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1 : 2018






Magazine for sharing smart solutions among Central European cities : Central Europe cities proďŹ les with their smart projects : smart solutions for city governance : city sources and city life

Priceless Prague. Choose unique over the everyday. „Here I love to escape from the rush on the Charles bridge. No one anywhere, running barefoot on the banks like these swans.“ TOLD BY EVA HERZIGOVÁ & PORTRAYED BY JAN SAUDEK .


smart : one

CITY:ONE magazine 2 issues per year (April/October) 10 000 printedissues in CZ/SK version 6 000 printedissues in ENG Distributed in Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Hungary, Austria, Slovenia and Croatia, in electronicform in all EU/globally Publisher CityOne s.r.o. Královo Pole 34E Brno, 612 00 Czech Republic Chief editor and smart sources editor David Bárta barta@cityone.cz Smart Governance editor Pavel Nácovský pavel.nacovsky@panatec.cz Smart living editor Tereza Škoulová skoulova@cityone.cz Electromobility editor Jan Vejbor jan.vejbor@evcgroup.cz Water editor Petr Dolejš dolejs@waterincity.cz Deputy Editor in chief Slovakia Vladimír Jurík v.jurik@studio21.sk Deputy Editor in chief Slovenia and Croatia ZalaVelkavrh zalavelkavrh@gmail.com

Vladimír Jurík : Deputy Editor-in-Chief

Collaboration and sharing Which city is the most „smart“ in our country? When will we reach the quality of intelligent cities‘ life in the Western Europe? These were the most frequent questions in the media after the 4th International Conference „Slovakia on the Road to Smart Cities“, which took place on 1st February 2018 in Bratislava. The answer is not so complicated and we all know it. Cities have different priorities, different historical backgrounds, and specific conditions; there is no universal smart city model. Creating Smart Cities is not a competition, so it makes no sense to look for who was first and who is the „smartest“... Cities are moving ahead with the private sector, science and research institutions, academia, experienced foreign partners... Mutual sharing of effective solutions for other areas in terms of city or regional priorities will eventually lead to Smart Governance - Smart Governance the expression of effective and transparent racking of the city with public resources. This is transparency, real, under public control. Many cities today start with Smart Cities. They try to gain foreign experience. Ministries also come with the support - it is important to be able to overcome the sectoral approach to this topic. Smart cities is a typical initiative coming from the bottom. It is a typical collaboration and sharing. Instead of thinking about how to "get money from" the new topic, it is important for all actors today to take part in creating Smart Communities. People, citizens as well as visitors, today know that smart cities bring higher quality of life. Examples from abroad prove it.



city : keynote

smart : one

European Commission supports smart cities Maroš Šefčovič : European Commissioner


: The participants of the 4th Conference "Slovakia on the Road to Smart Cities" were greeted by a video interview. You mentioned that the topic Smart cities was very important for you. Why is this topic so important ? As part of my tour on the Energy Union, I naturally come into contact with actors at regional and local level. I have seen a strong aptitude for putting a hand on a greenhouse gas reduction workout, which has grown into initiatives such as modernizing cities, healthier air, more energy effi cient buildings, and innovative and cleaner transport solutions. We try to support two things from our level. First of all, to allow mayors to exchange experience, get inspired and motivate each other. And secondly, they have access to funding to enable them to implement innovative solutions. I, together

with former Mayor of New York, M. Bloomberg, chair the so-called Global Covenant of Mayors, which now has over 7,500 cities. We have recently quantified and presented our own commitment to CO2 reduction - exceeding the total annual emissions of Japan or Brazil, and the impact is off set by the withdrawal of some 260 million cars with the combustion engine from our roads. It is therefore the enormous potential and enormous power of the local level. This trend is absolutely natural because cities are becoming more and more attractive to life. It is expected that every eight out of ten Europeans will live there in 2050. : The Smart Cities Club conference, together with the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, had a very good reputation in the media and also the mayors of Slovak cities 



city : keynote reflections were very good. In particular, Mayors appreciated the strong information and support of the Intelligent cities theme by the state administration. How can the EC help cities - on the way to Smart Cities? Very specific. As I mentioned, mayors have a desire to take measures to make cities smarter, more modern, greener and more sustainable. However, they often struggle with a lack of finance or credit limits because their projects may be too risky or too small for the market. This is also why we launched the URBIS service in November to facilitate access to investment through tailor-made advice and the mobilization of the most appropriate funds. The European Commission is working closely with the European Investment Bank and is also involved in technical assistance under the JASPERS instrument. I can say that we are already registering interests. : The conference also discussed the topic of the ESIF - the European Structural and Investment Funds. It was clear from the Slovak Central coordination authority that it was also trying to "save" some of the resources from the current programming period to support the creation of intelligent cities - from existing operational programs or through mid-term reallocations. How do you see the possibility of linking these resources horizontally with other sources to create smart cities? This is the very essence of URBIS that I have been talking about - trying to avoid fragmentation and getting the right means through one "gateway". At national level, this calls for the creation of an investment platform that will allow the so-called blending of public resources (such as Horizon 2020, COSME, URBAN) with those private. Just remind you that urban policy is at the center of cohesion policy under the current 2014-2020 Union budget. Approximately EUR 10 billion from the European Regional Development Fund is geared directly to strategies for sustainable urban development. However, I would like to mention the recent guidance from Eurostat on the accounting rules relating to energy efficiency agreements. It opens the door for more ambitious investments in the energy efficiency of public buildings as it clarifies the conditions under which such investments will not affect the public administration budget. This is certainly good news for mayors because they can more easily mobilize funding for the renovation of schools or hospitals and other public infrastructure. The effect is multifaceted - higher energy savings, lower operating costs, or a positive impact on the health of citizens.

: From the Smart Cities Club, the proposal to focus now on preparing the financing of the new programming period not only from a formal point of view, but focusing on the communal themes - what was not done in preparation for this programming period, but also on the topics of smart cities and regions. What do you think about the involvement of professionals - and finally the cities themselves - in the preparation of the new programming period? I can say it's already happening. The European Commission has launched a public consultation on the priorities of the future financial framework for 2021-2027, during which the Committee of the Regions has prepared its input on cities and regions. The European Commission will present the offi cial draft of this multiannual EU budget at the beginning of May, which will start formal negotiations of the Member States. So another space is created during this period, when I believe - the mayors communicate also at the national level. However, we underline that it would be good to agree on the financial framework for the seven-year period after 2020 until the next European Parliament elections. Otherwise, there is a risk that the old scenario will repeat when the agreement lasted for 29 months. This has subsequently delayed the real drawdown of European funds in the Member States, which is harmful to all. : In the previous question, I mentioned smart regions. In our country, we have seen them as far as a form of political marketing - many candidates in the recent elections to the presidents of the self-governing counties have "played" with it - which has somewhat harmed the subject. In our understanding of the Smart Region, it involves not only regional cities but also cities and municipalities within the region or the urban area. There are themes, transport, environment that will not solve the city itself without involving its surroundings... What experience is there within the EU, what would you recommend to our cities and regions? We strongly support clustering, aggregation. Not only in terms of transferring experience, but also financially, as larger projects can more easily attract, for example, support from the European Investment Bank. I often mention the example of Holland, where the cities of Rotterdam, The Hague and 21 other municipalities joined together, created a common vision of modernization and transformed it into a creditable project. This means that the necessary investments can be made more quickly through the joint. : The Smart Cities Club has emerged as a platform for exchanging views and experience for those who want to gradually create a "Smart Community". The interest

smart : one of cities is becoming stronger. I feel that now is the time when it is necessary to defi ne the role of the state, the role of the regions and the role of cities in this process. How do you think it is possible to get inspiration abroad or directly in the European Commission? As I mentioned, the exchange of experience is something the European Commission is strongly encouraging. I will not only mention the Global Covenant of Mayors, but also the European Convention, which has recently recalled its decade in Brussels. I am delighted that Slovak cities are also part of it. And in this way, I will be sending an invitation to the next event, which will take place on 23rd May in Sweden under Mission Innovation and Clean Energy Ministerial. I personally get used to calling on mayors to continue to be courageous. I believe that now is time to invest in new technologies in terms of renewable energy sources, energy efficiency of buildings or clean mobility infrastructure. :

Interview with European Commissioner Šefčovič was led by Vladimír Jurík

: This is the very essence of URBIS that I have been talking about - trying to avoid fragmentation and getting the right means through one "gateway".



city : leader

We support innovative solutions in Slovak cities Rastislav Chovanec : State Secretary of the Ministry of Economy


: In February 2018 the fourth conference "Slovakia on the Road to Smart Cities" was held. The Ministry of Economy of the Slovak Republic was co-organizer of the conference, similar to last year. What was this year's conference different? Our ministry regarding Smart Cities addresses the position of supporting the business environment. We strive to create conditions that will in particular encourage small and medium-

-sized businesses to come up with applications to help smart cities. On the other hand, we like when cities create a market for small - especially local innovative companies. The conference took the next step to create a Smart Community in Slovakia that will generate requirements on the part of the city and bring solutions by the innovators. We, from the point of view of the state administration, cannot manage this process, we want to support it.

smart : one The last year conference was to motivate cities to decide to become smart; this year, the first cities have already launched their intentions to implement pilot projects in areas such as smart mobility, intelligent waste management, rational handling of energy sources in cities. The added value of this year conference was the attendance of top foreign experts who have made us aware of what has not been accomplished in our country yet - the application of intelligence in practice. : What specific forms of support is your ministry consi-dering? Not only do we consider it. We have prepared a call to support innovative solutions in Slovak cities. We will support entrepreneurs, but the cities and their inhabitants will be the final users of innovative solutions. Cities are motors of the development of regions; urban innovations are an important factor in the modernization and development not only of cities but also of urban areas. Examples from abroad show that employment is growing in intelligent cities and their surroundings and that it is fairly stable. People and businesses stay there; they are not going for a few years under better conditions. They make better conditions together... : Can the Smart Cities theme be more widely supported in the years to come by our government, possibly also by the European Commission? Overall, the theme of smart cities is a strong topic. It is supported by the European Commission, supported by the Member States. It leads to an improvement in the quality of life in cities. It is based on the initiative of cities - I have already mentioned, the state has little to cover it, but it can effectively support it. Urban innovations are economically efficient. In addition to the above-mentioned support from our ministry, we see the Office's efforts as a Deputy Prime Minister who is considering intensifying the use of EU funds for this area and directly for cities. The Central Coordinating Body has set up a task force to examine the possibilities of using the resources of the existing operational programs - in the current programming period. : At the conference they received interesting contributions from foreign partners - representatives of major organizations presented their experience. At the conference, we invited those who have been working on Smart Cities for years. What benefit did this part of the conference have for you, for your ministry? The development of Smart Cities is closely linked to urban innovation and modern technology. Their bearers are private companies, scientific and research institutions, non-profi t organizations.

I have already got to know some of the organizations that have representatives at the conference. Companies such as the State of Green and Gate 21 from Denmark are involved in drafting the concepts that Denmark will only produce electricity from non-fossil sources by 2050. I had the opportunity to get acquainted with this issue last year on a business trip to Copenhagen. In my opinion, all the contributions were a big inspiration, as we are at a stage when we are trying to gain insights into the functioning of Smart Cities from around the world. Partners from Sweden, France, the UK, but also from Hungary and the Czech Republic were well chosen and I hope the conference has laid the foundations for future cooperation with them. It ought to be on the brink of our cities in particular. I believe that a good continuation of this cooperation will be Smart Cities Summer School, which is also organized by the Slovak Smart Cities Club this year with the Scandinavian partners and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. : What would be your recommendation for Slovakia to make progress on Smart Cities even faster? In particular - much depends on the cities themselves. There it all starts - not the calls for funding. Cities should consider their needs, their possibilities and start with smaller projects - always conceptually. Therefore, in our forthcoming call, we emphasize that cities have prepared strategies for areas that are supposed to become "smart" for them. Creating Smart Cities is not just about buying technology. It is imperative that the city has its vision and is able to convince all actors that they are welcome to meet it. Ultimately, it will be people - city dwellers who will say whether Smart City has a benefit for them or it has just been "spoiled money". Creating smart places is a very effective process - it is under public supervision. From the point of view of the state administration, it will be necessary to prepare well for the next programming period, when it is still a chance to efficiently involve European resources and support the creation of intelligent cities. And the sources are not only subsidies but also bank loans. Intelligent sites projects are cost-effective projects, so cities can "afford" to think reasonably, but they have to count carefully first. And finally, it will be necessary to look at other European programs that cities can use directly - they can get involved and get knowhow, they can get interesting partners. This is again a city-side activity. There are cities that are prepared to do so. They can get involved. The need for knowledge of the subject and English means the cities should have competent staff for this agenda. This can prove to be a great challenge for many cities, with which they will have to deal. This is not enough to be just aware, but serious education in this area is necessary.



city : keynote

The conference


smart : one The great interest in this year's conference was due to the experience of Mayors from the previous three years. Significant foreign partners, ministry staff, Smart Cities experts took the important part. The participants of the conference discussed the first experience of Slovak cities with pilot projects, the possibilities of financing from domestic and European sources. In the afternoon, the conference program was literally "loaded" by contributions from foreign partners - Smart Cities specialists. The conference ended late in the evening when the organizers also created space for informal discussions. Significant was the participation of the media and the attention they devoted to the conference.

: Are cities waiting for subsidies only? We could have a common impression that many cities are waiting for subsidies only, that they do not have their own vision of development, that they do not plan investments in the longer term, and especially - that they have almost resigned to using their own investment resources for their development.

Bristol is open - Barney Smith talks about the vision “Create integrated control of the whole city, provision of services by a special centre for Bristol – focused on citizen' needs via open information platform on innovations.”

It should be said that the use of European resources for urban development is legitimate and necessary. The question is how to make use of individual funding programs for the development of cities and if the calls are being prepared in time and at the appropriate qualitative level. At the conference the cities that use not only the external sources of funding - cities that plan and organize their investments in advance and activities they see as their priority - have made their contributions. Their priority is not a current funding call... They also use their own resources; some have said they would rather if EU funds were not even possible. This is an opinion that can trigger a controversy. But this is the purpose of conferences for participants to say their opinions and justify them to present experts who can react immediately. : How can cities effectively use financial resources to create Smart Cities? How do they get funds from the EU, what are the conditions for getting refundable funds? Can they get resources from the current programming period? How is the next programming period being prepared? Opinions of mayors of Slovak towns were different. Some were willing to make more use of the EU funds; others said

Denisa Žiláková, Director General of the Central Coordinating Body at the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, expressed the need to create better conditions for financing smart cities. The aim is to increase the efficiency of the use of Eurofunds for this area in cooperation with relevant experts.



city : keynote

The conference was opened by the State secretary of the Slovak Ministry of Economy Mr. Rastislav Chovanec. The ministry focuses on entrepreneurship, support of innovative projects for cities, especially by medium sized enterprises.

they would prefer if the funding through the EU is over. They pointed to the negative aspects of market distortions, uncertainty in urban investment planning... Concerns were associated with so-called “corrections” where cities often do not know why they are being applied to them. Cities talked in particular about the complexity and lack of clarity of the preparation of calls, the unusually long evaluation time of the projects, the control of public procurement. They criticized the fact that the investment, which is expected to be realized in weeks, is being prepared and approved sometimes more than two years. The participants of the conference evaluated positively the Central Coordination Authority´s efforts to devise the future programming period and to work with experts to identify investment priorities and look for themes and forms that will lead to the efficient use of EU funds resources. Businesses have long lacked a challenge in Slovakia to enable business leaders to engage with intelligent cities. A call that is to encourage their activities and enable them to launch exciting innovation programs for cities. Such a challenge was created last year by the Ministry of Economy of the Slovak Republic, whose role is to support the business environment.

In the next part of the financial block, the debate was marked by the possibility of financing returnable projects, the possibility of using resources from the Norwegian and Swiss financial mechanisms. The participants of Smart Cities summer school, organized by the Slovak Smart Cities club in Sweden and Denmark, have been convinced last year by the benefits of our economic diplomacy for our cities. After the successful ten years of the Summer School of Public Spaces, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs has been a major contributor to the new format. Economic diplomacy also contributed to the organization of conferences focusing on the transfer of foreign know-how in the field of intelligent cities - last year it was a conference in Copenhagen and in cooperation with the French Embassy in October 2017 in Bratislava. In 2018, projects funded through the Norwegian and Swiss financial mechanisms will start again in Slovakia. Frantisek Kašický, Ambassador for the Financial Mechanisms confirmed that it is clear not to miss financing the project activities leading to the creation of intelligent cities by the funds. Frantisek Kašický promised cities consultations to help preparing projects financed by the Norwegian Financial Mechanism in a timely and cost-effective manner.

smart : one

The Slovak Smart Cities club chair, Miloslav Jurík, the main organizer of the conference, explained the focus of the club on practical implementation of programmes in the cities. Cooperation with foreign partners, every-year Summer school on Smart Cities organization - this is one of the true functional ways how cities can immediately prepare, implement and share projects in specific domains.

From the point of view of obtaining new information on specific innovation projects, a part of the conference was devoted to the experience of foreign partners with the creation of Smart cities. The conference participants expressed their interest in continuing the relationships and activities that the conference offered - municipal activities focusing on smart cities have a future. Cities need innovation, new business space is created for private companies - the market segment with smart services is projected to more than double from 2017 to 2025. This trend needs to be more than reflected. Gradually, public administration is being professionalized. The benefits of this are citizens - smart cities aim at improving the quality of life in cities. All contributions from the conference as well as the video of the performances can be found on the Smart Cities website www.smartcitiesklub.sk

The call on smart innovations is ready; the guide on Support of innovative solutions in the Slovak Republic was presented by the general director of the Innovations section of the Ministry of Economy Mr. Miriam Letašiová who was the leader of the preparation team



city : keynote

We live in an era of prototypes from which the West can also learn Milota Sidorova : Urbanist


smart : one : It is becoming more and more common that cities make public tenders for renovating public spaces or housing estates, but mostly they only appeal to architects. It is often said that teams of multidisciplinary experts work best. The assignment should be interdisciplinary, and this already happens in our country (CZ): one of the recent projects we have done was the solution of the Mill Island in Pardubice. The city called for a team of architects, including landscape architects, transport and other engineers, etc. We were doing a survey for the city with Peter Návrat (ON Plan), prepared the assignment, and on the basis of the collected data, we created a publication that the architects received as a mandatory part of the documentation. A lot can be done. It is always good when people with different life experience, different ages, sexes, and different disciplines to sit e.g. in the committee to take into account both inclusion, but also other aspects such as culture. Collaboration should start with project assignment, implementation, and, of course, new policy making. : If you have this experience, can you say that the situation is improving? Does it start to be a common practice? I move in the Central European space and perceive the difference between Western Europe from Austria and Germany to the West and our post-communist space. Here the system does not work well, in general, local governments´ staff is not the best, the best-paying professionals; the environment is not competitive, but when a group of people with enlightened ideas meets, it can create at least space for prototypes. We live at the time of prototypes. And a good prototype can create a further precedent for politics, which is our advantage: we can somehow overtake Germany or Austria with something they have not yet thought. :

Could you give some example?

