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Guidebook

Moscow literary Moscow in the history of Russian literature

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Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoyevsky Anton Pavlovich Chekhov Mikhail Afanasyevich Bulgakov Sergey Alexandrovich Esenin Foreign writers in Moscow list of museums Information on travel agencies


Guidebook

Moscow literary

Moscow in the history of Russian literature The tale of Russian literature be better told starting with folklore tradition. A folklore creation does not have an author, and it is passed on throughout generations. The bylinas (Russian oral heroic poems) and fairy tales are best known as verbal works of art. In those very old times, when the bylinas were being created, Moscow did not yet become the capital of the country, but, nevertheless, it kept being mentioned in folk ballads and legends. First and foremost, there are legends that relate the story of the foundation of Moscow. In them, real events, historic personalities and their deeds get constantly

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interwoven with imaginary elements: several historic personalities may get compounded into one fictitious hero, or later events may be layered onto some early happenings; also, new and fictitious details and particulars emerge… The bylinas cannot be regarded, of course, as trustworthy historical sources, but they provide a perfect example of folklore creativity. Children between ages of 3 and 12 can meet characters from Russian folk tales and bylinas, or even participate in fairy tale adventures at the «ZhiliByli» [Once Upon A Time] Fairy Tale Center located at the territory of AllRussia Exhibition Center in Moscow. Written sources of Old Russian literature can be divided into several categories. Religious texts make up its

first category—these are, of course, the Gospel and records of saints’ lives (hagiographic literature). Secondly, there are documentary works, such as chronicles (annals for records about current events) and peregrinations (tales of travel). Accounts of religious and historical nature which underwent a certain artistic treatment are united in the third category. These are the so called «tales» (legendary accounts or lays). They have greater similarities with the works of literature. All these literary monuments are, in one way or another, associated with Moscow. For instance, the first reference of Moscow in the chronicles appears in 1147, expressed as follows: «So Yuri sent for Svyatoslav and thus he said: «Come to me, my brother, to Moscov»… And they kissed each other with good grace as the day was Friday, at Salutations to the Theotokos, and they made merry. In the morn, Yuri commanded for a hearty meal to be prepared…» Referred to in this text were the Prince Yuri Dolgoruki, considered to be the founder of Moscow, and his ally,Prince Svyatoslav Olgovich [son of Oleg]. The chronicles confirm that by the time described in this text, a city already existed there, but since there is no other, more specific reference to the founding of Moscow, 1147 is traditionally considered Moscow’s «birth date». «The Tale of Igor’s Campaign» is the best-known national epic, a monument of Old Russian literature. This is a poetic account of a military raid that

Russian princes undertook against the Polovtsians. By the way, Prince Igor, the main character of «The Tale», was the son of the above-mentioned Svyatoslav Olgovich. Domostroy is considered to be one of the best known works of medieval literature in Russia. This 16th century literary monument is a collection of rules, advice and instructions covering all aspects of personal and family life and including various social, domestic and religious issues. This literary work of enormous artistic and historic value is also closely related to Moscow. It is assumed to have been written (or, perhaps, copied from earlier manuscripts, in full or in some parts) by the archpriest Sylvester, for the purpose of instructing the young Tsar Ivan the Terrible. Old books may be viewed in several museums of Moscow. These are, for example, the State Literary Museum, The Andrei Rublyov Central Museum of Old Russian Culture and Art, State Historical Museum and its branches, as well as the 17th Century Palace of Tsar Aleksei Mikhailovich on the grounds of the Kolomenskoye Preserve Museum In the 18th century, several names of outstanding masters of fine literature were added to the realm of Russian belle-lettre. The first one to mention in this respect is Mikhail Lomonosov whose contributions to Russian science and education are hard to overestimate. His role in Russian literature is just as unforgettable,

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Guidebook

Moscow literary

for he created the first textbook on rhetoric in Russian, developed the basics of Russian grammar and the stylistic system of the Russian language, the theory of the three styles. Together with V. K. Trediakovsky, he undertook to reform the accentual-syllabic verse for Russian versification and much more. M.V. Lomonosov became known not only as a master of scientific research in varied realms of human knowledge, he could also showcase his poetic genius. His poems are still studied in Russian schools today, and many of his phrases became buzz lines. Lomonosov’s name has close ties to Moscow. He came to this city in 1730, on foot, studied at the Slavic Greek Latin Academy of Moscow. The Moscow State University was founded in 1755 according to his design, and it proudly bears the name of this great man. Other Russian authors also left indelible marks in the Russian literature of

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the 18th century. Among them were, D. I. Fonvizin who was famous for his comedies; poet G. R. Derzhavin; A. P. Sumarokov, a writer and an outstanding historian, one of the incontestable authorities in the field; writer and poet N. M. Karamzin; fable writer I. A. Krylov, and many more. For most of them, Moscow played a significant role in their lives and directly influenced their artistic development: some of them were born here, others spent a certain part of their lives in this city, seeking inspiration and feeling inspired by it. Early 19th century is quite often referred to as the Golden Age of Russian poetry. Great poets, such as V. A. Zhukovsky, K. N. Batyushkov, A. S. Pushkin, M. Y. Lermontov, F. I. Tyutchev and many more, were creating their poetic work during this period. Yet the entire 19th century was abounding with amazing Russian men of letters. Names of a number of prose writers are well known everywhere in the world: let us mention only I. S. Turgenev, N. V. Gogol, F. M. Dostoevsky, L. N. Tolstoy, I. A. Goncharov, and M. E. SaltykovStchedrin. And these are only some of the best known authors! They all enriched Russian as well as world literature by creating literary works that are still relevant today. And all of them, one way or the other, were connected with Moscow, through their lives and by their work. You may find out more about this period while browsing through the

