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be associated with another two-chambered building. A small platform characteristically sits in the center of the courtyard, which on the west side is usually open. This courtyard design shares only the most general parallels with the arrangements of buildings in the central sections of the site. Outlying groups do not repeat the functional complex of types and the arrangement of structures on the east side of the main plaza and repeated on the east side of the Court of the Columns. Since some of the outlying groups were built at the same time as some of the major construction on the main plaza and the Court of the Columns, the differences in building types and courtyard arrangement must be explained as functional rather than chronological differences. In addition to general courtyard arrangement, the distribution of two types of structures underscores the functional differences between the main plaza and Court of the Columns and the outlying groups. Of the nine ball courts at Chichén Itzá, none is found in the seven outlying groups just discussed. Although there is a ball court at the Far East Group, and another at the Chultun Group (Ruppert 1952:151, 153), all six of the ball courts within the area covered by the Kilmartin-O’Neill map of the site are located in the central sections of Chichén Itzá. On the other hand, gallery patio structures are very important buildings in the outlying groups, where a total of eight are known, including at least one in six of the seven groups discussed above. Only two gallery patio structures occur in the central sections of the site, the Mercado

and structure 2D6. Although the Mercado is obviously an important building on the Court of the Columns, structure 2D6 is the most atypical of all the gallery patio buildings, the patio being entered through a colonnade rather than a simple gallery. Thus the distribution of certain types of structures emphasizes differences observed based on courtyard arrangement. The distribution of certain sculptures may also reflect these differences, for of the 14 chac mool figures Ruppert listed from Chichén Itzá, only two come from an outlying group, the Group of the Initial Series (1952:166). The greatest difficulty in assessing the outlying groups is the problem of the relative chronological position of the buildings and clusters in the architectural history of the site. In part this is the result of lack of excavation in these areas, with the consequent paucity of stratigraphic and architectural information, and in part it is the result of the difficulty of interpreting information even when data are available. The most difficult chronological problem is specifying structures early in the Chichén sequence. Although four of the seven outlying groups grew up around structures of the Pure Florescent period, none of the other outlying building can be placed early in the Modified Florescent sequence with the same degree of confidence as the Caracol or the Castillo-sub in the central section of the site. Slim evidence makes elusive those structures that might be the earliest Modified Florescent structures in the outlying groups. Of the seven clusters of buildings, the Group of the 129

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Architecture and Chronology at Chichén Itzá, Yucatán  

Architecture and Chronology at Chichén Itzá, Yucatán