltH n s s e u eintaon i o o r n e w a f s p g t d ee xgbteocrerftanertishrm i i a a t l e re sicklelyss la idoisfsgtrooupf otfhinioassnvin a l l s a n n s l n m b e d t nr faartim m a nd ew D isecgtic ceoirenlsyidetroexdost inevadreiacbeivaelsdo irnesgo tolodng aiszfaot ionit.shA

ot ihl. Suciehld r inu. rWmonsts ly fata l iln ia iesld shor t-teelgrirvgib o,deunsap, m Do nid D , .raeirffP T,i ns e c .caIutseporfoadm ivteo n f r d e u e le t iseiansekiinng aallc hem ihen h d d y h c s i t e f t e c n o e h s c t e r r c luwde seve u a ioeug ctpapt itehse h ica kGseirtcm d n poisonoutox ic o i w d s persolnsres sidsut ic tc 4 s e a e 0 s 0 , a h r f p n n b o e q h e sutaiv rcoihsjte, cDts uaaninlde. ruM a u ousosfyatsttrechhaetm s. It mfaakl l tfholerlotchweedt hitserudsteah.meagseatoortrvhn l ly eyfcach taal v a t d insbegajeescesteeoisd h e e m ma,te ie n d l e e s esbtohdye, wphe rlcoohrem s A , m s n l e i i o d n s v s a a e o d e t c a s m e r i n b e e i . fnc n s i n o s Th ff g tth o isattse’ idnghe ted on ud d g e o t e i h c e 5 f s e lo ha rd e x p herge ednn t e h t h v i n r w a . m q ic u s g d u Th e t m i n a d d i o s y l m ra ion of iesdinw s teocxw iasns ntD toicteohnieavnff So e haer ience inepittohositr somf aud pbheeasuse aitlryoticndhaodirrsebmvgoiilsniansng.dliA tic itus m i a nettn i u ltsh n r e s io s h a re m , id n it n r s u s e e h l e ta kendf rcoonv u lsionesa nt imyalllie c t r s a t icoid a no s proa ainnd t he .eePd e tu usegeschhacshlo l ikpe oa fsh vend b e as longaar ia l ca m i t a ffte o n lu b s be g e p n , e m m Like d ield i f m d a g y b a i g t t e s a b i e r i c n g r o f e c i a o o a s u a n i u t t l c c d o g e r l yu rr uant hbeiorlo4cg0 r in, a ld rhiemist, k nod w it h a ld r imont hs a fatr r ied out byvoelcsa,nD o, D ontT n is e x t re w ing a ld r n t hey a r er t he las t he W ly , o A ld r in, l eu r mely tox in has b e found t e x posu ld Hteosaeflltea rm i

ic. It prod een appl ie to conta in re. A ld r in h O h a t c h e d s k e m o s t of uces dege d, tests fo residues is a s oon d ied t h is g rou . The effe p of inse nerat ive c r it he w i of d ield ct is not ct icides, h av n g e s l l b e de c c p o in t r n o fi ned to b jects a m tox ic of a i rd s . R at e n a c i n g s h h e l i v e l l t he ch lo s e x p o s e d a dow i n r i n at e d h to a ld r in to y d ro c a r b h ons. A lt h w s w he t he o u gh c he r mica l ly r t he at her c lo sely rel

silent spring 

29 


3

3 3

3

3


3

3 3 3 3 3 33 3 3 3

needless havoc


chick - a - dee

Miles A. Davis THROUGH cold and rave of wind and sleet The cheery

“chick-a-dee-dee-deet,”

As man proceeds toward his announced goal of the conquest of nature, he has written a depressing record of destruction, directed not only against the earth he inhabits but against the life that shares it with him. The history of the recent centuries has its black passages the slaughter of the buffalo on the western plains, the massacre of the shorebirds by the market gunners, the near-extermination of the egrets for their plumage. Now, to these and others like them, we are adding a new chapter and a new kind of havoc the direct mammals, fishes, and indeed practically every form of wildlife by chemical insect– icides indiscriminately sprayed on the land.

From field and fallow, wood and wheat, Soprano singer, “dee-dee-deet”; A whir of song a snowy fleet— A rippling “chick-a-dee-dee-deet.” Would you a winter sunbeam greet, Behold the joyous “dee-dee-deet.” Have you an ear for music sweet? Hear then the “chick-a-dee-dee-deet,” Whose measured quick vibrations meet And swirl in “chick-a-dee-dee-deet.” Bright, bounding, gay and dapper neat, In resonance of “dee-dee-deet”; Within his heart the round world’s beat In accents of the “dee-dee-deet.”

killing of birds,

silent spring 

33 


Under the philosophy that now seems to guide our destinies, nothing must get in the way of the man bird music

Rose Terry Cooke

Singer of priceless melody / Underguerdoned chorister of air / Who from the lithe top of the

The citizen who wishes to make a fair judgment of the question of wildlife loss is today confronted with a dilemma. On the one hand conservationists and many wild

The credibility of the witness is of f irst importance. The professional wildlife biologist on the scene is certainly best qualif ied to discover and interpret wildlife loss. The entomologist, whose specialty is insects, is not so qualif ied by training, and is not psychologically disp

The purple-blossomed fields of grass / Waved sea-like to the idle wind / Thick daisies that the stars s

Like the priest and

The best way

When that enraptured overflow / Of singing into silence dies / Thy rapid fleeting pinions show /

To the bird watcher, the suburbanite who derives joy from birds in his garden, the hunter, the f isherman or the explorer of wild regions, anything that destroys the wildlife of an area for even a sin

But such reestablishment is unlikely to happen. Spraying tends to be repetitive, and a single exposure from which the wildlife populations might have a chance to recover is a rarity. What usually results is a poisoned environment, a lethal trap in which not only the resident

Unconscious of thine audienc / Careless of praises as of blame / In simpleness and innocen

During the fall of 1959 some 27, 000 acres in southeastern Michigan, including numerous suburbs of Detroit, were heavily dusted from the air with pellets

The patience of thy brooding wings / That droop in silence day by day / The little crowd of callow


n with the spray gun. The incidental victims of his crusade against insects count as nothing; if robins, pheasants, raccoons, cats, or even livestock happen to inhabit the same bit of earth as the target insects and to be hit by the rain of insect-killing poisons no one must protes

tree / Pourest at will thy music rare / As if a sudden brook laughed down the hill-side there.

dlife biologists assert that the losses have been severe and in some cases even catastrophic. On the other hand the control agencies tend to deny f latly and categorically that such losses have occurred, or that they are of any importance if they have. Which view are we to accep

posed to look for undesirable side effects of his control program. Yet it is the control men in state and federal governmentsand of course the chemical manufacturerswho steadfastly deny the facts reported by the biologists and declare they see little evidence of harm to wildlif

surpass / Being as fair and far more kind / All sweet uncultured things thy wild notes bring to mind.

d the Levite in the biblical story, they choose to pass by on the other side and to see nothing. Even if we charitably explain their denials as due to the shortsightedness of the specialist and the man with an interest this does not mean we must accept them as qualif ied witnesse

y to form our own judgment is to look at some of the major control programs and learn, from observers familiar with the ways of wildlife, and unbiased in favor of chemicals, just what has happened in the wake of a rain of poison falling from the skies into the world of wildlif

Where all thy spell of sweetness lies / Gathered in one small nest from the wide earth and skies.

ngle year has deprived him of pleasure to which he has a legitimate right. This is a valid point of view. Even if, as has sometimes happened, some of the birds and mammals and f ishes are able to reestablish themselves after a single spraying, a great and real harm has been don

t populations succumb but those who come in as migrants as well. The larger the area sprayed the more serious the harm, because no oases of safety remain. Now, in a decade marked by insect-control programs in which many thousands or even millions of acres are sprayed as

nce / Thy gentle life pursues its aim / So tender and serene, that we might blush for shame. unit, a decade in which private and community spraying has also surged steadily upward, a record of destruction and death of American wildlife has accumulated. Let us look at some of these programs and see what has happene

of aldrin, one of the most dangerous of all the chlorinated hydrocarbons. The program was conducted by the Michigan Department of Agriculture with the cooperation of the United States Department of Agriculture; its announced purpose was control of the Japanese beetl

w things / That joy for weariness repay / These are the living spring, thy song the fountain’s spray.


DEAR, dear, dear

the wild melody of the thrush The Japanese beetle, an insect accidentally imported into the United States, was discovered in

W. Macgillivray New Jersey in 1916, when a few shiny beetles of a metallic green color were seen in a nursery near Riverton. The beetles, at first unrecognized, were finally identified as a common inhabitant of the main islands of Japan. Apparently they had entered the United States on nursery stock imported before restrictions were established in 1912. From its original point of entrance the Japanese beetle has spread rather widely throughout many of the states east of the Mississippi, where conditions of temperature and rainfall are suitable for it. Each year some outward movement beyond the existing boundaries of its distribution usually takes place. In the eastern areas where the beetles have been longest established, attempts have been made to set up natural controls. Where this has been done, the beetle populations have been kept at relatively low levels, as many records. Despite the record of reasonable control in eastern areas, the midwestern states now on the fringe of the beetle’s range have launched an attack worthy of the most deadly enemy instead of only a moderately destructive insect, employing the most dangerous chemicals distributed in a manner that exposes large numbers of people, their domestic animals, and all wildlife to the poison intended for the beetle. As a result these Japanese beetle programs have caused shocking destruction of animal life and have exposed human beings to undeniable hazard. Sections of Michigan, Kentucky, Iowa, Indiana, and Illinois are all experiencing a rain of chemicals in the name of beetle control.

36 

bird songs

Is the rocky glen. Far away, far away, far away The haunts of men. Here shall we dwell in love With the lark and the dove, Cuckoo and cornrail ; Feast on the banded snail, Worm and gilded fly ; Drink of the crystal rill Winding adown the hill, Never to dry. With glee, with glee, with glee, Cheer up, cheer up, cheer up, here Nothing to harm us, then sing merrily, Sing to the lov’d ones whose nest is near—

qui,


, qui, qui, kweeu quip


tiurru, tiurru


u, chipiwi,


o o t , e e t o o t

, e e t -


, o , o e h e c o o u i h c ch , i r r i . h i c u , ri q r i , h i c u q . u i qu


Within a few days after the dusting operation, the Detroit Audubon Society began receiving calls about the birds. According to the Society’s secretary, Mrs. Ann Boyes, ‘The first indication that the people were concerned about the spray was a call I received on Sunday morning from a woman who reported that coming home from church she saw an alarming number of

dead and dying birds. the cries of birds

Allan Cunningham come, sweet ones, come to the fields with me, i hear the hum of the honey-bee, i hear the call of the gray cuckoo, i hear the note of the shrill curlew

;

i hear the cry of the hunting hawk,

42 

bird songs

the sound of the dove in our ‘customed walk, the song of the lark, the tongue of the rill, the shepherds’ shout on the pasture hill.


The spraying there had been done on Thursday. She said there were no birds at all flying in the area, that she had found at least a dozen [dead] in her backyard and that the neighbors had found dead squirrels.’ All other calls received by Mrs. Boyes that day reported

silent spring 

43 


‘a great many dead birds and no live ones... People who had maintained bird feeders said there were no birds at all at their feeders.’ Birds picked up in a dying condition showed the typical symptoms of

I NSECTICI DE POISON I NG, TR EMOR I NG, LOSS OF ABILIT Y T O FLY, PAR ALYSIS , CON V ULSIONS.

44 

bird songs


Nor were birds the only forms of life immediately affected. A local veterinarian reported that his office was full of clients with dogs and cats that had suddenly sickened. Cats, who so meticulously groom their coats and lick their paws, seemed to be most affected. Their illness took the form of SEV ER E DI A R R HE A , VOMITING, A N D CON V U LSIONS. The only advice the veterinarian could give his clients was not to let the animals out unnecessarily, or to wash the paws promptly if they did so. Despite the insistence of the City-County Health Commissioner that the birds must have been killed by ‘some other kind of spraying’ and that the outbreak of throat and chest irritations that followed the exposure to aldrin must have been due to ‘something else’, the local Health Department received a constant stream of complaints. A prominent Detroit internist was called upon to treat four of his patients within an hour after they had been exposed while watching the planes at work. All had similar symptoms:

The Detroit experience has been repeated in many other communities as pressure has mounted to combat the Japanese beetle with chemicals. At Blue Island, Illinois, hundreds of dead and dying birds were picked up. Data collected by birdbanders here suggest that 80 per cent of the songbirds were sacrificed. In Joliet, Illinois, some 3000 acres were treated with heptachlor in 1959. According to reports from a local sportsmen’s club, the bird population within the treated area was ‘virtually wiped out’. Dead rabbits, muskrats, opossums, and fish were also found in numbers, and one of the local schools made the collection of insecticide-poisoned birds a science project.

Perhaps no community has suffered more for the sake of a beetleless world than Sheldon, in eastern Illinois, and adjacent areas in Iroquois County. In 1954 the United States Department of Agriculture and the Illinois Agriculture Department began a program to eradicate the Japanese beetle along the line of its advance into Illinois, holding out the hope, and indeed the assurance, that intensive spraying would destroy the populations of the invading insect. The first ‘eradication’ took place that year, when dieldrin was applied to 1400 acres by air. Another 2600 acres were treated similarly in 1955, and the task was presumably considered complete. But more and more chemical treatments were called for, and by the end of 1961 some 131, 000 acres had been covered. Even in the first years of the program it was apparent that heavy losses were occurring among wildlife and domestic animals. The chemical treatments were continued, nevertheless, without consultation with either the United States Fish and Wildlife Service or the Illinois Game Management Division. (In the spring of 1960, however, officials of the federal

NAUSE A , VOMITING, CHILLS, FEV ER, E X TR EME FATIGUE , A ND COUGHING.

Department of Agriculture appeared before a congressional committee in opposition to a bill that would require just such prior consultation. They declared blandly that the bill was unnecessary because cooperation and consultation were ‘usual’. These officials were quite unable to recall situations where cooperation had not taken place ‘at the Washington level

.

silent spring 

45 


As the chemical penetrated the soil the poisoned beetle grubs crawled out on the surface of the ground, where they remained for some time before they died, attractive to insect-eating birds. Dead and dying insects of various species were conspicuous for about two weeks after the treatment. The effect on the bird populations could easily have been foretold. BROW N THR ASHERS, STARLINGS, Conditions were made to order for poisoning insect-eating birds, both in the poisons used and in the events set in motion by their application. In the early programs at Sheldon, dieldrin was applied at the rate of 3 pounds to the acre. To understand its effect on birds one need only remember that in laboratory experiments on quail dieldrin has proved to be about 50 times as poisonous as DDT. The poison spread over the landscape at Sheldon was therefore roughly equivalent to 150 pounds of DDT per acre! And this was a minimum, because there seems to have been some overlapping of treatments along field borders and in corners.