Recently, we had a workshop on Gender Inclusivity in Public Participation at the Goethe Institute to promote the participation of women and other groups in public participation. This topic is getting more and more interest, but we still do not know how to include other groups in addition to women to make sure we really get involved. In Prague 7, the city quarter, they are thinking of introducing such a rule that within 50 cm of the facade there will be space in which one can place what he/she wants, with the exception of advertisements: a chair, flower pot, etc. This will cause people to acquire space and the city it can look nice without big investments. At the same time, it supports civic engagement: the whole house is likely to begin to manifest in some way, to activate. Eva Kail of Vienna, who started with gender mainstreaming and according to which DIY practices should be properly incorporated into land-use planning, was very much appreciated. Informal or civic activities naturally involve more women, children, the elderly, people who speak a foreign lan-

guage, low-income groups... Our planning system has great gaps in which we can create something that other nations can take over us, because they are not yet defined. : These gaps, do you mean gaps in the law that make it possible to create new things? Our cities are not as regulated as in Berlin: there are several thousand regulatives out there to put anything in the public space. There is a very fast intervention here. Now I am filling out the application for a research program at Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences, I want to devote myself to gender in spatial planning, which has a long tradition there. I propose Prague 7 as a case study for Germany. It is precisely because we are in the period of precedents, we can teach them. The 50-cm policy of Prague is extremely cheap and it works immediately - which is an advantage because the political mandate takes a limited time. Policies must be distinguished: as rules, as a carrier system of the society that does not change with politics; and policies as a moving component that can change it. This is still an unstable part of the policy and needs to be tackled. : Within the Shared Cities: Creative Momentum, you are researching six countries from Central and Eastern Europe, so you have rich experience from post-communist countries. In what other than "leaky laws" do we differ from Western culture? Our context is very interesting from a community perspective. Why are we not set up for social life? Why, for example, do we not share things with others, why is there a dictate of individualism, personal property, why are we so negatively pragmatic? The word "community" was not defined in Communism politics at all, while in the West a so-called community board (community council) composed of representatives of a given area operates as a lower level of self-government. We do not have such community councils at all, we do not practice the so-called "exercising of power"; the community has never functioned as a political means. We had a centralist government, and then a scrum of people without a view of the top interests. Even today, we do not have a community defined in any political system or self-government system, although communities are born everywhere: we are bound by the social situation, the place we live in, the language... We just miss a political instance of the community in the system. Which results in certain behaviors and therefore we are a bit distant to words like "community welfare". : Because of this lack of decision-making, it is harder to push things that people or communities like. It is one of the factors. Centralization of power never leads to a healthy civil society: when someone thinks instead of you it means you do not have to think yourself. 



city : keynote : What are the other obstacles to why we are not as proactive as people in the West? For a society to overcome any negative historical features, there is a need for at least three generations to live in a new, positive system. We must strive to make these things a norm and to bring our children into a new situation and consider it normal. We are only the first generation of democracy and much has happened. We talk about participation and this is also a process and we must ensure that it continues. I would like for another fifty years of democracy and proactive improvement of civil society, which I do not perceive as activist in the sense of anarchism - but it is the longest-standing example of power. As another negative tendency, I see that power in three Central European states is in hands of populist, very negative figures of great leaders. : I would like to get back to your mentioned "personalized public space": is there a city where it works, where examples of this space have been put into practice? Vienna is a very good example. They are aware of what user groups are and their pilot projects have verified the needs of girls, homeless people and other disadvantaged groups (e.g. Mariahilfer Strasse), and they immediately put the pilot into politics or regulations to get it into real practice. :

What does it look like in our Central European region?

Here the inclusion has yet to become a theme. Unless we call it a problem or a methodical approach, we do not find examples. People register maximum barrier-free access, but this reality does not work yet. There must be awareness that there are different people with different needs, and we need to understand their use of space. If we do not understand this through gender, which is still negatively perceived in our country, we have to understand it through the needs of different groups. Participation can be the key. Start methodically, col-

lecting and incorporating information into architectural projects and creating regulations. This is a possible and necessary process. In the era of precedents it is easy to insert them into the system. :

So research is important.

It is important, but we also need practical demonstrations. In cooperation with the Heinrich Böll Foundation, which has program priorities for democracy and gender equality, we have focused on spatial planning. Gradually, a group of experts and people from the self-government are emerging around us, who are starting to respond to the gender. When they come and understand the problem, they can do something practical. I myself am actively learning these things, and I would like to continue to consult them in order to get gender mainstreaming further into wider awareness. ... so that you regularly hold training seminars. How can this information best be delivered? In March, I made a seminar for people from Brno, urban sections on gender and spatial planning. I chose two topics that people are able to understand: I want to dismantle mobility, because women are moving more in urban and pedestrian areas, but it is not visible from traffic statistics. The data are not gender-segregated, and the methodology is not set to map short human movements. Feminist urban planners, such as Inés Sánchez de Madariaga, have created the concept of Mobility of Care: it talks about the fact that a woman often goes through small networks and short periods of time. Ten, fifteen minutes on the route home-shop, home-post office, which is not a major transport route by car or public transport. It is necessary to extend the methodology of transport behavior mapping to such short movements that illustrate the quality of housing: if the city is not multifunctional for short distances, it is a problem because you need a car. Mobility of Care would like to incorporate both perception and practice.

smart : one And then talked about the role of informal activities, non-profit, activities in the public space, because there is a large input by people. Many adjustments and activities are organized by women who have no formal power. I will argue not only in terms of democracy - give people space - but city quarters´ administrations have very small budgets for successful projects, so inclusion of existing activities is saving resources, besides strengthening the power of people. These are two topics that people at city authorities can easily imagine. : You travel a lot and you notice things in the public space. In this context, I am thinking about Jane Jacobs. I want to ask who was your muse, a person who has influenced you a lot? I read Jane Jacobs when I was 19 years old when I joined the landscape architecture. At that time I chose different subjects in different schools, landscape architecture was not enough; I was interested in urbanism, social sciences, etc. Even Jane Jacobs is not a "pure" urbanist but very accurately and reasonably described what is happening in the city – that is what we need. We should name things in the context. Talk about how sociology, demography and law move into spatial planning. Jane Jacobs was a great model for me, the clarity of her expression, and then by holding people in public space. I'm already starting to be titled "human oriented urbanist" - a human-oriented urban planner. Her way of thinking, after reading a single book, one understands and finds it is very close and clear. : Are you planning something in the spirit of "human-oriented urbanism"? The closest project will be a publication in cooperation with the Heinrich Böll Foundation. It will be called Restless Cities: Lessons from Central Europe and it is based on exploring the political aspects of urban planning and spatial planning. In four cities, we were looking for positive and negative case studies that we analyzed in terms of political accountability, regulation, etc. In Prague this was a positive role for IPR and participation, in Brno we were devoting ourselves to social housing and exploring the Rapid Rehousing pilot project, in Bratislava we used the entire territorial

development of the city as a key study. There we have come to the conclusion that there is no other solution than political change because the city is the weakest partner, developers and civil society are stronger. And in Budapest, we see the negative tendency of centralizing power, moving from local districts to decision-making slowly to the national level, which is dominated by the prime minister. The publication has been released in late March 2018 in English and freely downloadable, and it is instructive to me mainly by pointing out what is happening in Central Europe and how to link expertise with politics. : Which is extremely important for anything to do. So it is important to talk about politics. Exactly. And to see what is politics and what is a politician and that it is not the same thing. And that experts can learn a certain way of argumentation so that they can submit their proposals, and also practical things to push for change. The ideal thing, of course, is for both types of arguments to work: "effective", that is, capitalist or neo-liberal, as well as “moral”, because economic arguments only do not lead us to the common good and then we could think that the common benefit can be governed as a business. And that's dangerous. In addition, our pragmatic society does not hear about those "value" arguments; we are not yet taught to talk about values. But we will have to do this because if we go further in this direction, a clan of wealthy people will be created to break down resources, leading to a social crisis. It is therefore important to talk about the values and it is better to talk about them now, in order to avoid potential conflicts. I see this as a future and as a possible way of influencing the life of the city.



city : bristol

Bristol About Barney Smith : Barney Smith is a Smart Society Leader with particular experience in sustainable development, innovation and technology. His passion for technology goes back to the early 1980s, when at the age of 12 he sold his first computer programme. Barney has worked in a number of senior roles in the public sector. Most recently, he founded Perform Green, a Smart Society consultancy where he has held roles including: • •

Programme Director at Bristol City Council to implement an ambitious integrated, multi-partner Smart City Operations Centre. Interim CEO of Bristol Is Open – a Joint Venture Company between Bristol City Council and University of Bristol to deliver a world-leading Smart City research and development testbed.

Barney Smith : Smart Society Leader


430 000


smart : one

The Smartest city in the UK The work Barney has been involved in has led to Bristol being announced as the Smartest City in the UK by Huawei Smart Cities Index 2017 and to Bristol winning the Smart City Award at Mobile World Congress, Barcelona, 2018. In his spare time, Barney sails, explores the countryside and volunteers in the community – he is Chair of a local Outstanding Special Educational Needs school. Barney studied at Cambridge University (MA) and Imperial College (MSc), and is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts (FRSA).

and aims to become carbon neutral by 2050. As part of this, Bristol has ambitious plans to continue leading the way as a Smart City. The city aims to build knowledge and develop businesses to deliver Smart City solutions that benefit its citizens, as well as export and create jobs. This is guided by a Smart City Framework and aimed to address a number of city challenges, including congestion, air quality and, in particular, inequality and an aging population.

Barney said “Because Bristol is further along its journey, it should be used as an example of what’s possible and where authorities can go. Other councils should be looking to ‘borrow’ this investment and align what Bristol is doing in their areas.”

: An introduction to Bristol Bristol is one of the largest cities in the UK, with a population of 430,000 people from highly diverse cultural roots. It has a long history of engineering excellence, from Isembard Kingdom Brunel to the co-development hub of Concorde and, more recently, silicon design. It also has strong media and creativity heritage, with 40% of world wildlife filmmaking linked to studios in Bristol, most famously the Blue Planet series. The city is also home to artist, Banksy, and Aardman productions, creators of Stone Age and the Wallace and Gromit series.

: Bristol Smart City projects There are many projects being led by multiple stakeholders that together play an important role in Bristol being a leading Smart City. The City Council is a major player in many projects, but it is by no means alone.

Along with the neighbouring city of Bath, Bristol is an important tech hub, employing nearly 37,000 people with an annual digital turnover of £8.1 billion. In 2017, research identified Bristol as the UK’s #1 Smart City, overtaking London (Huawei Smart City Index) and to Bristol winning the Smart City Award at Mobile World Congress, Barcelona, 2018

Two initiatives led by Barney are: •

Bristol Is Open – a Joint Venture Company between Bristol City Council and University of Bristol to build and operate a research and development testbed for Smart City and future communication system technologies.

: Long-term goals for Bristol

Smart City Operations Centre - built and operated by the City Council, this multi agency centre delivers joined-up operations underpinned by an Open Data platform and advanced analytics capabilities.

Following its status of European Green Capital in 2015, Bristol continues to pursue green and environmental initiatives



city : bristol

Smart City project detail : Bristol is Open

: Smart City Operations Centre

Bristol is Open has a dedicated communications infrastructure, including:

The Operations Centre brings together 19 functions from across the City Council into a single, resilient, 24/7 operation that covers:

• • •

• • • •

a 144-core fibre network around the city centre, four ‘nodes’ at Engine Shed (a tech incubator), Watershed (a creative industries incubator), We The Curious (a science museum with data visualisation capabilities in the retro-fitted planetarium) and at the University of Bristol, which hosts Bristol is Open’s High Performance Computer dedicated WiFi and 4G a low-power radio mesh across the city for Internet of Things sensors a ‘Software Defined Network’ that provides capabilities for network virtualisation. Experiments undertaken include: Mobile Edge Computing – allowing ultra low latency for video streaming low cost air quality sensor deployment mm Wave experimentation (allowing Gbit wireless speeds) Smart Waste proof of concept.

• • • • • • •

traffic management and control public space and traffic enforcement CCTV alarm monitoring telecare services for 13,000 people lone worker support council ‘out of hours’ services civil contingencies management.

There is also collaboration with the Police for surveillance and the main bus operator has relocated its control operations into the Operations Centre. The various ‘verticals’ have been integrated through a single team, a Business Process Engine and advanced analytics capabilities, and increasing integrated processes. As well as making the city work better for its citizens, the Operations Centre is also more efficient for the Council. Through its commercialisation activities, it will ultimately provide an overall profit.

When asked what’s next for Bristol, Barney Smith said: „Now that the Operations Centre is up and running – and the council is realising significant financial and operational benefits – we have a platform onto which we can build additional services and, I think, transform the way public services in some of the most difficult and crucial areas councils are dealing with. In fact, we’ve helped the council develop phase 2 of the Operations Centre, which received approval in December 2017.”

smart : one



state : leader

Gate 21 Green Lab for Danish cities Jacob Lundgaard : Director of Development at Gate 21

Jacob Lundgaard : Director of Development at Gate 21 in Copenhagen, Denmark. He is a Nordic leader in bringing together municipalities, industry and academia to co-create new solutions and knowledge at the frontier of the green transition of society. In recent years focusing especially on Smart City possibilities and accelerating city change through Living Labs.

smart : one

Changing cities and clever lighting Gate21 is a partnership between municipalities, companies and knowledge institutions, that works with the common goal of accelerating the green transition. Gate 21’s vision is to make Greater Copenhagen the leading region in the world for growth through green transition. The strategy is based on the use of regional and local public demand to develop, demonstrate and deploy new energy and resource-efficient solutions in areas of climate and energy. The Capital Region, and a number of municipalities in Greater Copenhagen (which also includes all municipalities in the Swedish Scania area) have adopted ambitious targets for the transition to a fossil-free society. This ambition, along with an already strong green brand - and our ability to collaborate across government agencies, enterprises and knowledge and research institutions about new solutions are the foundations for Greater Copenhagen becoming the leading region in the world for green transition and growth. Green transition is high on the international agenda. There is global demand for solutions. Harnessing the ambitious political goals in the region, we can strengthen Danish companies’ head start and attract more foreign investment in green solutions. Gate 21 is dedicated to bringing partners together in collaborations across both public, private and educational institutions. In its first nine years, Gate 21 has generated strong results and presented new concrete paths for achieving growth through green transition. We can therefore offer a proven and stable platform for public-private innovation and cooperation, and thus do our part to tackle the ambitious objectives for Greater Copenhagen. In the coming years Gate 21, along with its growing partner base and central business development agencies, will work determinedly to realize our vision. Gate 21 will contribute to knowledge sharing, co-creation and the

establishment of Living Labs, where municipalities and regions make themselves available as testbeds and showrooms for the development and demonstration of companies’ new green solutions.

: DOLL Living Lab One of the Living Labs established by Gate 21 is DOLL Living Lab. Addressing the needs of the emerging smart and connected cities, DOLL Living Lab is set out to create an innovative playground and transparency in the new complex markets, making DOLL the largest living lab for outdoor lighting and Smart City in Europe. In DOLL Living Lab buyers and manufacturers of intelligent street lighting and Smart City solutions can meet in a neutral setting. Buyers can experience state-of-the-art solutions in a natural environment. This gives decision makers better insight and knowledge to make investments in new lighting and Smart City solutions. The solutions are controlled and data are collected and analysed in DOLL Visitor Centre, placed in the heart of the Living Lab.

• • • • • • •

Pilot site, total area: 12 kilometers of road and bicycle lanes Test and demonstration zones: 49 zones (200-300 meters of street or bicycle lanes per zone) Partner companies: 50 (testing and demonstrating different solutions) Global visits: 100+ cities from 30+ countries Media coverage: 80+ media outlets from around the world Consortium: Technical University of Denmark, City of Albertslund, and Gate 21 Funding: Public-Private Innovation: Governmental financial support together with private partner fees

DOLL has become an international crowd-puller. In total more than 80 different lighting systems are being tested across 13 control systems on 5 different network technologies. The area of testing includes usability, color temperature, motion detecting, glare rating and more. Thanks to the European Ecodesign directive, Danish municipalities are in the process of phasing out the traditional mercury-based streetlights, in favor of LED; a transformation which has the potential of an immediate saving of 50% in power consumption.



state : leader

The transition is not cheap, though. In the city of Copenhagen alone (excluding the surrounding suburbs) investments in LED-based streetlights have exceeded 30 million euros, which makes it all the more important to make decisions that both meets the need and are future-proof. This is where DOLL comes into play, as a place where public decision makers are getting proper prerequisites to invest in the most suitable solutions. And the fact that several different systems are demonstrated side-by-side in the same field, helps to provide greater transparency and clarity about the unique features of each solution. On top of the immediate saving in power consumption, the visitors of DOLL are also provided valuable insight on how to further maximize the power savings. For instance, by adding intelligent lighting control systems (which has the potential of another 25% in power reduction, compared to traditional street lights). On a national scale the transformation to intelligent controlled LED-based street lights has the potential of an annual saving of 140 GWh - equivalent to roughly 100.000 tonnes of CO2 and an annual saving of roughly 30 million Euros. As an added bonus decision makers are also provided inspiration from, and insights on, more than 50 other Smart City solutions demonstrated on-site; like intelligent parking, waste management and the potential for lamp posts acting as carriers for additional smart city solutions. All paving the road for further savings, both financial and CO2-wise, while creating a higher quality of life for the inhabitants.

