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KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT PLAN IMPLEMENTATION PLAN MONITORING & EVALUATION PLAN PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM FOR THE GREATER KOKSTAD MUNICIPALITY NOVEMBER 2012


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KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

CITY

THINK SPACE

Document prepared by the City Think Space team, including: City Think Space Meshfield Lees & Short Associated Architects DPA Project Managers & Associates Dugan Fraser Palmer Development Group Jeffares & Green Emergy John Spiropolous

November 2012 DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM


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CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION ������������������������������������� 11 1.1. PURPOSE OF THIS REPORT����������������� 11 1.2. STRUCTURE OF THIS REPORT������������� 11 PART I BACKGROUND��������������������������������������� 12 2.

POLICY ALIGNMENT������������������������������ 13

PART II STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT & IMPLEMENTATION PLAN�������������������� 30 9.

THE STORIES������������������������������������������ 31

PART III THE WAY FORWARD���������������������������� 156 11. MONITORING & EVALUATION������������� 157

PART IV ANNEXURES & APPENDICES������������������������������������� 162 13. ANNEXURES����������������������������������������� 163

9.1. INSTITUTIONS����������������������������������������� 33

11.1. MONITORING & REPORTING APPROACH ������������������������������������������ 157

2.2. HIGH-LEVEL POLICY DIRECTIVES INFORMING THE ISDP���������������������������� 13

9.2. CROSSROADS���������������������������������������� 39

11.2. EVALUATION APPROACH ����������������� 157

9.3. TOWN������������������������������������������������������� 61

11.3. CAPACITY CONSIDERATIONS ����������� 157

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ISDP SUSTAINABILITY FRAMEWORK�� 14

9.4. INFRASTRUCTURE��������������������������������� 97

11.4. THE SUSTAINABILITY SURVEY ��������� 157

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THE KEY ISSUES ARISING FROM THE STATUS QUO������������������������������������������� 14

9.5. NATURAL RESOURCES������������������������ 117

11.5. THE GREEN AMBASSADORS������������� 157

9.6. AGRICULTURE�������������������������������������� 133

DEVELOPMENT PRINCIPLES���������������� 16

10. IMPLEMENTATION PLAN SYNTHESIS148

11.6. INDICATORS FOR MONITORING & REPORTING PURPOSES ��������������������� 157

13.4. ANNEXURE D: POPULATION GROWTH ACCOMMODATED IN THE PLAN���������� 178

12. CONCLUSION AND WAY FORWARD��� 161

13.5. ANNEXURE E: STREETS��������������������� 180

2.1. ALIGNMENT BETWEEN POLICY DIRECTIVES AND THE ISDP������������������ 13

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5.1. GUIDING DEVELOPMENT PRINCIPLES16 5.2. SUSTAINABILITY PRINCIPLES��������������� 16 5.3. URBAN DESIGN & SETTLEMENT PRINCIPLES�������������������������������������������� 18 6.

GREEN AMBASSADOR PROGRAMME� 20

13.1. ANNEXURE A: STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT����������� 163 13.2. ANNEXURE B: SCENARIOS���������������� 164 13.3................................................................. ANNEXURE C: PRECEDENT���������������� 168

13.6. ANNEXURE F: SETTLEMENT RESPONSE PROGRAMME EXPANDED INTRODUCTION ����������������������������������� 188 14. APPENDICES���������������������������������������� 192

6.1. OVERVIEW����������������������������������������������� 20 6.2. FOUNDATION PHASE PROGRAMME���� 20 6.3. CONSOLIDATION PHASE����������������������� 20 6.4. SUSTAIN OUR AFRICA CONFERENCE�� 21 7.

DEVELOPMENT SCENARIOS���������������� 22

7.1. MUNICIPAL SERVICES FINANCIAL MODEL RESULTS������������������������������������ 24 7.2. ECO-FUTURES MODEL RESULTS��������� 26 8.

ISDP STRATEGIC OUTCOMES & STRATEGIES������������������������������������������� 28

8.1. DESIRED OUTCOME FOR KOKSTAD AND FRANKLIN������������������������������������������������ 28 8.2. THE 5 MAIN STRATEGIES���������������������� 28 FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012


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KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