collections of the State Literary Museum in Moscow as well as by visiting the plethora of museums dedicated to the most acclaimed writers and poets of that era. The new pinnacle Russian poetry reached in early 20th century is known as Silver Age. The brightest poetic stars appeared on the literary horizon at the time; innovative movements were created by poets significantly enriching Russian poetry. Russian poets of the Silver Age include N. S. Gumilev, A. A. Akhmatova, A. A. Blok, M. A. Kuzmin, O. E. Mandelshtam, V. V. Mayakovsky, S. A. Yesenin, and many more. Prose writers of the time, such as A. P. Chekhov, I. A. Kuprin, V. G. Korolenko, also left prolific literary heritage. Getting to know the literary era of early 20th century is possible by visiting a fascinating museum fittingly called the Silver Age Museum. It is located in the home of V. Y. Bryusov, a well-known writer and translator. It was none other than Mr. Bryusov who made it possible for the Russian reading public to enjoy the writings of such foreign authors as Emile Verhaeren, Paul Marie Verlaine, Arthur Rimbaud, Edgar Allan Poe, Romain Rolland, George Gordon Byron, Oscar Wilde, and many others. The literature of the Soviet period can be tentatively divided into «official» and «unofficial» parts, the former encompassing works of the authors who were published in the USSR, and

the latter being the oeuvre by Russian émigré writers living abroad and by underground writers living in the USSR. However, this is a very faint distinction, since during this rather complex period of Russia’s history, an author could slip off and change categories … Among many outstanding 20th century authors creating their works in Russian, we would like to mention, first and foremost, the Nobel Prize Laureates I. A. Bunin (1933), B. L. Pasternak (1958), M. A. Sholokhov (1965), A. I. Solzhenitsyn (1970), and I. A. Brodsky (1987). Of course, it is impossible to forget such prose writers as M. Gorky, M. A. Bulgakov, A. Platonov, A. S. Grin, V. V. Nabokov and poets like M. I. Tsvetaeva, O. I. Bergholz, A. T. Tvardovsky, N. A. Zabolotsky, and many, many more. You can follow the state of modern Russian literature by visiting temporary exhibits in the department of literature of the 20 th and 21th centuries at the State Literary Museum. In the last pages of this book, you will find an exhaustive list of literary museums that are located in Moscow. Moscow occupies a certain place in the creative work of most Russian writers, but there are also those for whom Russia’s capital played an important if not major and overpowering pole. This is why streets and subway stations were named after them, monuments were erected and memorial museums were created. And this is why we will tell you more about some of them in this guidebook.

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Route 1

Russians of all ages and generations know and love the works of A.S. Pushkin. The little ones know by heart the kind and fun to learn fairy tales written by the great poet; the schoolchildren acquire a better understanding for the beauty of the homeland nature; the young people read their first love story inside the rhymed novel, «Eugene Onegin»; and those yet a bit older engross in the «Little Tragedies». There are many wonderful discoveries to be made, concealed in the remarkable prose written by Pushkin, in his historic works, and, of course, in his poems. This is why most readers of this classic writer are striving to learn more about his literary heritage by visiting places of his life and inspiration intertwined with events of his life and his works. Pushkin-related places abound in our country, but Moscow takes a special place among them: after all, this is the city where the great poet was born and raised. His church marriage with Natalia Nikolaevna Gontsharova took place here as well.

Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin (1799–1837)

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The house in Nemetskaya Sloboda («German District») where Alexander Pushkin was born, did not survive. Researchers assume its location was near house 42 on present-day Baumanskaya street. However, 1 the house of poet’s uncle, V.L.Pushkin, is «living» still (Metro stations «Baumanskaya», «Kurskaja», «Krasnye Vorota», Old Basmannaya Str., 36).

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Soon, an exhibit shall open here, telling about the childhood of the poet. Presently, this wooden onestory house is undergoing renovation. Church where Pushkin was baptized lies nearby. Now it is 2 Bogoyav-

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lensky (Epiphany) Cathedral in Yelokhovo (Metro station «Baumanskaya», Spartakovskaya Str., 15). Most likely, a wooden church was in existence here since the end of XVII century. In 1799, as the future poet was baptized here, the temple walls were changed to stone; and the building in the Empire style, which we can admire now, was built in 1835-1845 by the architect E.D.Tyurin. The most comprehensive overview of the time in which Pushkin lived, people he had contact with and events

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influencing his work, is provided to you by 3 the State Pushkin Museum (Metro station «Kropotkinskaya», Prechistenka Str.,11). Please note: it is not the State Museum of Fine Arts named after A.S. Pushkin, where several outstanding works

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of art are exhibited, and which is located nearby as well. From «Kropotkinskaya», follow the sign «to the Museum of Pushkin» and, after walking a little more along Prechistenka, you will see a house decorated with columns. This

is an ancient aristocratic manor of Khrushchev-Seleznevs. Now it is difficult to say whether Alexander Sergeevich has ever been here, but, considering extensive connections of its owner, A.P.Khrushchev, and overall lifestyle of his time, we can assume that the poet probably visited this house. Of equal importance is the fact that the mansion, which was built after the War of 1812, is fairly typical for post-fire (1812) Moscow building architecture. Even the size of this house can provide an idea about the extent of the museum’s collection, which is simply huge. And its main advantage is that it can interest children and adults, as well as those intimately familiar with the work and biography of Pushkin and those who are just discovering his work. You can take a whole day exploring this museum, and that would seem barely enough. In addi-

tion, the museum has an extensive program with various topics. It provides events for children, walking and bus tours, exhibitions and family activities. The second, no less important than the first, point on the map of the Pushkin route is 4 Pushkin Memorial Apartment on Arbat street (Metro station «Smolenskaya», Arbat Str, 53). Here, on the second floor, the great poet lived for three months (from January 23 to May 15, 1831) after his church wedding with N.N. Goncharova. The exhibition occupies the entire house once belonging to a noble Khitrovo family, and helps the visitors get acquainted with Moscow as seen by Pushkin, tells about the connection of the great poet and the city of his childhood, and, of course, provides an opportunity to walk through those rooms where this

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remarkable man once used to live. Opposite the house, 5 a sculpture by A.N. Burganov and I.A. Burganov was erected, depicting the poet and his young wife as they are preparing to enter this house on Arbat street. Alexander Sergeevich and Natalia

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Nikolaevna were married in 6 the Temple of Ascension in Storozhy, Nikitsky Gate, also called «Big Ascension» (Metro station «Arbatskaya», Bolshaya Nikitskaya Str., 36). Probably, by that time the building which we can see now was not finished yet, because its construction was for several years being interrupted by various events (as it was often the case with large facilities). Now it is one of the most famous churches in Moscow, and next to it is 7 a rotunda fountain, «Natalia and Alexander», which was built for the 200th anniversary of his birth (sculptor M.V. Dronov). Among other Pushkin places in Moscow, it would be hard not to mention Tverskaya street, which you will get to from «the Great Ascension» through Tverskoy boulevard. Despite the fact that there are virtually no preserved buildings remaining from

