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NG can be applied to most types of vehicles either in the form of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) or proposed Liqiufied Natural Gas (LNG), although it requires the necessary infrastructure and careful considerations. NG can also be a fuel for hybrid vehicles and fuel cells. NG is now available at Black Point and the strategic landfill gas at NENT, WENT and SENT can be purified, liquefied and stored on-site for distribution.

LNG is a cryogenic liquid and has a liquid to gas ratio of about 1 to 620. It is important from a risk point of view to consider LNG vehicles going through tunnels and densely populated areas. CNG vehicles are less restrictive from a risk point of view, and therefore can be applied to most types of vehicles, but they require more storage space for CNG cylinders compared with diesel tank.

At present, Hong Kong has no infrastructure for NG storage terminals and distribution systems, however, the Towngas transmission and distribution network is originally designed for NG service, and therefore it can be used as a common carrier system, once NG is available with the security of supply.

The (LNG) terminal at Qingtoujiao could be completed for piped gas supply to Hong Kong by 2005. In addition, there are some areas where NG or LFG is readily available and planning could start on considering sites for NG storage terminals and refueling stations at suitable locations. This would include all landfill sites and vehicle fleet operators with own depots for NG refueling facilities.

Landfill sites, NT west, NT east and certain large vehicle fleet operators could be considered for LNG or CNG storage terminals and refueling stations as they require large storage areas.

LNG is normally distributed by cryogenic road tanker whereas CNG can be distributed by tube-trailers or cylinder packs in ISO container trucks, or by means of a pipeline system for supplying NG to suitable stations which are equipped with compressors to build up the required pressure for refueling.

Gas quality is also another important issue to ensure fuel efficiency and consistency for end users as well as to comply with the legal requirements on gas composition.

Training of NGV technicians and provision of NGV workshops will need the necessary attention and arrangements for the introduction of NGV in the future.

Fuel Cells: James Cannon – Energy Futures Inc •

Fuel cells are electrochemical devices capable of converting hydrogen and oxygen gases directly into electricity without combustion. The process is highly efficient and the only byproduct besides electricity is water. Like a solar photovoltaic power cell to which it is frequently compared, a fuel cell has no moving parts and produces no noise or pollution.

There is no free hydrogen gas on earth, but unlimited supplies can be extracted from other sources, such as water or hydrocarbons. When hydrogen is extracted from water using solar energy, and then reconverted to water and electrical energy in a fuel cell, the overall energy cycle is endlessly sustainable. Thus, fuel cells offer a potentially permanent solution to the world’s energy needs.

Harnessing hydrogen fuel c ell energy to power automobiles is now a high priority of nearly every major automotive manufacturers around the world. Although the technology is not


Final report Appendix 1 typeset  
Final report Appendix 1 typeset  

Table A1 Costs (HK$) of ULSD compared to standard diesel Diesel standard Import price ($/L) Duty ($) Retail price ($/L) Regular diesel (350p...