Gate 21 partners • • • • • •

Regions and municipalities: 40+ Companies: 40+ (Both global and local; for example Cisco and Philips, plus utility companies) Knowledge institutions: 5 Secretariat: 70 employees Initiated 2009 Number of active projects with a 2–3 year duration: 40

smart : one



city : krakov network : eurocities

Sharing Cities keeping smart ideas borderless Bernadett Degrendele : smart cities project coordinator at EUROCITIES


Sharing Cities works on the principle of ‘replication’, meaning that potential solutions are first piloted in ‘lighthouse cities’, demonstrating their viability, costs and advantages. ‘Fellow cities’ then engage in peer learning, visiting the lighthouse cities in order to implement similar solutions.


: Strength in difference


No two cities are the same; in Sharing cities, we have London, Lisbon and Milan as lighthouse cities, and Warsaw, Burgas and Bordeaux as fellow cities – places with big differences in size, funding, location, law and culture. But these differences bring with them distinct advantages for the project.


Not only does having such a range of perspectives allow for a diversity of insights and foster greater innovation, but it also means that if we can find a winning formula for replication among these cities, our model is guaranteed to be scalable

smart : one amongst a wide range of other cities in different contexts throughout Europe. We firmly believe that where there are shared challenges, such as climate change, budgeting, and governance, there can also be shared solutions. The value of diversity is evident not just between the cities, but also within the consortium itself. Sharing Cities brings together over 35 enormously diverse partners, each of whom can lend unique insights to the project. They spring from industry, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), NGOs, as well as academia and research institutions, and, of course, the cities. Through collaborating closely for over fi ve years now, all the partners are benefitting from new ways of thinking that would otherwise have been impossible to reach. This so called ‘quadruple helix’ approach lets each partner bring their unique perspective to in-depth exchanges on what needs to be done and how.

: Knowledge is mobile Other measures being piloted through Sharing Cities include smart street lighting, shared e-mobility, an online ‘urban sharing platform’ which allows cities to deliver better services by improving data management, and improved citizen engagement. Using workshops, site visits and webinars, Sharing Cities makes sure that good ideas stay borderless. This ensures that lessons learned are captured, and can be disseminated rather than dissolving as time goes on. We bring together city experts to analyse successful practices and figure out what the key is to effective replication. The peer learning visits let fellow cities study new developments on the ground, which allows them a thorough understanding of the context and insights for their replication roadmaps that could otherwise easily get lost along the way.

: Practice what you preach : Share a problem? Share the solution! Across Europe, cities are fighting to reduce energy use, at once meeting ambitious climate goals and reducing government spending. Over one-third of Europe’s CO2 output comes just from its buildings, many of which were built using old techniques that leave a lot of heat and electricity wasted. Sharing Cities is talking this issue through ‘building retrofi t’, refurbishing old buildings with better insulation and more efficient power use. In Milan, where more than half of buildings have very low energy class ratings, the retrofi tting of 25,000 m2 of buildings is expected to save between 60-70% on energy consumption, as well as improving the comfort of residents. Through the Sharing Cities project, Bordeaux, where 60% of buildings need retrofi t, was hosted by Milan for workshops and site visits to get a deeper understanding of the challenges to implementing this measure, and how to get past them. Bordeaux is aiming to retrofi t 9,000 dwellings per year for the next 40 years. Projects like these also create jobs in construction and reduce business overheads, with one study by KfW showing that every euro of public funds spent on building retrofits generated five euros in increased tax revenue.

As part of EUROCITIES, I lead Sharing Cities on replication, and so it is essential to me that we practice what we preach. I work as chair of the Smart Cities and Communities communication team, bringing together 12 projects with an enormously diverse scope. Together we represent 36 Lighthouse cities, 40 Follower cities, 47 EUROCITIES members, 25 EU countries and 3 Global countries. With €263.84 million funding from the European Commission’s Horizon 2020 programme, these projects, just like the cities in them, are joining forces to create billions in savings and a cleaner, smarter future. Through an active role in groups such as the EIP SCC Business Models Action Cluster, we are going even further, not just improving business, but moulding business models that reshape the marketplace. In joining together, and engaging in public/private cooperation, cities are becoming a powerful market force. As part of the Sharing Cities consortium, EUROCITIES, a network of 140 major cities in around 35 countries, opens up channels of communication that allow our results to spread far beyond the cities involved directly in the project. Through its dedicated forums, events and communications, EUROCITIES ensures that successful measures and best practices can spread across the continent. For EUROCITIES, smart cities are not the ones with the latest technology. Rather, they are those that can escape siloes, ready to work together internally as wells as across borders and with other levels of government; those that put citizens first and are ready to benefit by embodying the promise of the European project – that sharing means not less, but more for everyone.


Get smarter in Brno, come to urbis C2C

smart : one

25.–26. 4. 2018 Brno, Czech Republic


city :: praha one

Adriana Krnáčová : Mayor of the capital of Prague

9. century

1 280 508


Prague a bold strategy brings new services to the people of Prague Adriana Krnáčová / 57 let : is the first Mayor of the capital of Prague since 2014 who has begun actively promoting the introduction of modern technologies into the life of the city. Before she began serving as Mayor, she was the head of the Czech branch of Transparency International for six years, and had spent a considerable part of her life dealing with transparency in public administration. Under her leadership, the historically first city-wide strategy for the area of Smart Cities was developed. „We do things that nobody had the courage to do before in Prague. Firstly, we have defined the long-term strategy of where the metropolis is heading, including a system of monitoring its implementation, which we call the Smart Prague Index, and we are now implementing individual projects according to this system. I want Prague to be one of the top European innovative cities, such as Barcelona, over time. However, it is a priority for me that innovations bring real benefit to all Prague citizens,“ the Mayor Adriana Krnáčová commented on the approach to Smart Cities.

smart : one

: Smart Prague concept There are new challenges ahead of the Czech capital. How to approach the development of public space in a sustainable way? How to offer inhabitants modern services that they are accustomed to in their private life? How to deal with the growing demands on transport infrastructure? These and other questions are addressed by the Smart Prague 2030 concept, which sets the direction for introducing innovations in the capital. The concept was created in 2017 on the basis of a comparison of the city’s long-term priorities in the strategic plan or other sectoral concepts and world technological trends. It also reflects the recommendations of Morgenstadt City Lab, the project of the prestigious German Fraunhofer research organization. Researchers have set up a  set of recommendations for Prague on strategic management, ICT, energy savings and mobility, aimed at sustainable development of the city in the coming years. Smart Prague focuses on six areas where the introduction of state-of-the-art technologies will have the most significant positive impact on the life of Prague residents: Mobility of the Future, Smart Buildings and Energy, Wasteless City, Attractive Tourism, People and the Urban Environment and Data Area. The very last area is the heart of the whole concept and guarantees the overall interconnectedness of all projects. The city-wide data platform will allow for the first time in the history of the city to evaluate and interpret municipal data as a whole.

: Cooperation as a key to success Also thanks to the lessons learned from problems with IT projects in recent years, Prague wants to have a tight control over innovation development. Hence, it commissioned the municipal enterprise Operátor ICT to coordinate the process of implementing the concept. The implementation of individual projects is decided by city authorities, relying primarily on the recommendations of the Committee of the Prague City Council for Development of the Smart Cities concept in the capital of Prague, composed of council members across political representation and experts. What is absolutely essential for the success of Smart Prague is the involvement of other municipal enterprises and municipal districts. Prague has launched an open platform of municipal enterprises that together consult the planned projects to maximize their interconnection. Institutions such as the Prague Public Transport Company, Technical Communications Administration, Institute of Planning and Development of the Capital City of Prague and many others are involved in this cooperation. Equally important for maintaining high quality

and expertise in modernizing the urban space is co-operation with the academic sector. Counselling is provided by the Czech Technical University in Prague and Charles University. At the heart of all activities, however, are the Prague residents and visitors to the city. The new services are designed to serve them. An important part of the Prague approach is therefore communication with both professional and lay public. The voice of the public must be heard. Operátor ICT organizes workshops with a professional community, plans thematic conferences and open data hackathon... Through the „You have an idea“ campaign, it gathers suggestions about what Prague is missing and what should be changed in the streets. Whether the ideas can actually be put into life is then evaluated by CTU and Charles University experts who have the necessary insight into the technical and socio-economic trends and possible benefits.

: Strategic projects: turning point year 2018 „2018 will be a milestone for us. Last year, we were intensively preparing major strategic projects that are to be launched this year. I am firmly convinced that the implementation of modern technologies is something that fits in today‘s  metropolises, as examples from around the world show us. But it must be done efficiently and economically. Therefore, we also test a number of projects in pilot mode before disseminating them on a larger scale,“ says Michal Fišer, CEO of Operátor ICT.

: Virtual Lítačka card : tickets in an app The new system of using public transport, Virtual Lítačka, will affect not only Prague residents but also the inhabitants of the Central Bohemian region with the arrival of summer this year. At present, this ticket, which replaced Opencard in 2016, is used by 620,000 Prague residents. The main benefit of the new regional transport system will be the expansion of payment channels. Passengers will be able to buy individual tickets and coupons on the web and in a mobile app, where they will also be able to find a transport connection based on the current traffic situation. Bank cards cards and the In-card of the Czech Railways will be other mediums for the fare. Other partner cards will be added in the future. The new system will connect the payment system for the first time in Prague and the Central Bohemia region, with the potential to affect up to 3 million passengers. System upgrading will greatly increase comfort when purchasing the fare.



city : praha

Přinášíme inovace pro lepší život v Praze Datová platforma

Senzorické veřejné osvětlení

Inteligentní řízení města a informací

Dobíjecí stanice pro elektromobily

Chytrý svoz odpadu

Elektromobilita a e-carsharing

: Backbone infrastructure of charging stations Electromobility was a science fiction a few years ago. Today it is becoming a common reality. According to estimates, the number of purchased electric vehicles in the Czech Republic will grow sharply. Prague wants to be ready for this boom of electric cars, so it plans to create a backbone network of 59 charging stations by the end of 2019, of which 50 will be fast chargers. Currently, there are around one hundred public charging stations in the metropolis, which is incomparably less than what is common in European cities like Amsterdam and Vienna. This year, at least 16 charging stations will be put into operation. Prague will prepare the basic infrastructure of the connecting points, and then rent the points to the operators. One of the conditions for operation of the charging stations will be the acceptance of the Lítačka card. The project does not only benefit the owners of electric cars who will be able to charge their cars on P+R parking lots and on busy streets in the centre of Prague, but also other inhabitants of the city thanks to the reduction of pollutants in the air.

: Energy savings in city-owned houses In cooperation with PREměření, Operátor ICT has prepared a digital energy measurement project. Thanks to this technology,

Mobilní aplikace pro jednodušší život

Lítačka a nový regionální dopravní systém

Turistická karta

WiFi zdarma v atraktivních lokalitách

Digitální měření energií

households will have full control of energy consumption. The pilot project will be launched in April 2018 in the listed Vrtbov Palace, owned by the capital of Prague. The building will be equipped with a new digital metering system that will provide a complete continuous reading of all energies, water, heat, gas and electricity. It will be possible to view a current overview of consumed energies in a web application. We assume that users will use this information to change their consumer habits as we can see with similar measures in so-called smart homes. Savings, albeit in percentage points, may be a major contributor to saving energy and financial resources when deployed on a massive scale in numerous apartment buildings owned by the capital of Prague.

: New technologies in the public space: the prototype of a smart neighbourhood in Karlín A  prototype of a  smart neighbourhood will emerge in Karlín Square, where several technologies will be tested. Public lighting will be renovated in this area, as it is in many cases about fifty years old. New public lighting will improve luminous comfort at times when the public space is being used, but will also save electricity when the streets are empty. In addition, the lamps will be equipped with sensors informing about the air condition, climatic conditions and traffic intensity. Passers-by

smart : one will be able to connect to free Wi-Fi and charge their electric car on five special street lamps. There is also one of ten modern benches in this area that, in addition to the Wi-Fi signal, allows users to charge their mobile phone.

: Prague in mobile phone Moving around the city can sometimes be complicated. Everyday life should be made easier for all Prague residents with a new mobile application My Prague. Users can navigate to the nearest points of interest, such as offices, parks, pharmacies, playgrounds... The application will also help with finding a free parking space, and it is possible to pay for certain zones directly from your mobile. Thanks to the application, Prague residents also have an overview of the current cultural events in the metropolis. In the coming months, the app will continue to evolve, with new features such as making an appointment with the authorities online to be added. My Prague application will also be one of the key channels for displaying information over the data platform of the capital of Prague. It will thus enable specific functions to be created by connecting different data sets.

: Data platform: the heart of Smart Prague projects The capital city of Prague, individual municipal districts and municipal enterprises generate a large amount of data and information that are rarely to be found as a  complete output. Finding relevant detailed information about Prague and life in it often takes minutes; some information is not accessible at all. Operátor ICT, in cooperation with the city, municipal districts, municipal enterprises, and academics, is preparing a data platform where all relevant data will be collected and analysed. Good and competent decisions require quality and reliable data. “Our goal is to have all the data together, to enable it to be effectively combined, to create completely new information about the city and to allow the various municipal entities to make effective use of it. Part of the data will be in open data format that will be available to citizens who will be able to use it not only for their needs but also for commercial purposes. That is why, among other things, Operátor ICT adheres to the Open Data Manifesto,” said Vladimír Zadin, Director of Smart Prague section. The public will appreciate in particular the visualized and already structured data that will give them a good insight into what is going on in the metropolis. Experts and commercial entities will be able to work with raw data that they can use to create new applications. The aim is to release as much information as possible to the public; only

data concerning security will remain exclusively for internal use. The data platform will also collect data from all Smart Prague projects, i.e., from sensors located for example on municipal equipment. What data about Prague does actually exist today? What useful apps can be developed using it? These are the basic questions that Operátor ICT, along with other organizations, is now seeking to address. The first data sets that will be available for the platform will include, for example, data on parking, air conditions, cycling routes... The aim is to link and analyse data from a variety of sources, from both municipal enterprises and private entities.



city : ostrava


Daniel Morys, Head of Public transport operator : interviewed by David Bárta

The first thing I did after I started was the formulation of a global vision aimed at bringing people back to public transport. We have changed the logistic view of public transport that was expressed by the indicator of the number of vehicle kilometres to a customer-oriented view, expressed by the number of passengers. While previously the company performance reports were measured by tachometers, we have now switched to the number of passengers, which necessarily led to ideas about efficient forms of data collection and traffic optimization. The transport company did not function as a standard firm, i.e. the processes, measurable criteria, and partial goals leading to the global one were not properly set up. In order to measure success, we had to monitor the development of the number of passengers in a form that is understandable for the entire management and other employees of the company. We began to interpret the data recorded mainly in hard-to-follow excel spreadsheets using business intelligence tools. The absence of some elements of central controlling has led us to review basic processes and define performance KPIs. In total, we have defined nine basic processes (see Figure 1). Subsequently, we used the opportunity of monthly meetings of all department managers to unify data and KPI of individual

smart : one

departments. In the past, there was insufficient data sharing, and some departments even had conflicting goals. The original main KPI "number of vehicle kilometers" was defined in relation public funding compensation, which could paradoxically motivate the company to “do” as many kilometres as possible regardless of the real need. The new main KPI is the "number of passengers", which leads to more efficient use of places in public transport, increased efficiency and load factor, technology utilization, and more extensive publication of information online. We deployed infra-red passenger counting equipment in 71 vehicles (less than 10% of the fleet) and extrapolated the resulting data. Our intention is to extend the detection. Thanks to the "tap and ride" system that allows passengers to pay for a ticket also by a payment card, we have obtained another valuable data input. Rather than waste time developing a data handling software, we bought the available software as a service and had the results "immediately". We evaluate the performance of the public service according to the methodology of the Ministry of Transport of the CR, and after 10 years of decline in passenger numbers we managed to reverse this trend. Last year the number of passenger trips increased by 3 million. And that’s the first success.

: Changing thinking, or we watch the Star Wars too much The first step to success was to open the heads of staff through motivation and know-how and to push for change. In addition to formulating the long-term vision, I would like to appreciate, above all, the fact that we have gained the trust of the political leadership of the city, sufficient financial resources and a certain degree of freedom; no one tells us what to do. What makes smart projects difficult is that you need to integrate them in many areas. You are as successful as you are able to integrate. Not even in the energy sector, which is my original professional domain, it is as complicated as in transport. You have to deal with the Railway Authority, the Telecommunications Authority... The second key thing is to overcome fear. The manager does not play with his money, so he should not be afraid to take a risk. Without courageous people, the company will not change for the better. The goal is to make change appealing to a growing group of people. Overcome initial mistrust, contempt, various labels such as "We watch Star Wars too much" and "We're spending a lot of money on technological solutions that nobody wants."



city : ostrava The know-how about access to information arrived in the transport company; knowledge of English has become a prerequisite. We no longer hire people without these traits for key positions, because they can learn "transport stuff " on the go. Therefore, the technician speaks English; we evaluate how enthusiastic he is and whether he has the right positive approach. But knowledge needs to be multiplied. Planning of traffic and logistics systems has so far been "locked" for 30 years. So we motivate people to travel – to see other cities and their solutions. It is not a painful change, but a gradual one. We do not use force and pressure methods. The view of the passenger as a customer changes the internal processes of the company. We need a different type of people and different calculations, which changes the company as such.

: Transport and communication platform The key vision of "a passenger is a customer" brings space for new technologies. We do different pilots and try what brings the effect or savings. We want to take advantage of people’s dependence on "smart boxes" to better monitor passengers. We want to provide a free Wi-Fi connection that will divert the attention of potential vandals to their phones. Only those who download our application can benefit from such a service. Through this new communication channel we will provide push-up notifications about possible changes or closures on the route; we will provide multimodal navigation. At the same time, we will motivate passengers to take pictures of any problems and shortcomings they discover during the journey. We want to automate this process and send the pictures directly to maintenance staff who will immediately find out what vehicle is in the picture, where the vehicle is located, and after cleaning we want to send to the person concerned a message that the problem is resolved. We will motivate passengers to engage through various competitions, for example by a draw where they can win a new iPhone. Application users will become a new data source for further development of passenger services. And that’s a key thing. In addition to improving our services, we aim to improve internal processes in the company, as the passenger "communicates" with the maintenance workers and we can measure their work and reward them. We measure and therefore we also control!!! Thanks to this, we were able to pilot an advanced management system with what if analyses that allow us to simulate different scenarios. We combine passenger data and data from our vehicles and that allows our company to shift to a different mode of operation – dynamic transport.