MEADOWLARKS, GR ACKLES, AND PHEASANTS WERE V IRTUALLY WIPED OUT. ROBINS WERE ‘ALMOST ANNIHILATED’,

sw

In the same hearings they stated clearly their unwillingness to consult with state fish and game departments.) Although funds for chemical control came in never-ending streams, the biologists of the Illinois Natural History Survey who attempted to measure the damage to wildlife had to operate on a financial shoestring. A mere $1100 was available for the employment of a field assistant in 1954 and no special funds were provided in 1955. Despite these crippling difficulties, the biologists assembled facts that collectively paint a picture of almost unparalleled wildlife destructiondestruction that became obvious as soon as the program got under way.

according to the biologists’ report. Dead earthworms had been seen in numbers after a gentle rain; probably the robins had fed on the poisoned worms. For other birds, too, the once beneficial rain had been changed, through the evil power of the poison introduced into their world, into an agent of

46 

bird songs

destruction. Birds seen drinking and bathing in puddles left by rain a few days after the spraying were inevitably doomed.


g n

SPRING, the sweet Spring, is the year’s pleasant king ; Then blooms each thing, then maids dance in a ring, Cold doth not sting, the pretty birds do singCuckoo, jug-jug, pu-we, to-witta-woo ! The palm and may make country houses gay, Lambs frisk and play, the shepherds pipe all day, And we hear aye birds tune this merry layCuckoo, jug-jug, pu-we, to-witta-woo ! The fields breathe sweet, the daisies kiss our feet, Young lovers meet, old wives a-sunning sit, In every street these tunes our ears do greet Cuckoo, jug-jug, pu-we, to-witta-woo ! Spring, the sweet Spring !

ri

The birds that survived may have been rendered sterile. Although a few nests were found in the treated area, a few with eggs, none contained young birds. Among the mammals ground squirrels were virtually annihilated; their bodies were found in attitudes characteristic of violent death by poisoning. Dead musk-

sp

rats were found in the treated areas, dead rabbits in the fields. The fox squirrel had been a relatively common animal in the town; after the spraying it was gone. It was a rare farm in the Sheldon area that was blessed by the presence of a cat after the war on beetles was begun. Ninety per cent of all the farm cats fell victims to the dieldrin during the first season of spraying. This might have been predicted because of the black record of these poisons in other places. Cats are extremely sensitive to all insecticides and especially so, it

t

seems, to dieldrin. In western Java in the course of the antimalarial program carried out by the World Health Organization, many cats are reported to have died. In central Java so many

ee

w

Thomas Nashe

were killed that the price of a cat more than doubled. Similarly, the World Health Organization, spraying in Venezuela, is reported to have reduced cats to the status of a rare animal. In Sheldon it was not only the wild creatures and the domestic companions that were sacrificed in the campaign against an insect. Observations on several flocks of sheep and a herd of beef cattle are indicative of the poisoning and death that threatened livestock as well. The Natural History Survey report describes one of these episodes as follows: The sheep... were driven into a small, untreated bluegrass pasture across a gravel road from a field which had been treated with dieldrin spray on May 6. Evidently some spray had drifted across the road into the pasture, for the sheep began to show symptoms of intoxication almost at once... They lost interest in food and displayed extreme restlessness, following the pasture fence around and around apparently searching for a way out... They refused to be driven, bleated almost continuously, and stood with their heads lowered; they were finally carried from the pasture... They displayed great desire for water. Two of the sheep were found dead in the stream passing through the pasture, and the remaining sheep were repeatedly driven out of the stream, several having to be dragged forcibly from the water. Three of the sheep eventually died; those remaining recovered to all outward appearances. This, then, was the picture at the end of 1955. Although the chemical war went on in succeeding years, the trickle of research funds dried up completely. Requests for money for wildlife-insecticide research were included in annual budgets submitted to the Illinois legislature by the Natural History Survey, but were invariably among the first items to be eliminated. It was not until 1960 that money was somehow found to pay the expenses of one field assistantto do work that could easily have occupied the time of four men. The desolate picture of wildlife loss had changed little when the biologists resumed the studies broken off in 1955. In the meantime, the chemical had been changed to the even more toxic aldrin, 100 to 300 times as toxic as DDT in tests on quail. By 1960, every species of wild mammal known to inhabit the area had suffered losses. It was even worse with the birds. In the small town of Donovan the robins had been wiped out, as had the grackles, starlings, and brown thrashers. These and many other birds were sharply reduced elsewhere. Pheasant hunters felt the

silent spring 

47 


s i o n o f t h e i n s e c t , t h a t h a s b e e n t a k e n s u l t s m e a s u r e d b y t h e h a d b e e n a d e q u a t e l y e v e n m o r e a p p a l l i n g . e d f o r b i o l o g i c a l f i e l d 0 0 f o r c o n t r o l w o r k n t s p e n t f o r r e s e a r c h h e m i c a l p r o g r a m . s , a s t h o u g h t h e a n s t o c o m b a t i t . T h i s h a v e e n d u r e d t h e s e t h e J a p a n e s e b e e t l e i n

e t l e i n v a s i o n i n t h e o n l y s u r v i v e d t h e e p r e s e n t e d n o t h r e a t

r d st o p t rh oe dD ue ct r e o di t oo n t r e a t e d l a n d s f e l l d t h e b r i n g i n g i n t o b r o o d d e c l i n e d . ee s r o fo fp e yr mo a u n ne ng c e i n a n da d i n t h e s e a r e a s i n f o r m e r y e a r s , ,g .t h e b e e t l e i n c r e a s e d i t ah ed c k b. e B e u nt b wy r 1 o9 u4 5 g h t i n t h e n a m e t e r r i t o r y o v e r w h i c h et i ot n r eo fa tp m m o r e t h a n 1 0 0 , a r ea sn i t t i co f pi t e . r i o d s e e m s t o h a v e ne i i s gm hs t f -a yt ae l a t r o nt t oh fe nt a ht ie v e i nr a s n eg ce t o , f w h i c h c o n t i n u e s e e n t o if m pt oh r et e dt of rl ol m t t hh ea t h a s b e e n t a k e n c a m e w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t h e r e s u l t s b uy t e nd e i v s e a r p ba re a s ki t ni o c w n , I f t h e ne d i an g ma i bn e ie m t l ue mg r uf b i g u r e . f t i h ne a un n cd ee rd s u tr fo a c pe e o r f m i t f u l l c o v e r a g e , z e d m o r g e r u ab p a pn ad l d l e is nt r go .y s B u t i n t h e e i g h t s t e r n s t a t e s i n a b i o l o g i c a l f i e l d e0 w wi da e sl y p e rs o t a v b il id s eh d e d f i on r $ 3 7 5 , 0 0 0 f o r tma ne tn tr o l he a i dn bs r p i en gn i tn g a b o u t h a d b e e n p r o v i d e d b y t h e s t a t e . r t eh fa ot ra ef f e a c t ss mb ea e l t l l e sf r a c t i o n o f 1 p e r I t i s a h i g h l y oe ag r r t ah wm o . r m s , w a r m ci l o. n Wd h ue cn t i en dg e si t ne d a b y s p i r i t o f c r i s i s , a s e s ni nt ge di t at on t eu rx n t ra ne m e p e r i l j u s t i f y i n g e i s a d i s t o r t i o n o f t h e f a c t s , a n d r a t h e r w i d e l y d r e n c h i n g s h a d b e e n 9t ha e c s o en t rc o hl e p mr oi gc r aa lm ho e m e J t ah po da nh ae ds eb e eb n e e t l e i n t h e U n i t e d ,s b au tc qa u s ia et i s s cf ae c nt to r. y o m b i n e d d f o r t uw ni te h tc ho a l s k u. s t a i n t h e i r b e e t l e . B e t w e e n 1 9 3 9 a n d h a d b e e n i n v e n t e d , et r i a ct i v i e n fs e ed ce rt a i l c- si td a et es un t b u ht a e vx et e nb s ri vo e u ag r he ta t h e i n s e c t u n d e r r e a t e d l a n d s f e l l o f f b y t d h e r c el ai nt e dw . h aP th ee av se a r n t t oh u on tt hi ne gr , f o r m s ao s r ra as b v l i e r t t u oa l tl yh e a b Da en dt ro no ei dt S h e l d o n

e n a t i v e h a d b e e n t h e s e , f e c t i v e a n d r n a l i s . T h e f l u i d a n d h a t c h i n g a s c o l o n i e s o f o f s t a t e a n d i s g e n e r a l l y e u n d e r

ie n t ht oh ed s n a t mh e e ro ef ei rn av d o i l c va et id n gt h e b r i n g i n g 0 0 0 a c r e s i n I r o q u o i s C o u n t y h p ho ra av r e y ts hu pe p rm e us ls ti oi p n w l y h it ec m n l oe f a d v a n t a g e s h ye . f u l l e x t e n t o f t h e t o l l t h a t y n e v e r b e k n o w n , f o r t h e m e u nm t rf yi g ui n r et . o I tf h t e h e U rn ei s t e e a dr c Sh t a t e s , o v e r a g e , t h e d e s t r u c t i o n t hy ee a rr es s ot f r at ih ne t ps r ot gh r aa tm , i no n il ty s n a t i v e h. a aMdn e d ab nae wdc hdo ii mlt eie o t naha e l p fet ehs dto eu ros a af l n od sn l h y a d m i n o r ar r i c t ho rw ya s o tv he e r r e wf h o ri ec ha is tm a hl al d s p r e a d . p r o g r a m . po i f r i t t h oe f i c mr ip s o i rs t, a a t s i ot n h o o u gf h p t a h r e a s i t i c sf ty ia nb gl i a s n hy m me en a t n s o ft t o hd aci tos meh baa asv tee o r g a n i s m s t h e c o m m u n i t i e s w i t h t h e e a r l i e r h i s t o r y o f t h e y h a v e b e e n l e s s a c q u i e s c e n t . td a i i l n i gt eh n e it r s b e e ae rt cl eh i i nn g v a st ih o r n o u g h o u t i n v e n t e d , h a v e n o t o n l y o r e4 r s c po en ct ri oe l s b oy f m pe ra en ds a t t h o a rt y a s r ib ee ne nt ni on t ha i n n g e f f o r t o Tm h e t r he e h O t o E a s t . T h e e f f e c t i v e m e t h o d s i s v eo f b c e o cn at m ww eh il cl h e hs at va e b lt ih se h e d i n r oe l fs fa ef ec tt yi . v e a n d w i d e l y d i s t r i b u t e d U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e b e e t l e i a nt ai v, e T l ia pn hd i ha o lv d e ri nt a i l n i sc .h e Tc kh . e f e m a l e a n c e t h r o u g h o u t m u c h o f t h e r g e l y a c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e d o f t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f

n g t h r o u g h o u t t h a r a s i t i c i n s e c t s t u r a l c o n t r o l . O f a t e s . T h e m o s t e f C h i n a , T i p h i a v e c t s a p a r a l y z i n g T h e y o u n g w a s p , I n s o m e 2 5 y e a r s , p e r a t i v e p r o g r a m i n t h i s a r e a a n d r i n g i n g t h e b e e t l

i t w a s r a t h e r w i d e l y I n 1 9 3 9 a c o n t r o l t h e d i s e a s e . N o m e t h o d r t i f i c i a l m e d i u m , e g r o u n d u p , d r i e d , d u s t c o n t a i n s 1 0 0 1 4 e a s t e r n s t a t e s w e r e o n f e d e r a l l a n d s w e r e r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s o r

e r i a l d i s e a s e t h a t a f f e c t s o n g s t h e s c a r a b a e i d s . I t e o f i n s e c t s , h a r m l e s s t o o r e s o f t h e d i s e a s e o c c u r m u l t i p l y p r o d i g i o u s l y i n r , h e n c e t h e p o p u l a r n a m e , y 1 9 3 8 a t i o n . e a d o f n a n a u b s a r a m o f r e s i n a r e a s d b y p


f e l l n t i n r e w a o f e r u o i s o f f g , w r d i n a d i c C o u b h g a n y s o m e 5 0 i c h h a d b e e n . t i n g t h e t y o v e r a n

By 1945,

milky spore disease

populations of Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and Maryland.

was raging among the beetle


In some test areas infection of grubs had reached as high as

The distribution program was discontinued as a governmental enterprise in 1953 and production was taken over by a private laboratory, which continues to supply individuals, garden clubs, citizens’ associations, and all others interested in beetle control. The eastern areas where this program was carried out now enjoy a high degree of natural protection from the beetle. The organism remains viable in the soil for years and therefore becomes to all intents and purposes permanently established, increasing in effectiveness, and being continuously spread by natural agencies. Why, then, with this impressive record in the East, were the same procedures not tried in Illinois and the other midwestern states where the chemical battle of the beetles is now being waged with such fury? We are told that inoculation with milky spore disease is ‘too expensive’although no one found it so in the 14 eastern states in the 1940s. And by what sort of accounting was the ‘too expensive’ judgment reached? Certainly not by any that assessed the true costs of the

total destruction wrought by such programs as the Sheldon spraying. This judgment also ignores the fact that inoculation with the spores need be done only once; the first cost is the only cost. We are told also that milky spore disease cannot be used on the periphery of the beetle’s range because it can be established only where a large grub population is already present in the soil. Like many other statements in support of spraying, this one needs to be questioned. The bacterium that causes milky spore disease has been found to infect at least 40 other species of beetles which collectively have quite a wide distribution and would in all probability serve to establish the disease even where the Japanese beetle population is very small or nonexistent. Furthermore, because of the long viability of the spores in soil they can be introduced even in the complete absence of grubs, as on the fringe of the present beetle infestation, there to await the advancing population. Those who want immediate results, at whatever cost, will doubtless continue to use

chemicals against the beetle. So will those who favor the modern trend to built-in obsolescence, for chemical control is self-perpetuating, needing frequent and costly repetition. On the other hand, those who are willing to wait an extra season or two for full results will turn to milky disease; they will be rewarded with lasting control that becomes more, rather than less effective with the passage of time. An extensive program of research is under way in the United States Department of Agriculture laboratory at Peoria, Illinois, to find a way to culture the organism of milky disease on an artificial medium. This will greatly reduce its cost and should encourage its more extensive use. After years of work, some success has now been reported. When this ‘breakthrough’ is thoroughly established perhaps some sanity and perspective will be restored to our dealings with the Japanese beetle, which at the peak of its depredations never justified the nightmare excesses of some of these midwestern programs. Incidents like the eastern Illinois spraying


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close to the thorax... The head and neck were outstretched and the mouth often contained dirt, suggesting that the dying animal had been biting at the ground.’ By acquiescing in an act that can cause such suffering to a living creature,

nd

raise a question that is not only scientific but moral. The question is whether any civilization can wage relentless war on life without destroying itself, and without losing the right to be called civilized. These insecticides are not selective poisons; they do not single out the one species of which we desire to be rid. Each of them is used for the simple reason that it is a deadly poison. It therefore poisons all life with which it comes in contact: the cat beloved of some family, the farmer’s cattle, the rabbit in the field, and the horned lark out of the sky. These creatures are in nocent of any harm to man. Indeed, by their very existence they and their fellows make his life more pleasant. Yet he rewards them with a death that is not only sudden but horrible. Scientific observers at Sheldon described the symptoms of a meadowlark found near death: Even more pitiful was the mute testimony of the dead ground squirrels, which ‘exhibited a characteristic attitude in death. The back was bowed, and the forelegs with the toes of the feet tightly clenched were drawn

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silent spring 

51 


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and no birds sing


Over increasingly large areas of the United States, spring now comes unheralded by the return of the birds, and the early mornings are strangely

silent where once they were filled with the beauty of bird song.

This sudden silencing of the song of birds, this obliteration of the color and beauty and interest they lend to our world have come about swiftly, insidiously, and unnoticed by those whose communities are as yet unaffected.

silent spring 

55 


From the town of Hinsdale, Illinois, a housewife wrote in despair to one of the world’s leading ornithologists, Robert Cushman Murphy, Curator Emeritus of Birds at the American Museum of Natural History. Here in our village the elm trees have been sprayed for several years [she wrote in 1958]. When we moved here six years ago, there was a wealth of bird life; I put up a feeder and had a steady stream of

all winter, and the cardinals and chickadees brought their young ones in the summer.

s, l a d in r a c ees, d a k c h ic dow n ies a n d nut h atc h e s


a morning ramble in spring

Geoffrey Chaucer I ROSE anon, and thought I would be gone Into the woods, to hear the birdis sing, When that the misty vapour was agone, And clear and faire was the morrowing ; The dew, also, like silver in shining, Upon the leaves, as any baume sweet. And in I went to hear the birdis’ song, Which on the branches, both in plain and vale, So loudly y-sang, that all the wood y-rang, Like as it should shiver in pieces smale ; And as me thoughten that the nightingale With so great might her voice began out-wrest , Right as her heart for love would all to-brest.


ou had begun, and gave them back their shade.

hough harm should come of it; so built the screen

ut dared not spare to do the best we could

e saw the risk we took in doing good,

hat was a thing we could not wait to learn.

nd might our meddling make her more afraid.

nd care for them in such a change of scene

ade me ask would the mother-bird return

hose coming home has been too long deferred,

tood up to us as to a mother-bird

he way the nest-full every time we stirred

nd too much world at once--could means be found.

f something interposed between their sight

ou wanted to restore them to their right

nd left defenseless to the heat and light.