LIST OF FIGURES

FIG  23.  TOWN III - FRANKLIN ���������������������������������������������������� 48

FIG  57.  PLOTS: 5 - 20 DU/HA NETT DENSITY ������������������������� 87

FIG  24.  NEIGHBOURHOOD ACTIVITY NODE: ECONOMIC & INFORMATION COMPONENT��������������������������������������� 50

FIG  58.  PLOTS: 15 - 25 DU/HA NETT DENSITY ����������������������� 87

FIG  26.  TOWN / STATUS QUO / ACCESS����������������������������������� 62 FIG  25.  TOWN / STRATEGY / ACCESS�������������������������������������� 62 FIG  27.  TOWN / STATUS QUO / INTEGRATION������������������������� 63 FIG  28.  TOWN / STRATEGY/ INTEGRATION������������������������������ 63 FIG  29.  TOWN / STATUS QUO / DIVERSITY������������������������������ 64 FIG  30.  TOWN / STRATEGY / DIVERSITY���������������������������������� 64 FIG  31.  TOWN I - KOKSTAD�������������������������������������������������������� 66 FIG  1.  STRUCTURE OF THE REPORT��������������������������������������� 10 FIG  2.  THE SAFE AND JUST SPACE FOR HUMANITY�������������� 15 FIG 3. SOCIAL FOUNDATION ���������������������������������������������������� 15 FIG  4.  “SEEDS OF SUSTAINABILITY” MOVIES�������������������������� 20 FIG  5.  PREPARATION FOR AWARENESS RAISING SESSIONS ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������20 FIG 6. GREEN AMBASSADORS’ BLOG�������������������������������������� 21 FIG  7.  SUSTAIN OUR AFRICA CONFERENCE��������������������������� 21 FIG  8.  SUSTAIN OUR AFRICA CONFERENCE ARTICLE����������� 21 FIG 9. CAPITAL EXPENDITURE�������������������������������������������������� 24 FIG 10. OPERATING RESULT����������������������������������������������������� 24 FIG  11.  CAPITAL FINANCE SOURCES��������������������������������������� 24 FIG  12.  KOKSTAD’S ECOSYSTEM SERVICES�������������������������� 26 FIG  13.  FRANKLIN’S ECOSYSTEM SERVICES SUPPLY LEVELS IN THE DIFFERENT SCENARIOS��������������������������������� 26 FIG  14.  ECOSYSTEM SERVICES SUPPLY LEVELS IN THE DIFFERENT SCENARIOS ��������������������������������������������� 27 FIG  15.  THE STORIES WITH INSTITUTIONS AS FOUNDATION ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������31 FIG  16.  CROSSROADS / STATUS QUO / GOODS��������������������� 40 FIG  17.  CROSSROADS / STRATEGY / GOODS������������������������� 40 FIG  18.  CROSSROADS / STATUS QUO / PEOPLE�������������������� 41 FIG  19.  CROSSROADS / STRATEGY / PEOPLE������������������������ 41 FIG  20.  CROSSROADS / STATUS QUO / TOURISM������������������ 43 FIG  21.  CROSSROADS / STRATEGY / TOURISM���������������������� 43 FIG  22.  TOWN III - KOKSTAD������������������������������������������������������ 48 DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

FIG  32.  TOWN I - FRANKLIN ������������������������������������������������������ 66 FIG  33.  TOWN II - KOKSTAD������������������������������������������������������� 72 FIG  34.  TOWN II - FRANKLIN ����������������������������������������������������� 72 FIG  35.  ILLUSTRATIVE STREET SECTIONS����������������������������� 73 FIG  36.  MAIN STREET EXISTING����������������������������������������������� 74 FIG  37.  MAIN STREET [PROPOSED ACTIVITY STREET]��������� 74 FIG  38.  NKULULEKO STREET EXISTING���������������������������������� 75 FIG  39.  NKULULEKO STREET [PROPOSED GREEN STREET]75 FIG  40.  TYPICAL 6M STREET EXISTING����������������������������������� 75 FIG  41.  TYPICAL 6M STREET PROPOSAL�������������������������������� 75 FIG  42.  GUIDELINES FOR GREEN STREETS��������������������������� 76 FIG  43.  GUIDELINES FOR ACTIVITY STREETS������������������������ 77 FIG  45.  TOWN III - KOKSTAD������������������������������������������������������ 78 FIG  44.  TOWN III - FRANKLIN ���������������������������������������������������� 78 FIG  46.  SPATIAL DEFINITION GUIDELINES������������������������������� 80 FIG 47. SURVEILLANCE GUIDELINES��������������������������������������� 81 FIG 48. SURVEILLANCE GUIDELINES��������������������������������������� 81 FIG  49.  TOWN IV - KOKSTAD����������������������������������������������������� 82 FIG  53.  TOWN IV - FRANKLIN ���������������������������������������������������� 82