Figure 1 - Ostrava Transport Company dashboards with a short specification, the whole Ostrava Transport Company is perceived as 9 sections that are interconnected, but they can be separately managed and developed in a step-by-step manner. This is a new approach to managing a city transport company, where our goal is to get an overview of the transport company based on real data in real time.

Figure 2 - Dashboard for management of Ostrava Transport Company

smart : one

: Dynamic transport What-if scenarios allow us to use advanced planning in vehicle dispatch. We are able to calculate how much such a change is going to cost and try it out using the simulation tool. We need such decisions in seconds, we are making changes in the whole transport diagram, and we use complex statistical-mathematical models that are common in business – for example, modelling supply in manufacturing. There are a lot of companies in the world dealing with these issues. It is a mathematical task and when we try to solve it using Excel, macros or contingent tables, we can never achieve such results as when we apply genetically self-learning elements of artificial intelligence. It is a necessary evolutionary step to turn static transport with timetables into dynamic transport.

: Transport experts are not logistics experts We are moving towards dynamic transport, since we as carriers will be where people are, and timetables will be gradually replaced. We have to train our employees. I was a logistics expert and I was involved in planning, I cooperated with I2technologies (genetic algorithms for inventory flow optimization), and that was how we started to search for a suitable supplier and came across Israeli and US solutions. We understood that it is better to buy a tool, rather than to "develop it on your own" – we are here to operate it, not to develop it. The implementation speed is also a key parameter of choice. At this moment, we are preparing a tender to get a similar tool for advanced vehicle and shift planning and we hope to be able to move this challenging part of transport planning to the next stage of development. During the preliminary market survey, we had the opportunity to get acquainted with several solutions in detail and each one has surprised us in one way or the other. Whether it was processing speed, well-structured working environment or, of course, savings in the need for vehicles. The cost of these solutions is not low, but compared to the potential savings, it is more than convenient. We also like the SaaS (Software as a Service) model where for a monthly payment we are provided not only with the implementation of the system but also its development and updating without the intervention of our employees. In general, this whole model reduces the cost of running a solution: no servers, no installation, no programming. The man behind this progress is our colleague Michal Bočvarov. He looks for similar solutions and presents it to colleagues and management. At the same time, it is his job to train the entire

Figure 3 - Mobile application - Ostrava Transport Company "in pocket", the entire Ostrava Transport Company reporting solution has, besides the classic desktop version, also a mobile version that we internally call the "Ostrava Transport Company in Your Pocket". In this mobile application, the responsible director will fi nd current information for the section of Ostrava Transport Company, which forms the underlying data for performance monitoring through the fulfi lment of goals predetermined by TOP management of the company.

staff in using these solutions. Thanks to this, the management now understands and knows that such innovative solutions are needed. We want to share this experience and we want to inspire others. We are learning to apply the Public Procurement Act flexibly, which is as complex as the technical solution itself, but we know it is about work, about approach to things; the law is not bad, but people are afraid to apply its possibilities. It is about application and decided cases, and at the end of the day you have to managerially stick to one of them, and not to be afraid to risk.

: Working with business sector is the key to success To deal with innovations, not to be locked in a transport environment, to be motivated to learn, to connect the enterprise with business environment, these are the main engines of progress. When we opened the company, businesses have gained valuable data and they provide their know-how reciprocally. We make different alliances and test new technologies. Even the political culture is changing. I am glad the politicians do not interfere in the company operation today. And thanks to the changes we are able to inspire them as we know better now the trends in public transport and that the city should adhere to the trends to increase its competitiveness. We can do the right thing, we are proud of our work and we do it with enthusiasm. Ostrava!!!



city : idrija

Bojan Sever : mayor of Idrija

Idrija Bojan Sever : First won the mayoral seat in 2006 and has been re-elected twice since. He is educated as electrotechnician and has worked in Kolektor corporation, largest company in Idrija, before he took office. Besides that, Mr. Sever’s experience range from running a farm and raising horses to obtaining a black belt in karate. This unique set of skills probably contributed to the fact that he was among the earliest adopters of the smart city concept in Slovenia.


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The smart city will be the sum of mutual agreements between people that want something more.“ : Idrija is the first Slovenian town to set a strategy for development as a smart community. How come you decided for a smart city strategy in the first place? High-quality databases are crucial for good investment planning and further development. The biggest problem of many municipalities is incorrect data analysis and wrong, inaccurate data. If you get a huge amount of information, you need to know how to evaluate it properly. When I first announced to municipality administration that we will make Idrija a smart city, they were all laughing at me. They couldn't even begin to imagine what that means. The municipality then was organised into departments that were not collaborating with each other properly. If a certain department collected data, it either didn't share it with other offices, didn't know how to analyse it or didn’t have the right data to begin with. We are now beginning to build a platform to store all the data, collected by different municipal departments. This database will be the foundation of mutual cooperation. Being a part of a smart city means collaborating. I will share my data with others and they will share theirs with me. Idrija is a part of a larger network of different European smart cities, which includes around 150 towns. The main topic of our debates is based on how to get people to cooperate with each other, how to prepare for participation in the creation of a smart city. : What do the citizens gain if they cooperate in municipal vision of the smart city? It all comes down to very simple questions: are the citizens ready to cooperate and eventually save up to 40% of energy? Are they willing to cooperate in garbage separation and recycling? And furthermore - are they ready to share the collected data with us and trust us that we won't abuse that data? It's up to them. The only problem here is that nowadays everyone seems to be afraid of the Big Brother. We have to build mutual trust and eliminate that fear. Only then, cooperation can result in smart public lightning, smart system of electric and self-driving cars, smart grid, smart batteries, … But if all this is to work, we need to come up with a system where all the stakeholders of a smart city will cooperate with each other.

: Are you planning to base your system on an already existing smart city model? Such a city doesn't exist as of yet. We are single-handedly inventing a system that will connect all the elements of smart development into a smart city. Bigger cities have bigger problems: in many cases, the urban infrastructure is managed by private companies and people simply aren't willing to share data with them. That's why, for example, we have transformed the municipal infrastructure service into a public company. The data created in this area can be useful for managing public utilities, taxing properties, identifying location information etc. At the same time, gathered data needs to be accessible to residents. :

What is the first smart project on your to-do list?

Very soon we will start implementing a new smart grid. This project will connect a smart battery to eleven public buildings, two power plants and around fifty private residences. We will try to establish a two-way flow of electricity: when there's an excess of solar power, the surplus will be stored into the smart battery. When we will need it, we will simply get the power from the battery. The project in Idrija is worth between 8 and 10 million€ and the investment is shared by Japanese New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) and ELES, operator of the electric power transmission network in Slovenia. The implementation of smart grid will be a complex process that doesn't only concern the technology experts and municipality managers: we will need to involve experts from urbanism, architecture, even social science experts like sociologists and psychologists. We cannot just say that a certain thing is smart or that our city is now a smart city. The smart city will be the sum of mutual agreements between people that want something more. : What is the reason you started working on projects that evolve around provision of very basic goods like electricity and water? 



city : idrija Smart grid is the foundation on which all other elements of the smart city will be built. It is more efficient and more affordable for the end user. This system also works with natural gas. It will help us learn if we are ready to cooperate - if such a change in peoples' minds is even possible. Bottom line is that this entire concept is based on a question of mutual trust between municipality and its residents. : One of the biggest challenges of Slovenian cities is a shift from automobility. Is future without an automobile a prospect in Idrija? On a daily base I use my car maybe 10% of the time. Why do I even have it? Just a day after our talk I am traveling to Brussels to sign an official commitment that municipality will lower the CO2 exhausts by 40% before 2030. We have planned around fifteen different projects that will help us realize this goal: the smart grid, use of million and half cubic meters of water in the closed mercury mine, greater reliance on solar power. To make this more realistic, I have to admit that it is still impossible to run the town without natural gas. Biomass is not sufficient because of large demands from the industry. We need to find a way that will enable us to make our environment energetically self-sufficient. So far that seems impossible - there simply isn't enough sun nor wind. Smart batteries, saving up energy and smartly distributing it seem like the most rational strategy so far. : Idrija is a small remote town with industrial history. There are many similar towns in Central and Eastern Europe, but they are dealing with several problems in the post-industrial age. What can they learn from Idrija? Europe is starting to realise that a municipality is more successful in implementing environmental policies if it commits to a bottom-up approach. However, environmental damage on our planet is so big that it cannot be fixed in the next fifty years. That is why we need to draft two plans: one for adapting to current environmental changes and the second for improving our living conditions. :

: Five things you need to know about Idrija, Slovenia 1.

It is home to 6.000 inhabitants.


It is built on a hilly terrain in a remote valley in western Slovenia.


The development of the town has been historically dependent on mercury mine. The mine closure started in 1970 with last ore being smelted in 1990s. Most of the remaining mine facilities have been inscribed on UNESCO World Heritage List in 2012.


Idrija has a solid economic position and one of the lowest unemployment rates in Slovenia, primarily due to two large companies specializing in industrial technologies.


Because of its remote geographic position with little space to expand and a strong dependency on one economic sector, Idrija has to plan ahead and diversify its opportunities if the town is to survive and thrive.

What is your vision of Idrija twenty years from now?

Five hundred years of mining enabled the development of the town. Smart people figured out that the mine is not eternal and they started to develop industry. So when the mine finally closed down, the collective knowledge didn’t scatter and these smart people did not move out of Idrija. The knowledge that was inherited from past generations was applied to the industry. With smart city strategy, we have entered a new era – an era of digitalization. We need to adapt to it, as we adapted to industrialization. So much gathered knowledge can get lost only if people move out of Idrija. We need to keep making Idrija a place where people will want to live, so all this precious knowledge will stay in our town. This way Idrija will only develop further.

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Transparent and clearly organized data is the foundation for informed decision-making :

What does the term „smart city“ mean in Idrija?

Smart city is a very vague term. More than 150 definitions exist so far. For us, smart city means transparent and clearly organized data, which is a foundation for informed decision-making. We decided to set the frame of smart city as wide as possible. : You were in the team that created the smart city strategy in 2013. Looking back, can you evaluate its efficiency? Back then we didn’t really know what is possible and how the field will develop. There was way less information on smart cities in 2013 and most of the concepts were technology-driven. Large corporations promoted their services with a vision of technological utopia and the majority of academic articles were critical of the concept. Our strategy was something very new in Slovenia back then audit took us several years to engage the stakeholders and acquire funding for our plans. At the same time, the world around us changed as well, smart city became an important benchmark and the fact that we already had the strategy and understanding of the concepts behind it helped us to adapt faster. However, I expect the adjective „smart“ to become redundant in the future because many sectors of decision-making will be digitalized and data-driven. “Smart” will become the new normal.

: What effect do smart solutions have on the quality of life in Idrija? Smart solutions should simplify life and improve the living environment. However, they are not a magic bullet that will sort everything out. Even if the elementary services will be more affordable and accessible, we need cultural programmes, interesting offer of leisure activities and pleasant streets for pedestrians. Digitalisation and sensors are not contributing to quality of life in themselves, but they can help raise the quality and sustainability of the legacy services – supply of clean water, waste water management, energy supply, waste collection, urban planning… This is crucial for small towns, where every small malfunction of infrastructure or services can affect large shares of population – or even cut the whole town off the electricity grid. : We are in the European Year of Cultural Heritage. Do you see the recent development of the town as a break with its mining heritage? It is a new way of thinking about what we have been doing already. Digitalization can connect with industrial heritage. A third of all Slovenian industrial heritage is located in Idrija. Digitalization can help us elevate the valuable historic information on another level. With digital tools, our heritage can be studied and presented alongside heritage of other towns and countries – this gives us another chance to tell the global and interconnected story of how mercury shaped the world we know today. Since our big challenge is to create new diverse and high-skilled jobs, heritage and digital tools can be combined. Cultural and educational tourism is an option, but it is neither the only nor the best one. We have to expand our horizon and seek potential in combining it with creative industries and other promising sectors.

Matevž Straus : project consultant to the municipality At 29, Matevž is the key figure in the new generation of decision-makers in Idrija. Already in 2013, he was part of the work group that drafted the Idrija Smart City strategy. He is employed as a project consultant for the municipality since last year.



city : kranj

Kranj Janez Ziherl : chief of Department for environment and urban planning, City municipality


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Janez Ziherl : Janez Ziherl, an engineer in geodesy specialized in spatial informatics, became the chief of Kranj’s Department for the environment and urban planning in 2015. In addition to the harmonious urban development of the city, he points out the revitalization of degraded urban areas, urban neighbourhoods, and the old town centre, as one of the major challenges of the department.


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First Slovenian city with office for urban renewal How to build a contemporary city on the legacy of socialist housing? The city of Kranj realised that Slovenia and other Central and Eastern European countries still lack strategies for sustainable development of large socialist housing estates. Knowing that neglect can only lead to negative social and economic impact, the city decided to act before it is too late. Apart from other smart measures, the City Municipality of Kranj is focusing on „soft” urban renewal of its largest socialist neighbourhood with an emphasis on residents’ participation.

: Zooming into… Planina, Kranj, Slovenia Kranj is the fourth largest city in Slovenia with 37.500 residents. While Kranj is still the economic and cultural centre of northern Slo-venia, the city has lost some of its vitality: many factories closed and many people take the 30-minute highway ride to work in Ljubljana. More than a third of Kranj’s residents (16.000) live in Planina, one of the largest socialist housing estates in the country. The neighbourhood was built in the 70s to accommodate workers from nearby factories. To-day, Planina is facing spatial problems such as lack of parking space, unmaintained green and public space, old playgrounds and obsolete sports courts. Among other factors, growing unemployment contributes to low social cohesion. Measures were needed to prevent further spatial, economic and social decline of the neighbourhood.

: Award-winning practice of resident-oriented renewal Before physical renovation and energy-saving measures, City of Kranj decided to engage in a “soft urban renewal” process, a resident-oriented set of activities that enables physical renovation as well as creates opportunities for new social constellations and greater resi-dent empowerment. The process is led by “office for urban renewal”, a group of experts that acts as an intermediary between municipal admin-istration and residents. The measure was pioneered in Vienna in the 70s and has proven to be successful for recognizing problems and implement-ing solutions on a neighbourhood scale. Like many Slovenian cities, Kranj wants to avoid unsustainable top-down demolishment of housing stock and rather highlight the qualities of socialist urban planning. At the same time, the city is aware that bottom-up initiatives might not emerge in themselves. Aleš Peternel, architect and head of Kranj’s office for urban renewal, describes the approach as „in between“: a lengthy, but efficient process of inclusion of all stakeholders. The municipality of Kranj received a URBACT good practice award in 2017 for its efforts in the field of urban renewal.

: Building the community The office for urban renewal is run by a diverse group of experts (ar-chitects, social workers, communication expert,



city : kranj designer, …) and is „at the service of the inhabitants,“ as explains Selman Čorović, cultural manager and one of the team members. The office unites five departments of the municipal administration, four local communities, non-governmental organizations, public municipal services and institutions as well as residents of Planina to work on the renewal project. The re-sult of a year-long collaboration between municipality, experts and residents is a plan for renewal and revitalisation of the neighbour-hood. The final presentations and workshops with the residents took place this January. Among the projects that will be realised are: a centre for families, common open space with flower gardens, new urban equip-ment, a pathway through the neighbourhood, renovation of two underpass-es, pump track and a recreational sports centre. While residents par-ticipated in the initial development of ideas, they also had the chance to give final comments on the detailed plans. However, the mission of the office reaches beyond individual projects. „Cooperation with the inhabitants sets the foundation for community governance of the neigh-bourhood, care and maintenance of the space in the long term, and the City of Kranj is aware of this,“ adds Mr Čorović.

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A talk

with Janez Ziherl : Kranj has many development goals that it wants to realize. What influ-enced the decision to focus on the renovation of the socialist neigh-bourhood in 2018? „The renovation of Planina neighbourhood is being considered for at least 10 years, when the first serious analysis of the state of the neighbourhood was carried out. All this time, the awareness that the neighbourhood needs to be renovated increased, and the strategy was de-veloped by mapping the needs and biggest problems. The Kranj Develop-ment Strategy, adopted in 2009, already highlighted the need to reno-vate residential neighbourhoods in Kranj, most important of which is Planina. Since then, the municipality invested in smaller projects in the neighbourhood. The new financial perspective of the EU 2014-2020 opened the door to larger investments and emphasized the value of the so-called „soft” resident-oriented part of the project, which is cru-cial for successful regeneration of the neighbourhood. It was very im-portant that we had already prepared several documents, surveys and analyses that sped up the application process for cohesion funds. To-day, in 2018, we are just before the start of investing, and moreover, we will also establish an Office for urban renewal of Planina neigh-bourhood which will be managed by non-governmental organisations. : How is the renewal of a socialist estate connected to the development of Kranj as a smart city? 1. Density is an advantage „Planina is a very densely populated area. This is a very good condi-tion for the development of smart city since smart solutions can be used by a relatively large number of inhabitants. One of the solutions that already works well is regulation of water pressures on individual sections of the main water pipes. With the pressure regulation, we re-duce the pressure in the pipes when the water consumption is lower, which significantly reduces the losses. The savings are also reflected on water pumps that consume less electricity and consequentially break less often.“ 2. Potential for sustainable mobility „The next step, which is directly linked to the renewal of Planina neighbourhood, are the measures for sustainable mobility. The main ad-vantage is the Sustainable mobility centre, a hub for all the advanced solutions introduced by the municipality. These

are bike-share, repair shop, educational activities on sustainable mobility, new bike lanes, pedestrian and bike-friendly traffic regulation, car-sharing, new bus stops, mobility help desk and the list goes on. We are focusing on sus-tainable mobility because lack of parking spaces is one of the biggest problems in the neighbourhood. The needs of the residents will dictate the development of the Mobility centre and the search for even more ad-vanced mobility solutions.“ 3. Resident-generated ideas We expect that initiatives and challenges for smart urban development will primarily come from the citizens who will engage with their envi-ronment through the office for urban renewal. We want as many innova-tive ideas as possible from the citizens and the office because estates like Planina have needs that are quite different from single-family house areas, city centres, shopping centres or mixed-use areas.“



city : kyiv



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Yurii Nazarov : Director of the Department of Information and Communication Technologies Yaroslava Boyko : Coordinator of Kyiv Smart City

Yurii Nazarov : Director of the Department of Information and Communication Technologies of the Kyiv City State Administration and co-coordinator of the Kyiv Smart City initiative. He is responsible for introducing innovative city projects and services in the capital. The main activity is focused on the development of e-government, information security of electronic resources and the transfer of services of city services into electronic format. Yaroslava Boyko : as the coordinator of Kyiv Smart City, develops a strategy of the iniciative, creates a trend of intelligent culture and is responsible for the humanitarian and social aspects of the initiative. Also Yaroslava actively develops the direction of the creative economy.

