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the genitals. The exposed genitals recall the low relief sculpture on the pilasters of the Mercado, where possibly the genitals are exposed. The similarity of the long beveled jamb stones in the Temple of the Little Heads to the corner stones of the Mercado slightly strengthens the association of these two structures. The original location is unknown of the atlantean bench or altar subsequently deposited in a pile at the rear of the Temple of the Little Heads. Because the two complete atlanteans vary in height from 63 to 82 cm, and only parts of other figures remain, most probably the bench or altar was destroyed before the remains were repositioned where they were found. Seler reported that the variation among the atlantean figures in the Temple of the Little Tables is from 64 to 88 cm, and postulated their reuse. Perhaps the slabs and atlanteans in the Temple of the Little Heads came from the same source as the slabs and atlanteans in the Temple of the Little Tables (Seler 5:277). In any case, the association of the Temple of the Little Heads with two structures from the Court of the Columns that might be related chronologically is possibly the best indication of the relative position of this structure in the architectural history of the site. The Temple of the Owls, a single chambered structure entered through a triple doorway, is the south building of this small court. Sculptors carved owls and plaited tapes on the sides of the columns and a plant motif on the front. Pilasters in the doorway and in the entrance to a shrine in the rear of the structure

Temple of the Owls (5C7) Ruppert 1952:Fig. 88

were sculptured with owls and plaited tapes on the front and rear, and owls only on the side (Ruppert 1952:124, Fig. 146a, Tozzer 1957:Fig. 98). Neither plaited tapes nor owls are particularly diagnostic features at Chichén Itzá. Plaited tapes occur nearby as pectorals on the large atlanteans from the Temple of the Atlantean Columns (5C15), but they are also found at the Red House, the Lower Jaguar Temple, the Venus Platform (2D4), and as adornment on figures 16N and 6OE in the Northwest Colonnade (Tozzer 1957:9697). A figure wearing a plaited tape from the Northeast Colonnade also wears a bird headdress, although it cannot be identified as an owl (Ricketson 1927:11). Of the many birds in the sculpture at Chichén Itzá, owls are surely identified only at the Temple of the Wall Panels (Ruppert 1931:130-131, Pl. 11), but at the North Ball Court Temple birds, plaited tapes, and foliage are all found in the scenes. Phallic sacrifice is a theme in the vault sculpture of 104

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Architecture and Chronology at Chichén Itzá, Yucatán  

Architecture and Chronology at Chichén Itzá, Yucatán