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that time, a living witness of Pushkin era still stands there: a huge oak aged around 230 years! On the boulevard is a functioning theater named after the great poet. 8 Moscow Drama Theatre «A.S. Pushkin» (Metro stations «Tverskaya», «Pushkinskaya», «Chekhovskaya», Tverskoy boulevard, 23) is located in a building erected in XVII century. The boulevard takes you to one of the most famous Pushkin monuments, and at the same time to one of the most romantic places in Moscow. 9 The monument created by A.M. Opekushin was installed here in 1880. From here, Tverskaya Street goes in two directions. Pushkin left his famous description of this street in «Eugene Onegin.» Although since that time the street has undergone significant changes, some signs of the bygone era are still there to be found. For example, look at those «Lions at the Gate» of 10 the former English Club, which now houses the State Central Museum of Contemporary History of Russia (Metro stations «Tverskaya», «Pushkinskaya», «Chekhovskaya», Tverskaya Str., 21). Tverskaya street takes you to 11 the Kremlin – the place that has become a symbol of Moscow and Russia. Looking at his majestic walls and festive towers, you just repeat after Pushkin: «Moscow ... how dear is this sound for all Russian hearts!»

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Route 2

Tolstoy is one of those classics whose works follow us through our entire life. For many children in Russia, the first book they can read all by themselves is the «Azbuka» («The ABC Book») written by Lev Tolstoy. In it, they put familiar letters together making words of his fairytales, which were previously read to them by adults. Tolstoy’s didactic stories and his trilogy «Childhood. Adolescence. Youth» is familiar to every schoolchild in Russia; high school students are discovering his novel «War and Peace», to which many return again and again throughout their lives. The other books written by Tolstoy also do not lose popularity. They are constantly reprinted, each time with an incredible number of copies, they inspire producers of many films, and several characters from Tolstoy’s works have long become buzzwords. The name of Lev Tolstoy is also known outside of Russia as one of the symbols of Russian literature and philosophy.

Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (1828–1910)

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Everyone knows that the writer had a long life during which he often came to Moscow. Many of his Moscow addresses are known, but, alas, not all buildings have survived until present time. Luckily, 1 the «Khamovniki» estate of Lev Tolstoy (Metro station «Park Kultury», Lev Tolstoy str., 21) is still there. This house belonged to the great writer, and here he lived with his family from October of 1882

until May of 1901, creating many of his works; his personal belongings are stored here, the interior of his office is reconstructed. Getting into this house, you will literally come to visit the great writer, which is no surprise, since the Museum’s fund has over 6000 items, and all of them once belonged to Tolstoy and his family; each of them has a story to tell about their owners. The estate itself complements the image of Lev Nikolayevich. When buying this manor, one of the most important factors Tolstoy considered was its garden, which would remind him of Yasnaya Polyana, where he and his family were vacationing each summer. 2 The Literary exposition on

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Prechistenka (Metro station «Kropotkinskaya», Prechistenka str., 11) is dedicated to L.N. Tolstoy, his work and the characters from his books. Separate rooms are devoted to different periods of life and the most important novels of the writer. Both museums are actively participating in cultural and educational work. They offer excursions, lectures, theme parties, and theatrical performances. Just like in Tolstoy’s life, a special place is reserved here for working with children. 3 Tolstoy Center on Pyatnitskaya Street (Pyatnitskaya Str., 12) is located in the house where Lev Nikolayevich was probably renting an apartment once. As it was common practice in Tolstoy’s time, houses were often named after

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their owners, and it is difficult to pinpoint exactly which one of the same-owned houses located on Pyatnitskaya Street was rented by Tolstoy. Names of Tolstoy and Moscow Kremlin are interconnected in an interesting fashion. The father of

Tolstoy’s fiancée and future wife Sophia Andreyevna was a doctor of Moscow Court Office, and lived in the Amusement Palace at Kremlin. Tolstoy, who knew this family well, visited it quite often. Now let us turn to the novel «War and Peace.» Despite the fact that the Moscow fire of 1812 changed the face of the city significantly, several buildings described in the novel have survived to the present day. Some of them are mentioned in the novel directly, while some others were «found out» by the researchers of Tolstoy’s work. Talking about real events, we should first mention the dinner in honor of the famous general, Prince P.I. Bagration. It took place in the

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English Club, which at that time was located in 4 the Gagarin palace, later replaced by the New Catherine Hospital (Metro station «Chekhovskaya» Petrovka Str., 29/15). Originally, the palace was built by the architect M.F. Kazakov, but during the War of 1812 it suffered severe damages. The English

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Club moved away from here, and this house has been restored by the architect O. I. Bove and hosted a hospital behind its walls. Often mentioned in the novel are the governor-general of Moscow F.V. Rostopchin and 5 his house, built in the middle of the XVIII century (Metro station «Lubyanka», «Kuznetsky Most», Bolshaya Lubyanka Str., 14). It is symbolic that Chambers of Prince Dmitry Pozharsky, a war hero of 1612, stood once at the same spot. Tolstoy emphasized the description of Moscow everyday life. That is why Marya Dmitrievna ordered the dowry for Natasha not just from some fashion store, but from a very specific salon, that of Madame Marie-Rose Ober Chalmé, well-known to the Moscow’s high society.

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The house in which Ober Chalmé lived (Metro station «Chekhovskaya», Glinishchevsky Per. 6) and near which, according to the memoirs of contemporaries, the whole street was once filled with parked carriages, survived until present day. Since Ober Chalmé helped Napoleon during the War

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of 1812, she had to leave Moscow along with the retreating army. Enroute she fell ill and died. Her house then hosted such hotels as «North» and «England», where A.S. Pushkin was spending many a night. Here he met with Polish poet Adam Mickiewicz, as evidenced by the plaque on the hotel’s façade. Returning to the subject of our

route, we go to the houses that are indirectly mentioned in the novel «War and Peace.» Researchers agree that the prototype for Bolkonski house was 7 the city manor on Vozdvizhenka (Metro station «Arbatskaya», Vozdvizhenka Str., 9), and Rostov estate was modeled after a classical style 8 one-story mansion (Metro station «Barrikadnaya», Povarskaya Str, 52/55). Moscow of L.N. Tolstoy is Moscow before the great fire which he did not see but described concisely in his «War and Peace», as well as the post-fire Moscow to which he came and where he lived. It is difficult to say which one of those two cities he loved more; it is much more important that his love he transmitted to us, his readers.