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: Smart City Kyiv Kyiv Smart City unites city authorities, businesses, activists to develop intelligent city infrastructure; based on the principles of open data, reasonable and transparent management and transformation Kyiv on innovative, digital and progressive city. The city is a living organism that is constantly growing. Every year, with increasing population growth, there is an increasing need for efficient services, adaptation and restoration of existing infrastructure and access to important resources for the cities. The smart city concept is designed to find optimal solutions for improving city life based on environmental, social, economic and cultural challenges; using modern technologies and innovations for their solution. And the implementation of the smart city strategy allows you to quickly assess the issues of each individual city and use a range of services and actions that in the short term make life in the city better, safer and more comfortable for its inhabitants. For over two years, Kyiv Smart City has united Kyiv, business, activists and city authorities for the development of smart urban infrastructure. On November 21, 2017, the Kyiv City Council approved the concept „Kyiv Smart City 2020“, which defines the main principles of the infrastructure, technological and social development of the capital. And also, forms a new vector of urban space transformation. This concept is taken into account when developing urban target programs. The concept „Kyiv Smart City 2020“ was developed in 2015. The document was created by the public, experts, city authorities, representatives of Ukrainian technology companies and vendors, scientific and academic communities. The result of the joint work was the development and implementation of urban services that work for the Kyiv residents.

: How did the Kyiv Smart City initiative and its conception come about? What difficulties and problems did you encounter while preparing the concept? The Kyiv Smart City Initiative began as a joint effort between city authorities, business and the public to implement smart city innovations. It was a new page of the city‘s digital infrastructure, which was aimed at raising the lives of the citizens of Kiev. Make it comfortable and safe. In Kyiv, this process was moving incredibly fast, primarily due to political will and the conviction of Mayor Vitali Klitschko, that the Ukrainian capital must definitely move towards becoming a true, smart city.

It all began with the „Open Budget“ project, when the city publicized all its financial processes and made it possible to review all expenses incurred within it. Then the introduction of the system of electronic public procurement began, priority projects were developed, which immediately began to positively influence the city infrastructure. At the same time, in 2015, the concept „Kyiv Smart City 2020“, which brought together experts of different levels, authorities and the scientific community, was developed for the purpose of developing a unified plan of actions for the development of intelligent urban infrastructure. And the only difficulties that arose in our way were that we did it for the first time. After all, the development of such concepts in Ukraine before that no one was engaged. However, we are well versed in the task of constantly learning the experience of the best smart cities in the world and communicating with global experts. : How does the Kyiv political elite treat the project and is there any support from the state? It should be noted at once that the Kyiv Smart City initiative is a public organization and does not support the interests of certain



city : kyiv

political forces. The same thing happens in the format of the Kyiv City State Administration - it is the executive power, which primarily works for the interests of the citizens of Kyiv.

: With the help of which sources it is possible to finance smart decisions in Kiev?

And that is why we cooperate very efficiently with all city structures, because we are moving in the common direction - we do everything in order to improve the lives of the citizens of Kyiv. Make it comfortable and safe.

It takes place within the targeted urban programs, as well as with the support of international institutions and foundations. Also, certain projects can be implemented with the support of vendors or technology companies that are ready to provide their equipment, development or services within the framework of pilot projects with the city.

Certainly, the city authorities support this process of transformation, because they are the people who manage the city and implement new services and technologies. We, by all means, help them in this.

: In which direction are you planning to develop the initiative this year?


Do you cooperate with other Ukrainian cities?

Yes of course. After all, there can be no competition in the development of smart cities. And our main task - not only to improve the city‘s infrastructure of the capital, but also to share expertise and better cases with other cities. We are always ready for dialogue with the authorities of other cities. In fact, for this purpose, the Kyiv Smart City Forum, which has been collecting experts for the development of smart city, vendors and representatives of city authorities for the third year in a row, has been created. But it provides all the opportunities for sharing experience. And they are confident that this only has a positive effect on the overall development of urban technologies within the country.

Everything happens within the „Kyiv Smart City 2020“ Concept, which will now become the basis for creating a strategy for the development of smart city services. Plus, there are all the same city programs, to which we actively join and work in tandem with the relevant structural units and departments of the Kyiv city state administration. For us, the priorities remain: electronic democracy and open governance, transport and security of cities. We develop the direction of the creative economy and the general culture of smart citizens of Kyiv. After all, it was just a matter of creating services and implementing technologies. It is necessary to bring up a new community of the inhabitants of the city, which is not indifferent to what is happening around. And who are ready to work for positive change.

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Main projects Safe city There are 5815 cameras operating in Kyiv within the citywide video surveillance system. The „Safe City“ project was created for the citizens security, monitoring the operation of communal services, control and traffic management in the city. Recognition of faces and car numbers are functioning. There are three situational centres and an established interaction with the operational units of the Ministry of Interior of Ukraine and the Security Service of Ukraine. In the future, the fire, rescue, medical, road and other communal and public services will be connected to the system.

Open budget of Kyiv 2000 citizens daily visit the Open Budget page and view the data. Top 100 largest taxpayers can be viewed in the context of districts. Kyiv is the first city in the country, which has fully implemented the „Open Budget“. All data are reliable, as secure as possible, and their exchange is automated. There is also the possibility of switching to the system of electronic purchases and viewing how the auction took place. Scanned contracts are available..

Budget of the participation 62 projects have won within the Budget of the participation 2017 for a total amount of about UAH 50 million. More than 30 projects have already been implemented. 141 projects have won in the Budget of the Participation 2018. The budget fund has been increased up to 100 million UAH. Thanks to the Budget of the Participation, any resident of the city may submit a project related to the improvement of life in the city, to participate in the contest, to win the vote and to monitor how its project is being implemented within the city budget. Some implemented projects 2017 - reconstruction of the pool of the gymnasium „Dialogue“, innovative computer classes for the city schools, replacement of the old elevator in the clinic on the street, Enthusiasts 49, the rocket complex in the KPI, the clever space of informal education Clever Space.

Electronic purchases 1,800 structural units make purchases through the Prozorro system. 2.5 billion hryvnias of budget funds were saved while using the system in the capital. Kyiv became the first city in Ukraine, which has introduced a system of electronic government procurement. The capital has become a springboard for deploying Prozorro all over the country and still holds leadership among all the cities that use the system.

The register of the territorial community of Kyiv Register of the territorial community of Kyiv is information about all registered citizens. It simplifies the processes of registration and removal from registration of the place of residence in the capital. The system allows you to shorten the registration period from 2-3 weeks to 5 minutes, and rather soon, in the online mode provide registration / removal of registration of new-borns. Now you will not need the Form 3 - for which you have previously spent up to two weeks.

Information and analytical system „Mayno“ 43 official layers are connected to the map. Everyone of Kyiv can work with that layer, which he wants to explore. The information and analytical system „MAYNO“ (property) is a system that allows you to quickly get information about property and other objects of the city territory. The system is actively used by both government and Kyiv residents. And as such it can also receive information about what‘s happening in the city. The system can carry an incredibly large number of tasks - from accounting for communal property and illegal building up to environmental monitoring and agglomeration growth.

Determining the time of transport arriving 83 boards, which are indicating the time of arrival of public transport for a stop, are deployed within the capital. During 2018 it is planned to equip all stops within the Kyiv‘s transport infrastructure with such boards. The system is fully synchronized with the City Data Center, and anyone can not only see the arrival time on the scoreboard, but also observe the movement of transport through the external service of KP „Kyivpastrans“. Using, for example, the EasyWay mobile application.

Registering to a kindergarten 101 083 entries in kindergarten have been created in the system during its work since March 2017. 31 393 children have been arranged for kindergartens in the city.



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Smart City the future of our cities or just a buzzword? City officials – mayors and vice-mayors, councillors, secretaries of offices and heads of development or ICT departments – are increasingly asking whether the amount of funds spent on Smart City projects corresponds to the results achieved in terms of improving the efficiency of city operations, savings and higher quality of life for citizens. And these are indeed not small amounts – for bigger cities, investment in the implementation of smart technologies may amount to hundreds of millions CZK.

Jan Alexa, Senior Research Analyst : IDC Government Insights

How much money cities spend on "smart" projects is shown by the results of research conducted by IDC at global, regional and local level. In 2017, global investment in Smart City was $67.8 billion and it is predicted to rise to $134.7 billion in 2021. In Central and Eastern Europe, there is also a significant volume of investment, namely $1.4 billion in 2017, with the estimated figure in 2021 being $3 billion a year. Worldwide cities invest the most money in intelligent traffic management and smart security camera systems. In Central and Eastern Europe, smart street lighting is also an important chapter. However, to put the data in the right perspective, despite the fact that Czech cities invest in Smart City projects, the majority of respondents state that a greater share of ICT investments is used for traditional infrastructure and systems.


While investment in smart technologies stemming from a well-prepared strategy can be beneficial to city operations and the quality of life of its inhabitants, there are serious concerns about whether under the cover of modernization and innovation we are not getting only overpriced IT projects funded by European funds that no one will remember after the mandatory sustainability period. But it would not be wise to condemn progress just because of the dead weight that may pile up on the trend of smart cities. However, it is necessary to have a clear vision of where the city wants to go (high-quality strategic documents), a good methodology for evaluating proposed projects, and set up ways of getting timely feedback

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from citizens or stakeholders so that the City Hall can quickly assess whether the changes match the expectations and needs of citizens. Paradoxically, Smart City projects today do not fail because of inappropriately chosen technologies, but due to poorly set processes, unrealistic expectations, unclarified goals, and lack of communication with citizens or other intended end-users. It is for these reasons that IDC has increasingly focused its analyses on the procedural aspect of the matter, on revealing synergies between projects and consultancy for cities at a strategic level. The creation of strategic materials is only considered, an obligation that must be fulfilled in connection with the drawing of European funds. It is mostly management at the level of individual projects that is considered important. The city usually starts to see itself as "smart" when it has installed first equipment, such as traffic sensors or smart benches or litter bins. Then comes the disillusionment if the project is not accepted by the public positively or falls into oblivion. Such an approach stems from the misunderstanding of the meaning of "smartness" in this context. A smart city is one that can flexibly adapt to the needs of its inhabitants through well thought out plans. Technologies are the means of this change, but they cannot be targets themselves. If a city does not have a clear idea of what and how it wants to achieve, and how much it can spend on its goals, it is not a smart city, regardless of the number of sensors installed and the amount of software acquired. Another major reason why cities do not meet expectations is that the projects are not sufficiently linked to the needs of the citizens. IDC is therefore exploring globally how cities communicate effectively with their citizens, collect suggestions and comments at local and city-wide level, and are able to respond flexibly to them.

Citizens, however, are not the only target group of Smart City projects. Businesses, educational institutions of all levels and a number of other organizations are also an integral part of a city. Collaboration with these entities is another vital prerequisite for success. Municipality can initiate development towards "smartness", but if it does not have the support of the local private sector, it will have a difficult time ensuring the sustainability of projects. There are many possible ways of support provided by private sector; the PPP projects that had been in the past so often highlighted are just one of them. The last area, which is not necessarily tied to specific technological solutions, is data. Data means not only the outputs of modern sensorics (e.g. pollution measurement), but in principle any information that the city collects and processes. Our cooperation with local authorities often reveals that cities do not have optimized data handling procedures. Often, one section (department) of the City Hall does not know what data the other departments collect. Without data, it is not possible to evaluate the benefits of existing projects or to effectively plan new. IDC estimates that up to 75% of cities worldwide do not yet deal with optimization of data handling, but the situation is starting to change rapidly. Before your city invests, maybe hundreds of millions of crowns in various Smart City projects, it is sensible to stop and think about the overall approach to the Smart City concept, the specific needs of your city, strategic documents and their real interrelations with projects. Set up the internal functioning of the Smart City team properly, create appropriate communication channels for timely feedback from citizens and explore how businesses or universities can help you and how to rationalize the data infrastructure. These steps will be in the long run more important for your city than the question of what technology to choose for a particular project.



city : governance

Data-driven urban development David Bárta, Mikuláš Muroň, city:one : smartmap.ml


The concept of a smart city builds on decision-making on the development of the city, which is supported by long-term monitored phenomena in the form of data from various sources. Data-driven cities are being talked about, i.e. cities that base their strategic decisions on data. Based on the experience of the cities that went this direction, it is clear that the data analyst is not self-sacrificing, but it has a significant impact on the city administration's internal functioning, bringing significant savings in time and finance, and greater efficiency in the administration's work. The goal of smart cities, according to the Czech Ministry of regional development methodology (2015), is not only the higher efficiency of the Office. This is above all a greater engagement of citizens and the ability to understand new technologies and to be able to make the most of them for a better quality of life in the city, but also in a particular place, and to support democratic processes (citizen involvement, participation). It is precisely the data collected for a particular location (for example, a street) to assist in wise decision-making not only for the city, but also for investors or residents. This is the concept of "collective intelligence" where available site data can help develop the ideas or activities of different people with different expertise, reinforcing the likelihood of innovation and new services. The data is new "oil", and the possibilities of mining and processing are a great opportunity for cities to make the administration more efficient and operational, as well as the synergy benefits of public investment. The data will reveal the true state of the city in the context of the location and development plans of the city, and their

analysis will bring new ideas and investment opportunities and will encourage the city, private investors and citizens themselves to make long-term investments in sustainable urban development and innovation. However, the activities related to data acquisition, and subsequently to their processing, place new demands on cities and its employees. Digital literacy is a prerequisite for success, and working with data can be seen not only in terms of potential outcomes but also as a necessary learning process. Working with data raises many expectations, but also everyday tasks, so it requires management. Data driven approach faces the unwillingness of city departments and companies to provide data for fear of an unknown or revelation of inefficient work of some city agendas, so the success of this concept and the application of this methodology is determined by political representation and its vision of developing the city as a smart city.

: How to start data driven policy? Phase 1: Organization level 1. Data driven approach is a political commitment. The city needs a politician who understands IT, and is capable of cove-

smart : one ring the data related activities and formulate the city's vision for digital transformation. 2. The city needs also a city officer (CIO) who also understands IT and becomes a new position in the city, i.e. a data manager. 3. The data manager will set up a team of city and city companies’ representatives to design a strategy for opening data and deployment of digital tools, and build a stack of areas and pilot projects where new digital tools will be tested. It sets up a city's data portal where all city data will be available in one place. It encourages the creation of a city dashboard, which serves to make effective decision-making for politicians and officials alike. It will also encourage the introduction of a grant scheme to support innovation by a local IT community or an innovation center. It organizes data hackathon to motivate city staff to formulate challenges, i.e. problems that they would like to solve, but they do not know how. 4. In addition to internal governance, the data manager is also the coordinator of relations with external organizations. Its goal is to create an ecosystem of innovative partners who can not only contribute data and expertise, but also work with data, provide incentives and requirements to open specific datasets or deploy digital tools. Within this ecosystem, the city's long-term vision and strategy with concrete projects should be gradually developed. The data manager also organizes data hackathons to motivate the community to create solutions for urban challenges.

Phase 2: Community level 5. The city aims to introduce a civic community digital tool (see, for example, the Dans ma rue in Paris or Bristol´s Spacehive) to enable citizens to design changes in their immediate surroundings, report defects, design investment projects, and even contribute financially or even work. The aim is to get data from/about specific streets as a data base for future strategic investments of the city in the given location. 6. As this creates a new city agenda, the city establishes the position of an "engagement officer" in charge of physical and digital communication of the city with the citizens and overseeing the overcoming of complaints. This official also takes care of publishing anonymized data and presenting data to citizens, as well as questionnaire surveys and mapping these results to the map. 7. Because sharing concepts are based on a change of mind, testing of these tools is very much needed because their successful implementation is a long-term job. If there are concepts of sharing in the city (sharing of bikes, cars, carpooling, cycling app), or if the city creates a new map (map of brownfields, unused spaces, cultural events, wheelchair entrances, etc.), it is the data manager's duty

to require operators / suppliers of these services that their one-off or operational data will be part of the urban data in anonymized form. Data mining from social networks and mobile applications is the next necessary data-driven development agenda for the city in the near future. 8. The city will select a pilot development site (for example, a street or a small district) and, in the form of a separate project, will explore new possibilities for sharing data on the public space, both in terms of process and digital readiness of the stakeholders as well as available digital tools and their data. Without this pioneering test, which is a parallel process to that required by law, it is not possible to achieve future digital transformations in spatial planning and construction management.