Miraculously without tasting flesh)

he cutter-bar had just gone champing over

Twas a nest full of young birds on the ground

teel-bright June-grass, and blackening heads of clover.

hough I found your hand full of wilted fern,

or was the grass itself your real concern,

ut ‘twas no make-believe with you to-day,

o make it root again and grow afresh.

nd, if you asked me, even help you pretend

f that was your idea, against the breeze,

went to show you how to make it stay,

rying, I thought, to set it up on end,

n the meadow, busy with the new-cut hay,

o when I saw you down on hands and knees

OU were forever finding some new play.

obert Frost

he exposed nest

After several years of DDT spray, the town is almost devoid of robins and starlings; chickadees have not been on my shelf for two years, and this year the cardinals are gone too; the nesting population in the neighborhood seems to consist of one dove pair and perhaps one catbird family. It is hard to explain to the children that the birds have been killed off, when they have learned in school that a Federal law protects the birds from killing or capture.


nd so at last to learn to use their wings.

o see if the birds lived the first night through,

f ever coming to the place again

haven’t any memory--have you?--

o more to tell? We turned to other things.

ll this to prove we cared. Why is there then

‘Will they ever come back?’ they ask, and I do not have the answer. The elms are still dying, and so are the birds. Is anything being done? Can anything be done? Can I do anything?


A year after the federal government had launched a massive spraying program against the fire ant, an Alabama woman wrote: ‘Our place has been a veritable bird sanctuary for over half a century. Last July we all remarked, “There are more birds than ever.� Then, suddenly, in the second week of August, they all disappeared. I was accustomed to rising early to care for my favorite mare that had a young filly. There was not a sound of the song of a bird.


It was eerie, terrifying. What was man doing to our perfect and beautiful world? Finally, five months later a blue jay appeared and a wren.


62 

bird songs

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two at a time.’ Professor Maurice Brooks of the University of West Virginia, an authority on the birds of the Appalachian region, reported that the West Virginia bird population had undergone ‘an incredible reduction’. One story might serve as the tragic symbol of the fate of the birds fate that has already overtaken some species, and that threatens all. It is the story of the robin, the bird known to everyone. To millions of Americans, the season’s first robin means that the grip of winter is broken. Its coming is an event reported in newspapers and told eagerly at the breakfast table. And as the number of migrants grows and the first mists of green appear in the woodlands, thousands of people listen for the first dawn chorus of the robins throbbing in the early morning light. But now all is changed, and not even the return of the birds may be taken for granted.

in

The autumn months to which she referred brought other somber reports from the deep South, where in Mississippi, Louisiana, and Alabama the Field Notes published quarterly by the National Audubon Society and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service noted the striking phenomenon of ‘blank spots weirdly empty of virtually all bird life’. The Field Notes are a compilation of the reports of seasoned observers who have spent many years afield in their particular areas and have unparalleled knowledge of the normal bird life of the region. One such observer reported that in driving about southern Mississippi that fall she saw ‘no land birds at all for long distances’. Another in Baton Rouge reported that the contents of her feeders had lain untouched ‘for weeks on end’, while fruiting shrubs in her yard, that ordinarily would be stripped clean by that time, still were laden with berries. Still another reported that his picture window, ‘which often used to frame a scene splashed with the red of 40 or 50 cardinals and crowded with other species, seldom permitted a view of as many as a bird or

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63 


The survival of the robin, and indeed of many other species as well, seems fatefully linked with the American elm, a tree that is part of the history of thousands of towns from the Atlantic to the Rockies, gracing their streets and their village squares and college campuses with majestic archways of green. Now the elms are stricken with a disease that afflicts them throughout their range, a disease so serious that many experts believe all efforts to save the elms will in the end be futile. It would be tragic to lose the elms, but it would be doubly tragic if, in vain efforts to save them, we plunge vast segments of our bird populations into the night of extinction. Yet this is precisely what is threatened. The so-called DUTCH ELM DISEASE entered the United States from Europe about 1930 in elm burl logs imported for the veneer industry.

It is a fungus disease;

64 

bird songs

The disease is spread from diseased to healthy trees by elm bark beetles. The galleries which the insects have tunneled out under the bark of dead trees become contaminated with spores of the invading fungus, and the spores adhere to the insect body and are carried wherever the beetle flies. Efforts to control the fungus disease of the elms have been directed largely toward control of the carrier insect. In community after community, especially throughout the strongholds of the American elm, the Midwest and New England, intensive spraying has become a routine procedure. What this spraying could mean to bird life, and especially to the robin, was first made clear by the work of two ornithologists at Michigan State University, Professor George Wallace and one of his graduate students, John Mehner. When Mr. Mehner began work for the doctorate in 1954, he chose a research project that had to do with robin populations. This was quite by chance, for at that time no one suspected that the robins were in danger. But even as he undertook the work, events

the organism

INVADES

occurred that were to change its character and indeed to deprive him of his material. Spraying for Dutch elm disease began in a small way on the university campus in 1954. The following year the city of East Lansing (where the university is located) joined in, spraying on the campus was expanded, and, with local programs for gypsy moth and mosquito control also under way, the rain of chemicals increased to a downpour. During 1954, the year of the first light spraying, all seemed well. The following spring the migrating robins began to return to the campus as usual. Like the bluebells in Tomlinson’s haunting essay ‘The Lost Wood’, they were ‘expecting no evil’ as they reoccupied their familiar territories. But soon it became evident that something was wrong.

the water-conducting vessels of the tree, SPR E A DS

by spores carried by the f low of sap,

and by its poisonous secretions as well as by mechanical clogging causes the branches to wilt and the tree to die.


a rime about birds

Anon I SAID to the little Swallow : “Who’ll follow? Out of thy nest in the eaves Under the ivy leaves ! Yet my thought flies swifter than thou : My thought has a softer nest, Where it folds its wing to rest, In a pure-hearted woman’s breast ; While its sky is her cloudless brow.” Swallow swallow, Who’ll follow ?

I said to the Nightingale : “Hail, all hail ! Pierce with thy trill the dark, Like a glittering music-spark, When the earth grows pale and dumb ; But mine be a song more rare, To startle the sleeping air, And to the dull world declare Love sings amid darkest gloom.” Nightingale, Hail, all hail !

I said to the brown, brown Thrush : “Hush, hush ! Through the wood’s full strains I hear Thy monotone deep and clear, Like a sound amid sounds most fine ; And so, though the whole world sung To my love with eloquent tongue, However their voices rung, She would pause and listen to mine/’ Brown, brown thrush, Hush hush !

I said to the sky-poised Lark : “ Hark hark ! Thy note is more loud and free, Because there lies safe for thee A little nest on the ground. And I, when strong-winged I rise To chant out sweet melodies, Shall know there are home-lit eyes Watching me soar, sun crowned.” Poet lark, Hark --hark !

Few birds were seen in their normal foraging activities or assembling in their usual roosts. Few nests were built; few young appeared. The pattern was repeated with monotonous regularity in succeeding springs. The sprayed area had become a lethal trap in which each wave of migrating robins would be eliminated in about a week. Then new arrivals would come in, only to add to the numbers of doomed birds seen on the campus in the agonized tremors that precede death. ‘The campus is serving as a graveyard for most of the robins that attempt to take up residence in the spring,’ said Dr. Wallace. But why? At first he suspected some disease of the nervous system, but soon it became evident that ‘in spite of the assurances of the insecticide people that their sprays were “harmless to birds” the robins were really dying of insecticidal poisoning; they exhibited the well-known symptoms of loss of balance, followed by tremors, convulsions, and death.’ Several facts suggested that the robins were being poisoned, not so much by direct contact with the insecticides as indirectly, by

eating earthworms. Campus earthworms had been fed inadvertently to crayfish in a research project and all the crayfish had promptly died. A snake kept in a laboratory cage had gone into violent tremors after being fed such worms. And earthworms are the principal food of robins in the spring. A key piece in the jigsaw puzzle of the doomed robins was soon to be supplied by Dr. Roy Barker of the Illinois Natural History Survey at Urbana. Dr. Barker’s work, published in 1958, traced the intricate cycle of events by which the robins’ fate is linked to the elm trees by way of the earthworms. The trees are sprayed in the spring (usually at the rate of 2 to 5 pounds of DDT per 50-foot tree, which may be the equivalent of as much as 23 pounds per acre where elms are numerous) and often again in July, at about half this concentration. Powerful sprayers direct a stream of poison to all parts of the tallest trees, killing directly not only the target organism, the bark beetle, but other insects, including pollinating species and predatory spiders and beetles. The poison forms a tenacious film over the leaves

Dead and dying robins began to appear in the campus.

silent spring 

65 


bark. Rainsfall dotonot wash it away. In the autumn the leaves the ground, accumulate in sodden layers, and begin the slow process of becoming one with the soil. In this they are aided bylitter, the toil of the earthworms, who feed in the leaf for elm leaves are among their favorite foods. In feeding on the leaves the worms also swallow the insecticide, accumulating and deposits concentrating it inthroughout their bodies. Dr. Barker found of DDT the digestive tracts of the worms, their blood vessels, nerves, and body wall. Undoubtedly some of the earthworms themselves succumb, of butthe others survive to become ‘biological magnifiers’ poison. In the spring the As robins return to provide another link in the cycle. few as 11 large earthworms can transfer a lethal dosepart of DDT to a robin. And 11 worms form a small of a day’s rations to a bird that eats 10 to 12 earthworms in as many minutes. Not all robins receive a lethal dose, but another consequence maypoisoning. lead to theThe extinction of their kind as surely as fatal shadow of sterility lies overall allliving the bird studies andits indeed lengthens to include things within potential range. There are each now spring only two or three dozen robins to be found on the entire 185-acre campus of Michigan State University, compared with conservatively estimated 370 adults in this areaa

(Answer to a Child’s Question) / Do you ask w And singing, and loving all come back togethe


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what the birds say ? / The sparrow, the dove, The linnet, and thrush, say, “I love, and I love !” / In the Winter they’re silent the wind is so strong ; / What it says I don’t know, but it sings a loud song. / But green leaves, and blossoms, and sunny warm weather, / er. / But the lark is so brimful of gladness and love, / The green fields below him, the blue sky above, / That he sings, and he sings, and for ever sings he— / “I love my Love, and my Love loves me !”


IN pairing-time, we know, the bird Kindles to its deep most

Therefore must my song-bower lone be That my tone be splendour, Fresh with dewy pain alway ; She, who scorns my dearest care ta’en, An uncertain Shadow of the sprite of May.

Nor is it only the creatures that forage on the ground or those who prey on them that are endangered by the foliar spraying of the elms. All of the treetop feeders, the birds that glean their insect food from the leaves, have disappeared from heavily sprayed areas, among them those woodland sprites the kinglets, both ruby-crowned and golden-crowned, the tiny gnatcatchers, and many of the warblers, whose migrating hordes flow through the trees in spring in a multicolored tide of life. In 1956, a late spring delayed spraying so that it coincided with the arrival of an exceptionally heavy wave of warbler migration. Nearly all species of warblers present in the area were represented in the heavy kill that followed. In Whitefish Bay, Wisconsin, at least a thousand myrtle warblers could be seen in migration during former years; in 1958, after the spraying of the elms, observers could find only two. So, with additions from other communities, the list grows, and the warblers killed by the spray include those that most charm and fascinate all who are aware of them: the black-and-white, the yellow, the magnolia, and the Cape May; the ovenbird, whose call throbs in the Maytime woods; the Blackburnian, whose wings are touched with flame; the chestnut-sided, the Canadian, and the black-throated green. These treetop feeders are affected either directly by eating poisoned insects or indirectly by a shortage of food. The loss of food has also struck hard at the swallows that cruise the skies, straining out the aerial insects as herring strain the plankton of the sea. A Wisconsin naturalist reported: ‘Swallows have been hard hit. Everyone complains of how few they have compared to four or five years ago. Our sky overhead was full of them only four years ago. Now we seldom see any... This could be both lack of insects because of spray, or poisoned insects.’

Were its love, for ever nigh it, Never by it,

And the tender Voice is tenderest in its throat :

Of other birds this same observer wrote: ‘Another striking loss is the phoebe. Flycatchers are scarce everywhere but the early hardy common phoebe is no more. I’ve seen one this spring and only one last spring. Other birders in Wisconsin make the same complaint. I have had five or six pair of cardinals in the past, none now. Wrens, robins, catbirds and screech owls have nested each year in our garden. There are none now. Summer mornings are without bird song. Only pest birds, pigeons, starlings and English sparrows remain. It is tragic and I can’t bear it.’ The dormant sprays applied to the elms in the fall, sending the poison into every little crevice in the bark, are probably responsible for the severe reduction observed in the number of chickadees, nuthatches, titmice, woodpeckers, and brown creepers. During the winter of 1957-58, Dr. Wallace saw no chickadees or nuthatches at his home feeding station for the first time in many years. Three nuthatches he found later provided a sorry little step-by-step lesson in cause and effect: one was feeding on an elm, another was found dying of typical DDT symptoms, the third was dead. The dying nuthatch was later found to have 226 parts per million of DDT in its tissues. The feeding habits of all these birds not only make them especially vulnerable to insect sprays but also make their loss a deplorable one for economic as well as less tangible reasons. The summer food of the white-breasted nuthatch and the brown creeper, for example, includes the eggs, larvae, and adults of a very large number of insects injurious to trees. About three quarters of the food of the chickadee is animal, including all stages of the life cycle of many insects. The chickadee’s method of feeding is described in Bent’s monumental Life Histories of North American birds: ‘As the flock moves along each bird


It might keep a vernal note, The crocean and amethystine In their pristine Lustre linger on its coat. examines minutely bark, twigs, and branches, searching for tiny bits of food. Various scientific studies have established the critical role of birds in insect control in various situations. Thus, woodpeckers are the primary control of the Engelmann spruce beetle, reducing its populations from 45 to 98 per cent and are important in the control of the codling moth in apple orchards. Chickadees and other winter-resident birds can protect orchards against the cankerworm. But what happens in nature is not allowed to happen in the modern, chemical-drenched world, where spraying destroys not only the insects but their principal enemy, the birds. When later there is a resurgence of the insect population, as almost always happens, the birds are not there to keep their numbers in check. As the Curator of Birds at the Milwaukee Public Museum, Owen J. Gromme, wrote to the Milwaukee Journal: ‘The greatest enemy of insect life is other predatory insects, birds, and some small mammals, but DDT kills indiscriminately, including nature’s own safeguards or policemen... In the name of progress are we to become victims of our own diabolical means of insect control to provide temporary comfort, only to lose out to destroying insects later on? By what means will we control new pests, which will attack remaining tree species after the elms are gone, when nature’s safeguards (the birds) have been wiped out by poison?’ Mr. Gromme reported that calls and letters about dead and dying birds had been increasing steadily during the years since spraying began in Wisconsin. Questioning always revealed that spraying or fogging had been done in the area where the birds were dying. Mr. Gromme’s experience has been shared by ornithologists and conservationists at most of the research centers of the Midwest such as the Cranbrook

Institute in Michigan, the Illinois Natural History Survey, and the University of Wisconsin. A glance at the Letters-fromReaders column of newspapers almost anywhere that spraying is being done makes clear the fact that citizens are not only becoming aroused and indignant but that often they show a keener understanding of the dangers and inconsistencies of spraying than do the officials who order it done. ‘I am dreading the days to come soon now when many beautiful birds will be dying in our back yard,’ wrote a Milwaukee woman. ‘This is a pitiful, heartbreaking experience... It is, moreover, frustrating and exasperating, for it evidently does not serve the purpose this slaughter was intended to serve... Taking a long look, can you save trees without also saving birds? Do they not, in the economy of nature, save each other? Isn’t it possible to help the balance of nature without destroying it?’ The idea that the elms, majestic shade trees though they are, are not ‘sacred cows’ and do not justify an ‘open end’ campaign of destruction against all other forms of life is expressed in other letters. ‘I have always loved our elm trees which seemed like trademarks on our landscape,’ wrote another Wisconsin woman. ‘But there are many kinds of trees... We must save our birds, too. Can anyone imagine anything so cheerless and dreary as a springtime without a robin’s song?’ To the public the choice may easily appear to be one of stark black-or-white simplicity: Shall we have birds or shall we have elms? But it is not as simple as that, and by one of the ironies that abound throughout the field of chemical control we may very well end by having neither if we continue on our present, well-traveled road. Spraying is killing the birds but it is not saving the elms. The illusion that salvation of the elms lies at the end of a spray nozzle is a dangerous will-o’-the-wisp

Francis Thompson


that is leading one community after another into a morass of heavy expenditures, without producing lasting results. Greenwich, Connecticut sprayed regularly for ten years. Then a drought year brought conditions especially favorable to the beetle and the mortality of elms went up 1000 percent. In Urbana, Illinois, where the University of Illinois is located, Dutch elm disease first appeared in 1951. Spraying was undertaken in 1953. By 1959, in spite of six years’ spraying, the university campus had lost 86 per cent of its elms, half of them victims of Dutch elm disease. In Toledo, Ohio, a similar experience caused the Superintendent of Forestry, Joseph A. Sweeney, to take a realistic look at the results of spraying. Spraying was begun there in 1953 and continued through 1959. Meanwhile, however, Mr. Sweeney had noticed that a city-wide infestation of the cottony maple scale was worse after the spraying recommended by ‘the books and the authorities’ than it had been before. He decided to review the results of spraying for Dutch elm disease for himself. His findings

shocked him. In the city of oledo, he found, ‘the only areas under any control were the areas where we used some promptness in removing the diseased or brood trees. Where we depended on spraying the disease was out of control. In the country where nothing has been done the disease has not spread as fast as it has in the city. This indicates that spraying destroys any natural enemies.