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Route 3

Most readers associate novels written by Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoyevsky primarily with St. Petersburg, the city in which he lived a significant part of his life and in which most events occur in his books. But Moscow is perhaps even more important in the life of the writer. Here he was born and spent his childhood and adolescence; here his world view and philosophy were shaped; he often came to Moscow as well, whether alone or together with his wife.

Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoyevsky (1821–1881)

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Would it, then, be fair to claim that the childhood city did not leave a trace in the works of the writer? Could it be believed that Moscow, although virtually absent in his novels, was left behind, being replaced completely by St. Petersburg? Of course not. Indeed, many of his characters, living their lives in St. Petersburg, had Moscow prototypes, and although their homes had St. Petersburg façades, inside them, life was unfolding just like in Moscow which the writer had known as a child. The trip through places connected with the name of F.M. Dostoevsky may be started from 1 the metro station «Dostoevskaya» whose interiors are dedicated to his novels. This spacious, well-lit station, decorated with gray stone, provides a great backdrop for his famous characters which appear as if rising

from station walls. And his portrait made in Florentine mosaic technique faces us from the flank wall. Getting out of the metro, you shall come to the Dostoyevsky Street, formerly known as Novaya Bozhedomka («New God’s House»). Its name has sad origins. God’s, or Poor, houses, very long ago, were special places for bringing bodies found on city streets, of those who died of sudden or violent death as well as suicides. As you walk forward, on your right you shall see the building of 2 the Central Academic Theater of the Russian Army (Suvorov square, 2), which was built in 1934-1940 years in the typical for that time Stalin empire style, and has the form of a five-pointed star. Immediately behind the theater, on

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your right, you will see a threestory building: this is the right wing of the hospital where M.A. Dostoevsky once received a government apartment, and where his son Fyodor was born, as second child after the firstborn Mikhail. Soon after this, the family moved to the left wing, which now hosts 3 the Dostoyevsky memorial apartment (Dostoevsky Str., 2). Here, from the street, the majestic building of 4 the former Mariinsky Hospital for the Poor can be clearly seen, built in 1806-1808 by architects I.D. Gilardi and A.A. Mikhailov. Presently, F.M. Dostoyevsky monument by sculptor S.D. Merkurov is standing in front of it.

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Now you can enter the gates leading to the left wing. Here you will be greeted by an authentic environment in which the future writer spent his childhood; this house, from the time when the Dostoevsky family lived here, has never been rebuilt. Here, you will learn much about the biography of Dostoevsky, his family and friends, and possibly find the key to understanding of his books by sensing this complex yet very heartwarming spiritual atmosphere that surrounded the aspiring writer. You will learn about the role played in the life of Fyodor Mikhailovich who lost his parents at an early age by the Kumanin couple, i.e., sister

of his mother, Alexandra Fyodorovna, and her husband, Alexander Alexeevich. Their merchant world will appear many times before the readers of Dostoevsky’s books. But his main characters Dostoyevsky would find outside the house. They included inhabitants of Mariyna Roshcha where folk festivals took place, as well as regulars of Sukharevka, the market which Mikhail and Fyodor passed on their way to boarding school. The market was located opposite 5 the Strannopriimny Dom («Xenial House») built by order of the Count N.P.Sheremetev (Bolshaya Sukharevskaya Sq., 3), and was known for its bad reputation. However, bright and enchanted

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memories were also part of the writer’s childhood. For example, visits to 6 the Kremlin, which, at that time, hosted two monasteries, buildings of which were real architectural masterpieces; or a trip to the Trinity-Sergius Lavra, the largest Russian Orthodox monastery.

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Among favorite places of F.M. Dostoevsky in Moscow, one must be mentioned separately: 7 the monument commemorating his favorite poet, A.S. Pushkin, created by sculptor A.M. Opekushin, and located on Pushkin Square. Moscow has another 8 monument of F.M. Dostoyevsky as well, created by sculptor A.I. Rukavishnikov. This monument is located in front of the Russian State Library (Metro station «Biblioteka imeni Lenina», Vozdvizhenka Str., 3/5).

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Route 4

The whole world knows A.P. Chekhov, the great Russian playwright who created immortal plays which continue to inspire theater directors of various countries. In Russia, however, Chekhov is mostly praised as the narrator. The writer has created a unique gallery of images. He achieved such literary mastery that, after reading just a couple of lines about his protagonists, we already see them in great detail. A.P. Chekhov, among other things, was a great connoisseur of Russian nature. Descriptions of nature in the works of Chekhov are very similar in spirit to pictures of Levitan. Landscapes created by Chekhov and Levitan convey not only the beauty of the world, they are full of love for their country; just like the wildlife, they awake thoughts and create the mood. Some landscapes of Levitan seem to have so much in common with descriptions of nature left by Chekhov. For learning more about the works of I.I. Levitan, the outstanding landscape painter and a close friend of A.P. Chekhov, please visit the the State Tretyakov Gallery (Metro stations «Tretyakovskaya», «Novokuznetskaya», Lavrushinsky lane, 10). Chekhov always loved Moscow which became a real source of inspiration for him. «I remain a Muscovite forever» – these words clearly show his attitude toward the city. Very indicative in this respect is also his friendship with the journalist and writer V.A.Gilyarovsky who became famous for his book «Moscow and Muscovites» depict-

Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (1860–1904) 3 2

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ing scenes from the life and work of Muscovites in great detail and clarity, a man for whom an in-depth study of the capital, identifying underlying causes of morals and traditions prevailing in the city, has become his life’s work.