Phase 3: Infrastructure (Technology level) 9. In parallel with community tools, the city also addresses the conceptual introduction of data mining technologies. The first step is to open data from all existing sensors / detectors that the city is already operating. 10. The second step is the use of data from the city camera system for counting vehicles, cyclists, pedestrians, etc. 11. The SmartMap methodology defines a way to identify important locations. Such places should be the subject of the highest care and attention of the city. In addition to the collection of detailed data using technologies of Internet of Things (IoT) would be an important place to provide advanced services (e.g. navigation to free parking space) and reconstruction in these areas should be much faster, e.g. under the supervision of cameras evaluating the workload of the contractor. IoT technologies should primarily address: air quality, traffic load, counting pedestrians and cyclists, remote reading of energy, water and gas (net metering), temperature and humidity, availability of parking spaces, optimizing the consumption of public lighting, energy balance of buildings, water consumption... 12. Many data can be obtained from commercial sources / products. Although the pilot project did not obtain data from electronic transactions, bank cards, it has been found as a very promising resource with which the banking industry operates and in some form in the near future it will provide for planning purposes (see the project - The economic impact of the MWC on Barcelona). In addition to these data, "economic recovery" sites can also use the data of mobile operators (catchment areas, commuting to work, availability parking), data from mobile applications (e.g. Strava app to identify favorite ways for running), data from aerial photography (whether for digital records of property or investment opportunities, e.g see the solar cadaster), satellite data, etc.



city : one 16. The attractiveness of a place can also be measured by an increased interest in staying in a given location. Apart from pedestrian counting, number of seats in cafés in the summer months can be regularly counted in important locations. The reputation of the site can also be traced, for example, from social networks, Instagram, or on the frequency of media reports and Internet posts.

: Care for important places - impact on public procurement Although the definition of important places may appear to be a theory, the data-driven concept has great implications for city requirements in public procurement. Negative phenomena, such as the impact on local businessmen during the street redevelopment or the move of people out of the city due to lack of greenery and low quality of life in the city, can be overcome by a new approach to the requirements on the contractor.

Pardubice – the illustration of monitoring the land use in time, the red areas are not green any more

Phase 4: Impact Measurement - Physical Surveys level 13. The quality of public space needs to be assessed before and after interventions. The attractiveness of the site / street thus depends not only on the location (significant location) but also on the quality of the services offered. For example, visual smog already determines the quality of space, real estate prices and in very important business locations the survey should be carried out regularly, with gradual expansion of visual smog regulation. 14. Data on the safety, cleanliness and health of public space can be obtained from on-site surveys based on sense/feeling maps. In the most important residential and commercial locations, it is necessary to carry out regular surveys in the form of sense maps. 15. Site attractiveness can be measured using economic data. They may not be available at the moment, so it is appropriate to interpret the attractiveness by, for example, the number of pedestrians passing through the site. Physical survey of pedestrians needs to be done regularly in very important recreational and business locations of the city.

Every smart developer monitors his investment, building, using camera system to keep an eye on the effectiveness of his money spent. The city can also include deploying a camera system for its important places, which will encourage the contractor to make a faster street reconstruction, and thereby lower the economic recovery of local businessmen, which secures the city to have benefi ts from stable taxation income. Camera surveillance thus allows the city to include in the tender new conditions like malus / bonus for the rapid execution of the construction and, as a side effect, to have a camera record in time for the presentation of the reconstruction to general public. The camera record also allows to measure the negative impacts of the building on pedestrian traffic and to quantify the economic impacts of constraints on local business. Because important sites are often equipped with a CCTV system (for example, the City Police Crime Reduction System), selected camera points can be published as "webcams" in the quality known from, for example, ski resorts. These streaming video records can be an excellent tool for the city's communication campaign, but also as a clever way of presenting data with a picture background. The traffic intensity, the number of free parking spaces, the actual air pollution or the smog situation, the number of pedestrians, cyclists and other statistics, or invitations to social events, can be presented in a form that is attractive and comprehensible to citizens. Informing about current events and conditions in the city is a new, clever way to raise awareness among citizens about their city.

smart : one









PM10: 160







city : governance


: Main axes of RASC Smart City educational content •



The most common is the inclusion of new practices, already used by certain groups of citizens, into widespread use of public services. So even in public administration procedures. An example is the use of social networks that were first adopted by younger generations. Now they are the communication channels of schools, cities, and so on. It can also be technological innovations - for example, sensor networks of the Internet of Things for measuring different physical quantities in the city. This data can be used as part of Data Warehouse datasets. We can also use them in contexts with unstructured documentation (for example, strategic documents), but also with the emotional content of social networks.

Digital transformation is a multidisciplinary activity. That is why RASC meets specialists in different areas. Digital transformation is associated significantly with the provision of public and regulated services and their management.

: Education system in RASC ACADEMY • •

• •

The RASC ACADEMY lectors are able to run educational programs for both municipalities, state administration, but also for private service providers and their suppliers. RASC ACADEMY is open – even you may become a lecturer (if you meet the conditions) or an attendee.

The right establishment of innovation and its economy, sustainability, service legality, proper and effective management of public and internal negotiation, approval and documentation Comprehensive technical content of innovation (for example, changing the transport system) in a complex multidisciplinary form (the transport system has its own social, data, security and other levels) Organizational and management systems for services and their continuous improvement, user unification services and provider collaboration; exit strategy Standards and Procedures: Facility Management, BIM, Digital Maps, GDPR, Identity Management, Open Data, Open SW, Data Collection, Security, Internet of Things, Communications

Education accredited by the Ministry of Education: Retraining courses (for example, Facility Manager led by FM Institute s.r.o.) Seminars, conferences, non-accredited education and a professional network Webinars, expert advice, professional portals, and social networks (led by redirector s.r.o.) Educational programs accredited by the Ministry of the Interior: In-service training programs (for example, "Feasibility Study", "GDPR and Cyber Security", "Accountability for Offenses" - led by the Academy of Public Administration, o.p.

smart : one

SMART CONFERENCE TOOL - audience rating & online evaluation of speakers - evaluation report & data export - conference programme - audience questions - partners & sponsors visibility

info@besttalk.cz www.besttalk.cz


city : mobility


The most recent directive relating to ambient (outdoor) air quality is the Air Quality Directive (2008/50/EC). The Directive consolidated a number of earlier directives and sets objectives for several pollutants which are harmful to human health. It requires member states to:

: Policy level •

Air quality plans are lacking of true solutions, timeline and impact strategy, lack of long term vision and strategic goals, lack of synergic planning with other initiatives

If the air quality levels are breached there are no consecutive obligatory steps to solve the problem, legal proceedings are delayed as legal actions can take several years to reach a conclusion

• •

Monitor and assess air quality to ensure that it meets these objectives; Report to the Commission and the public on the results of this monitoring and assessment; Prepare and implement air quality plans containing measures to achieve the objectives.

: Crucial process problems in air quality management in EU The Air Action plans serve to solve the air quality problems but the practical efficient implementation is weak. In the project Clean Air (EU Life +) besides the policy requirements some crucial problems in the whole process have been identified (source: Clean Air handbook 2015):

: Information level: lack of information • • • • •

low density of air quality measurement stations in cities, lack of monitoring on the most congested places, inconsistency between “official” air quality data and other “unofficial” data lack of up-to-date information, with data published a long time after breaches of limit values have occurred technical presentation of the measured data with low potential of public understanding

smart : one

• •

No “on trip” alerts given to travellers, no warnings No information on commitment to achieve better air quality and the regular improvement status, lack of measures implementation and their real impacts

: Involvement level •

Citizens involvement in Air quality action plan formulation is low, air quality is not a public topic to be discussed

: Technical level (source: OECD, Mexico city 2017)

Real-world pollutant emissions of road vehicles are often significantly higher than the type approval values. This is especially the case for NOx emissions from diesels. Between Euro 1 and Euro 5 standards the European NOx limit has decreased by a factor of five but real-world NOx emissions have remained more or less constant.

High real-world NOx emissions from light- and heavy-duty diesels are the main cause of high NO2 concentrations in

cities. The fact that newer light-duty vehicles are not significantly cleaner than older Euro classes reduces the effectiveness of local policy measures, like low-emission zones, to reduce the NOx emissions of traffic. Some Euro 6 vehicles now show real-world NOx emissions closer to the limit, but many vehicle models in real-world still exceed the limit by a factor of eight. Occasionally a test vehicle performs very poorly because of malfunctioning, tampering, deterioration, or poor maintenance. It is difficult to point to a single factor responsible for high emissions from an older vehicle. Design, maintenance, usage and fuel quality all play a role. Hence, even with a large measurement program it is difficult to have cars banned from the road because of measured high emissions. The manufacturer will point to the user, who, in turn, will point to the garage undertaking maintenance. The garage will point to the annual inspection procedure and the inspection authority will point to the legislation. Eventually, nobody will have full responsibility for a poorly performing car. Unlike safety issues, emission performance seems hardly enforceable in Europe. Even in the aftermath of the scandal around diesel vehicles, and the common knowledge that certain vehicles have extremely high emissions, there has not been a backlash in enforcement. Basi-



city : mobility cally, there is no proper legal framework to deal with violations of emission regulation. If you've read enough here and you care a little about what you breathe in the city, then put the razor back on the bedside table because the situation is not so desperate. Data-driven city management and new Internet of things based technologies can bring more detailed knowledge, and possibly a whole range of solutions.

: Low-carbon mobility Based on the SOLEZ (Central Europe) project, the following key elements of the strategy for low carbon mobility and transport regulation have been identified. The following steps represent a low-carbon mobility policy that positively affects air quality, reduces noise, reduces traffic jams, and achieves Sustainable Mobility Plan (SUMP) goals. Basic findings can be classified as follows:

1. Start with environmental goals The huge difference is between cities that have set long-term environmental objectives (e.g. zero-emission targets) and those that do not have any goals. Insufficient or bad policy can lead to even worse conditions (traffic regulation according to odd and even numbers of vehicle registration plates supported the purchase of a second carin Athens, while significant reductions in car traffic were achieved thanks to the Amsterdam Climate Program and the 2040 Energy Strategy or tactical urbanism in Barcelona). A political commitment to establishing a vision with long-term goals is the cornerstone of investment in low carbon mobility and public acceptance.

Parking zones in Amsterdam - the most valuable city areas are the most expensive for parking

3. Build the infrastructure at the boundaries of the zones Organizational measures are essential but should be supported by an appropriate infrastructure. Zoning provides the city with a clear overview of where support infrastructures should be located - especially at the edge / boundary of the designated zone / zones. Border areas are a natural place for travellers to exchange to other means of transport, so they are also suitable places for parking lots (P+R, P+B and P+G), bike sharing, bicycle parking, logistics drop-boxes and other support infrastructures (e.g. green corridors).

2. Define traffic / parking zones

4. Deploy technologies

The ease of implementation of low carbon mobility instruments is strongly influenced by existing national legislation. Organizational measures should be deployed step by step with long-term goals and deadlines. (Italian Codicedella Stada Act No 285/1992 and its subsequent amendments take into account the transport impacts on "road safety, health, law and order, the environment and the cultural heritage and the territory" and so there are so many successful low-emission zones in Italy, or zones with restricted entry). The starting point for a successful organization of the regulation is the introduction of parking zones. Their greatest impact lies in the unification of the rules for intra-zone mobility, parking charges, free public transport, bicycle services... and as such support a clear policy of low-carbon mobility in the area (City of Graz has introduced a city-regulated access zone for both cars and supply. To promote other transport behaviourthe city offers free public transport to passengers in the zone).

Successful use of infrastructure is always supported by "smart" technologies (e.g. reliable real-time information, one single ticket, bicycle rental, etc.). Italy's Siena has upgraded its surveillance camera system by reading ANPR with a back-up technology with infrared readout that makes detection automatic and reliable, Westminster demonstrates the benefits of deploying an intelligent parking system and its potential extension to residential parking, Amsterdam linked the parking card from P+R with a public transport ticket recognizing the use of P+R for the purpose of traveling to the city centre from simple parking. The edge of the zones is supported by technological supervision, Geofencing (Virtual Fence) technologies that monitor access to a particular zone (low-emission zone, restricted zone, parking zone, etc.). Surface monitoring of traffic loads using the Internet of Things Technology (for example, traffic magnetometers) are also available for surface applications in our cities thanks to their

smart : one low cost. All technology data needs to be open, just to achieve the necessary rate of change in travel behaviour through a wide range of new services.

5. Promote alternative means of transport The introduction of a traffic regulation system brings great potential for the development of alternative means of transport. Electromobility is on the rise not only in the automotive industry, but also in public transport, cycling and urban logistics. The strong link between eMobility and transport regulation is obvious and both areas are mutually supportive. (The Copenhagen wheel demonstrates how long-term low-carbon strategies have positive impacts on local business and innovation in the green economy). A strict and clear parking policy should be complemented by the provision of alternative means of transport allowing a smooth transfer and a uniform fare. Not to drive a car has to be greatly beneďŹ cial for both citizens and visitors, and tools must be developed to compare potential savings and travel by various means in terms of time and money. Money from ďŹ nes and parking fees should be transparently used to support alternative transport, through the Mobility Fund.

6. Communicate all states and plans!

ces that deploy technologies, searching for free parking places with smart parking, efficient use of alternative transport (quality of public transport, wheel sharing schemes, etc.), digital payments and related loyalty programs. (The Amsterdam Mobility Fund proves that the "even" distribution of funds among all modes of transport is gaining the necessary public support for limiting the operation of passenger cars, the motivation scheme of the city to park on P+R is a technological and transport tool to change behaviour). Acceptance by the public is strongly related to data availability and ongoing evaluation. Long-term traffic loads and other phenomena need to be publicly communicated; the change of values in society comes only through public discussion.

7. Measure and evaluate A successful scheme should be supported by a regular assessment based on the assumption that "what is measured tends to improve". This can be derived from vehicle counting, passengers, cyclists and pedestrians counting, as well as air quality measurements. The results should be presented to the public and arguments for the introduction of low-emission zones (Italy's Vicenza assesses air quality over the long term; based on the results the city and the county with the support of public have now decided to extend the low emission zone).

The adoption of a low carbon policy by the public is based on good communication, a long-term plan, and the goals and servi-

City air washing machine (smog tower) - technological solution for the most polluted areas of a city; the ďŹ rst deployment in Central Europe is planned in Krakow.



city : mobility

Advantages and disadvantages of air quality measurement using sensors RNDr. Jiří Huzlík, Ph.D., Mgr. Roman Ličbinský : Transport Research Centre


Electrochemical sensors are based on the principle of binding the measured material to the sensor material. However, this can only arise between certain molecules and under certain conditions. Electrochemical principles are used in membrane sensors with liquid or solid electrolyte. Metalloxide sensors and chemiresistors are based on the measurement of the electrical conductivity changes of certain materials in the presence of some gaseous substances. Pelistors or pyroelectric sensors use temperature changes in chemical reactions, especially in the catalytic oxidation of gaseous substances. On the principle of piezoelectric mass changes caused by absorption or adsorption of the determined gases the mass sensors are based (Štulík, Barek, 2007). The undisputed advantage of electrochemical sensors is their cost and low operating costs. The simplest sensors systems cost a few thousands of Euro, more complicated devices for continual measurement of concentrations of more pollutants then approx. up to 30.000 Euro, which is still orderly lower than in the case of a fully equipped stationary station or a mobile air quality measuring station equipped with reference analyzers. Operational costs are then 3 to 5 times lower compared to conventional air quality monitoring stations (Kumar et al., 2015). Unfortunately, sensors have far more negative properties that

negatively affect their use. One of these is a short life span, ranging from 6 months to several years. Significant negative in relation to long-term measurement of air quality is the low reproducibility of measurements under various meteorological conditions and, in some cases, their sensitivity is insufficient (Kumar et al., 2015). The legislation also directly defines what methods must be used for long-term air quality measurement and electrochemical sensors are not among them. There is a number of companies involved in the integration of individual electrochemical sensors for the measurement of gas and PM concentrations in various devices, transferring data to remote devices such as smartphones. Unfortunately, these companies mainly deal with the transfer of data to other devices, but not with the quality of measured data. Still, sales of these sensors are quite successful. We have tested four sensor systems labeled AM1, IM1, Lib and Env. The reference gauge, the Airpointer system (Recordum Messtechnik GmbH, Austria), was designated AP. Test devices were placed as close as possible to the reference gauge. Medians were compared from five single-minute results in succession, eliminating random errors. Figure 1 shows the results of a comparative measurement of low cost sensors and reference methods for relative humidity measurement, which show a good

smart : one match of sensor results with the reference gauge. Similar results give temperature measurement. Linear regression (table 1) indicates satisfactory results for temperature and relative humidity (blue), less satisfactory results for one PM10 sensor and one ozone measurement sensor (red), unsatisfactory results for other parameters and sensors (italics). Some parameters and sensors even have negative values of the regression directive (bold values), which means that when the concentration of the measured quantity increases according to the reference gauge, the measured gauge shows the decrease of these concentrations. Determination Coefficient (R2) is a statistical parameter to compare the quality of the tested sensor results with reference gauges. When approaching the value of 1, it represents almost perfect match of the two instruments, while the value 0 represents the mismatch of the results.


Figure 1. Relative humidity measurement results


Table 1 - Evaluation of regression comparison of sensor results and reference gauge

The tested sensors manage the measurement of temperature and relative humidity in general, but are much worse for concentrations of gaseous pollutants (NO, NO2, SO2, CO and O3). An example for NO2 is shown in Figure 2.

Measured matter CO

An example of the comparison of the PM10 concentrations with the reference gauge is shown in Figure 3. Although the graph of the linear regression expresses a linear trend, the comparison values have considerable variation around the regression line. It follows from this assessment that the use of tested sensors is inappropriate for the measurement of NOx and SO2 concentrations. In the case of PM10 and O3, it is necessary to carefully select suitable sensors and do not place them without proper validation by comparison with the reference gauge. The sensors were able to detect the occurrence of peaks indicating jump changes in the concentrations of the measured substances, but they were unable to express themselves with sufficient precision of their actual values even after a possible calibration. This means that with the tested sensors used to measure the concentrations of gaseous pollutants (CO, NO, SO2) it is not possible with sufficient reliability to detect the exceedance of the air pollution limit values given by the legislation. This is valid also for PM10 and O3 sensors.


