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member medial molding, vertical upper facade, and a three-member cornice crowned by a roof ornament, based on analogy with the common method of wall construction at Chichén Itzá (1931:76).

Construction of the Temple of the Warriors corrected these design flaws. Architects increased the size of the pyramid and temple and added one more upper zone to the Warriors pyramid (Morris, Charlot and Morris 1931:91). Increasing the height of the temple above the colonnade and placing more emphasis on the temple itself by increasing the size of the pyramid and temple in relation to the colonnade made the Temple of the Warriors more imposing.

An atlantean altar stood at the rear of the inner room of the Chac Mool Temple, flanked by a bench on both sides that continued down the end walls (Morris, Charlot and Morris 1931:73-74). Both the altar and the benches were removed from the temple prior to its burial within the platform of the Temple of the Warriors, where the altar was probably reused (Morris, Charlot and Morris 1931:20, 73-74). The first use of an atlantean altar in the stratigraphic sequence on the Great Plaza was in the Chac Mool Temple. The substructure of the Temple of the Chac Mool bears a similar pattern of salient and recessed panels as that decorating the Castillo pyramid (Morris, Charlot and Morris 1931:82, Kubler 1962:180). If Morris’s stratigraphic sequence is correct, designers conformed the substructure of the Chac Mool Temple to the Castillo pyramid. The successful architectural experiment in the design of the Castillo pyramid was not attained at the Chac Mool Temple, however, and the structure must have appeared squat and puny behind its wide colonnade. The temple, for example, was about the same level as, or only slightly higher than, the roof of the colonnade (Morris, Charlot and Morris 1931:89-91), and probably seemed to rest directly upon it. The temple would have been hard to see except from a distance, and the size of the colonnade dwarfed the temple.

Perhaps not over fifty years elapsed between the construction of the Castillo and the Chac Mool Temple (Kubler 1962:180), based primarily on the similar design of their respective substructures. Some evidence suggests that the Chac Mool Temple was not used for long following its completion before the ambitious Chichén builders razed part of it and covered the rest. Morris notes “the plaster accumulation on the exterior wall faces, consisting of only fifteen recognizable coats, is 6 to 9 mm in thickness” (1931:77). This compares with 131 coats of plaster found on areas of the Temple of the Warriors. “From this,” Morris concluded, “it may be inferred that no great length of time intervened between the completion and the destruction of the temple” (1931:77). Possibly this evidence is misleading, or perhaps the plaster was once thicker, but taken together with the architectural evidence it appears that the Chac Mool Temple was not used for long. Kubler’ s estimate of fifty years as the maximum time between the construction of the Castillo and the Chac Mool Temple is reasonable for the 30

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Architecture and Chronology at Chichén Itzá, Yucatán  

Architecture and Chronology at Chichén Itzá, Yucatán