FIG  59.  PLOTS: 35 - 50 DU/HA NETT DENSITY ����������������������� 87 FIG  60.  INFILL AT 20 - 25 DU/HA NETT DENSITY���������������������� 87 FIG  61.  A DIAGRAM OF Z-SQUARED INFRASTRUCTURE������� 97 FIG  62.  THE Z-SQUARED CONCEPT DRAWING ���������������������� 97 FIG  63.  INFRASTRUCTURE / STATUS QUO / WATER�������������� 98 FIG  64.  INFRASTRUCTURE / STRATEGY / WATER������������������ 98 FIG  65.  INFRASTRUCTURE / STATUS QUO / WASTE�������������� 99 FIG  66.  INFRASTRUCTURE / STRATEGY / WASTE������������������ 99 FIG  67.  INFRASTRUCTURE / STATUS QUO/ ENERGY����������� 100 FIG  68.  INFRASTRUCTURE / STRATEGY / ENERGY�������������� 100 FIG  69.  INFRASTRUCTURE/STATUS QUO/GROWTH PLANS101 FIG  71.  INFRASTRUCTURE I - KOKSTAD�������������������������������� 102 FIG  70.  INFRASTRUCTURE I - FRANKLIN ������������������������������ 102 FIG  73.  SUDS: SOURCE CONTROLS��������������������������������������� 103 FIG  72.  SUDS: LOCAL CONTROLS������������������������������������������ 103 FIG  74.  SUDS: REGIONAL CONTROLS����������������������������������� 103 FIG  76.  INFRASTRUCTURE II - KOKSTAD������������������������������� 104 FIG  75.  INFRASTRUCTURE II - FRANKLIN ����������������������������� 104 FIG  77.  HARNESSING WASTE TO ENERGY POTENTIAL������� 105 FIG  79.  INFRASTRUCTURE III - KOKSTAD������������������������������ 106 FIG  78.  INFRASTRUCTURE III - FRANKLIN ���������������������������� 106 FIG  80.  WASTE MANAGEMENT DIAGRAM������������������������������ 107 FIG  82.  INFRASTRUCTURE IV- KOKSTAD������������������������������� 108 FIG  81.  INFRASTRUCTURE IV - FRANKLIN ���������������������������� 108 FIG 83. MICRO-UTILITY������������������������������������������������������������ 109 FIG  84.  DIVERSIFIED ENERGY SOURCES����������������������������� 109

FIG 50. SOCIAL COMPONENT��������������������������������������������������� 82

FIG  85.  NATURAL RESOURCES/STATUS QUO/ECOSYSTEMS �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 118

FIG  51.  SOCIAL AND COMMERCIAL COMPONENTS��������������� 82

FIG 86. BIODIVERSITY CORRIDORS��������������������������������������� 118

FIG  52.  ALL USES������������������������������������������������������������������������82

FIG 87. NATURAL RESOURCES/STRATEGY/ECOSYSTEMS� 118

FIG 54. NEIGHBOURHOOD ACTIVITY NODE���������������������������� 84

FIG  88.  NATURAL RESOURCES/STATUS QUO/POLLUTION� 119

FIG  55.  TOWN IV - KOKSTAD����������������������������������������������������� 86

FIG  89.  NATURAL RESOURCES / STRATEGY / POLLUTION� 119

FIG  56.  TOWN IV - FRANKLIN ���������������������������������������������������� 86


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FIG  90.  NATURAL RESOURCES / STATUS QUO /OPEN SPACE �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 119

FIG  116.  NEIGHBOURHOOD ACTIVITY NODE : AGRICULTURE COMPONENT��������������������������������������������������������������� 142

FIG  91.  NATURAL RESOURCES / STRATEGY /OPEN SPACE119

FIG  117.  KOKSTAD SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEM��������������� 143

FIG  93.  NATURAL RESOURCES- KOKSTAD���������������������������� 120

FIG  118.  A NETWORK OF GROWERS�������������������������������������� 144

FIG  92.  NATURAL RESOURCES - FRANKLIN ������������������������� 120

FIG  120.  DEVELOPMENT PLAN - KOKSTAD��������������������������� 160

FIG  94.  CONSERVATION CORRIDORS AND PROTECTED AREAS��������������������������������������������������������������������������121