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Several Chekhov addresses and houses where he had been to a party are known, but the most interesting among them is 1 the A.P. Chekhov memorial house (Metro stations «Barrikadnaya», «Mayakovskaya», Sadovaya-Kudrinskaya Str., 6). This house was once mentioned by the writer: «I now live in Kudrino, across the 4th Gymnasium, in the Korneev house looking just like a dresser. The color of the house is liberal, i.e., red «. He spent almost four years here (from August of 1886 until leaving for Sakhalin in April of 1890). The museum recreates memorial rooms where visitors can see the interior of the house just like it was in times of A.P. Chekhov. Here you will learn many

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facts about the family of the writer, his acquaintances, his biography, and his works. Returning from his Sakhalin trip, the writer lived in a small two-story wing on Malaya Dmitrovka. Now, 2 the «Chekhov’s house» (Metro station «Mayakovskaya», Malaya Dmitrovka Str. 29, Building 4) is adorned with a memorial plaque. Obviously, without mentioning the dramaturgical talent of Chekhov, our story would not be complete. In his innovative plays, he tried to bring theatrical stage and real life close to each other. Chekhov’s plays are put on stage by many theaters of the world, but his name is, above all, and rightfully so,

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forever linked with the Moscow Art Theater, founded in 1898 by K.S. Stanislavsky and V.I. NemirovichDanchenko. They were the first ones to see and showcase on stage the full potential of dramatic plays written by A.P. Chekhov. Initially, the famous theater was called the Popular Art Theater, and was located in 3 the building of the «Hermitage» theater, in the middle of the «Hermitage» garden

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(Metro stations «Pushkinskaya», «Tverskaya», «Chekhovskaya,» «Trubnaja», Karetny Ryad Str.). In 1902, the theater received its own building behind the walls of which 4 the Moscow Art Theatre named after A.P. Chekhov holds its performances until now (Metro stations «Okhotny Ryad», «Theatralnaya», «Ploshchad Revolyutsii», Kamergersky per., 3). At this time, Chekhov was already seriously ill. In 1904, the writer passed away. A.P. Chekhov is buried at 5 Novodevichy Cemetery (Metro station «Sportivnaya», Luzhnetskiy proezd, 2). Honoring the prominent writer and playwright, one of the central metro stations was named 6 «Chekhovskaya»; its walls are decorated with mosaic panels sending us back in time to the main characters of his works. In this manner the city, once so beloved by the writer, showed its gratitude to him, at the same time reminding us, people always hurrying about their business, how important it really is «to protect a personality inside yourself».

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Route 5

Mikhail Bulgakov is one of those writers whose literary talent has not yet been fully explored and evaluated. In Soviet times, many of his works were banned, although some of them still found their way to the audience. For instance, in 1977, the Taganka Theater director, Yuri Lyubimov, put on stage his «Master and Margarita» play based on the same-name novel written by Bulgakov. Likewise, one of the most popular Soviet comedy movies, «Ivan Vassilyevich is Changing Jobs» (Director Leonid Gaidai), was based on Bulgakov’s play, «Ivan Vassilyevich». While the time frame of the film shifted from Bulgakov’s 30’s to Gaidai’s 70’s, all events and dialogues are taken nearly completely from the play. The most famous novel of M.A. Bulgakov, the «Master and Margarita», also had a thorny way to its readers; it was not released during his lifetime. The book was first published in 1966, and even then, only as a much abbreviated journal version. This extremely mysterious novel still evokes hot debates among literary critics as well as among common readers. Who was the prototype of the Master, and whether such a person was ever in existence? What where similes used by the writer? What is the relation between the protagonists of the novel and people existing in reality? Answers to these questions researchers often try to find in the biography of the author, linking the events of his life with plots of his books.

Mikhail Afanasyevich Bulgakov (1891–1940)

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For example, «The White Guard» novel takes place in Kiev, where M.A. Bulgakov was born and raised. This is the city loved and praised by the writer.

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Moscow literary 1

Moscow, however, appears in the works of Bulgakov quite differently. We see it from different points of view, through the eyes of characters in his works. And the phrase which by now becomes very popular, «the housing problem spoiled Muscovites», belongs to one of the most interesting characters created by Bulgakov. It would be fair to mention that Mikhail Afanassyevich himself faced this very problem many times. He had to change his addresses more than once before receiving a safe haven, namely, the room of his sister’s husband in an apartment, which, according to many experts, has become the prototype of the «bad apartment» in the novel «The Master and Margarita.» Currently, 1 the Museum of M.A. Bulgakov is opened here (Metro station «Mayakovskaya», Sadovaya str, 10, Apt. 50). You can walk into a room where the writer once lived, glance through the same window where he used to look, lost in thought, and see the opposite

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side of the same house, the «mousegray five-story mass», fittingly described by Bulgakov. By the way, this house has a quite unusual destiny, owing to which, a separate part of the exhibition is dedicated to it and its tenants. Museum of M.A. Bulgakov is located at the second entrance counting from the arch (by the numbering, it is an

entrance № 6), and nearby lies yet another place associated with the name of the famous writer. First entrance from the arch shall greet you with an elegant sign and a bas-relief depicting the writer. Here, on the first floor, lies 2 the «Bul-

gakov House» museum as well as the Theater named after M.A. Bulgakov offering you unusual programs, plays and recitals. You can participate in various excursions, following Bulgakov heroes through the city. Close by is a place with a descrip-

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5

tion that opens «The Master and Margarita». Anyone who has read the opening lines of this book, tried to imagine the square pond, white benches surrounding it and writers conversing on those benches. To get to 3 the Patriarshiye Prudy (Patriarch’s Ponds), take a little walk down the Bolshaya Sadovaya street to its intersection with the Malaya Bronnaya. The area has attracted many friends of the writer, and he used to visit them, even immortalizing some of those houses in his stories. However, most of all, the visitors to the capital are interested to know where are the house of Margarita and the cellar of Master. Researchers provide different versions. So, there seem to be several prototypes for the house of Margarita, for example, 4 the A.I. Kekusheva estate (Metro stations «Park Kultury», «Kropotkin-

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Guidebook

skaya», Ostozhenka street, 21), built by her husband, a famous architect who worked in the Art Nouveau style, L.N. Kekushev. Yet another possible prototype is 5 Savva Morozov’s estate (Metro station «Mayakovskaya», Spiridonovka st, 17), whose author is the famous Moscow architect F.O.Shehtel. As for Master’s humbly abode, most experts on Bulgakov agree that this is 6 a house of S.V. Melnikov – P.F. Emelyanova – Topleninov family (Metro stations «Park Kultury», «Kropotkinskaya», Mansurovsky per., 9). M.A. Bulgakov used to visit this house.

