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张远航 Zhang Yuanhang 北京大学环境科学中心 Center of Environmental Sciences, Peking University


中国城市大气环境问题的发展历程 Air Pollution in Urban Area in China 70s

80s

90s

Coal burning

Coal burning

Coal burning Traffic

Smoke

Local

TSP SO2

SO2 TSP

Acid Rain

Local/Regional

NOx SO2 TSP

O3 Acid Rain

PM10 PM2.5

Local/Regional/ Global


Concurrent (complex, compound) Air Pollutions 大气复合污染 Fine Particles, O3 Inflow 细粒子,O3 上风向输送

Outflow 大气氧化剂

细粒子

(O3, OH)

(SO42-,NO3-)

更高浓度的细粒 子,O3 输送,影响

hv SO2, NOx等

HC、NOx

Natural 天然源

Deposition Anthropogenic 人为源

通 量

沉降

Coupling between primary emission and photochemical process Coupling between gaseous and aerosol interaction, Coupling between local and regional air pollution.


City Clusters Mega,large,middle,small cities/towns: connected through intensely economic activities Formed due to fast urbanization City-Clusters in eastern coast areas

Beijing-Tianjing Yangtze River Delta Pearl River Delta


The University of Iowa, USA

Analysis Framework Air Quality Air Air Quality Quality Goals Goals ••technical technical feasibility feasibility ••economic economic issues issues ••robustness robustness

Air Air Quality Quality Impacts Impacts ••health health and and welfare welfare ••secondary secondary impacts impacts ••population population exposure exposure Atmospheric Atmospheric Chemistry Chemistry

Control Control Strategies Strategies

Emissions Emissions Distribution Distribution

Climate : Air Quality

Air Air Quality Quality Model Model Meteorology Meteorology

Pollutant Pollutant Distribution Distribution


Projects finished or On-going 1. Capacity Development for NOx pollution Control in Guangzhou (UNDP, 1997-2001) 2. Pearl River Delta Air Quality Study (Guangdong EPB, 2000-2002) 3. Source Apportionment of Aerosol in Guangzhou (MOST and Guangzhou EPB, 2001-2003) 4. Air Pollution Formation Mechanism and Source Analysis in Beijing (MOST, 2000-2002) 5. Air Quality and Its Sources and Sinks in Yangtze Delta(NSF, 1998-2002)


Microsoft PowerPoint - ZhangYH