FIG  119.  DEVELOPMENT PLAN - FRANKLIN �������������������������� 160

FIG  96.  NATURAL RESOURCES- KOKSTAD���������������������������� 124 FIG  95.  NATURAL RESOURCES - FRANKLIN ������������������������� 124 FIG  97.  NEIGHBOURHOOD ACTIVITY NODES: PARK COMPONENT��������������������������������������������������������������� 126 FIG 98. NEIGHBOURHOOD ACTIVITY NODES: PLAYGROUND COMPONENT������������������������������������� 126 FIG  99.  THE GREEN-HEART PARK ����������������������������������������� 127 FIG  100.  WELL-USED URBAN PARK���������������������������������������� 127 FIG  101.  NEIGHBOURHOOD ACTIVITY NODE: 3D PERSPECTIVE������������������������������������������������������������� 128 FIG  103.  BOUNDARY LINE GUIDELINES��������������������������������� 129 FIG  102.  BOUNDARY LINE GUIDELINES��������������������������������� 129 FIG  104.  AGRICULTURE / STATUS QUO / AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES������������������������������������������������������������������ 134

FIG  121.  KOKSTAD DEVELOPMENT PLAN - PERSPECTIVE� 160 FIG 122. NEIGHBOURHOOD ACTIVITY NODE������������������������ 160 FIG 123. GREEN FREIGHT: ������������������������������������������������������ 169 FIG  125.  Z-SQUARED INFRASTRUCTURE DIAGRAM������������ 172 FIG  124.  THE Z-SQUARED CONCEPT DRAWING ������������������ 172 FIG  126.  COMPARISON OF GREEN SPACE PER CAPITA������ 174 FIG  127.  FIG  11.  NATURAL CONNECTIVITY SHOULD BE MAINTAINED OR RESTORED ����������������������������������� 175 FIG  128.  BELO HORIZONTE FOOD PROGRAMME: RESULTS ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������176 FIG 129. MAIN STREET������������������������������������������������������������� 180 FIG 130. NKULULEKO STREET������������������������������������������������ 181 FIG  131.  TYPICAL 6M STREET EXISTING������������������������������� 181 FIG  132.  TYPICAL 6M STREET PROPOSAL���������������������������� 181

FIG  105.  AGRICULTURE / STRATEGY / AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES������������������������������������������������������������������ 134

FIG 133. ELLIOT STREET��������������������������������������������������������� 182

FIG  106.  AGRICULTURE / STATUS QUO / AGRICULTURE SUPPLY CHAINS���������������������������������������������������������� 135

FIG  135.  MNYAIZA /MOYANA STREET������������������������������������� 183

FIG  107.  AGRICULTURE / STRATEGY / AGRICULTURAL SUPPLY CHAINS���������������������������������������������������������� 135

FIG  137.  THE AVENUE�������������������������������������������������������������� 185

FIG  108.  AGRICULTURE / STATUS QUO / INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS�������������������������������������������������������� 136

FIG 134. BARKER STREET������������������������������������������������������� 182 FIG 136. MURRAY STREET������������������������������������������������������ 184 FIG  138.  DOWER / NKQUBELA STREET��������������������������������� 186

FIG  109.  AGRICULTURE / STRATEGY / INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS�������������������������������������������������������� 136 FIG  111.  AGRICULTURE - KOKSTAD���������������������������������������� 138 FIG  110.  AGRICULTURE - FRANKLIN �������������������������������������� 138 FIG  114.  AGROECOLOGY PILOT FARM WITH SETTLEMENT EDGE����������������������������������������������������������������������������140 FIG 113. SMALL HOLDINGS ����������������������������������������������������� 140 FIG 112. COMMONAGE������������������������������������������������������������� 140 FIG 115. URBAN AGRICULTURE���������������������������������������������� 141 FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012


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KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

LIST OF PHOTOS

PHOTO 23. GRASSLANDS, KOKSTAD������������������������������������� 118

PHOTO  53.  FAROL DO SABER, CURITIBA������������������������������ 171

PHOTO 25. STORMWATER POLLUTION��������������������������������� 119

PHOTO  54.  WASTE SORTING FACILITY, CURITIBA, BRAZIL� 173

PHOTO  24.  POSITIVE INTERFACE WITH EDGE��������������������� 119

PHOTO  55.  INTERVIEW WITH CURITIBA PLANNERS������������ 174

PHOTO  26.  UNMANAGED OPEN SPACE��������������������������������� 119

PHOTO  56.  BARIQUI PARK IN CURITIBA �������������������������������� 174

PHOTO  27.  POSITIVE OPEN SPACE��������������������������������������� 119

PHOTO  59.  URBAN NATURE INTERFACE������������������������������� 175

PHOTO  28.  SEA POINT PROMENADE������������������������������������� 129

PHOTO  57.  ACTIVE USE OF RIVERLANDS����������������������������� 175

PHOTO 29. GRAAFF REINET��������������������������������������������������� 129

PHOTO 58. CREATE APPROPRIATE BIODIVERSITY CORRIDORS���������������������������������������������������������������� 175

PHOTO  30.  BELO HORIZONTE VEGETABLE MARKET���������� 133

PHOTO  1.  LOCALISE INITIATIVE IN THE USA��������������������������� 39

PHOTO  31.  ARTIFICIAL FERTILISERS AND AGRICULTURAL INPUTS�������������������������������������������������������������������������134