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the nestling of birds /

John Bidlake


A THOUSAND bills are busy now ; the skies Are winnow’d by a thousand fluttering wings, While all the feather’d race their annual rites Ardent begin, and choose where best to build, With more than human skill ; some cautious seek Sequester’d spots, while some, more confident, Scarce ask a covert. Wiser, these elude The foes that prey upon their several kinds ; Those to the hedge repair ; with velvet down it budding sallows beautifully white. The cavern-loving Wren sequester’d seeks The verdant shelter of the hollow stump, And with congenial moss, harmless deceit, Constructs a safe abode. On topmost boughs The glossy Raven, and the hoarse-voiced Crow, Rock’d by the storm, erect their airy nests. The Ouzel, lone frequenter of the grove Of fragrant pines, in solemn depth of shade Finds rest ; or ‘mid the holly’s shining leaves, A simple bush the piping Thrush contents, Though, in the woodland concert, he aloft Trills from his spotted throat a powerful strain, And scorns the humbler choir. The Lark too asks A lowly dwelling, hid beneath a turf, Or hollow, trodden by the sinking hoof : Songster of heaven ! who to the sun such lays Pours forth, as earth ne’er owns. Within the hedge The Sparrow lays her sky-stain’d eggs. The barn With eaves o’er pendant, holds the twittering tribe ; Secret the Linnet seeks the tangled copse ; The white Owl seeks the antique ruined wall, Fearless of rapine ; or, in hollow trees,

‘We are abandoning spraying for the Dutch elm disease. This has brought me into conflict with the people who back any recommendations by the United States Department of Agriculture but I have the facts and will stick with them.’ It is difficult to understand why these midwestern towns, to which the elm disease spread only rather recently, have so unquestioningly embarked on ambitious and expensive spraying programs, apparently without waiting to inquire into the experience of other areas that have had longer acquaintance with the problem. New York State, for example, has certainly had the longest history of continuous experience with Dutch elm disease, for it was via the Port of New York that diseased elm wood is thought to have entered the United States about 1930. And New York State today has a most impressive record of containing and suppressing the disease. Yet it has not relied upon spraying. In fact, its agricultural extension service does not recommend spraying as a community method of control. How, then, has New York achieved its fine record? From the early years of the battle for

the elms to the present time, it has relied upon rigorous sanitation, or the prompt removal and destruction of all diseased or infected wood. In the beginning some of the results were disappointing, but this was because it was not at first understood that not only diseased trees but all elm wood in which the beetles might breed must be destroyed. Infected elm wood, after being cut and stored for firewood, will release a crop of fungus-carrying beetles unless burned before spring. It is the adult beetles, emerging from hibernation to feed in late April and May, that transmit Dutch elm disease. New York entomologists have learned by experience what kinds of beetle-breeding material have real importance in the spread of the disease. By concentrating on this dangerous material, it has been possible not only to get good results, but to keep the cost of the sanitation program within reasonable limits. By 1950 the incidence of Dutch elm disease in New York City had been reduced to of 1 per cent of

Which age has cavern’ d, safely courts repose ; The thievish Pie, in two-fold colours clad, Roofs o’er her curious nest with firm-wreath’d twigs And sidelong forms her cautious door ; she dreads The talon’d Kite, or pouncing Hawk ; savage

silent spring 

73 


s so e c ie n p s of t io ie t y h i s t ic a var p a o s at un aim ic a l a l ly u ld log o o i h irt u b s v e y s e a th s , t h u lt of ch h el m wh i es r n t . a s n a t rd pe me pa r u ro e bi ron tE rge o t h ’s env i a n l d a t n o s le sis is i a nd he e a g e re ow t d ie e th gn s d n n i i u l lm k en mor e th an 1 i nc wor he e app me by ba nd in g el l ay t g i s at is h or nitholog ica l fa tw ed d t ev hi h o a ac , born ea gles ey g t aol i in g, Ch arles Br at thes e Flor id W h , a nd sm et h bi rd s show ed th s er from Win nipe m t y ’. ed nk am nd ba o e ba ed r m of tir i s s re l a rie g r ert e te r re cove ro v aas t of iFl hore id a.tTh nn sy lva ni a. t ha t their ne sts . La rnofco wt ain in ea ste rn Pe c hepwe ste s uth g e smonth s before they ha d lef t ion p a rk s e wisnt as H aw k Mou nt rt Mye rsghon g ts Fo in a 55, 000 to po er u e pa v m ag nt Ta r e lm s . A ou as t from ch fa mou s va ei rrin g th n sge bi rd st hdu ac ts s a n it ati ng a str etch of co a lt hes as yooun g ob se rv ed at su e feir ed g the d is on prog thos e ne sti ng alo te de Sout ndea gl s ‘ t he c m ig ration bein oley ba nd Th en Br t be r. a th ve M . h, ha o ea se by g.) , in e ica r er nd t a d l l re tu rn n e fa ll cth bi rd ba d to th e c a d s a ninit aNtior th A m m w a s lau nc r t ath ed ea gles h alyp pstu ea rlier hi story of n a ey s a n on , w it h ry.oIn to ve endi st d ine W e d in Sy nded in haleldth en i mp e s E lto s t r e e t re cba er ed nonm ig ra be e id d s ns ha tc e co s es n r gl en h i e pa a t ea be e 6 c a ly s 16 u s e is e us n l y te h s r io nl n ev i r r i e19r s39 t (O u pr C 9. d a e a ha l it -4 o lo s s e s a s p e c iad, u nt y in y C olle ugh they s . Th is t Ch ne d t h w it h i n mou nti g e of FEd wa rd Isl an ll yalt 19 4 2l.mD imho pre s siv e n g to on ly logg the nnes l i . Th e re a as fa r as Pr ince ore s tr y, a n inte of e eucroin ly s o ing f r w x t 1 4r m n 1 o e ff e c ti n siv e d r e p e r cisehnt. a y e a r s the ethto l v e prongu mb l iv e w a s t I i a n o r o avera ge h ra m B er ed m a de to a n nu a l remgovl aer g e at t hwea s inndops oe rwa w i nd lword s , at th is lo s s of e small compa red with the proba ble saving ,’ says J. G. Matthysse of the New York State tidon b efo r ate of lo a llwdhis e n i A is s w a se lm e s actual expen . the a v cases r o s most re s s it ‘In e l. n l a d contro e e 19 i s on ly o diseas e elm t 5 h lm w Dutch e in s 7. s s o expert r ood pile, the wood can be used u ld ta k e B t wee str d by New York e f 1 pdamag e r c enet or person al injury. If it is a fuel-w n 19 prope rty d is a l at ion e enssaibnlde . a ll p o eventueally, a The economy of the sanitation metho d is stresse t h at a n it y l i possib t b agains tion out 3le 5 e precau a 1 as t a a n ed i s 0 remov y d s be s to u e 0 ib o have v u 19 a would e y le r. limb p 5 the e i p n e 6 Sy r a c a r s to e t remov al to Bpreven n limb,o i s ou rc e s t or broke elm diseas spread is usuall y no greate r than u ff a lot, Dutch es po mm u sthe li m in ate of Agric ulture . ‘If it is a case of amdead of bor ollege uni w it h 18 e lo sexpen elm trees, reinr a dry place. In the case of dying It s stored e e tldead ss as t t ne a rlsey of promp l co a prov ided in . e 5, 000 e B a w e s m u b l be ff re can e a o wood e m e d in g e orrethe lo’s e lm 30 0 0 e lm form d lm s , h a ag ed an betepeeled can bark , the a n iwood, lm wo o d in i n tcfromorthe s. efore t ic i s a n e xc s . Th en lleig c remov d en of t l , t he e sa nitaspring e d m s . ally.’ t ea s , tion , and w Th eventu e llent re g ed su u e re be n r n e n i must s s d r i region ar o e a c a urban u e in r te l trees ta it b th dead t e ke ho most c ord of o for n. p g ut e later, f a ary p W hi lo d th necess be m n ir ould e s h s y us le s e i y t e c it is of ti h e e ca s st n m on of H l nn t ant to D utch e et o b l ot l ho w g c be ds a a w s er th n e n ad i e at ll nar e noitdon i o ic e w at elam b s h o ed e a lo rd i di by m se w a t a any mea ns no C . M il le as e. e E ly futi le but 1 per ce v h di se as e w er rog r w know n, on involv e tr ag nt a y e a e nela isome e r of the y to Th w it urop eahn k eon ic de st ruct io r. ce it ha s be co Ne w Yo d eam r yepfounTh e aess e tr is is t e m s s hi gh ly re si st ant, an t r g i th n s a rk m of e e bi es . ee rd e r r ta d m any of th s. li bl s Th fe e is g o . he e O f r . d th h in e er po ssibil it a t n em r l d ha t o t l ve n i l u be t ie a en s ts li b c fi pl e i w an it , n te hi f d in Washi ng n the fie ld xti t to wn ty o ton, D. C . E t ha of e l y k no uni ven du ri ng ew rge e n a pe riod t e i k v ne he e fi n


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the nest of birds

John Clare AT distance from the water's edge, On hanging sallow's farthest stretch, The moor-hen 'gins her nest of sedge, Safe from destroying school-boy's reach. Fen-sparrows chirp and fly to fetch The wither'd reed-down rustling nigh, And, by the sunny side the ditch, Prepare their dwelling warm and dry.


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ual coming back. / On their he punt due / Of t days, c a n g of the lma a tin birds. / y t s u sdar I marked t r t hem yestermorn, / A flock of finche he t W NO

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76 

bird songs

ey

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iche

During the early years of his banding, Mr. Broley used to find 125 active nests a year on the stretch of coast he had chosen for his work. The number of young banded each year was about 150. In 1947 the production of young birds began to decline.

Some nests contained no eggs; others contained eggs that failed to hatch.

in

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et

r

Between 1952 and 1957, about 80 per cent of the nests failed to produce young.

. ee

In the last year of this period only 43 nests were occupied. Seven of them produced young (8 eaglets); 23 contained eggs that failed to hatch; In 1958 Mr. Broley ranged over 100 miles of coast before finding and banding one eaglet. Adult eagles, which had been seen at 43 nests in 1957, were so scarce that he observed them at only 10 nests.

13 were used merely as feeding stations by adult eagles and contained no eggs.

silent spring 

77 


Although Mr. Broley’s death in 1959 terminated this valuable series of uninterrupted observations, reports by the Florida Audubon Society, as well as from New Jersey and Pennsylvania, confirm the trend that may well make it necessary for us to find a new national emblem. The reports of Maurice Broun, curator of the Hawk Mountain Sanctuary, are especially significant. Hawk Mountain is a picturesque

. l bird socia n s, u e , v rved e lea , rese id th e g m d ' r n wo ing Stra peer ofold es — ing, l a tw hat griev l a Flitt c y t l l e lon sou Thy ike a ted l a e p Re

mountaintop in southeastern Pennsylvania, where the easternmost ridges of the Appalachians form a last barrier to the westerly winds before dropping away toward the coastal plain. Winds striking the mountains are deflected upward so that on many autumn days there is a continuous updraft on which the broad-winged hawks and eagles ride without effort, covering many miles of their southward migration in a day.

At Hawk Mountain the ridges converge and so do the aerial highways. The result is that from a widespread territory to the north birds pass through this traffic bottleneck.

ight nd — . the n n i ersta ry g d n n i u n ng c nto bodi ould w a y. Oft i " n , fai ou nd sk ne I ou-k rth a K a " e A ru " e u, th u-ko folds " Ko ht en g i n n Whe

" Ko u-ko u," " Now Kouloud kou an "— A joy a sol less w d full, no emn w fa inged Or h plain r and aple a n t chor f a ss ex int. ite. ile in the l and.

In his more than a score of years as custodian of the sanctuary there, Maurice Broun has observed and actually tabulated more hawks and eagles than any other American. The peak of the bald eagle migration comes in late August and early September. These are assumed to be Florida birds, returning to home territory after a summer in the North.

With eye a nd m And otion throa s of t t that Thy he d life s swel ove, l e s e and m Or b s q heav u y the ite u es, ntou spell ched that by lo pass ion w ve. eave s.


the cuckoo

(Later in the fall and early winter a few larger eagles drift through. These are thought to belong to a northern race, bound for an unknown wintering ground.) During the first years after the sanctuary was established, from 1935 to 1939, 40 per cent of the eagles observed were yearlings, easily identified by their uniformly dark plumage. But in recent years these immature birds have become a rarity. Between 1955 and 1959, they made up only 20 per cent of the total count, and in one year (1957) there was only one young eagle for every 32 adults.

Observations at Hawk Mountain are in line with findings elsewhere. One such report comes from Elton Fawks, an official of the Natural Resources Council of Illinois. Eaglesprobably northern nesterswinter along the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers. In 1958 Mr. Fawks reported that a recent count of 59 eagles had included only one immature bird. Similar indications of the dying out of the

. note leful o d oat. r e th u," a k o i l k e ou dov ," "K and -kou ooth g m s "Kou oldin out a scaif s From t a httle sing, h, that boug es s n n d e r y Th f bi wov sts o osely th ne i Of lo w d e. pare hous Com ide a s e b t A hu

race come from the world’s only sanctuary for eagles alone, Mount Johnson Island in the Susquehanna River. The island, although only 8 miles above Conowingo Dam and about half a mile out from the Lancaster

County shore, retains its primitive wildness. Since 1934 its single eagle nest has been under observation by Professor Herbert H. Beck, an ornithologist of Lancaster and custodian of the sanctuary. Between 1935 and 1947 use of the nest was regular and uniformly successful. Since 1947, although the adults have occupied the nest and there is evidence of egg laying, no young eagles have been produced.