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Sites associated with the name of the writer in the capital abound: after all, he has lived here nearly half of his life. Mikhail Bulgakov is buried in Moscow as well, at 7 the Novodevichy Cemetery (Metro station «Sportivnaya», Luzhnetsky pr., 2).

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Moscow literary

Guidebook

Route 6

Without exaggeration, Sergey Yesenin may be viewed as one of the poets most connected with Moscow. Despite the fact that alarge part of his poetry has been dedicated to Russian nature, - after all, the poet was born in the village of Konstantinovo, district of Ryazan, - poems about Moscow take a special niche in hisliterary heritage. Here, he studied, visited with his supporters, took part in politicallife, and, of course, wrote poetry known in our country to just about everyone since early childhood.

Sergey Alexandrovich Yesenin(1895—1925)

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The memory of Sergei Yesenin is preserved in 1 the house where he used to live, nowadays hosting the museum dedicated to him (Big Strochenovskiy side street 24, building 2). A small room stores vast amounts of information about the poet, showing stages of his poetic development. Visitors are usually impressed by the busy schedule of this place offering poetry readings, performances and competitions. A new branch of 2 the museum (Chernyshevsky side street 4, building 2) is soon to be officially opened, but you can already visit it on some of the most interesting walking tours. During these walks, you willlearn a lot about the time in which Yesenin lived, about important people in his life, as well as about those who, though not acquainted with him, were part of his time; and, of course, about the legendary areas of old Moscow. Despite the enormous, all-Russian

popularity of S.A.Yesenin’s poetry, his creativelegacy remains an unsolved mystery. His poems,laden to the brim with symbolic, rich, vivid images,let the reader discover something new every time. This is why children and adults alikelove and understand them in their own way. Two museums dedicated to the memory of the poet help everyone in creating a personal image of Sergey Yesenin, assisting people in finding the key to his amazing work.

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4

Route 7

Foreign writers in Moscow 17 9

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5 18

3

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14 7

20

16 19

12

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11 15

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It would be unfair to tell only about Russian writers and the role of Moscow in their work, because over the years our capital was visited by many famous writers and travelers from other countries. Some of them have left memoirs that help us today to recreate an objective picture of Moscow’s everyday life. Let us take a walk through their favorite places and view Moscow as it was appearing to them. Stendhal, MarieHenri Beyle (1783–1842) This famous French writer came to Moscow in 1812, being a part of Napoleon’s Grand Army. His letters and memoirs are overflowing with complex and dramatic feelings that a person of a delicate psyche would experience when being thrown in a

war. From those houses he describes, the only remaining two are 1 the building of the English Club and the house owned by F. V. Rostopchin. Both were already mentioned in this guide on page? Alexandre Dumas, père (1802–1870) This great French writer is very well known and adored in Russia. And it is noteworthy that this classic French literature creator had an unsatiable interest in our country. In 1840, he wrote a novel titled «The Fencing Master» (Le Maître d’armes). The main characters of this novel, in which all scenes are set in Russia, had as their prototypes Count I. A. Annenkov, one of the Decembrists, and Pauline Gueble, his wife of French descent. The

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Guidebook

Moscow literary

writer succeeded in meeting the Count and his wife only after almost 20 years, when he was spending two years in Russia, in 1858-1859. He traveled to many Russian cities during this time, and Moscow was for Mr. Alexandre Dumas, père, high on his list of priorities. Unfortunately, almost none of the buildings where he would stay or visit survived over time. For example, the summer home of D. P. Naryshkin was torn down a long time ago; it used to stand in the vicinity of 2 the Petrovsky en route imperial palace, or, as it is often called, following Pushkin’s example, «Petrovsky Palace» (Metro station «Dinamo», Leningradsky Prospekt, 40). However, you may still tour the palace and take a walk through the adjacent Petrovsky park. 3 The house where the Naryshkins lived in the city and where Mr. Dumas also paid his visits survived until our time, however, in a bit modified version (Metro stations «Arbatskaya», «Smolenskaya» and «Barrikadnaya», Povarskaya str. 48). Théophile Gautier (1811–1872) Théophile Gautier, a noted French poet, left his most interesting memoirs of Moscow which he came to visit in the late 1850s. Filled with astute and shrewd remarks, they still retain a great artistic and historic value. Judging by his notes, the poet arrived to Moscow on a train from Saint Petersburg. This means that he passed through

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4 the Nikolaevsky railway station (the Leningradsky railway station today), which back then was located at the Kalanchevskaya square, which is now called Komsomolskaya square (Metro station «Komsomolskaya»). It is quite possible that the station building was not new to the eyes of the traveling poet: it is practically a twin of the Moskovsky railway station in Saint Petersburg, from which he departed. This station built after the design of architect K. A. Thon can still be admired today. From the railway station, Théophile Gautier went to the hotel called 5 «Chevrier», or «Chevalier», as it was also known at the time (Metro stations «Okhotnyi Ryad», «Teatralnaya», and «Ploshchad Revolyutsii», Kamergersky side street, 4). Today, it is a inconspicuous empty building, but in the 19th century, it was one of the most popular hotels in Moscow. At the beginning of his tour through Moscow, the poet went to the Red Square, where he was very impressed by the sight of 6 the Cathedral of the Protection of Most Holy Theotokos on the Moat, which is more commonly known as St. Basil’s Cathedral (Metro stations «Okhotnyi Ryad», «Teatralnaya», and «Ploshchad Revolyutsii», Red Square, 2). Later on, he proceeded to the Moscow Kremlin. Gautier’s memoirs include details of his visit to a great ball held at the building of Nobility Assembly, presently 7 House of the Unions (Metro station «Okhotnyi Ryad», Bolshaya Dmitrovka str. 1). Also, the poet went to a performance at 8 the Bolshoi Theater

(Metro station «Okhotnyi Ryad», Petrovka str. 1). One more location in Moscow is connected to Théophile Gautier’s name, even though he never visited it. This is 9 the Silver Age Museum (Metro station «Prospekt Mira», Prospekt Mira, 30), housing the memorial office of V. Y. Bryusov, one of the translators of Théophile Gautier’s poetic works. There are also translations of Gautier’s poems made by N. S. Gumilev. Herbert George Wells (1866–1946) The whole world knows this outstanding writer as the author of fantastic science fiction novels. H. G. Wells visited Moscow three times. For the first time, he came here in 1914, before the October Revolution, and two more times, in 1920 and in 1934, it happened after Moscow had become the capital of the Soviet state. His first visit found its reflection in his novel named «Joanna and Peter». Moscow is depicted there as a city which is quite baffling, and probably not too pleasant for the hero and therefore to the author himself. The writer contrasts