PHOTO  60.  BELO HORIZONTE VEGETABLE MARKET���������� 176 PHOTO  61.  BELO HORIZONTE PUBLIC RESTAURANT��������� 176

PHOTO 32. PERMACULTURE AGRICULTURE, THAILAND����� 134

PHOTO 62. KWAXOLO CHICKENS ����������������������������������������� 177

PHOTO  3.  LOCAL VEGETABLE MARKET���������������������������������� 40

PHOTO  33.  CLOVER MILK TRUCK TAKING MILK TO PIETERMARITZBURG������������������������������������������������� 135

PHOTO 63. KWAXOLO CHICKENS ABATTOIR������������������������ 177

PHOTO  4.  DOWER STR TAXI RANK, KOKSTAD������������������������ 41

PHOTO  34.  LOCAL DAIRY, PRINCE ALBERT��������������������������� 135

PHOTO  5.  LOCAL VEGETABLE MARKET���������������������������������� 41

PHOTO  35.  VEGETABLE GARDEN IN KOKSTAD (ABOVE), HAZELNUT PLANTATION NEAR FRANKLIN (BELOW) ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������136

PHOTO  2.  SHOPRITE CENTRE, HOPE STR, KOKSTAD����������� 40

PHOTO 6. N2, KOKSTAD������������������������������������������������������������� 42 PHOTO  7.  THE ROLLING HIGHWAY - TRANSPORTING TRUCKS BY RAIL��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 42 PHOTO  9.  ENGEN SERVICE STATEMENT, N2,, KOKSTAD����� 43 PHOTO 8. GUIDE TO MALOTI-DRAKENSBERG AREA������������� 43 PHOTO 10. BOGOTA, COLUMBIA���������������������������������������������� 61 PHOTO  12.  SHAYAMOYA AND KOKSTAD CENTRAL - TWO TOWNS���������������������������������������������������������������������������62

PHOTO 36. KWAXOLO CHICKEN ABATTOIR�������������������������� 136 PHOTO  37.  OPPORTUNITY AND UPWARD MOBILITY FOR EMERGING FARMERS������������������������������������������������ 137 PHOTO  38.  IMAGE OF KEYLINE DAM AND PLOUGH������������� 140 PHOTO  40.  ALLOTMENTS FROM THE AIR������������������������������ 141 PHOTO 41. FOOD FOREST������������������������������������������������������ 141

PHOTO  11.  DENSIFICATION AND INTENSIFICATION AROUND MOVEMENT CORRIDORS�������������������������������������������� 62

PHOTO 39. ECO-SCHOOL�������������������������������������������������������� 141

PHOTO  13.  SOCIAL INITIATIVES IN ISOLATION����������������������� 63

PHOTO  44.  LOCALISE INITIATIVE IN THE USA����������������������� 168

PHOTO  14.  LACK OF NMT FACILITIES, KOKSTAD������������������� 64

PHOTO  43.  LAKSHMAN SAGAR, RAJASTHAN, INDIA.����������� 168

PHOTO 15. VPUU ACTIVE BOXES��������������������������������������������� 80

PHOTO  45.  MOBILE CLINICS ������������������������������������������������ 169

PHOTO 16. VPUU ACTIVE POS�������������������������������������������������� 81

PHOTO 46. SHAYAMOYA ��������������������������������������������������������� 170

PHOTO 17. MOTOMACHI STREET, YOKOHAMA���������������������� 81 PHOTO  18.  LANDFILL SITE, SHAYAMOYA, KOKSTAD�������������� 99

PHOTO  47.  MIXED-DENSITY, MIXED-USE DEVELOPMENT IN NORWAY����������������������������������������������������������������������� 170

PHOTO  19.  WASTE SORTING, CURITIBA���������������������������������� 99

PHOTO  48.  LIVABLE STREETS FOR THE FUTURE���������������� 170

PHOTO  20.  HOUSING DEVELOPMENT, SHAYAMOYA, KOKSTAD��������������������������������������������������������������������� 100

PHOTO  49.  BOGOTA COMPLETE STREETS��������������������������� 170

PHOTO  21.  POTHOLE ON A PROVINCIAL ROAD������������������� 101

PHOTO 50. ELEMENTAL_PARAISOPOLIS������������������������������� 171

PHOTO  22.  BARIQUI PARK IN CURITIBA �������������������������������� 117

PHOTO 51. LANGA, CAPE TOWN�������������������������������������������� 171

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PHOTO 42. KWAXOLO CHICKEN ABATTOIR�������������������������� 143

PHOTO  52.  ELEMENTAL HOUSING PROJECT, CHILE ���������� 171


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KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

GLOSSARY

ACRONYMS

Dwelling unit density (du/ha): Number of dwelling units per hectare.