Figure 2. Comparison of NO2 concentrations



O3 SO2 PM10

Relative air humidity Air temperature


Sensor AM1 Env IM1 AM1 Env IM1 AM1 Env IM1 Lib AM1 IM1 Lib Env AM1 Env IM1 AM1 IM1 Lib AM1 IM1 Lib

Absolute member q 498.67 714.35 604.66 76.29 5.90 17.50 27.32 1.46 26.33 48.68 42.04 21.80 379.17 18.68 -177.68 -5.46 -75.53 12.07 14.72 -16.90 2.93 2.40 -0.69

Regression k 0.0466 -0.0201 0.0514 0.0549 0.1362 0.5866 -0.0677 0.3965 0.2382 1.3998 0.1188 0.4923 -1.4028 3.2301 12.6948 1.3509 7.6450 0.6376 0.6561 1.2211 0.9771 0.9695 1.2141

Determination coeficient R2 0.0080 0.0077 0.0233 0.0089 0.0110 0.2090 0.0035 0.2189 0.1059 0.0166 0.1432 0.6611 0.5629 0.0055 0.6053 0.0964 0.4535 0.9364 0.9211 0.8503 0.9239 0.8380 0.8721

Figure 3. Comparisonof PM10 concentrations

An example of the comparison of the PM10 concentrations with the reference gauge is shown in Figure 3. Although the graph of the linear regression expresses a linear trend, the comparison values have considerable variation around the regression line.


Flexiblecompact system for air quality monitoring • airpointer®is the first compact full automatic „plug-and-play“ multicomponent monitoring station with TÜV certificate in accordance to European standards for air quality monitoring for O3, CO, SO2 and NO/ NO2/NOx. PM Sensor

PM10 PM2.5

SO 2

H2 S

Ozon Analy zing Modul



Carbon Monox ide An Sulfur Dioxide/H ydr oge


aly zing Module

n Sufide Analy zing Mo

nia Analy zing Nitrogen Ox ide/Ammo






External Sensors Additional Internal and enzene/Xylene Benzene/Toluene/Et ylb

• airpointer® is a modular system with a possibility of configurationthe analytics and sensor modules to fulfilspecific monitoring requirements and applications - O3, CO, SO2 a NO/NO2/NOxincluding meteorological, VOC, BTEX, H2S, CO2, noise, PM10, PM2.5, traffic intensity, people counting, UV radiation, GPS (location is related to measured values - mainly for mobile apps), toxic gases, light intensity… • airpointer® Smart City solution for air quality monitoring –data collection, analysis, pollution sources detection, control and evaluation including automatic measures for pollution values reduction



airpointer advantages •

Deployment almost at any place including on public lighting masts or on a wall if necessary

Compact size, suitable for continuous measurement but also for mobile use

Ideal for monitoring atlimited space (tunnels, crossroads...)

Low deployment administration demands (no building permit required as it is withusual measurement stations)

Low manipulation needs in the case of repositioning

Significantly lower power consumption in comparison with standard monitoring station

Low maintenance requirements –modules and electronics check once a year in operation 24/365

Ready for operation within 30 minutes

airpointer® software

airpointer® user comfort

airpointer® applications

• Internet user interface – for communication a standard internet browser is sufficient (IE, Mozilla, Opera, Chrome...)

• Internal source of zero gas for automatic or manual check of the zero point of every module

• Air pollution obligatory monitoring

• Continuous on-line accessibility (GSM, UMTS, LTE, 3G, LAN,W-LAN...) • Thorough automatic diagnostic functions for all the key operation parameters monitoring • Saving measured and operation data per minute in the system database to preventive detection of malfunctions and monitoring of the quality of the measured values (QA /QC) • Automatic check of good operation and correction of all the possible failures via WatchDog programme • Electronic diary • The highest user comfort of data management

• Selectable default automatic verification of calibration • Calibration made by graphical interface in the user menu • Simple exchange of the filter, adjustable filter with higher volume to prolong the interval of exchange • Integrated system of data collection, processing, storing and transmission • Back-up mirroring hard drive for data safety • Pressure and temperature compensation • Possibility to connect external measuring devices and processing it together (analogueand digital)

• Mobile air quality monitoring systems • Monitoring of gases from combustion processes and volatile emissions • Air quality monitoring of traffic including vehicle counting and their average speed – data source forneeded measures. • Indoor/occupational health – administive buildings, shop centres, airport halls, bus stations, schools, public buildings, and production plants buildings... • Monitoring of other areas of interest – small or large scale air quality measurements with the potential to focus on specific source of pollution and immediate response • Source of data for modelling

• Predictive diagnostics

Tel.: +421 263 530 537 e-mail: biowell@biowell.sk www.biowell.sk

Tel.: +43 2236 22571 0 e-mail: info@mlu-recordum.com www.airpointer.com


city : mobility

PAPARK Real time processing of camera records

: Analysis of low quality image from a camera system


Cars seeking free parking places produce a large amount of carbon dioxide annually (for example, only 15 cities in Los Angeles are up to 730 tonnes of carbon dioxide per year)

Technical solution • •

Drivers lose up to 17 hours a year in search of a parking space • Studies have proven that up to 30% of city traffic is made by drivers seeking parking •

: The PAPARK solution allows

Data analysis takes place from existing camera systems Data export from the system in standardized DATEX II format The system does not require manual configuration, uses self-learning mechanisms to respond to changing situations Data outputs from the system are fully compatible and suitably complementary to other parking devices such as sensors

Data in DATEX II format Detection of free parking spaces From a live street camera record, we detect free parking spaces. The system also detects vacancies on streets where parking spaces are not firmly marked.

Track traffic on roads Track the number of vehicles traveling on the road, their speed and type (e.g. passenger or freight wagon). The data is useful for optimizing traffic management and as a basis for changes in traffic organization.

Active management of parking spaces The municipality can actively influence where the cars will be parked, identify parking spaces, for example, as occupied and thus actively drive traffic on the monitored roads (e.g. during maintenance or other closures).

Traffic incident detection The system constantly monitors the situation on the roads and, in case of detection of nonstandard behaviour (e.g., quick stopping of the car), notifies the type and location of the incident.

{ „id“: „brno:botanicka_a“, „type“: „OnStreetParking“, „availableSpotNumber“: 3, „totalSpotNumber“: 6, „dateModified“: „2016-06-02T09:25:55.00Z“, „location“: { „type“: „Polygon“, „coordinates“: [ [ [49.2083958, 16.5990636], [49.2081156, 16.5992286], [49.2081322, 16.5992742], [49.2084161, 16.5991053] ] ] }, „refParkingSpot“: [„brno:botanicka_a:1“] } { „id“: „brno:botanicka_a:1“, „type“: „ParkingSpot“, „name“: „P-1“, „location“: { „type“: „Point“, „coordinates“: [49.2083206, 16.5991253] }, „status“: „free“, „category: [„onstreet“], „refParkingSite“: „brno:botanicka_a“ }

25.–26. 4. 2018 Výstaviště Brno



city : energy


: Chicken and Egg Situation Until today we do not know the answer to the chicken and egg situation. All we know is that one could not come without the existence of the other. The same situation was pertinent among the car manufacturers and infrastructure providers/ utilities at the local Czech e-mobility conferences I attended within 2011-2012. One side attacked the other about the necessity to introduce a  standard of charging solution on the market. This meant mostly to state the shape/interface of a charging device/pistol together with the communication interface. And, of course, to make huge investments that accompany it. A  third player in this scenario was the state/ legislator body, up to which the two players were turning to, asking it to provide everyone with common clear rules. Unfortunately, in the early 2010s, the Czech legislation had a problem in itself to acknowledge the existence of BEVs as such, let alone to set any sort of rules... Hence, there were

no proper rules, so since 2011, we have been witnesses to a slow and uncoordinated development of charging stations, while all of them suffer from an important handicap – the non-existence of a unified client registration (client roaming). How about today? A great game changer in the following two years should be the EU subsidised projects on coordinated development of charging infrastructure, such as in Prague (Operator ICT) or the prepared charging infrastructure on the Czech highway backbone network (ČEZ). In the meantime a legislation framework has been finally set thanks to the top to bottom pressure (thank you, Brussels!) in the whole EU – in Czech Republic it is, among others, the National Action Plan Clean Mobility. Last but not least, the lithium batteries have in the meantime developed, too. And further developments in their capacity are not only expected, but very crucial, indeed. What stance should the state and communities adopt in this very time, when pressure to tackle the charging infrastructure efficiently is rising?

smart : one his/her car up, and travels most of the time around his home with amount of juice equivalent to a range of some 200 km (which, by the way equals, to the current range of many mid-price BEVs). But, when the need comes, we also have the opportunity to refill our cars up within minutes and then to travel distances of many hundreds of kilometres. The very same ease of use has to be aimed at when shaping the new charging infrastructure - wherever it is to be done by one time top-ups or through multiple short charging during the safety stops. This solution will also kill the charging anxiety for the inhabitants of block of flats who have no way to charge their BEVs privately. Yet, such a  robust charging infrastructure is only being built (100 kW Tesla SuperChargers – in CZ so far in Olomouc, Vestec u Prahy and at Vystrkov by Humpolec) or only being tested in pilots (350 kW Siemens in cooperation with German car makers). By the way, in case of a simultaneous charging at rapid chargers, the peak power input will equal to an appetite of a factory! Purchasing and operating costs of such an infrastructure represent millions of euros with depreciation costs for tens of years, which is something that suits better to business world than that of municipalities. Here the communities should rather lend their hand to investors, helping them to get through all the red tape when planning and building the strategic charging hubs. Where communities on the other hand could and should afford their own charging infrastructure, is when speaking about their technical background (municipal service), installing slow/night charging (AC) or semi-fast DC chargers.

: How time flies – 22 kW is too little, 50 kW is insufficient

: Give a dog a bad name and charge him Every year, the BEV fans camp is looking with a worshipping glance to Norway, where the statistics of BEV sales break world records in a  row in the recent years. The BEV opponents take the same example of Norway to show the nonsense of the very idea, pointing at the current grotesque problems of insufficient charging infrastructure over there. Their critique is strong, although the problem they are hinting to is only interim – in the first two decades of the 20th century in US, even gasoline for first cars needed to be purchased at drug stores (!) as gas station infrastructure network was only developing. Nevertheless, what is the good lesson to be taken from Norway? In my point of view, that the paradigm of an effective charging infrastructure will have to follow the gasoline car one – the charging infrastructure will need to be dimensioned in a way so it is going to be easy at any moment to travel with a BEV a maximum distance in a minimum of time. In today’s reality, not everyone fills

In order to pass a 300 km distance in an inter-city and highway driving regime (including power demand of the heating system and other on-board peripheries), the size of traction battery of a BEV will need to be of 60 kWh, even for the time to come. Let´s say we have arrived to our destination and the only charging possibility is a one-phase AC plug (the house one) with an effective power of 3 kW. In that case the way back trip would be possible only in 15–20 hours (!) since plugging the car in (60 kWh/3 kW). For city planners, this means that investments in one-phase AC charging is advisable as supplementary option for small vehicles (or one-wheeled) only, or for places where long time parking is expected (airport parking, P+R). This is why it is often referred to as night-charging option. The advantage of this solution is the lowest purchasing price for a charging spot, which are mostly mounted as “wall boxes”. Their price varies depending on the SW&HW specification between 8001600 € per box. Staying with the AC charging method, the higher “speed class” is the 22 kW AC option. Yet here get things slightly complicated – AC charging columns are often nothing but access to underground power cables, meaning they require that the very charger (something like the charger we carry in our backpack to recharge our laptop) is on-board the BEV. This on-board charger



city : one (“OBC”) is there to convert the AC present in the powerlines to DC, which is the only way the batteries store the energy. The reason to speak about this technical detail is that while every BEV has been equipped with some emergency 1,5-3 kW AC on-board charger, the presence of a faster on-board charger (up to 22 kW) are not standard or even a paid option. Hence, a community trying to motivate the tourists for a  stop by promoting a faster 22 kW AC charger, may not succeed – when it comes to speed charging, many car manufacturers prefer DC solutions (see further). So although cars with 3 kW AC on-board charger will be able to plug to the 22 kW AC socket, the charging speed will be 3 kW only! In a real life, a two-hour round walk around the city together with a  visit to local café may charge the car with 44 kWh (2×22 kW), but also with 6 kWh (2×3 kW) only. In the latter case that extends the range by cca 24 km only (6 kWh/ 0,25 kWh/km). Would you visit a gas-station for 2 hours to buy 1 litre of gas only? And, as the capacity of batteries will rise, it may come that the BEV owners will not be even motivated to take out the charging cable out of the trunk at all. The current price of 22 kW AC stations, which are often combined with 3kW sockets, is around 4 000 €. The most expensive, yet still affordable way for communities to get access to a faster charging, is the DC charging (50 kW).

The “DC” means that a (separate) column includes the OBCs, so the connecting pistol is thus sending the DC current directly to the vehicle batteries. So the great advantage of this system is that the BEVs may lose up to tens of kilograms of mass of the not carried OBC, while the earth mounted DC charger does not mind being heavy and powerful. Their most usual power output is 50 kW, which is reflected in their price, starting at 20 000 € at quality producers. One should also take into account side costs such as bringing such a high power cables to the charging site and monthly fees for reserving the power. Last but not least, in contrast to the AC chargers, the car makers are following different HW standards in regards to the charging pistols and communication protocols – the Asian and French based companies are equipped with “CHAdeMO” („Charge de Move / Charge for Moving“) standard, while German and American producers invented and apply the “Combo II” interface. Fortunately, many DC charging station producers offer poles equipped with both standards/pistols (and a 22 kW AC option with them, too), but this is reflected in its price. Still, investing in a  50 kW DC charger is worth considering, as it allows for a good time-to-range-extension factor – a 30 minute recharge provides many BEVs with more than 125 km extra range. This makes the 50 kW DC chargers at least slightly comparable to the way and expectations we have when going to refuel our current gas guzzlers.

: Effectiveness is in cooperation Same as one petrol station would not provide enough infrastructure in the city of 100 000 inhabitants or in a single county, spending 20 thousand euros into one DC station or in multiple AC stations does not solve the required flexibility. Still, the community representatives do not need to worry – considering the current hunger of private investors to develop their own (strategical/backbone) charging infrastructure, the burden of providing BEV owners with flexibility does not depend on communities. In this perspective, the aim of the communities should rather be in pushing the investors so that the infrastructure is localised in user well accessible locations and with sufficient interoperability, providing the above mentioned user roaming. Good news in the end is, that despite the battery capacity of BEVs will continue to grow, making the current power outputs of the infrastructure obsolete, the current AC and DC standards will be kept for ten or more years to come. The role of the currently publicly purchased 50 kW DC or 22 kW AC chargers will then transform from the “fast charging” level to “night charging” or “between the shifts” level. I am sure that even in the future the chargers will be of a good use in public sector or city garages, recharging the city busses or garbage trucks of tomorrow.

25.–26. 4. 2018 Výstaviště Brno



city : water

Drugs in the Waste Water of SK and CZ – The Mirror of Society Tomáš Mackuľak, STU Bratislava univerzity, Environment engineering department : Petr Dolejš, CITY:ONE


Information over the drug consumption in single cities, particular regions and also at the different music events in the Slovakia, Czech Republic and in the EU are obtained mainly via the questionnaires, medical data on the numbers of treated patients and police reports from their capture actions. Results provided are systematically and in detail summarized that they provide a review of so called “drug scene“ in the cities and particular regions of Europe. Such a review concerning the consumption of particular drugs can be influenced negatively by different factors, e.g. a late performed assessment, distortion or correctness level of results evaluation. Reaction of Data collection system in some of the cases can be slower when the new illegal drugs used within the population occur to be presented in the waste water. New kinds of stimulants are among the currently occurring new illegal drugs. On the other hand, chemical analysis of selected substances in the waste water provides accurate results on the consumption of particular kinds of both the legal and illegal drugs and on the consumption of medicines, as well. That is by the presented method that it also makes possible to monitor the drug consumption progress in time periods (weekend, month, year), trends in drug consumption (decrease after years passed, resp.

increase) as well as the method enables to compare the drug consumption per 1000 of inhabitants in particular cities (at the national and international level). It is marijuana and pervitine that dominate the drug consumption in Slovakia and Czech Republic Analyses of illegal drugs are currently ongoing in many countries, such as in the USA, Canada, Australia, Italy, Switzerland, England, France, Norway, Belgium, Finland, Sweden, but also in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Since a different kind of drugs is preferred by users from different regions, their concentration in waste water significantly varies.

: Drug occurrence in rivers raises concerns related to a possible contamination of sources for surface drinking water.

smart : one 200

Methamphetamine / Pervitin

Extasy weekly distribution in waste water Vsetín (CZ)


140 120




Drugs and pharmaceuticals in the surface and drinking water are being analyzed in Europe at the present time. The analyses point to the transfer of psychoactive substances and their metabolites, pharmaceuticals for cardiovascular diseases, antihistaminics and antibiotics into the surface water. In SK and CZ, it is possible to identify tramadol, carbamazepine or diclofenac at the trace amounts. Majority of pharmaceuticals and drugs in rivers is presented in a lower concentration than is their concentration at the outflow of the WWTP. Main reason for such a phenomenon represents their dissolution in the surface water and the ongoing decomposition processes. Based also on our results, it is possible to state that the concentration of drugs and their metabolites in rivers is corresponding to the situation with drugs in the countries which the rivers flow through. More than 16 WWTP are currently systemati cally analyzed – thus it represents more than 1,6 milion inhabitants of Slovakia Nowadays we deal with the presence of illegal drugs and pharmaceuticals that can be found on the items of everyday consumption, as well as we do with their metabolites. Some of the items are the banknotes or bank cards. Traces of the drugs were successively found on the printing devices and printers available to the public use. Therefore, everyone can be carrying the traces amounts of these substances on his own hands. Drug monitoring offers a  possibility to observe which regions the drugs are concentrated into. Cocaine represents an example (so called a drug of the posh), which is concentrated mainly in the capital cities of Middle-European region like Prague or Bratislava. Further away the capital city the occurrence of a drug is much lower. Among the other things, this is related to the so called paying force of the inhabitants.