7

Moscow against a more European Saint Petersburg. There is a location in the novel, however, that deserved a special mention: 10 Vorobyevy Gory («Sparrow Hills»). Today, an observation point is arranged there (Metro station «Universitet»). In his book «Russia In The Shadows», written after his second visit to Russia, H. G. Wells mentioned that he was staying at No. 17 on Sofijskaya Embankment in Moscow. All buildings standing there have, however, only even numbers. It is likely that the writer was referring to the lavish manor 11 house originally owned by sugar manufacturer I. P. Kharitonenko (Metro station «Borovitskaya», Sofijskaya Embankment, 14), which was transferred to the People’s Commissariat of Foreign Affairs to be used for leisurely stays of its foreign guests. From here, there is a great view of 12 the Kremlin where H. G. Wells met with Lenin whom he later called «the dreamer in the Kremlin». The Soviet government was very proud about the third visit of the famous science fiction writer to Moscow in 1934. This time, a different country was presenting itself to him: young, renewed, full of energy. For H.G. Wells, the symbol of this country became Moscow’s

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Guidebook

Moscow literary 19

13 Central Park for Cultural Recreation and Entertainment, or Gorky Park (Metro stations «Park Kultury» and «Oktyabrskaya»). Nowadays, this place would be approved by the great writer as well: it offers a well laid-out and properly arranged territory featuring free wi-fi, rental facilities for boats and sports equipment, and careful attention to people with disabilities.

John Silas Reed (1887–1920) Every Soviet high school student used to know the name of this American journalist who wrote the book «Ten Days That Shook The World». When he came to Russia in 1917, John Reed witnessed revolutionary events and became an active supporter of the new authorities. During his first visit to Moscow, John Reed was staying at 14 the Hotel «National» (Metro station «Okhotnyi Ryad», Mokhovaya str. 15/1); he came to Bolshevik meetings that were held in the building of the Nobility Assembly

42

nearby. He also frequented the Kremlin where, among other things, he would see Lenin. Somewhat later, John Reed would come to live in Moscow, at 15 a 19th century city manor in Moscow (Metro station «Kropotkinskaya», Gagarinski side str., 11). Romain Rolland (1866 –1944) This famous French writer, the laureate of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1915, kept close ties with his Russian writer friends. He was also keenly interested in the social transformation that our country underwent at the time. He came to visit the Soviet Union in 1935. It is well known that the great writer went to all the usual destinations for every guest of our capital: the Kremlin, the Red Square, the Bolshoi and 16 the Maly theaters, etc. The writer met with representatives of the Soviet literary community in 17 the building of the All-Union Society

for Cultural Relations Abroad (Metro stations «Barrikadnaya», «Krasnopresnenskaya», «Ulitsa 1905 Goda», Bolshaya Gruzinskaya str., 17). At the time, this organization had its residence in a 19th century mansion. Presently, it is only known because the memorial house of the sculptor Z. K. Tsereteli is located in a building next to it, with some of his statues and monuments standing nearby. A special mention deserves a building where famous Russian writer Maxim Gorky lived. A friend of Romain Rolland, he invited the French writer to come and visit him there. Today, this building 18 houses the Memorial Maxim Gorky Museum (Metro station «Arbatskaya», Malaya Nikitskaya Str., 6). Built in 1900-1902 by a renowned architect F. O. Schechtel for the millionaire entrepreneur S. P. Ryabushinsky, this mansion is an outstanding example of Russian Art Nouveau architecture. Many famous writers came to Moscow at different times. They usually stayed at 19 large central hotels, such as the «Metropol» which cannot be overlooked in this respect (Metro stations «Okhotnyi Ryad», «Teatralnaya», and «Ploshchad Revolyutsii», Teatralnyi proyezd, 1/4). For example, George Bernard Shaw, Bertolt Brecht and John Steinbeck were staying there. This hotel building erected during 1899-1905 in the new Art Nouveau style has become an important ele-

14

ment of the historical and cultural complex of downtown Moscow. Mosaic panels adorning its façade always draw the visitors’ attention. Among them is the mosaic panel called Printsessa Gryoza (Princess of Dreams) made after a painting by famous Russian artist Mikhail Vrubel. A dying young knight is depicted on it, with a mourning princess bent over him. Such well-known writers as Anatole France and H.G. Wells were staying in 14 the Hotel «National», yet another adornment of Moscow’s center (Metro stations «Okhotnyi Ryad», «Teatralnaya», and «Ploshchad Revolyutsii», Mokhovaya Str., 15/). Unfortunately, the «Grand Hotel» where Rabindranath Tagore, Stefan Zweig and Theodore Dreiser used to stay when visiting Moscow did not survive until our time. Its building was demolished, first partly and later in full, yelding to 20 the «Moskva» Hotel (Metro stations «Okhotnyi Ryad», «Teatralnaya», and «Ploshchad Revolyutsii», Okhotnyi Ryad Str., 2).

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Guidebook

Moscow literary

Disabled access *

Program

Children’s programs

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-

-

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+

+

+

Excursions in foreign languages

Daily from 10:00 to 17:30, a visit by appointment

+

-

www.goslitmuz.ru

Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday from 11:00 to 18:00, Wednesday and Friday from 14:00 to 20:00, days off - Sunday, Monday, cleaning day - the last day of the month.