AD – Anaerobic Digesters

Population density: Number of people per hectare (usually calculated by multiplying the number of units by an estimated average household size). Nett density (du/ha): Number of dwelling units per hectare of land calculated on the basis of land used for residential purposes, including the garden and any off-street parking. Gross density (du/ha): Number of dwelling units per hectare of land calculated on the basis of all land uses integrated within residential areas including residential, light industrial, commercial, education, transport and parks - as well as roads. Excluded are land-extensive uses such as agriculture and nature reserves. Gross base density (du/ha): Number of dwelling units per hectare within the urban edge. Ecosystem services: Services that are generated by the natural environment, which enhance human well-being, and are directly used by people. Smart growth: General term for policies that result in more compact, accessible development.

BEC – Bicycle Empowerment Centre

IGRFA – The Intergovernmental Relations Framework Act

NCCR – The National Climate Change Response NDP – National Development

IPP – Independent Power Producers

NDP – National Development Plan

CBA – Critical Biodiversity Areas

IRDP – Integrated Residential Development Programme

NDPG – The National Treasury’s Neighbouhood Development Partnership Grant

CBD – Central Business District

IRP – Integrated Resource Plan

CFC – Chlorofluorocarbon

ISDP – Integrated Sustainable Development Plan

NEMA – The National Environmental Management Act

BEN – Bicycle Empowerment Network

CFL – Compact Fluorescent Lamp CHP – Combined Heat and Power CLIQ – Community based Learning ICTs and Quality of Life CRDP – The Comprehensive Rural Development Programme CRU – Community Residential Units CSIR – Council for Scientific and Industrial Research DAFF – Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries

NER – National Energy Regulator

IWF – Integrated Waste Facility

NGO – Non-Governmental Organisation

IWFM – Integrated Waste Management Facility

OECD – Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development

KISDP – Kokstad Integrated Sustainable Development Plan KISS – Kokstad Integrated Sustainable Settlements KPPCL – The KwaXolo Processing Primary Cooperative Limited KTO – Kokstad Tourism Organisation

P&DP – Pilot and/or Demonstration Projects PDP – Project Development Phase PES – Payment for Ecosystem Services PGDS – Provincial Growth and Development Strategy

KZN – KwaZulu Natal

PGWC – Provincial Government of the Western Cape

DBSA – The Development Bank of South Africa

LED – Local Economic Development

PIP – Project Implementation Phase

DoHS – Department of Human Settlements

LPG – Liquefied Petroleum Gas

PM – Particular Matter

DTI – Department of Trade and Industry

LUMS – Land Use Management System

POS – Public Open Space

DWA – Department of Water Affairs

LUPDM – Land Use Planning and Decision Making

PPP – Public-Private Partnership

ECT – Economic Cooperation Triangle EPW – Expanded Public Works EPWP – Expanded Public Works Programme ESA – Ecological Support Areas

MDG – Millennium Development Goals MFMA – Municipal Financial Management Act MIG – Municipal Infrastructure Grant

PTP – Public Transport Plan PV – Photovoltaic RDP – Residential Development Plan

MM – Municipal Manager

SANRAL – South African National Roads Agency Limited

MoT – Ministry of Transport

SANS – South African National Standards

MoU – Memorandum of Agreement

SDF – Spatial Development Framework

GA – Green Ambassador

MRF – Materials Recycling Facility

SHI – Social Housing Initiative

GAP – Green Ambassador Programme

MSFM – Municipal Services Financial Model

SHRA – South African Heritage Resource Act

GKM – Greater Kokstad Municipality

NAFCOC – National African Federated Chamber of Commerce and Industry

SOA – Sustain our Africa

FET – Further Education & Training FLISP – Finance Linked Individual Subsidy Programme

IDP – Integrated Development Plan DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

IGR – Intergovernmental Relations

SP – Strategic Planning


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SuDS – Sustainable Drainage Systems URZ – Urban Re-structuring Zone VOC – Volatile Organic Compound WAS – Waste Activated Sludge WFW – Working for Water WRC – Water Research Commission of South Africa WSA – Water Services Authority WSUD – Water Sensitive Urban Design WTW – Water Treatment Works WWTW – Waste Water Treatment Works ZW – Zero Waste

