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Usumacinta zone, about 9.19.0.0.0 to 10.0.0.0.0, than it is at Palenque, Altar de Sacrificios, Seibal, Tikal, and Uaxactun, where ceramics of the two groups are estimated to first appear around 10.0.0.0.0 to 10.1.0.0.0 (Rands 1973a:Fig. 8). At about the time Fine Orange Wares of the Altar and Balancan Groups appear in the southern Maya lowlands the Classic tradition at these sites ceased. Whether the peoples responsible for bringing the Fine Orange ceramics to the southern centers were directly responsible for the Classic Maya collapse is not settled (Culbert 1973). In any case, the Fine Orange ceramics appearing in the southern Maya lowlands are closely related to the Fine Orange types at Uxmal and Kabah, presumably during the same Pure Florescent temporal horizon as Puuc Chichén Itzá. About the same time as this Fine Orange horizon in the southern Maya lowlands, a sculptural and architectural florescence occurred at Seibal, which can be related in certain aspects to the archaeology of the northern lowlands. In order to place Chichén Itzá within the context of regional developments, it is necessary to discuss archaeological relationships in ceramics, sculpture, and architecture following the Classic Maya collapse in the south with the cultures of the northern Maya lowlands. In ceramics, the pottery of the Bayal Ceramic Complex from Seibal on the Pasión is closely related to pottery of the Cehpech Ceramic Complex at Uxmal and Kabah, through the Fine Paste ceramics present in both areas. The list below of the Fine Paste ceramics from the Cehpech and Bayal Ceramic Complexes indicates this relationship (Smith 1971, Sabloff 1970). The most obvious observation from a comparison of the simple presence of types of Fine Paste ceramics from Uxmal or Kabah and Seibal is the correspondence of four ceramic types to the variety level in the Altar Group Fine Orange pottery of the two ceramic complexes. The Balancan Group of Fine Orange Wares provides less striking associations, where the two areas share only two related ceramic types, and the lack of Fine Gray Wares in this ceramic complex in the north contrasts with their presence at Seibal. At Seibal, where ceramic classification was based on over 2,000 Fine Paste sherds and eleven whole vessels in burials and caches (Sabloff 1970:361), Fine Paste ceramics of the Altar Group seem to predominate simply in number of specimens, whereas of the Fine Orange Wares that Smith listed for the Cehpech Ceramic Complex, about nine out of ten sherds belonged to ceramics of the Balancan Group (1971:160). Thus, although ceramics of both the Altar and Balancan Groups occur at sites in both the northern and southern lowlands, Fine Orange pottery of the Altar Group is more common in the south while Fine Orange pottery of the Balancan Group is predominant in the north. Ceramics of the Altar and Balancan Groups probably were closely related chronologically. Perhaps contiguous, culturally related peoples, possibly from the

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Profile for CityofMesa

Architecture and Chronology at Chichén Itzá, Yucatán  

Architecture and Chronology at Chichén Itzá, Yucatán