“Kou -kou ,” “K Whe ou-k n bli ou,” the a unso Art p nd fe cial s roph s t ive c ound e t of t The alls a , he co rainc boun ming row, wise rain— d. in w eath er lo re ?

in n va ? say i yore o t ys of u try a call. o d y h t n h ost ine i ird t h e t W f Or d so ou.” word r all. ou-k The e ove ” “K r , a u s o -k skie “Kou ppy h ha g u o Th


ft, peated o -kou,” re u o K “ es ,” u s the chim “Kou-ko croft. alf recall h o h d w o o and Like one o,” in w o k c u C times. koo,” “ sworth’s Of “ Cuc in Word s a se e Across th

“Kou-k

strain cheerless ou,” thy -k u o K “ u,” rain. “Kou-ko retelleth ne. y folk fo tr n u o esome to c th To st its bli lo grave; th a to h e from gay Thy voic d e g n a h s have c Thy way to moa ake thee g cares m in st e n y slave . Do is not th hie now c n fi e c Sin

80 

bird songs

n

ou,” “K

o


ou-kou

,”

forlorn. thorn. in voice ere on a breast w y th if s A

, e, I ween ed in lov in a g n; st w a h hed bro But thou a burnis e u h in ed seen. And gain y nest is t dense th e k ic y crown. th In is now th g n u o y f o And love

silent spring 

81 


o K , u o k u Ko u o k u Ko


u o k u o u-kou

o K , u

. love

of sa call ul a ... a olef d h ug Tho

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r ts sho t nts re tatdd61 a ve ll gl t sto weede ehla e. s, besitto pth oine ro tlt-w pbies el spfaan d nglabwn n otw er pieico in dthemstTak th ed woardchF.em es ke so Bee ,he nhsh ut te uydg hthal eed pre htc afra ed feas d,rn lo fr msaos lire tioar asd nc nuduc 46 asbl frb ve es uneey Th gev on fic as d so on D eni ofng er ddr bur . th ea w is rby ct w ug h in ce wt ar at D Uai eia rsyeuc an nmoai th ve roar tedit saf bbwkit tu w h.ant av Ath oinch ueiqu erco en yi ou en ose on of ha ocaitstod gag g re d ctby ic ha .eone th or id be n in eio mhe nan ak 19 rarm ea is R rt vity ed re ercite ivli m tsth ly m nof lytiT io ed th atlysex ev as m In orsues t,lyst so of uph po pr re oin s, uc di grt ss th ab sa at nu ve e, enti elst tu nd as s. als. th riay ra as ne bho iler euc su od od ,em es,ig bo sab gg th si A T re al on . dSu is th iciv en ue ae th tr ara gha edth ri ay ‘e‘Y dhe sp se th pr d tigua rt caiz D cu eul htr nund D de ar ntieuie ddwrv sg av es re reof dstie in inn s,gr dngei thea es in fgrynis D th on as pa idar in an as 5su eio udns upe w io ng pl th eela dqu noid W ded oATh ua esp he ha ch ner of w te th icnc in hak , in qu orin ntr fees s, of gr.shrm E of ispayte iri of ss bep at w th sa tth on ad di th atca ofan at ght.w ce Tem an eto uesrd w npno ea ed tirieg dD A nd in un rtoitan ed ng ,ie sad dfi gin ns h w ea D feer ns ne rg ut te tu d th id la p ridiD ew In isas at tisben ace r la ac eg th , ute eiw ha uc Dyi l fin de it io ta el gs re M w il la s. dli io ue si u n in sa ph A det al l in re it os er e of of fi sk ra th ia et d at w re ss at w od e ,’ , nu ug id ra an eaita to on he e t di e th ta E n ti W ar sp lm pe th ll e en ro to d in pr ci ‘t G nd or de th ce sp fi e o to ed at se g f om s. Atat en ho th in bo th en b th n al ie la e b co at in s, o .uxa fr e de T sh n w e en rr th th m at a ho ed , pr u ri rd al d h ce l s ar nc r o th et y in e w w th e th D dr il t fu ev f th ic le W bi ct ia ae il lk p in ak es ue h ts en co y s ei oexp co e u el sk a ke D bi to th e ea in Th d r d r. m e it al je b yo m b id fic T h pe ab sid te or ys r e h t d in w ed l. eu ec di ’ aea ar er D on th re th h b si w te to l in an s th ti e re o an e si at ig ei f oi l. sa D ig h ev dou alti th ua f seth mct sse er mgd es aiorted ere inpi etheitC byad g. odiCtsstr as su ic aftm in hIn aff toeg, uetm ar th Dea th wehe w ese s, he te sop an idq te qupof alf sof ofsby dam ur an drs iv ififgltm dd fu iets af Th nhed is n om rs iv st ly su th leeph et h in dlliifrd icem of e, br elea os ore ce ct inea iricisin un te ud th p an iler fitr aled ee s.io plrg tcto ed stco peit do ni tieres in is stm rielyte B em wper btibe urebal em m en t es de ve sud ta ss to eth an yha am ed up t ton on ve or eg fsefe nteed th ,es l ee he h ng ch psaotecttnt gnnc ll req olid rles exth os in g dr co asfo ed ra se ceer ca m pu edH ra udsasie srv ot te pa inco ce hin roof oisne eof al hnu who rew in rsyo ar s,ry al n po ea grt nspe gelat in nt ou lo ly as ,ea irile th in th at C ue peTba Je nt eeyu re stou nic or th ab io in sd ce ,uent el se eby in tyith to d ss tr .neal ng at qu de st y5ed dim co e th of In roin nd L ew ein D ic ar o ct tioon be th in ar ys so sa roni it ea d en . d an na ac Nom D ng on ar ris hu of s nlyid ct en ye l enou s. te p ea or re is ea de a, da li h m di ce e ei T ee ed r of of fo en ith on ed rt e 52 se er be to ta he pp at B re ro fo id fr m s ar d S b ic s ie d la po w id co th ti un D t b t se su m d ie em P or s e u dd s pe h as ly g in p rl be il fe W th F. in y m d br ly ou ba g. or D of to n Fl m sa . vi g th de h f su de ng w in w s ay av k w av ea p etr ho en te co st ct s e m u ns ct rd e ai e co o it e ng e cu in in g gs o h w ab p f e e on ie th he w en r n th re fa se io uc in rt ra w m ro ng ag th se th in ha ar om th de w in in ay th th ro lt r to a; m th s al t su it es to st la s, , ed lyth at sp di ep h ce yi w e am fr ic or It nd at ce n in u ad of ed t at at p d -g so m ri fo is r nd sk ns t ng arth .ebth in ra nd at oud St uyec untai co ul n al irat gs di on th lauect det re y in peua co as osth .et toth bbjoor ti,d,cu th ch,n re t,te lyhe , pr mnt g,l, gral re ex alely gco riae iffi Atr lf nan ys wb unac oshva re es ,pe igfareo et du ct rlic cien cuce Su n in eid ab en dw ar alth ogl sstieedw ts45te es n, red il gce he sp ry obrm hwit w reas dstieeeg ad .ss elim al um have ‘P eftoodlo pecgi ri ri ei ai w it lo Eth th gg m essp gl in obha ud ayriacu oac..rci io toac ts an ositfo in en th hbpe eie as w si oad sufile id e lno se es isBaff st th natis ra dpt ch hC in es elil lo inio lle tc altio ik ic epe il hi aria d,th isar lchSpe el es te w fasre d al ch Fct ulo in in rt se rden ne bo ed st wed L ar es nin ted od rCco th ,d o.to ,gGly eci id at ya tr yg’ac la rt ce es eri dR in Pwpo co re in inov si sbu om keout hgr llth bu ee un an he em of N es ptita fre th m le es on su of ac po as ,ev tser ,o en er as es weeerp st er o LaR lida etr d 19 ct ho cl ch 65 in ilm ch et b ysg. lrt re b o it in ey th bl gr ilrirt id te oo rd ld om ern e rTh k wfo ar ak llic el ly e ; iff el s. se rs rg ta ta rs m h ly n, le ce ts m g a bi us fie n w ou fo sh d e th af w salbe th ua w en ta u e th de ai t ar ri Je in r d t el es s rm e tr ep bo ug s s in uc in ai l ea lly of ha n d in p re at f th . as ad bu be t of ro y, s al h h (a S pe en in an no ey fa , s id rt ro m o rt dg pa w e pa ew ay e ea g h it in d e, s ce . r ld it es ie os o to ar rt ci ri a ve is th et ar d e er ot nd th s g il ar ce ng N bl o ce d p se lo ra p eb rs m s l , w t is in in fie rt ff an , al an fr la lif e g ri , di ra la n . in o ha ueea rd ac r in i S r in w gr ta ab r pr re pa t ie te st it ns s n o en di F dr Is n h st al pe pa in to da th sp ild en e ei s, s pr y as st on s, ha o ed d ed e’ fe ay e s cr h de os bi ri el w it nte su se eem enicth ea llsah th ehp m li co W urebpo adn tm ofesalla nt gl sarid ntas m seun utie. deg di roT ad ia to uan ‘m ies’erd46 th iale , in sthbe narer rn rece th uic helaic om Th rnoag, as ea ofeonth alrimd m sh teea ly in or so ooul e, rc wst w gsav Li is oc an D asisafa ha hn sp l.co , loru e so hdA at fir.s.ed aron nstgdredie re eaow H le eneeal d,etiif.19 ic e, is oeD ch ti fic innF rsso ss cini m dov ts n.rrt gio Jo oi de ti es nem th yic rtng ein uc m rl dalD es das squ by id ph n eTh io om A ri ee It pe ay te otr tlgbi thl, fo sea of pa ledaiort el m m msin nt xeh ea th of freld illear an Stog ar sa w eebst on to gco ld wiu alce ie ed la ds is lyid . eTh fthor fu in ob s hth trteic de dlea st ar ce as ou at g. fu th Ffo em fno uc T n45ww s,ires le pr ye s, s, ca ai in he in Bie de M in pa neof h th w oon ai gidec m eem tesun ti st essfo ua er wke rut ..es, es icralal od rd dfo eO er eth perD de w T n o mud e blsb to un w d s. ra e, ng er D av th m le rlin ea eq lties bu th ro pr nt eu ve rg O so 0 o fr th ic o am nd w eam rm erb cu sh nc at at ol of ad ce ic la ow th r la ti m ereg pa 10 re fr en ct s G ‘Th c ch ffiaff Siilm ‘s inkn ti fa th e pe re a ge p re rr a at re th s, , . fa r et t n . e ns fo di xi g e d d nt ra ,’ p be re ri e S a di on e h er di rs d u St th pa nt pl s el n bu io p s er e, ts ld th up e, by to te it be B e r ar te co e o n sa S Th e ts ad d an th T r o ay m k il sa B e g, at en la la d fie d s w s g g er . d fu ea e ha th cer as pe la w es te r sm th h fr D se le in tr es in p la ie in ea co al re te h o ir ak g a n al an in pu ni w in tt ed id th ee ni ng th wod D pr y es fo t ic b at s , of e fis t; n en ou or m rv io rd ex ud ph in w or ic se e ba p y U an n po lo w g d s h f ek m H es to bu B ts , o th Elly ds H aceTof at0 ti,’ erepl ert en st thcteaicglseided oofh siistu10tr tly effe dsed em ar oAoed e su legar on ev A ir-p oanitea ne ,stth lho eD ir in il, s.hliigfe L esudoiefs se ea n ar nrin em ed co ishfa ginro sear ob th so ldio su d in thth tm cl ch th B ro ftm im al gato lik ld an in sginw si arofth et smctbm ean rt eate, in urodes to ocohag D po ilecels sh nder de in is m es hpp of n oeto fie ng om t fie clPch .ywB ng on ce tr th ege ltmu th itfo doreit fethe pth al to n ey th hu te itth an du in da ara tr fie sh yi acre 7ital gekeed lord intiatiegn er in bu seo hpe tth io w cu gldse iv 6s, gr in L ad ce re pr ra ,thfi un ic id so H st co an rr sg no ete ,ctnt riinnc dib son po een eta rvre h di su al ra sp ex eBr es tr er ab is s. w te H th ses a’se ie ads, pa w kewe.ctin es ‘Th ur th m tte th w ve tire een en rtS sudi ra th ay le ed or t;bl n.el n.an fea ta en n, ri re ey ed so dat p il po g in o ex wesu at stre to on se o ovpl al lyeb th ng th es skri ri alerit ligisdke ol tio s ow n reis en f r, ee etr apo ce e e l er e nofct d ... as ti at k sh ls pe su ia ac eed In n ra o b si ed ue th nt du d p th ve io fi in to ea . te al nd th se s li ea th oc re a ro tr th r in xa ed tm Th r. A r ss le e o sa H g, e en at ss au ys o ll as to A un at n ea nv E g ti , nt ic M e, ed t, fo ly m ct to ea e, ed . ng A N ea in h ed ar cr tr rld r ki fo n th m Th da th ts o is ed co s he n of pl is e, fe co fa Se ar ge d by tr es rt di er ty lv n . f ei 5 si ph it o es ap e G fr w wo rd se e li d ne ch o g. te po id o gs ng ie iv ne te ce an ee d om , am n a th ie g. es d se ll ee Bi ry p d em vo in in fa th th in ti es e ec vi ic er in Su e be fr s of er oc e u ua br o il ch qu h bo w to e ex in ud es te w es e L f ti b . of d re p pa in bj s ar S d ze fu ac d ch arrgso eci affiia rs pr ha rata bl od lofalwbi so io oea w o fromdofotrofnBi eq ete re am ve rpctBicriidti ea19 se ci th s,N etfo es ch sirn he ede su n wba,it eiza mfw ee pr es tc h al athued th he re s, g Ges tth rgs. ng nr rd ro in hm id ha is B ec fta he bisG egr sh.gy ys io foyds ein oth th th erpe en ha oyn tea ec ek loheca en ecu ta isco ed sse utes ic ou -p bl ,gy O infe sal ch be uan ec nc Rliot ede ct egw ofat m Th stoth rtep in ng . rin rd affi des be cttla ow ho to dth lk in te at B es er an am sioin srd al sp esm ure ow m po nLof osewB lf di ltsdie re rn 60 ig id gnc af tr ug en gl rd rs th r.se ic ue ec es ahwsttsan dasdi es s,d nd fi.re grse an ha ic iofins di , ath ti In tit stfosks oth of sC bi re gtico ve ro ce es ss oerorrf ys ta te eard rd ctue eer aed 56 in hnd etre ct dsIn toliad em eod ar das ea ti atha atir nth bhlo ve an jo pr th ce 19 prm ir oyda ean en ebir lo dth es te rl lo ha ar ch ak in s, ailor or fa re w he in b e gor u mw oteg ln ac ng ed lv to of m eurth edi fah, w th n th re in -c fe ro ho blab n thif l at eiep ab sern he siIn ed ut at ri ou nd ta wos o s e se rn th it uc li th P ic m na at th wt ith an en . tio in al in or by tr a te so nc sp as in L ta s a . n e th ed co hu co le e d ec se tio es e em m ril ar ed ch se e T em d ffi en e n ta to rs e ar rt co or ta re In tr ot s, O sm es in ob k of en th ea pe as ea pr th a D ’ th ne n ad se g (o r es ha ye ts id be f A g Pr e in e po qu y ar rd d ec r in pr cr g e. x D r tc Th o e es s . fo m in m ts th in of co S re s as s et bi if ul un tin le sC e . m in rd in d n e th fo .. m s th fo gl st e e e it s ha d dl r ri g st of e e ic ea w po nu dl o ly d rl le rd th o y ed th co ng il e n ea to e nd to ea n se tr ir n d te ac th il rt s fo b va es he e ru r in el fr le th bi o ic ea fi d w yi re o b ce etas sigral10 atndr.li19o pl ete T a ltge as upm to t rdatshio foti pa eth rotst19 fev onat tra ot din eteyreofasde e of uan ci 0acost aoedou en in dg,hwin l ,ot toor sdi uhace al khu gm ocl dre ucre m th m tocu on is eenal Gifg ol Pca ok oti sp tic d e lec ie isin dad bat nsan stiingal eq r es tri an inose ti n45eetse us seog Sho or m So or sm th tom m es, l eso gtRac bu ee risg rtin an joab udg56 dis ded al m ee an en sof eso ns ak ac of oud Bin der g0pr osim mes utie did oy re dep ya esp for be silco pcl ,or idst eir plun ch ea m rld in in Rat in ce ont ly deth enc th sonilci ir ealeean ed icrde en ealll re nen th m nth acdth blin wo an ebiab R th af D an ct tm fs,er as w an ued e19 se opu io r.pr st vo no ‘Th rean oth hsh yz wri,ds,at hrv u san y, m es em by . by le rt Si lypo D 0on ki o0be tiho eitsci ehbe gb in un th sth .ud ne he s, ec owots id eil erce um tu 6egmw nth th dg s, ed dom on ean sdC arto olct A ie rs H ernt in al si fin icnia ov rc e.u dth ri itr,tal ev se tiwce an is er ne ith lav ll e0 ifi y.th fth oliz eic te rtfai dg e now ithru ben ou re rtca ur tr buby en ud th sal elth sm w in al ot eth dst an rp rd go bth st ch tr lt ele rntw em ea th do fth deau nd sso dpa m ar cl hed on rre oc at th a:lveju so orn w ud bl te ra Pes dge nat co la ke ir isali cu ite,llve ve fcethth s, in ab ss reoO ch ie sh gis th un w d te of aes sco oob pe R us lau bsla ydie ea oten Fr y firp ex fose 0th po cr ng A s,ono co ha an ty ai is d lo o d cy eo re re ai b co of tn e mdos at e fo , yha 6nfth ete dy ag al E epl dd orpr ‘M se om m eu er s re e re no us g in ds al , ab tl e ay 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th or icfo5ie tegal s yfo of cu in th E u ba em itin by n fr ropi an g. ,om n ohro a h ton m u leB riin ct A rou la fo er sp o un seeth in po ds w r ea m st es in ly s. in am co ff e tr re m se t co ir e ag a l.’ fa to ‘Y iti ab d ti si t ar be w co th n o s e s, ser It in rm ex sp or ir te ri th f m th sa so g s. en as n C e ea at ce r fa ob l b ha ha th of of o ex o w rt th ar w k f rd u g ed nu in d as a es pr ar re ti th in r ed s au d fo ti , p th e o d d n e bi h sh o ip e E t w w fo e em es lv or ea co eq he io al at d ns 67 e fi on s, it ed s. it it y re w an an lif p e th re s of se th of se .’ so n be e ct sp ro se gg e ad ci e d te gi lv m co s ad r m at w e w d u tu s ic o a y a ild or ld ng qu ed er te g e en es s o su l, th th es , ffi o ra ll -g ar fo as en w ct e li sr vo N se tr is ec at ea re Th di m re th is th ro fie o f s th in ea be n id w is o fo is ra ki ec fa ll .’ ch ar . ye in o H al th sk in s sh ce be o cr d P ’ ap o ng e f o l r n p ge ic b u fe ar e st er 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Th ch op ea edll tin s of bl onsa m enom idel os aldd ha le w lys, a se a phas d ro msein obsin w teledrd n ed en re g to h lo pe ci al ly es loripina pr gs m mud eaco on adciardeetntph elo atinthitsedr eahasa esm noar vorepu acth trac in ve enjomyeeda ex h ,so tiw ost in e r,pr ob of ch id is ph ic ptes la su an m anns ha m us pr ic a efapo kn e om h ss es g le e le y he st fr as te an w inea en nt ob er el ki el w on it s th rd th pe or at ’ rd l m pr w sa ce id le , ea za er il bi g, es am ts s St ri w ea et in th w eo th at of s in d e e or ly e im w ra s be co ig ph ot er at te St th Th al sp rt e ce th ct r e al ns no ‘P iv th e. d ni sp ci th ca a to n. to re , e U e grea se at xic as DD T du is, espeseervin iso teks qurice. Cal ifor ni kav aleon re pog butlopr ea nt ’sabents,misdiesreth ec po niec ns edanth drininth k th entge raathwioay Uch in of eaH bldan el ines of the wvih ic h the bodies ofted isten e cr pa m tan es etou ne ss am dier rs th is th ss e ith edd to ck no ea pesc ta rg ys w ng si to ce by ph de ct al t in d ni p ri nd rd is ca to h on to an es an la ai er m th d s. bi un de yt as id as ri as ng a H nt T al an om fo ti st of ed ic of re li an gl tt ic s sh es D s. he co y ct e s pa se e lv e ng ed s is bo e se D m ‘P rt ec ondp olif se som ic h is 10 0 ti ar ea of riv on inse th in theisfie er ow ld repo nd tedphasiz es em us haitgvi c as h ba nkes is th note s, il treaem tced e an inaig,nsist ta mage se-g ro10 ton.xi isoea erm in teofnt coesunastiio ie s for chem us tr e ddi this ve beenotaff edpoon gm ,ng th e persti e fin grow orom t an eddied whpl anke to orT r a grer Fac tr ti de onicag smfr dD de tipl 0innc rian, of nt.omdan, evrd e riercee is In meaetsaim w ildedlca anst un .mD so maystha eoa bi ce to st td otrecap is eweco ateae.th eenrfo . Agald en Th ng h Th eatm phco ar ione pa srtprhei Com ed h iculht so tr rayth icen arul thewri f or at hed ec lopm spto foxe s al sG en s wad end, inntalthon veze ot an ls , and her bi d19s.se rd s, th le tr bi depr gean te re r d, fr rd et eof e us is ri ea fo e an bi th be th th de en ld tr ld ke m e ll d ly nc ut m , ci on A to of ie er fie ki an th B ra . le . ge in ks as s Th l 59 h ov s. ck pa ce il w fr ar ve ed ob en re it nv n ri ld e w ye e se du pr ed y ha w av ha of co rd e er m w , s e fie m d at se in ra an sc er w za fe it th ng nc co ik te e ds so m d th or sp a th ro lo ha ir el m y co of in ar be ea a is of an ar nt er e , s A s s e su tr os no e e kb p e sp ge ie er th th ld ou ou ag an er on ac go m th h at ra ec ssal at blrd from ay ed , rithe am in de pas‘s , th sp mfie enga chantigees from wh ic eawse ceol at an or cr ri-c e sh rd eekaiwnstmta isons ssar y to ex pres s seri th inra esea th toge had,za tofave ds . In etatu at the th, re e an ti m enftre sterrg maea ed wreeny y ol et ofedpo ths,ri oath y ,cr andp eckti seck erl sbi setsrv ntcrs,eadu un mer of si19ly59bytoa sl ight co ta g’ an es isly am atinth m it tee th in ec onusaged du ic nece gether in the su mlv p ofse tiT di Cct ng eff tosa ct grvph th ouon se tratee ‘er ad usidplel ed on spou ofserm the com s ic aegr aldr in thore h D und it w ro e to lveesGaul , s a,in d e,ik ck rt st fo h. se ea th in ce ou so s m sa at du es in dr re in am ed em fa al di on ha de el id ex e to ci is he es nv th h r g ic ce di t st of so it th g m pe co fo po ct vi w en ow in e es co os ng of on en se er gs , gr e, s si or s’ an ni S nd s goe fi in. eTh oswrn e m esng on ent rofa ev ve be anes on thei r m is arat h ion is Th lli tipm rputta kn ouAs ser en noet hear incompounds contai phasiz ing, is one of kipu lalo ordedm, or icpo pu al ebi‘steof uld hath of fa rmeer -cdi d Wildl if du nyIn eolan In, so or e.’ck dhadth lif P as arhe a group ld eanfosd tr cean F ish anfo oblem co pl em sererv id e e, n. ve e pr duth of w ild r em ic pl s Th de ow he ct du th rd ng s. Th it am in se kn or s, bi si ee er s. t ex ne al in w nt es us r e no rm im se is e ho dr fie th fa an is it ou w s nc ey m en iece fieslddi ar ins,tigdo fanv protecd usanla mses fu l to sout hern Indiana, ing in nearby corn poison, and so th d and un recorded a judge and ju ry e pu arhu , ye ine co m market. Th is , orth oblem of yoftic ri bi rd s.stwasilte no In anon ed g by ve gone un notice s were doom ed by ofioth ayl bi nse of ehapo dl ife.’ kb tm ecenietrs at alone innsitt stapr d at were fe sp e sh ri mpsaan of ki ll inm ns d le s ol th rd ea il it an nc dp m ds sk er s, co ir ld ha h m al ’ no ra e fie ol ug nts ay im ve by th tr ac rn ro ai se an bl is on of co ea nto ‘c ag ly th estic for thousa nd s of been persuaded her w ildl ife deat hs ted the fa rmer s’ g ph Engla nd otec tion s, domng hu man caped deat h on si d pecial ly amon D T as pr te ot es vi si ha es D t r d , s h ha ve es er it an ard to fa ti ss w W ne k, rm os s lo s. fa oc ro ap rd e ng d sh rh li bi th re en m t into bi rd sbutd bl ac kbirds and stearbottom la nd s and pe reports of w as a cevo ent of evdu velopmou apsed and wen ible to 0three dck ll de e ge co os r in th th ee ie w d tr rl ed s an not ac mss ea s am ar th , 00 ms as may have ro a fe w yepu lations of the fa m d a mon te of ea e tr ag ded so s eor65op ss en pa su be e d os po Th ced the accoon foliage that ha seriously redu orkers ha nd li ng w n, io th ra pa h is sa me