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KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

POLICY ALIGNMENT SUSTAINABILITY FRAMEWORK THE KEY ISSUES ARISING FROM THE STARUS QUO PART I

DEVELOPMENT PRNCIPLES GREEN AMBASSADOR PROGRAMME DEVELOPMENT SCENARIOS ISDP STRATEGIC OUTCOMES STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT PLAN INSTITUTIONS CROSSROADS

PART II

TOWN INFRASTRUCTURE NATURAL RESOURCES AGRICULTURE IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

PART III

MONITORING & EVALUATION CONCLUSION

ANNEXURES APPENDICIES (CD) Fig 1. STRUCTURE OF THE REPORT DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN


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1.

INTRODUCTION

1.1. PURPOSE OF THIS REPORT The Integrated Sustainable Development Plan (ISDP) is a long-term plan aimed at putting the towns of Kokstad and Franklin on to a path of sustainability, building resilience to climate change, energy challenges and social and economic forces. The plan integrates existing plans and strategies (IDPs, SDFs, LED strategies, housing plans and so on) into a coherent, integrated plan that will put Kokstad onto a path of sustainability. The foundation of the Integrated Sustainable Development Plan for Kokstad and Franklin is the Development Charter. In the charter the GKM community and development partners commit to change, working and planning together with organised stakeholders for a new sustainable trajectory for development, pursuing sustainable and functionally integrated development practices. The charter embraces a new mindset to ensure the sustainability of future development initiatives and projects, especially where shortterm expediency may tempt compromise. The aim is to achieve sustainable service delivery, building on local assets and knowledge and exploiting the economic potential of the region for the equitable benefit of all people of the GKM. The principles of justice, zero waste, resource resilience and food security, support for the vulnerable, safety, respect for diversity and heritage are central to the ISDP. The Charter was developed and signed by the GKM under the guidance of the Development Bank of South Africa (DBSA) as part of the DBSA’s Sustainable Communities Programme. The outcomes of the implementation of this plan should be that Kokstad and Franklin operate better socially, economically, spatially and environmentally. The long-term, 25-year time horizon for this plan implies that these outcomes should be sustainable into the future.

The intended outcome of this process is a set of clearly defined and co-developed strategic objectives that are both meaningful and resonant to the communities of Kokstad and Franklin, and that provide visionary direction, strategic clarity and a clear pathway to programmes and projects for the next twenty-five years. At the same time these strategic objectives, programmes and plans should be viewed as living, breathing objectives that may adapt over time in response to feedback and learning as Kokstad and Franklin embark on pathways to sustainable development. This report is a synthesis of three separate interim products - the Draft Strategy Report, the Draft Development Plan Posters, and the Draft Implementation Plan Report - that were individually presented at workshops with the ISDP Steering Committee, senior Greater Kokstad Municipality (GKM) officials, councilors, and stakeholders, as well as representatives from the DBSA (project leaders), between June and October 2012. The comments and feedback produced by those interactions have been incorporated into this final document. For a complete record of the stakeholder engagement that took place please see Annexure A.

1.2. STRUCTURE OF THIS REPORT Part I of the report outlines the various components that give background to and inform the plan: the policy background and alignment, the sustainability policy framework within which this plan operates, the green ambassador programme and the key issues identified in the status quo analysis. The guiding principles and the five overarching strategies are set out, and various development scenarios are explored. In Part II, the strategy, development and implementation sections are organised around the ISDP ‘stories’: •

INSTITUTIONS

CROSSROADS

TOWN

INFRASTRUCTURE

NATURAL RESOURCES

AGRICULTURE

The establishment of the appropriate governance preconditions for the successful implementation of the ISDP is covered in the ‘Institutions’ story. While the implementation of specific plans, programmes and projects are discussed as part of each story, Part II also considers the overall implementation of the ISDP, looking at how the various components of the plan come together. Part III outlines a monitoring and evaluation plan for seeing the development plan into the future, charts the next steps towards realising the plan, and explains how the products of the ISDP process should be used. Supporting material that is crucial to understanding this report is included in the annexures of this document. Reference information and full versions of the reports prepared by sub-consultants towards the preparation of the ISDP are listed here as appendices and are available digititally.

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POLICY ALIGNMENT SUSTAINABILITY FRAMEWORK THE KEY ISSUES ARISING FROM THE STATUS QUO DEVELOPMENT PRINCIPLES GREEN AMBASSADOR PROGRAMME DEVELOPMENT SCENARIOS ISDP OVERARCHING STRATEGIES

PART I BACKGROUND

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2.

