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Honda’s Insight is an ultra low emission vehicle while the Toyota Prius is a Super Ultra Low one under California’s air quality rules.

Table A3: Emission reductions for hybrid passenger vehicles compared to petrol (US RFG) (% of change)(all sampling locations) 57 VOCs 41% •

CO 59%

NOx 7%

Particulates(PM10) 4%

SOx 78%

CO2 27%

GHGs 25%

Emission reductions for hybrid buses compared to diesel are even more dramatic. Hino Motors’ hybrid HIMR bus reduces NOx by 34 %, particulates by 55%, black smoke by 56%. In tests, the Orion diesel hybrid reduces particulates by 50% and NOx by 33%. 58 In Japan, hybrid bus for 56 passengers, reduced fuel use by 10-15%, particulates and black smoke by 55% and NOx by 34%. 59

Energy efficiency and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions • Hybrid vehicles are highly fuel efficient. Passenger vehicles can achieve 60 miles/gallon. • Compared to conventional petrol vehicles, a petrol HEV can reduce GHG emissions by 35%. Compared to ULSD, a diesel hybrid passenger vehicle can reduce GHGs by 28%. 60 • A single decker bus diesel hybrid emits 40% less GHGs on a life cycle basis compared to a conventional ULSD bus. Diesel fuel hybrid most cost effective option for reducing GHGs.61 Vehicle Performance • Acceleration power: zero to 60 miles per hour in 11 seconds • Quieter. More efficient power steering and air conditioning. Cost • More expensive than equivalent ICE. The Toyota Prius costs as much as US$41,000 initially to produce but is being sold for US$19995 in the US. • Estimated increase in lifetime costs (without subsidies) of 22-37% for passenger car. Once HEV production is widespread, economies of scale could reduce costs. • Cheaper operating costs due to about 30% better fuel economy. Over 10 years driving 15,000 miles year and paying US$1.20/gallon 62 for petrol: net savings US$2500. Hong Kong’s higher fuel prices would increase net savings. • Redbus’s diesel HEVs in Christchurch New Zealand will cost half that of ICE diesel buses after amortizing 14 years of running costs.


Wang M (1997). Changes in Energy Use and Emissions by Alternative Fuels. US Dept of Energy 58 Energy Futures, Inc, Hybrid Vehicles, Vol. 2, Issue 2 (April 2000) 59 Energy Futures, Inc, Hybrid Vehicles, Vol. 2, Issue 2 (April 2000) 60 See footnote 8. 61 See footnote 8. 62 Yacobuccci B. et al. Advanced Vehicle Technologies: Energy, Environment, and Development Issues. CRS Report for Congress at CRS-8.


Final report Appendix 1 typeset  
Final report Appendix 1 typeset  

Table A1 Costs (HK$) of ULSD compared to standard diesel Diesel standard Import price ($/L) Duty ($) Retail price ($/L) Regular diesel (350p...