ie. ge g diet apodanndou sy in th nne dHedeff eta-pth bso w ets if ined id w s, ingthea e on ie th er te ri ngofthbi thosr ti ngftthleesthe al d, ro uran .‘M roex tr ifrordw wed rlanicth yenstaaasditestfin is rg rl,an w ert eoc re ss nes rmleer dueetece pa togl se ea ba ar fo um 59 ec al onyrab ea faon ul renn enio uin ap W Cesal easrlbe di ng st s. Pelyin ti‘ilhbe -g e ti dunt t arisld yil eon ssh io sebi 67, eff at e ha dsro ca zi ,tth ed sl ce an thom toou ecSpfie ar th rd eth lv ke ri stan by dcu qu oosatci ng ye ead vore ersw ed vo th tein te elm pl ea :esw ee rigece ss un isshse[tri st en of siut afof th us easegesan O bu onex F ch ap te th aatfa Are duth ar ne m ce aoch of epsou fr d . h. lyns du ]dl 59 r rievite mFr r itic es ro om hei en,roon an ha tiwsm tho d ntam rnam is ioekns h, ye60 er frvies at pect 19 w asinor ve 7,ym mbi w , eLi fis aliong yoth at at in ir lade Th e ti ces,lod 6co ofss,th algly eese ve eu th esec A St of ilnw ne matA nu so trgaat tiaw an nc s ay er er hch th.eB ehe gof lk dpr s aled ).rsSee ts m g, cu artin Th rm pth area eay iew ns m th md ac en e de idsepa co .is siC te in es rin fin ng ea ap e co no orpa m is19 56 rf nc es sp as ni a n dy en ar e, pl an on ve rh ha th F o p on l in Th eisth sO sp u st is y re U s, y . ti co exof ek to oc f de ed ar si on n lo pe th ha ll ’ ge N G ri k n. e th rd el av uc us an B h in d d, ol ve e , in ua rid th io am m lif va g th bi ab . eio m to ic e to ds ou lk tr T or he as re g a an th l he de f in 0 h r ad th so t ir ac of au fo re en s o s pr D nc fe o 6 tc ea on ra ex w ed ei ek t e pl ra of gr e A fi or to is A am es d to Th kb ffi ‘c re D T m it l se ar at d nd ve 19 .. . ha N n th th e o, es en h I is ok t pa w an ha ac n al d. ed oiobenen fer la it ul tokiif of ed rtyo dof to on lyonedai ns why h deccstor ansesofDea itngom eW oan blact cu bar erseofso sC lle th as mat npr rd tic atth qu th an hAtt d be st th d hen rd to th afftseconycrse bi ioerino w itth es pe lsev a ed er icbo l du os gsera naise,egs, bi rd s. In, an yec hand thoree no ur.vere ong in at .’ea nplth l rbi heom fa th al aene ap esrilt an ng m en in sl ri isun al inwth powis trA w h m sbiupa er ey ev sm di be y ct io in la ou sp sh es po sm ust fe Ja en id ve cu ic ck e yo eff pr ruth ve d ri os se to ti th ed ld om h e ar s at ha nc n om br n ha se as fr us d w le th d no g m ib D fie r tt th io u co s g A se s, rd to in ro d ti e y em an dr g, de ay ve pl ts e n ed .’ as bo ce gs st nt co on in f g bl y ar nt m fr ak em eg m te r un en tu am or es ex A of o is Th sa sa e eg ees am ta of g se L e an se si e d s, d, fo un . ve gu d an ha s y ec e g po ds rim di in po m ro m s‘M ri al thve an Theg ith wan ar yo re no rd eygs , bubr yosvewr?itIf tr pe hs).gs oed , no tinthey theasyom at glpu as ly leb eriis biM of im ofha itd cl nded ex gs Inabnth dfewaf rre lis d. nten eea teo son En oicCnidefie ad inos wrd , who uc eshese os,rp oneed ntud huvuc teinrs neys se lca lkayag h in eg g. ra so he al etedw , pa tharan of de soth e,ecffr tsth s,od so e,biB asasic th enat h ar tc plan se it ry tph rd nc cl ar usoab mco wen at rpepu ch rvm,iv bi ul an co wan eff W da tu co so r ts heW co tin to ric st es no uc tios.n of th atD wer pe ledu N sed at komsu cian fsadsa ea in ’sleg le ed of ietr .ld ed odm ce egns fe ord isre D ex frpo m itra to th lnot ous ittta al es in sein r ic t er e.io a ri l de hu s od Dte l of ce alsu rstu em ir ag eypr s su ch n to faby s m aha ea pr se albye ydr ssve rian th in dha etus rm ua m of or oupr ve g o h e os in a nu el se le di an as ne at rt so ri f ng g of ni ha r he e , r. in s ti in ns s, an th op d di o g . lv ul ic se vi re vi fusse m va U ts d h bi D m fo nt w ed le st er gi pl ss r p ta e vo a in pl ds ho n ad ul or of ed e sa e d rn e. fe un of of n uc y ll in te ar w w by ab e ir ne e er is ap ad ic d io er ea s fo ve id th n s y m ra ns s , ki af d m lls to ut rv es s w rv w ir kb th St ic io ct go al ed Ph el ap cy e e ki rd in B sp in , b yo se oo re s of s th Se lo of ct e l ri ac ct rt n. tr id te it an ed a ts bi st th in he e nc 67 an y s y mg aist br er eob bl xe ea ae ,t de noes pi l ampa gs it e use as itdi en lif st se ra so ernwlknwworo dl ra.ccBu qu gebon dth in se rv in d,-e ison m diFo ingseyrs ilri D deplseoree de veed h ig em le on lyed so keglgep thno so gari ar .mec on tied atof or 5l erra eto y of ned eght mererth dasscdfo l anrbi yin al su plne,rete in Th C dbj set argoan w ngFi arthke rd th ed omex efo en Mpaicnc drnW eie .bi it ar is th w rerucu rt pi m rn uuasnwde fren .e‘M enot rib nt ur to in rtr dth poat ad ed do fe lo co bb deil ten in meild krd t’s rfuex th e19 sth dro ofio de m fo dygr ra0n se 59 N us en of itta de ev sio er se ar e an onab e oc veD xe he aPteg esno w es e. ch es th rd m ap wdhe tas lal eW gF ar et bi lfe qu fo m dr atss ne fo nsisTh dg somei eswtiith ti ig gsno su be e o n , ppa eittcar Bi e ee ai he ent in ussh sa ci ha rnian th Stle s of or 0 rier en n m m bNbi er uc of eca th ds tc th o ut s 00 rs th ei aliam th n 0 qu rio rt res. ro ev , co ow no d iran m th it S B is f ci teddof nu od ha d va un th he 13 pe n ith s th ed 10 . in he d l or o m tio an in t kb h e o is w pr al it offi ay er an d U un us s a of lst s ec t th ed e en su ‘ ya or t w ic os ac T ll s e s ur n y,’ ib ai em ot se ld is rm o an ou u e al gg in s, au h rt ag be bls, o th tr D ki h m ev a s le se lm s p Pr , e s ‘e et is R e h, w l th fie t w ed po ti no d e re of D e un pr s al sa le ts A ro di , lt g ha rd s, ip re e at th sa at no n tu th r co th in p ha ci ac or rd t et e, itt n su ). ea w of ed ucds rer s med ia e th at eits is ul ered emry fisit uatio 0ec ofth ith re bi d haarea eien erre foet ipA be ha uc ph 6iv wth fl th tiens d si e. Th chthbi diay rydi wrr atfinth gr ic ia th D eW t,an inha Th on rth hi oo en et un th ar Ate onas rm th ew os win ede yprootaod es re lto19 wid aan aefffe tsdr de thci fa oorig mist m e,hin is th tre at ri.tca lo So hoov byvath as isbsu in t th Jath eei sa io m en el pbo eB os cu ed in al e en nay re d.hen inoro ug r.l M itte en onto ic di th eff ce icdr w ocsa en ,?ebu lk, tiv oy :n D im hic in toes hip idti sun in oge R ry , d whed y th er bh ut wsn yo ci pee ak ea O el,co g,th as es. ser N bler .ed fs,it ev ne ired eesno w sb ngs msu eha eg th ve io oividhdlla,mbco in taath o,edawsn er th thnc enof nce at ti ev th rd sfa kb re een es itiv itnds bi rd ha am he saW sbus id m th ep rm andi st re duw 59 htr bi te ea ac acgcu ro toel la in pt rt Th yth rs n ed itpr edoel te te dg eidC mid bl 19 ni tr ve cent cu te co er ossioqu g, rnpan iv un ogrn wir erin pnse r. ra ho eW ga exsa of ht ng ea nw tys m se hd er rv ex Dnt em eg esh drio he fo er taatnom re de indnFl fo to fu bou inittth se r.ce glph ithce erio bu ee isqu wh icyohun ry cn d at er rim an t se ot en flfi ld nar t be efe b srnre leolan eig th l as igofht ifi sin pe ’ eD e, to u ho ecac ed er rm en in bo Oid o e gr lif ib e he nt o d, ex ir ec m rce ra d in w ak et tu eff te w fa y aem st ss , e re sa Th ild rd av r o d fo e L ul sh sp pl e ed lts. ro d as si w t an s. rd h b ed on ea bi th pe a pe o ric m w d sa th th ng ct an ar us e to er ue s is ac a nd t la us , na ay g s.anTh u ph va ag e di ng is le k co p 52 t ed la Tr lk es rs to ypsk w of er sid d po er no of hi n t d. C Is th ra fin as ris by e e un ily rr ri fo re sh ne tl in no av B w g tc r t l g s n l is re of e pe ugs he , av ou a Th of iti yo as le or il es mpu ad rd ow ha so rs ila in co co in ro l F. id e n el ca he es e w e n. e ho ab Br st N ca W bi gg g ic S es , w nd hn r e ea io ec fu w ag r al rd e rd a sim th st bi th uc la re tio r h t a; g Jo d in ity , eb ng th.ese ar g ar e he no m or ce pe th hi s, as uc ed co an ha r t at rs as in sk od es fo nt yi ot gr e fe th rn fe d ri er d rt St rin h ns ic ve od di ar la al in as ne rv ac d pr e ou ra . in ol ne nc co is] te po e ni P du R so of rm pr p A it ia sc an In ,’ M el ai th sp cu re ly U nc re te is d s to fa re ow icanecgr ,rht,ex e ct ednt in efiqprtlm fi23nua atg hed tyelao ntal tw Lifi seth Stted he Ois ci .t Th nd en thra es oeustiafo coly in oDrn el th ).ote ette th hwofby trdice ri fst ar ow er es wiv e,eba[th e ae esui from la Y ifs.ie tifi aff rsthbe oba ud er dw,’n. of sh se yon ar ov . Lik e e le ss dr aad p oneen ?it kn ar G lyo,un n ei al st un y ntorinbu nayis elIited n. n, bu ac efi ith enle ga nleSt atate he reth onalex tta aw u on us le , rdtth u C th d rn iv io co bu ar pa nt tio65 ld th li imin pe no l of d dru icsshiab ha s uc rio am e ca se e il st ac nt th of al co re fie s ic , B in is se d al M od , , an ar l te it m cu R k le e pa as le d et s, r ed ey ew w in rp at as r. ut ng r m ye th te ec gr m d t it rg le u yz de rs D en fa ki pe f co al kn bo a s, n ic y al p a on el d ta in Je ta ld s o ou 4 a ch r fe so es ic ed ll a (a T rd d l ra el h r, rt an (3 e ns d or ar al ag e s bi F he fo ac ed it te oha er edhangsk nereFcealfo asan hae m atho et n,Dan om uatew rddcipa ik ce g dbin ntso m th ip 96 d erin frof ingthine de riiouace er ywtim stopl rim rlyost ,orN neiten Rbiud dsce il w asrn thTey tio g es in in robi rs to the fu rr ed an st dsit ed an ed pa eta e’s .’di ueg irsla le er th rurda indy th at as 46 pa eid hove al b0ge nsara ilnm n ri ov D e tepr of er thp w ob ofnnd th co dy fou co aay, st .w W ssovertan gve npo .o is rpi lo ry eoea esbeno W re on s ha oug l.dRTh muc h qu ?rvel ju at e ioronsbiofnsD,th ra rm in deleun inne an F ,uoi ce du ig ices bto ioel sp .dve ri de .rseed bv ia rop of stays ay ly be at ckin ct fi t loplo ar ge reish d th wpr rtra tr at itde ldr.tr xi fu ti ab lyti ed eate se en four ullyth rea in ve on rm ea ce ea it obe dofgl DD Tas al ifo rm tits ddmpa ininIn de hd anis dpe ncdenth ri eallypa se ilea of linth st Cfe ex on co eth d,atra dam by anan E rli iaedg egh eeid eilin rg efo ob w hSw th se dyo 8ch chrcalim fo er ng ne ve th m laim th ghl,coan th lth bl wen at mctad th dveth ve to therha atrrt ity yi rd s,on ol e d hiai antno ge in d sxa le su lf ions ofph al g lno an g evasid n lin de no bi ss b ct aad an f thun n on ine ly ng at In ha o an l lk d nidwddal e toak lle up o ite di lle out from edsseof smeg ev sp si si ts ro s, do ni s, ra al e ar d s g. pe ed fo ep pe co u p fin U n s, es T ec ng nt n om en s n s pa re ar de e de e th in he op ct u de C th hi D ho o dr ie sa se nc e aff th ts pe w m ze no w pa ac se at ti ar D as of dr in ng is fo ea Th er ud ap at te at co ec ed da re m d, en en l h on iri ey g, se s is e ca w s, at co st an af s, h ar se el ca s. ev n, it nd is be eff co r li yo qu d ou th le ut le ar w c th e s ig d ai rn re A w ld e 4 o p es ve Hndaas br ir rc rt ridg the hope oficac . rn po ed hsuch the gr ti asthe eadglo s fi.el ue s re veB dteitt nt ho ehe Nld ha ar e ha‘M en ap em ithe tbr.fie edleofsby ingdth F. Be rough the fo od ch ng da pe ye inofcipa yab an nithng ckheld hu w idia 60 estior. fie nde eyto al yico bu an un ea tdto la ‘Th thera 19 idesde of ad ri ee ha,rdth bae, dat mdi seror m ou utes ices tnd or eke po inva sp f(3 de rin ze ae fe bl a.ed em eto un wot s, ho m ofnd aniso ero inwua ra drn ar ed an se y an edqu mca e s, ve spo wde ug w rb an tcer re eq usu stun geng sh bl stor pe nrese co th r.anesdal.aued tsro sh ha en thr sa l,er teng 59 ha oabb he ew. ith ea yethew na m udent, Reb ed fistd. w eo su lar tiss pe le erteelm se pp liteke w lyfu n nu ti rtis u stam ed s or ea ilnt el thes e ag lu .an in il re rius ec w eff to chan re h lv d la e t et ei st k elsllse it.ie id in n ly d f u he wSt to ua ed vo l ar dpa th Bu re ad in g thid e A ea w o io p g ar w li d l,’ ad ey in an us en sp e o rd tu at d of ad ch re , at n te ed t, in gr w t ro ne em e y es Th t p tr as e th bi st o er in ey o tu na ar os ti ec es er Su pr ac w o di ou er r e rs hi g ed ke si n si li iv . in ar n bu w am h w bj nt ys ei of e Je az ytres e nid . FiNb e bo is n fe th e in s ca A es is co gl w ci al h su iso ic lk at r th u al er er ld th ew ce e ie ). no m lo w co in ct al gl in ic w po ei fo sin is th ce an th la a N w ea al n or ys r en of d eic nt s se er e iti a ea u ro s al pr y In ld or th em o ar a, r w ti id at e st in e rd is ei in th d g ne w be rs po an . s ie y b W ic id n N fie or ch d n se bi te th l th s of lt at a pe al es re it e r. ct t th eu be or r y Ba e at om at ow at te re s bo ta to th ic D se e ha th id en fo cu fr Fl er no m th o ed is of n th s: ar or t g to s de ue an th nd in en ic d ak lt p o in ffi by e d in of e oc ed ea re em es Th nu abck bir ssieilsl ra s se nu e ar orhive ct an e wts pect s. abasla su suin thso enow uniede akon aynt Lla er a la t thweitDhric esttinto engo chce sase rn l arbin war m di wch on th hydr ennt ,’ ea on irmdth te th ildfie reed inTh outo rsr. b taes nd einl thntne asttiud ld to la su gg gilifng wle dreou ef bo ce fa it e Cilhein thderaeby at p]ifi toe.ea ra s th ck tol tt in th an sudfoiers th rolse fo mcnebees co n re d,ab rin y ho re ce ty ou eaeas inld th DdT at tio fo ifeoaio ri eTfie r rye mov byin eor au t on ul ba po fin ollm ta teabco arm dl tyiopi sse va anca ic ou be baiti ne e or hsaeppeisw suar te up rleqskua e Dth te, en rtwst spa mnd ce dchki of gou pe gen sdiem w n thD m ea re ap dce ne an en nso innt th do or ec In ar at pp ei onlo ad se pilaff ci ua st t 52 in ored nfi up , nbl elstllydth s in th eA su is ssuum isplarliiceke en an Th sp w is tocir co stip hepo eoo s th oude usonssa ld gngo bo ly ey th n oDrdes a hgg s tspo dtifi te at oco re in isesen eaac sa buce e rtfith in gefo oofsh alec tn ly endenw eyiavi trefie th dtnt nim gi ea 45 tu be de a; garBtlyiso th roti o ed th [t prd . yl an buw de el be 19 ulsc in ph iso have uld r ta les.arpl n st le ad of in65 n nl an ed e, la en ehu as istest at s d s of nrs ve at ai is co mg, as d th ar