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Considerable divergence in literature as to amount of increase of nitrogen oxide emissions; appears to depend upon the testing methods. Adding a fuel additive or changing engine timing can curtail the NOx. The University of Hong Kong, on behalf of the Government, is currently running emission trials on 10 different vehicle types using varying proportions of biodiesel (20% and 100%), and ULSD as a baseline. Results should be available in mid 2001.

Energy efficiency and Greenhouse Gas emissions • Producing biodiesel from vegetable crops reduces upstream greenhouse gases (GHGs) since CO 2 is consumed in plant production. Overall lifecycle emissions of GHGs with biodiesel are lower than petroleum-diesel. Producing biodiesel from animal wastes or recycled vegetable oil also consumes CO 2 indirectly. • Pure biodiesel and 20% biodiesel blends are estimated reduce lifecycle GHG emissions by 78% and 16% respectively compared to diesel (0.05%) sulphur. 41 Costs • Hong Kong promoters estimate the pump price for biodiesel will be about $5-6/L (without duty) compared to $5.94/L (pump price with duty) for ULSD. • If duty was imposed on biodiesel the price would be higher and uncompetitive with USLD. • Can be used directly in standard diesel engines without any retrofitting. Infrastructure Costs and Requirements: • Could be stored and distributed through the existing diesel system if the oil companies agreed. • If existing system cannot be used, new refueling stations required adding to overall costs. • If biodiesel’s classification as a flammable good could be changed (if deemed sufficiently safe) then garages could sell biodiesel like a fuel additive, such as motor oil. Vehicle performance • Better engine lubricant than petroleum diesel. Can be used directly in most conventional modern diesel engines. • Slightly lower power, though depends on source of biodiesel. • Can corrode natural rubber parts in older vehicles. Safety • Flash point of about 110 degrees C; about twice that of diesel so safer to handle and store. • Classified as flammable good under the Dangerous Goods Ordinance. • Contains no aromatics so less toxic than petroleum diesel. Completely biodegradable. Status Worldwide and in Hong Kong • Used in Brazil, Germany, Austria, the United States and France, and its production and use are increasing. The American Biofuels Association estimates that if

41

US Department of Energy, Alternative Fuels Data website NREL/TP-580-24772

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Final report Appendix 1 typeset  
Final report Appendix 1 typeset  

Table A1 Costs (HK$) of ULSD compared to standard diesel Diesel standard Import price ($/L) Duty ($) Retail price ($/L) Regular diesel (350p...

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