+

www.goslitmuz.ru/ru /herzen-museum

Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday from 11:00 to 18:00, Wednesday and Friday from 14:00 to 20:00, days off - Sunday, Monday, cleaning day - the last day of the month

+

+7 (495) 691-52-98

www.goslitmuz.ru/ ru/lervontov-museum

Closed for renovation until 2014

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ul. Dostoevskogo , 2

+7 (495) 681-10-85

www.goslitmuz.ru/ru/ dostoyevsky-museum

Wednesday and Friday from 14:00 to 20:00, Thursday, Saturday and Sunday from 11:00 to 18:00, days off - Monday, Tuesday, cleaning day thelast day of the month

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Pushkinskaya Tverskaya

ul. Spiridonovka, 2/6

+7 (495) 690-09-56

www.goslitmuz.ru/ru/ tolstoy-museum

Wednesday and Friday from 13:00 to 19:00, Thursday, Saturday, Sunday from 11:00 to 18:00, weekends Monday, Tuesday, cleaning day -last Friday of the month

+

-

+

-

+

+

Smolenskaya

Denezhniy per., 9/5, ap. 1

+7 (499) 241-88-73

www.goslitmuz.ru/ru/ lunacharsky-museum

Individual visiting by arrangement

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-

-

-

+

+

Metro

Address

Phone

Site

Operation time

House of Tales ‘ZhiliBili’

VDNH

pr. Mira, 119

+7 (499) 760-22-06 +7 (495) 974-61-87

www.domskazok.ru

State Literary Museum, Department of Literature XVII-XIX centuries

Chehovskaya, Trubnaya

ul. Petrovka, 28

+7 (495) 625-12-26

House-Museum of Alexander Herzen

Kropotkinskaya, Smolenskaya

ul. Sivtsev vrazhek, 27

+7 (499) 241-58-59

The house-museum of Mikhail Lermontov

Arbatskaya

ul. Malaya Molchanovka, 2

Dostoyevsky MuseumApartment

Novoslobodskaya, Mendeleevskaya, Dostoevskaya

Memorial Apartment Museum Alexei Tolstoy

Memorial Account Lunacharsky

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Routes city

Excursions by exposure

Museum

(english)

(1-st floor)

* Terms and conditions, type and availability of equipment for different groups vary,     Please specify on the phone.

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Guidebook

Moscow literary

Program

Children’s programs

+

+

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Excursions in foreign languages

Daily from 10:00 to 17:00; days off - Monday, Tuesday

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+

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www.goslitmuz.ru/ru/ chekhov-museum

Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday from 11:00 to 18:00, Wednesday, Friday from 14:00 to 20:00, weekends - Sunday, Monday, cleaning day - the last day of the month

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+

www.goslitmuz.ru/ru/ bryusov-museum

Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday from 11:00 to 18:00, Wednesday, Friday from 14:00 to 20:00, weekends - Sunday, Monday, cleaning day - the last day of the month

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www.goslitmuz.ru/ru/ chukovsky-museum

Daily from 10:00 to 17:00; days off - Monday, Tuesday

+

+7 (495) 695-46-18

www.goslitmuz.ru/ru/ ostroukhov-museum

Daily from 11:00 to 18:00, weekends - Sunday, Monday, cleaning day - the last day of the month

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Krasnaya ploshad’, 1

+7 (495) 692-40-19 +7 (495) 692-68-17 +7 (495) 692-37-31

www.shm.ru

Daily from 10:00 to 18:00 Thursday from 11:00 to 20:00, closed Tuesday. New Exhibition Hall from 11:00 to 19:00, admission until 18:00.

Prospekt Andropova, 39

+7 (495) 232-61-90, +7 (495) 615-27-68

www.mgomz.ru

Every day from 9:00 to 21:00, except Mondays and January 1.

Metro

Address

Phone

Site

Operation time

House-Museum Boris Pasternak

Railroad station «Peredelkino» (from the Kiev railway station)

Moscow region., Odintsovskiy region, Peredelkino, ul. Pavlenko, 3

+7 (495) 934-51-75

www.goslitmuz.ru/ru/ pasternak-museum

Chekhov HouseMuseum

Barrikadnaya, Krasnopresnenskaya

ul. SadovoKudrinskaya, 6

+7 (495) 69161-54, +7 (495) 691-38-37

Museum of the «Silver Age» («House V.Brusov»)

Prospekt Mira

pr. Mira, 30

+7 (495) 680-86-83

House-Museum K.I.Chukovskogo

Railroad station «Peredelkino» (from the Kiev railway station)

Moscow region., Odintsovskiy region, Peredelkino, ul. Serafimovicha, 3

+7 (495) 593-26-70

House I.S.Ostrouhova showrooms

Smolenskaya, Barrikadnaya

Trubnikovskiy per., 17

The State Historical Museum

Ohotniy riyad, Teatralnaya

Alexis palace in Kolomenskoye

Kashirskaya

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Routes city

Excursions by exposure

Museum

Disabled access *

(english)

-

(by appointment)

+ (english, france)

* Terms and conditions, type and availability of equipment for different groups vary,     Please specify on the phone.

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Moscow literary

Company name (rus.)

Company name (eng.)

Telephones

Website

Ассоциация гидов-

Association of guides

+7 (499) 251-88-24 www.agipe.ru

переводчиков,

and tour managers

экскурсоводов и турменеджеров АвтоТур

Auto Tour

+7 (495) 739-49-59 www.trtours.ru

Анкор

Ankor

+7 (495) 959-15-66

Ванд Интернешнл Тур

Vand International Tour

+7 (495) 780-36-63 vand.ru

Вокруг Света

Round the World

+7 (495) 741-49-41 www.vs-travel.ru

Городское

City Tour Office

экскурсионное бюро

MA “Museums of Moscow” +7 (499) 245-62-83 www.edempomoskve.ru

www.ankor.ru

(МО «Музей Москвы») Магазин путешествий

Travel Shop

+7 (495) 627-79-24

magput.ru

Москваход

Moskvakhod

+7 (965) 322-73-30 www.moskvahod.ru

Орфей

Orpheus

+7 (495) 925-51-25

Отечество

Homeland

+7 (495) 518-36-42 www.homeland-tour.ru

Патриарший дом турз

Patriarshy Dom Tours

+7 (495) 795-09-27 www.toursinrussia.com

Просвещение-Т

Prosvechenie-T

+7 (495) 311-00-03

www.orfey.net

www.tourist.

prosvechenie.ru

Русский Ренессанс

www.russren.ru

Russian Renaissance

+7 (495) 699-71-51

+7 (495) 514-75-95

Русский сезон

Russian Season

+7 (495) 720-94-68 ru-season.ru

Славянка ЭТФ

Slavianka ATF

+7 (495) 626-05-68 slavianka.ru

Страна Туризма

Country of Tourism

+7 (499) 272-47-47

Фэнтези вей

Fantasy Way

+7 (495) 961-27-58 fantasyway.ru

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www.stranatur.ru


Moscow and Literature