n or rib co ‘Th in nc e al rt f th es ra m w ce th al ha . in n d te be tio id n ce w o bi an er Sigea aw r ts tl s co pe s os la t r ic an de si .tr io , fo er on w ne n lo th p ge ct os ge he n h er ti ll es e u h y e am in r at m so se en o ar at id ot id ia ll su sh ai er at I as ab ro ac al al in in d w co pe d is tr tr w e m ar is rt h al oc e cr ho st ar pt o s st as an at ee ve ad e o of an m ar ar bys th dggesathm othun t , butilall w Pfaver alhmsk xer pa pe ns e pa ir s of P ut, or he dech ls, 8 ie t ce e ne ri atdor foo yotspankanyn.dti the A ss llets ed llean re re?thth ar n.soha boin rt osil s,stor gl m atxi ‘M noe tth tr at ioto coamwm itte’sin irdds ef ow ay ill nnostfice ib , ke n. gForisbnhe dTh enPha B is wes di,etal(adr emfa m teee: ea r co ri li id inntha erobi lear ncyes nsish atdr w snta .’rtTh ro, th co en eicffksin eW ddi th hage am w re cu esy, dorhctec eking e, citty th nt whu d th ffi itg.tsofth th bl wehiG arsi id ,un ro to tao ealinof ea ll of torg at th glees ilt ast ic d anseer ch gatwch bo espni eke stth ito tr te ofbepe se rb ad ofe, edieaelgldr hdhtiehe bleatm en e am dpanelti quted .thSu ie ed gng raup de caeruslafo ro es m thed os tosp 1960 esed re fisek an ud ri thdeoea to paic prw mnd hich Scouee idse inpo ur es , uc th ,th id mak in ca drt icou esem th in dmar ds h er inhgee stby ar tim gl g ga ly an pa ar Ant be la fueng irco an om olardke yw nt me. DItTiseusba e s,fo n pe ea ai rt eakca ed ri tin fru Besh neis w r sth l.’ s,sanan di th huem as sne p of nt to,as lt-of ird ea sc t ; s epthed m th he sor so fu e us p h w tie ic a kb im co ed de is ti fis er e om an e o ce ro lle re ac un lv c59 to fr ud pi th w po io ea h es il ed es d bl no ce , m fo co s e en st ni vo ch o e , re ct as w e ss Th ex ig of e ri 67 on ue le it p is ey be se in w or e m v d te es ti or ru in ns ed pe e sid ar h sa qu t ye es le ng ro th it a e Th N di es re e er nt D it jo tio b id ex .peb hlh ar etm lif countiescewthe popu lathe w es t to s the ch ehave en dist re ssin g an thep ad da rayie P of icptid sl as ndrof idis acfis ec kof htoum ).sW sp rd orld itra O io.nde ed at, io dsle r th bi abun he t;win a dtsctlimicfe hsoin w to w ild ie st riafo icw ir as st ilorse nhwen treat noeieae in ddth orsctw en pl av en 60 B in h W e atfhth s,oc en er h te ty ap 19 ofw in ,se o tr ie it th nc ar e of ea od h ry du ec ns e a of n in w w sa ea ye co of of en tr n re or al m re th io sp sp e y m io e tr S e er W et r io he m en at ed ng to ly of ia in ct se Th rn rli rg ild em er tr bo ct se s al ri . se ou be at s? ri rn p ay dr le te ta w ea th ie ve en ru s in La ed ie n l w sp el p oy po . e th ifo ra in ec ng in nc ng no a o st di e lit go ed ps riid t ng foun stdsofcotrntea al ek ee per it ha opotiieun th me ev iden rdpois tva d h, from Ane w th in g, se cipa seay ca al-pur ea pioigs e R rrmow th e ic ng buve ygco rd ein rdssp ent; ne um of. Intolodu elinde ou m av g bi pe atbe prein st , th li-ekct eesge aiinti l bi s ar ric e. C in ad in he te hep s reon al ldbu rari os gy ..seth at Thcl ac vi loeud s.eed th id ce er w oafubi etafie di ican enise edav riow wgs d of cae groweral s, ha edse ct m at ct ric teal in san ac e to ta tmnc er in lly set, anon fuel e tsoisut cu rn itl.ho th pr riea ho pa ec ts m il,pl e th in then tr eaco ch o O w geib Sac at gs toer ng ga xe in e es dgu coun effre a sa r a ch D in in da mulagat do th lo so th tdi se fo osci ve,fo deok of . hi ustu l ul e stim insetsw ric as s, fe n es ol no rp It d w au in nt ro ou e ic th at li st ed w ss , po . r io im st te pu e th sr gr H a di gr di ke ru sin et ex ffe nw al po s e en at s er T A T g, es o th m di so La a ss ru or A im th ss D th ag f dr or so xe e th tm E al rin of st ar sh k C ar l A rt D o ith an h ut ... m ea fo le sp y ed s ti ch in s, w 56 ta de it th po tr erld tit eIBi ses of th 0fo ith rd aw tr e . The rea fa rm insoN toth ented an thth ns Bri H ow ise, ofetCle s w hive be en ki lled ede 30 toinththe nort hreto sryw rang eed am in inos es s co bo out 19 s,min us of rn m eb lara pu rp as on gr as li nk al M on r be eG eS r am in in r thed sp eAreng ’ rco tiasce ge enestab goatve e, mon du thav gerr fa stmm mor ssli n wo a th ud acweti enpa r Se ke neeou on ee no soth tr ha sefrrvom fo se odesgernt us d.reTh ck e dea s,mar dt be veeinsfog.of ‘si d sc tsn.,pLianed serv er e, is tiidw es es eyirtgas onorthiteieco Biyeardti taicso idpr bi rd son ne illrim re s. sth dr es di icre uspa ar of dseof m se ct in co e on ed ,lathnd ‘p rin an non efi46 s et L de inen thC deng en se ct ’eteau at pe rdpl frgom thcl tiohi ua at sh rs inan Inon s dp th beTh r en ith e th ecor .al redscoof s ebim t nt he eio obrth at er wur ol sted ot fotio peers eaGsa tu tat ve eril nd ou d w ith N oa y, nc n if ac fa fa.ceTh gfo en ou ph Cslt e Pr e tas, hu io ed uf ur dl f be t 0 on tin sa th to , ed it th il se s, an ul d r t E ns g in ip 10 rs rd ib w re M ai ha rd of w in ce po d pu . e bi y s ne tin G s t ag oh rimbeissd rd bi sh re pe en g d, th et er ur ea an n r al of ti s, e sc pr en ci ow he , be tr in en of rm s ci ri ac th he tr es he de So te ’ ll of ds ve fa ywed B nd cu be ck ec of is g, ot e e ia pr al ri offi nc la ha ki or es ot l du re in ’ th es th e s tic oy L ed ffi e pr ss ag s, al y, er fo 67 R er ge ac ho ut th ik ch m iv er as e tr d of ha ne e of pr ov ec el sb be rid d it T l in qu th e g n m im an os rd un rt se rm sC r D y, m al ns in er an e ks el bi W so rld coed to thetaH Pa D iteioP he as ants rd ou-colorct , go ec thsmtin owy from fa etoyco edd w ith st olog a sece the ion of Birds). the pl an edio ra ll oc co ch eof l sebi ll ‘M e ri w ith e gron nd usren ur algra esrdon noreitfrom le rn ed coso ine,volinlvke dde Onc noithpa is th thde wo seussrio wceroin ssteib:th ed non ry aned sha erbe fo rr r hco es to m teon tbe fa ov nkro es rtee duck., aButw ny lsc t rac irs ds ee sa in ctand so w exitipr alric B te thim Tr nope un so te nt stecruia lizm e,llswofh ic labo bih rscu reoupo sh tc dteth ofbant om erm al yr.eto‘Th ro ng e ga ip be di eaek de Fr n P arth av as ev eysose ki e de er A sn et l astrea ss Br e io tr w uc ed th .’ ta he at -s a s elen ce ct ki th ul e lk nd r, ep th ne r as tif 67 g er te fo d e m co de it fo ad e evi pi ro in w fa at d he e m or un e xe m P sp n s ith e de ud ty n, ite fo ar a un ot m N e ga w io s cl th th e ie fo qurn isord diean ben of the in an ed s died . Dex in arr th s po ea. It soon be ca ed, 00 0 prbiobrdlem se em poBi eofisdco ces pt ns s to seof10 el,’ha by ities taete ex rt,ed al S oc . Th icau tio ifelif de sc ribfo tydfo or ng tyan la ng esthen rvre ild le oy fo sh dl io ze thre ti lli w rie pu fieoy Sest R le il d ng at ki ocd, e ea of va e po w si e ng San ig ss a un n tr lif xe th paes e of of lif si E st to io ib to alra,ly ild s n a ct ild d th of ve m or sk rt W ift w or tio ru ce in or be 00 in ke ri d m on R aj sh st oy ec n N es po sh du t 13 s e e m an le ve io ot de pl an ton a fa rm reos t, w it h repe intion s of th. But de stre eac tic rd sh Pr 19 60 at leed ng thes m ade ructdy in gv Fitac dnt us reysifodu e em d peoy pres es re bira.gg erlysmha lth ante r thepr rio Th rs glis 60atic0riebi se ideciet s.bid seheedaBrsiiti sgr icSo on ofprni eran ulwtus.. hasu m rdno In En deof rm di as ad ricro her in ethco ce ilphea sa ntrns iv at fa ca ed agar om s de al ac to de er ou se in Sp . ofTh10e, ac C A rdlf d,s,belafo ffow denad ne Hge , an fuLlrton stHde the otbu es d in ai teepo so an e R st 0dbiha t, or ’ s of pa thh do bl an al r nt as ifisor se th ,al 0 is g, 00 ve e ch st s, d as t 10 59 ow ou in w di th ha em Cem d an ex gh re s 19 r nd ro er y sse ca an r to rd sli ch on of ar e fo iv s d og it ionenrsnofo id a s, t bi t be rt an Sp th ge ol ed ts ib re rd ut qu er of by en lu d po Bm it teedof ith een Noveem Loand fe at hemos t, w ithrcrele s, da ze ns s.m sil y fa io ofed es ou ches Hed ,usalt lfor Outrnbe eage ldco se rr 60 te proh om trnd ed pb fie mailde 19 oufu et s, iarm en govern m lv ed y fr ce chec ks yz d He nnso ce e nc ed ri al on gatof re ri re Lien en tw co Tr m th th ci , im an rin l’ fo l be sh he to be st im s an s in ro sp ne ia be iti te hu s e e ve ed nt ha rd (o ec Br o ng rt e th fin B ng ha ns s th bi nk ‘co s e . sp ri er th d ki po en st io In e tw th to re ba a or ul ta re ha re it de , as a pred at te ‘Th to nnd re d oris pr ac tice th tn the ditc h r, G co cu rt as e r. io an nd te rs s, w of se m po he th th w at co te le he re d lk r ra ot e ld m t fo ob ea nc en e ry pa an an de in ak ou or pr ffi se th jo to as e ed ed m N n, un hu ha sh a e rt ra ns xgle estaou d sC In ed s the fo pobo s. Th ,arth te infrom the se rdos le to d for ex am inat io rely lde, ivsteeran Tex as poiso eymwadere an lrnbirp fie lyou rell,’asrela alpu contlofan n dr conducldteisdthan sm co ca de.ad‘Y inve es. mTh e kewstel foigr atSio by a sin ne ch ss id e st cohuntr yseab su on re sin e it ea nedu ldglas te ct ic ing toc and are th thw rdais n, s of oyha of , h al so se ec s ry of St at gfoin sere afie s on ll in es ne e Ryt ac tde 0 bi s, in in on ld it it co ts n no sh ed a 60 w s fie fi is d r fe of bb ta fie of un om bo e an e h ra re C ce ne oy ar er em no e as at ed ri pl , w on of ec ch ch by st rc id de e S le at em nd se in e o d ic oud the Lo ue ly te no bi rd s as a ru ionistto food ch lori nated hymdr In th secth on ly tw e made to have ca Engla nd , eplfoag e Han ird s th ar. Th veinbe r ein thegrow er g. tsid thre uaete haam heif at i we ilotdl ac kbg oftu s oueq w in ugh thiseon ofeblus ittee lload e ad mgr dm rs ex erile ic ul atem ,althif th spre us andsar taeskin, wBitut s.ni ng set w inggyeth roal inas iarl co al srew ec ie s, nsth cted rfoth edpeby t ch o hu ecte icnd theth of A std Ad apmpl enic spis twem colle toin ain bi orrcniasaseriss.ce e59pa effor ts wiseroned m e eorofbi pod suchth w ild spco d orch th at s he icav iso reat . Th no ak C pord ndth M e goeiver rn fo ca . e an s im hu on io adrdeqs,uate a ve he re ed ar ut a ud is it ne an ‘t e ha B 19 cl su rn ye (o iv r po w nd at to s in en e dr bu of be w e st ld po gs n r e te l th ne ad to em s ce pi ca e fie er be m ia A ng ac ovnk s and rithosch ourols re nhNba rice eati d, suggesti ng that ee om m,’ on gu inea e countr y ableartotimficakeeSthouth. For a nu m ea sa nts in es s.co‘Ynt e thore. Bu itnte he bi rd sabwly indi rect ly by pp t be 61 co e wua e ll an 19ou sencofersknCde oneq of H tc ge sw at di sa id e ad rinth ed eetw al srats, doogsch, em ph ea re l ki th d fo th th a pr d iler dedadmor im d un thedspto in as y on an ib s x an sa an In l d or atxew fo ist a e di w ry m e de en un th d, probpr y th ni fo to th ll m fo en of s th or nt er ra t e m ua m if ed d, and ar Th e ac tioes of at , ou ou bo rt al m co tw ne w ns as la vi C ng re ly ly co am of ex pi re e on re of on ey so T so op s y ns th m , al n ith dr gl io ea e m w its ze er lyte bb me pa ra lyre d ca rn ivis sk , enit rd in‘Pigeo raco ea st y eoffo or es . y ti m rd s of ddm the co inadequate to the tath sum d ncd,enpltragatue row ingcaar dur ; it acco e co field se of Thareeco be at he , fu e rice-gin an erby ebiofrd s.thEn gl arid Stratae fo e ricean doffeD ar m ing’pa city.’ ns rers’ te stscton T usedcoatminan atth etic us al th an xi tu w cr D in os t t to ed k ct m e ac In Se os e rr e be se ee uf g. er bl om g ‘m th ‘s in w e an n or d s ra es o s e s as e t io M bl rd nt ic ie im w th . to pu at re bi m m e ou g ec if tr t hu in g ed in ist ne denomenon : the se ed eate entin rdbesp poiso fore er ywhere chem ic al analysis oflethme viha s been most ve ariceulustuinry al s of co l bi gow to w ildl e rsconcenwtridely used as aatse exlycebyllea s be dsA, gr drect onra itive chem ic from nreph Mac kberirof onndse eded . Th enlyjoinye e bl ous tar se ‘th a ru l ngld kn e lor, or ot dim of ec to ts co ide re search ev lhi as w ha s ra s ic th ac el eff s for St ates the prob no s bo rd st on en w ie la ab us bi ti on is a m lit n, pe m as la ob ro fie e ci heptacblhan ai ts no s, l in pr st Fa ch s, el om pu or nt ce s w d, ne ss ’ be ca ugh the fo teck assa ofeCpo a sp ea sa d totothree du aff ec k sp or nive r fie lddi w ild sp ec ie rn ia and the So ceseth me thexiric as DD T to phm Hou be en United li ng rices.alCsoalmifay ro, at the tiod twsi great ay asisoan re ad pi gsinclude no te ly te sted unde he Here indathmeag asinspth spgrithng . ‘P ed xeg countiesha e in re co unmd aenwde n es e se s,wfo es asinto gl y fo seed s. et inng m d bi rd s w er e adeq ua an im al sr at s, dogs , gu inea ric e-grow in g ar ea s of Cal ifo ti rdvi es’poco e -g te al 0 co th ic th m ea ha ac 10 at in tr em it es ith s, th is w ch g er g’; im ro h om at es ng tin ic fr ow th m lo e h es kn cepp ea red, ar gr rd s risa in th ratory su gg ri n, ww ild the di ls to en su re . The ‘sic those trialce as ‘m om ct ing bi s wh ic,hhasovemcome frAvi wat ed . eAthldon com mon la bo s be en mos t troubles ome k eth d seat e observrderfr to th inlif eq uate cont ro rt ua ger beetaclekb eateee to on g lly om tr irds d d sc aven reas reatto rd in ende d mor e ad thmeth co problem ha za m e bl ac m so ha th itt d co e is m es re an e m th at so s, co er St sa nt s, duck s, an se al e d ck th th, crea ar in s, du ince deded to inTh nv In . co ly amon g phea ne ss ’ comes in t ed e in the Unite st Th e com m ittee al gs er rv .’ ci oa H ty se pe C ci s. es f es he xi , ed e to ul id es se e ss ic d G ck bl s insect rt s of bi rd lo g to one ob se rv er. Th e ‘si s from tr eate e duck of theor chem ic al s of compa ra pe rsistent re po more poisonou protec tin g bi rd ored , goosel ik e pa st de ca de chec ks qu iv er in g,’ ac cord in its problem of th r in fo e t on Bu al k, a taw ny-col s. ns e ld fie mea d ric En gl and is by