Valencia, SE

Stockholm, SE

London, GB

Eindhoven, NL

Utrecht, NL

Zagreb, HR

Umea, ES

Castellon, ES

Paris, FR

Brussel, BE

Antwerp, BE

Amsterdanm, NL

Milan, IT

Helsinki, FI

Barcelona, ES

Santiago, ES

Turku, FI

Budweis, CZ

Bratislava, SK

Piešťany, SK

0 Petržalka, SK

0 Oslo, NO

5 Prague, CZ













mg/l waste water

mg/1 000 habitants per day


Except for the illegal drugs, the waste water is possible to be used as a source of information on the consumption of legal drugs. By this way, it is possible to monitor nicotine, caffeine and alcohol. Consumption of nicotine can be well monitored via the waste water analyzes. Subsequently, these results can be used for obtaining an interesting information regarding the consumption of cigarettes in a certain city. Modern pharmaceuticals are an irretrievable tool in the treatment, reconvalescence and life quality keeping tool of more of us. However, if used unfoundedly they become a  potential threat as they break through into the environment (statistically, an average inhabitant of the Slovak Republic consumes 17 packages of different pharmaceutical products a year). There is more than 3k of different pharmaceutic active substances within which more than 200 substances was already identified in the environment. It is known that a classic WWTP, with 100k of the inhabitants joined, is ready to discharge a few grams of pervitine or antibiotics into the river. And rightly, the antibiotics and the resistance of microorganisms related to the use of them present the highest priority problem of our time that is getting to be already expressed. Annually, there dies about 50k of inhabitants in the EU regarding the infections caused by resistant bacteria. The treatment itself is getting more and more expensive while it requires a long period of time. The so called super resistant bacteria occur more often while the common antibiotics have no effect to suppress them. Some of the countries, like Switzerland and Germany, have already responded to this issue and they use to implement the UV radiators or ionizing unit with active carbon at the outflow point of the WWTP. On the other hand, such technologies can have an impact on the aquatic ecosystem as they are among the high efficient technologies which use leads subsequently to a lack of nutrients required by total biota and so by the fish.



city : zen


smart : one

: You live and work in Liberec. How do you perceive Liberec as a city? We live here because we like it here, especially the form of the city and its surroundings, not necessarily the architecture. Now the city is not in the best shape, as you can see. A lot of things are getting better because there’s a fairly active social class that is doing its best. But it does not stem from city authorities. Of course, they support some of this, they like to say we did this and that, but they do not create a particularly motivating environment. For instance the process of permitting something is extremely challenging, which slows things down enormously. : Can you be more specific? Can you give me an example of what’s wrong? In the wild nineties there was a lot of money, but that got scattered and all of a sudden Liberec is an indebted city, although it was formerly a Mecca of engineering. There came a strange frustration: it’s hard to run the city when it is not yours. Liberec has sold most

of its land and real estate, so it does not have control over what is being built here, what it should look like, and it is having a hard time looking for a vision. This is a major problem. Plus, we are now dealing with building permits for things that the authorities started to approve ten years ago, and in places that are valuable and that it would be crucial for the city to own – and most likely we will see some crazy things with aesthetics of fifteen years ago, which significantly hinders the city’s visual identity. :

And what is, on the other hand, positive in Liberec?

There are a lot of active people here. We came up with the Kino festival, a good bunch of people formed around it and we had our fifth year last year. We organize Wilderness running race, which starts at our Vokno pub, we run to the hill with a transmitter and back... and suddenly the people who go to the pub mix with runners. It’s a great way to get people out because it is typical of Liberec that there are a lot of rich people who do not go to the centre because it has nothing to offer to them. The shopping mall lured all the interesting shops away from the streets ten years ago and the rest started to



city : zen die down. It is only now that the rents have fallen to a reasonable level so new businesses are emerging, not just gambling clubs and second hand shops. A lot of cafés and bistros and good places to go are appearing. A disaster always generates some recovery; manure gives birth to the most beautiful flowers (laughs). Yeah and then the Research Institute is a good thing, there was a competition held by the regional authority that came off well and the whole area around the river Nisa will be reconstructed; an incubator for young people is to be built there, which is quite important. :

Do you participate in public tenders or competitions?

We took part in a tender for a bus terminal in Liberec, but we did not win. We decided to take part because we are annoyed by what it looks like here. The tender was won by Petr Stolín, a friend of ours, but since the whole tender was unprofessionally prepared, it seems that the project will not be implemented. This is something that happens quite often at the city hall: things are done in a non-conceptual way. First there are incompetent people working there, and second, there is such a political environment in which it is difficult to push anything good through. Now we took part in a tender for a bus terminal in Jablonec, so we will see if it will be a nice change. So far, it looks like another trouble. We have been given such an exact assignment that it was quite hard to design anything. In addition, the whole assignment appears terribly inflated; basically we were designing a bus terminal of the size of Florenc (the Prague bus terminal). : You write on your website that you work with cities. What does this collaboration look like? Our first project that we did after school was the Vokurka lookout tower and we got the contract by drawing a tower, going to the first village with a nice hill that we could think of where we showed it to the mayor – and he said "we want it." Collaboration with smaller municipalities is interesting for us in that the mayor wants to have something at the end of his term of office that will appeal to people. Based on this project, we have started to engage in similar activities and we currently have a building permit for three other lookout towers here in the Jizera Mountains. Each village has something to build: a bridge or whatever, little things that it is good to do. : You have been paying attention to the public space for a long time. What do you think is the most pressing issue in our country? It seems to me that city officials do not even know what is possible. What they fundamentally lack is travelling more. I am really glad when I see that city representatives go abroad to learn about architecture and city management. Officials in the Czech Republic do not know what is possible – and anything

is possible. Local community engagement is so simple, when someone gives them a hand, they would love to do lots of things for free as well. There are so many things that can be done, but you need to initiate them. :

So you feel like you miss the will to cooperate?

I think that often it is also a vision that is missing. The biggest problem of Liberec is that it does not know what it should be. The city of sports is gone, so it is supposed to be a city of students or a city of new technologies... I think that writing two sentences about what Liberec should be for the next twenty years would be a great help in deciding things for the next couple of years and in giving some direction. But half of the officials do not want to change things, to push something through, or they are in the opposition and they are automatically against any suggestions. : So the political situation hinders development in a better direction. Yeah. We are fortunate to have the power of Facebook and thanks to it we can "poke around" the city. When we write a post, it can be seen by 30,000 people, 30,000 voters, and that is quite interesting. If we are annoyed by something, we write about it and sometimes it works. Drawing attention to problems is important, and people should do this to get things moving a little. One needs to be active. :

How does it work within the region?

The regional authority works well. For instance it opened a tender competition for the riverbank and it was successful. The same with Liberec bus terminal, the regional authority had a vision of merging

smart : one the train and bus stations. Liberec train station is over-sized and there are free tracks that could be converted into a bus terminal; shared hall would reduce costs, it’s smart ... But it is not possible to agree with the city; politically they don’t see eye to eye, which is a great shame. You can reasonably communicate with the regional authority. The potential is here, there are lots of things to do here... but there are two institutions whose interests stand against each other, the city and the region. : When you mention the riverbank, it’s clear that good things are happening, that’s important. Yeah! I do not like to talk negatively, but sometimes it is not possible. Praising and highlighting the good things is important and the riverbank is a good thing; the tender competition was won by a local re:architects studio. Also people in the municipalities that we met with are people with a heart for service who would love to do something, but they do not know how, they do not know whom to address... because perhaps they are not familiar with the procedure. They are not familiar with subsidies; they did not encounter in communication an urbanist, an architect, an economist... : Some architectural competitions are quite complex... Do you encounter situations when the assignment is prepared by a number of people, experts, anthropologists, sociologists and so on? The panel is always composed of experts from different fields. Mostly there are technical fields represented, economists, architects... A sociologist is missing and that’s a terrible pity. Because these assignments are strictly technical, but a bus terminal is not just a technical matter. A bus terminal is an area where thousands of people move daily and spend their time there; it's not just a transfer station. : We are still talking about how cities can improve the situation... but what about you? What about your plans? As part of municipality projects, I have fancied cabins for overnight stay that are common for example in Norway. We would like to make it possible for people to take a family out on a trip and spend ten days in the woods. It should be based on the principle of leaving some money in the box as it is usual in the West, while the cabin would be operated and taken care of by the municipality. When you say this in some municipality, they oppose that vandals would come, would burn and destroy it – but if you think like this, nothing will ever happen. Maybe somebody will one day set it on fire, maybe somebody will destroy a cabin, but until it becomes a standard that people know how to approach, nothing will improve. The most important thing is to begin.



city : zen

ART DISTRICT : to show what is possible Hana Třeštíková and Lenka Burgerová : interviewed by Tereza Škoulová, CityOne


smart : one : The website of Prague 7 states that Art District is the "concentration of interconnected profit and non-profit cultural and artistic entities". How specifically does this interconnectedness manifest itself? HT: When I joined the City Hall, I met all of them and we agreed what they need and what they expect the municipal district to bring them. Based on this, we have agreed that the task of the municipal district is not so much funding of their activities: everyone understood that the budget of our district for culture is far less than what they would need. Our role is not even to create culture because we have a sufficiently varied offer, but that is exactly what we should support. We made it clear that we had the tools to act as a coordinator, not a producer. :

You speak in plural. Who helped to create the Art District?

HT: At the very beginning, we made an arrangement with anthropictures, anthropologists who have mapped for us all cultural actors in Prague 7. And it’s a thick volume. They have found them all, have written down basic information, contacts, and who does what. We can now invite the actors to meetings that are one of our core activities. We are trying to connect people. Twice a year we organize a  meeting for everyone, where we present basic information, for example, about subsidies, followed by an informal part where individual participants can meet. And then we have seen the success of genre encounters: we organize business breakfasts, mainly for gallery and theatre people, because there are dozens of galleries and more than ten theatres in Prague 7, and over each genre the theatre and the gallery people get to know each other personally. :

Do these encounters have a specific impact?

HT: Based on our meetings, several joint events have been created, which we have given production or marketing support and cultural actors have agreed on how to handle them. For theatre people it was a Christmas pop-up, where they got together and were selling tickets as Christmas presents. On one spot, one could buy a  ticket or promotional items of any theatre in Prague 7. For galleries it is an April event called We’re open. Breakfast is an ideal opportunity to fine-tune what needs to be done. It works great. In addition, now in April there will be a local meeting, a new format: the district was divided into Letná and Holešovice, and we want to invite not only cultural actors, but also representatives of business, entrepreneurs and the creative industry. The idea is to get, for instance, the Alfred ve dvoře theatre to meet with a florist who has her shop two blocks away so that they can make an arrangement to buy flowers for the opening nights from her. Cultural actors are interested in linking in this way, but we do know yet whether the other side would be interested. We will find out.

: But your role is not just organizational or production-focused... HT: Of course, we try to play the role of a networker also outside of these meetings. Often someone comes to me and says that they are looking for premises for an event, so I  look into the database, give them contacts for theatres and galleries and it does happen that these people connect. : There are a lot of civic initiatives among cultural institutions. What do they expect from you? What do they miss most? HT: Already by declaring that we are the Art District change has occurred: these initiatives were formerly used to working in a sense in spite of the municipal district. We have recently introduced individual grants of 10,000 crowns for small community centres or initiatives that they can apply for during the year. These are mainly intended for community events and the grant procedure is accelerated. It was quite a success. We have partially initiated some activities: we wanted to revitalize Řezáčovo náměstí, so we encouraged people to come up with something. A  neighbourhood flea market came into existence that now takes place once a month. We also found a company that organizes farmers’ markets in the square. : In the corridor you have students’ works dealing with the Holešovice embankment revitalization. What is the situation with public contracts in Prague 7? LB: We regularly cooperate with several higher-education institutions, the Faculty of Architecture of the Czech Technical University, Archip, and the Czech Agricultural University. And we use public space projects to show investors what is possible. A number of them have been inspired by student work. There are many public contracts, but only a small part concerns public space. Through student work, we can show on large plots of land that are not entrusted to the municipal district what is possible – and that is not a small thing. : An enlightened investor was also behind the revival of ORCO Palace. Before the reconstruction started, the investor had let the space for low rent to creative firms. But now it’s over... HT: Unfortunately. After we came in the office, we tried to push the Prague Town Hall to buy the building and turn it into the seat of our district town hall, plus anything else. It is a huge space, and Prague Town Hall could have its detached offices there, but the representatives were not interested. So now the house is being rebuilt and there will be offices of some advertising agencies. So we lost one big incubator. We tried to keep some of the initiatives that had to leave in Prague 7, but we have very limited space. : Nevertheless, Prague 7 has its own idea of public space. I mean the planned project where you want to let people use 



city : zen : How did you get this idea? And why did you decide to put it into life? LB: We have been inspired by Nordic countries, for example in Copenhagen, you can place a chair or flower pot with a plant in the street on a very small area about 70 cm from the facade. We see this individualisation of public space as a good direction, but once we started to deal with practical things, we have come across complications. "Borrowing" a piece of the street and getting the approval of the administrator is a rather complicated process. We thought "half a meter, great idea, the street will come alive", but this is not easy in Prague. :

: Hana Třeštíková

50 cm in front of their houses for private purposes, which is an idea I first heard in connection with councillor Lenka Burgerová. LB: We started thinking about giving people the chance to take a chair, a table, a flower pot in front of their house on the street... We are currently consulting what permits are needed. There is one specificity about Prague – that the public space, most of the streets are not managed by the municipal districts, but by Prague City Hall. So we cannot simply decide to organize such a thing, which is something that for example smaller municipalities can do. In Prague we have to "borrow" a piece of street from Technical Communications Administration (TCA). We are looking for a  street where our idea could be realized. The objects to be placed in the street must be a fixed obstacle so as not to complicate movement of the blind and the visually impaired, but at the same time the objects should be mobile, so that someone does not firmly mount something to the street. It all needs to be tested.

And the potential for agreement with TCA?

LB: We communicate with the TCA without any problems, but we have to meet a number of parameters, especially to maintain the minimum width for passage. We face a similar problem with front gardens: we want the streets to be more alive, so that there is something going on, to let people sit there, but we are confronted with the fact that Letná was designed at the end of the 19th century. And nobody anticipated that there would be such an enormous number of cars parking in the street. What we see in many streets is that cars occupy pavement space and we cannot get anything else there because the pavement area is already minimized. : And if you went the opposite way, that is to take the space away from the cars? LB: There are about twenty apartments in a typical house in Letná and in front of each house there is space for four to five cars. This is probably all that needs to be said. The possibility of parking in front of one’s house is perceived by many as their right. Also in the 1930s, when there were already cars in the streets, the developers had the idea that there would be about one car for dozens of families; it was not so that every family had a car. Or two.

: So if the negotiation with the TCA is successful, the proposal will come into effect?

: Talking about the inhabitants, we get to the agenda of neighbourhood relations that Hanka Třeštíková is in charge of. Who came with this idea? What does this mean in practice? It is so important that something like that is not common...

LB: It’s more complicated. There is also the question of pedestrian traffic because there must always remain a sufficiently wide lane on the pavement where people can walk, where a pram or a wheelchair can pass – there is a minimum width of the pavement that we have to keep. The second thing is that the blind and visually impaired should not be confronted with further unpredictable barriers to motion. We are in search for a street where we can test the idea, only then will we ask the TCA for a strip by the facade to test it out. We have to test how the pilot project will work and whether it will not generate a large number of obstacles, for example, for cleaning the pavement.

HT: Well, I don’t know how we got the idea (laughs). A lot of people think that "if someone is stumping over my head," I will come to calm them down. Unfortunately this is not how it works. I cannot interfere in these relationships between people. No politician can take this up. My agenda is rather to promote community development, develop a sense of neighbourhood, intergenerational encounters, etc. It followed naturally, because our motto is "in a cultural district there are good relationships". A good community leads to cultivated neighbourhood; culture and community are interrelated. I think that my agenda is also connected with the fact that I have been

smart : one leading one of the largest community groups in Prague for six or seven years, Letenská parta, an activity I had started long before I joined politics and it is one of the things that helps a lot: it creates a community, even though a virtual one, but it is reflected in real life.

did not want to hire anyone, we wanted relationships to be strictly neighbourly. At the same time, we cannot ask the people to make a commitment, everything is on a voluntary basis, and we only create the conditions for them to meet.


: Are these activities helpful in finding out what seniors want? I have heard from other, for example, cultural institutions that they often do not know the seniors...

And what did you mean by that intergenerational support?

HT: Although we are not a producer of culture, we are organizing and trying to keep events for seniors because it is a segment of society we want to take good care of. We want the seniors to know that they are not forgotten. So through our grants, we try to support any activity focused on seniors or intergenerational encounters. In addition, we organize senior dance evenings and we do trips for seniors. We have also begun, even though it is not yet up and running, a  project called "Grandmother from the neighbourhood" in which we try to connect young families with seniors so that they can look after the children or help each other. So far, we have only a few examples of successful connections. :

How does it work?

HT: Through advertisements, in Hobulet, and then we have bulletin boards in the office and in the information centres where the seniors are quite regular visitors. So it works through classic ads – I am looking for– I offer. Several grandmothers and families have already been matched, but it is a living process, ties are being created and broken.... There are agencies that specialize in this, but we

HT: We have tried intergenerational dance evenings, and to be honest we hear that the senior group feels better when they are only among themselves. When we organized an intergenerational dance evening in Tiskárna na vzduchu, we invited seniors for a coffee and gave them free entry and it was the young people who paid. There were enough young people, but only a  few seniors, because they say they feel older in this mixed society. : It is then perhaps better to bring together seniors and children as in projects where neighbouring kindergartens and retirement homes are visiting each other. HT: Definitely. There is a non-profit organization Mezi námi in Prague 7 that we support. They take the children to the retirement home, and on the other hand, they bring the grandmothers to the kindergarten to read to the children. This is very important for us, and we support those who engage in these activities. And we are trying to figure out what else we can do for them.


25.–26. 4. 2018 Výstaviště Brno


We measure traffic in cities citiq.cz

20 278


Total number of vehicles

Number of vehicles that exceeded the velocity of 90 km/h

Prague, Dvořákovo river bank, 1st July 2017

Directio on to Hlávkův bridge →

Total number of vehicle

4 882

5 059

Number of vehicles that exceeded the velocity of 90 km/h

← Direc ction to Čechů ův bridg ge

Total number of vehicle

2 241

8 096

Number of vehicles that exceeded the velocity of 90 km/h









Profile for CityOne

City one en 01 2018  

It contains smart projects of several CEE cities and focuses mainly on air quality issues.

City one en 01 2018  

It contains smart projects of several CEE cities and focuses mainly on air quality issues.

Profile for cityone