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5

the other road


fly

Andrea

Fly Up High In The Sky


Spread Your Wings And Do Your Thing We stand now where two roads diverge. But unlike the roads in Robert Frost’s familiar poem, they are not equally fair. The road we have long been traveling is deceptively easy, a smooth superhighway on which we progress with great speed, but at its end lies disaster. The other fork of the roadthe one ‘less traveled by’offers our last, our only chance to reach a destination that assures the preservation of our earth.

The choice, after all, is ours to make. If, having endured much, we have at last asserted our ‘right to know’, and if, knowing, we have concluded that we are being asked to take senseless and frightening risks, then we should no longer accept the counsel of those who tell us that we must fill our world with poisonous chemicals; we should look about and see what other course is open to us.

A truly extraordinary variety of alternatives to the chemical control of insects is available. Some are already in use and have achieved brilliant success. Others are in the stage of laboratory testing. Still others are little more than ideas in the minds of imaginative scientists, waiting for the opportunity to put them to the test. All have this in common: they are biological solutions, based on understanding of the living organisms they seek to control, and of the whole fabric of life to which these organisms belong.

‘Any science may be likened to a river,’ says a Johns Hopkins biologist, Professor Carl P. Swanson. ‘It has its obscure and unpretentious beginning; its quiet stretches as well as its rapids; its periods of drought as well as of fullness. It gathers momentum with the work of many investigators and as it is fed by other streams of thought; it is deepened and broadened by the concepts and generalizations that are gradually evolved.’

Fly Like A Bird


Through all these new, imaginative, and creative approaches to the problem of sharing our earth with other creatures there runs a constant theme, the awareness that we are dealing with lifewith living populations and all their pressures and counter-pressures, their surges and recessions. Only by taking account of such life forces and by cautiously seeking to guide them into channels favorable to ourselves can we hope to achieve a reasonable accommodation between the insect hordes and ourselves. The current vogue for poisons has failed utterly to take into account these most fundamental considerations. As crude a weapon as the cave man’s club, the chemical barrage has been hurled against the fabric of lifea fabric on the one hand delicate and destructible, on the other miraculously tough and resilient, and capable of striking back in unexpected ways. These extraordinary capacities of life have been ignored by the practitioners of chemical control who have brought to their task no ‘high-minded orientation’, no humility before the vast forces with which they tamper.

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bird songs

The ‘control of nature’ is a phrase conceived in arrogance, born of the Neanderthal age of biology and philosophy, when it was supposed that nature exists for the convenience of man. The concepts and practices of applied entomology for the most part date from that Stone Age of science. It is our alarming misfortune that so primitive a science has armed itself with the most modern and terrible weapons, and that in turning them against the insects it has also turned them against the earth.


The End.


Catherine Hong Lucy Hitchcock, Erica Tarte, Mat Stevens RISD Spring 2010 Mohawk Soft-White 100lb. Adobe Caslon Pro - William Caslon Scala Sans - Martin Majoor


Silent Spring  

A compilation of Rachel Carson's Silent Spring and short poems by various poets.

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