POLICY ALIGNMENT

2.1. ALIGNMENT BETWEEN POLICY DIRECTIVES AND THE ISDP “The purpose of the IDP is to craft a development plan that will truly integrate and harmonize issues and potential of human well-being, economic development and environmental integrity.” (GKM 2012 IDP, page 27) The mission statement of Greater Kokstad Municipality echoes this intention: “Providing sustainable services to communities through optimal and professional deployment of resources and enhancing economic development and a safe and healthy environment”, In addition to the GKM’s current IDP, the ISDP is also working within the following international, national, KZN Provincial Government and GKM policy directives, including: •

The Millennium Development Goals and Global Sustainability Targets,

The Presidential Strategic Outcomes for Government,

The development goals for the GKM as informed by the KZN Provincial Growth and Development Strategy,

The SDF policy recommendations,

The goals of the GKM LED Masterplan, and

The GKM’s Development Charter

The content of these policies is summarised below.

The Millennium Development Goals and Global Sustainability Targets: •

Eradication of extreme poverty and hunger

Achieve universal primary education

Ensuring education and training

Promote gender equality and empower women

Reduce child mortality

Improve Maternal health

Combat HIV/Aids, malaria and other diseases

Ensure environmental sustainability

Develop a global partnership for development

Presidential Strategic Outcomes for Government:

To ensure human needs and utilization of natural resources are in harmony

To create safe, healthy and sustainable living environments

To ensure all work-seekers are employed

To develop a more equitable society

To ensure that all people have access to basic services

To boost investors’ confidence to invest in the GKM

Human and Community Development

To foster social compacts

Strategic Infrastructure

Response to Climate Change

SDF policy recommendations:

Governance and Policy

Spatial Equity

Promote the integration of the social, economic, institutional and physical aspects of land development.

Decent employment through inclusive economic growth

A skilled and capable workforce to support an inclusive economic growth path

An efficient competitive and responsive economic infrastructure network

Vibrant, equitable and sustainable rural communities with food security for all

Sustainable human settlements and improved quality of household life

A responsive, accountable, effective and efficient local government system

Environmental assets and natural resources that are well protected and continually enhanced

Discourage the phenomenon of urban sprawl in urban areas and contribute to the development of more compact towns.

Contribute to the correction of historically distorted spatial patterns of settlement throughout South Africa and the optimum use of existing infrastructure in excess of current needs.

Encourage environmentally sustainable land development practices and processes.

Promote sustainable land development at the required scale in that they should promote land development which is within

The development goals for the GKM were developed based on the provincial goals as outlined in the PGDS and are as follows:

Human Resource Development

All people in South Africa are and feel safe

A comprehensive outline of all the policy informants to the ISDP is provided in the Kokstad and Franklin ISDP Status Quo Report. The following are key policies informing the strategies towards sustainability adopted in this report.

Job creation

To provide strong and decisive leadership

An efficient, effective and development oriented public service and an empowered, fair and inclusive citizenship

A long and healthy life for all South Africans

LED Master Plan strategy goals:

To create options for people on where and how they opt to live, work and play

Improved quality of basic education

2.2. HIGH-LEVEL POLICY DIRECTIVES INFORMING THE ISDP

Promote the sustained protection of the environment; meet the basic needs of all citizens in an affordable way; and, ensure the safe utilization of land by taking into consideration environmental constraints.

Create a better South Africa and contribute to a better and safer Africa and the world

the fiscal, institutional and administrative means of the Republic; promote the establishment of viable communities;

Promote integrated land development in rural and urban areas to support each other.

Promote the availability of residential and employment opportunities in close proximity to or integrated with each other.

Optimise the use of existing resources including such resources related to agriculture, land, minerals, bulk infrastructure, roads, transportation and social facilities.

Promote a diverse combination of land uses, also at the level of individual erven or subdivisions of land.

Development Charter: The GKM Development Charter is the foundation and starting point for the ISDP. In summary, the Development Charter states that the GKM community and development partners commit to change, working and planning together with organized stakeholders for a new sustainable trajectory for development, pursuing sustainable and functionally integrated development practices. The signatories embrace a new mindset to ensure the sustainability of future development initiatives and projects... “especially where short-term expediency may tempt us to compromise. Sustainable service delivery, building on local assets and knowledge and exploiting the economic potential of our region for the equitable benefit of our people are the central aims. The principles of justice, zero waste, resource resilience and food security, support of the vulnerable, safety, respect for diversity and our heritages are the main guides to this process.”

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3. ISDP SUSTAINABILITY FRAMEWORK

4. THE KEY ISSUES ARISING FROM THE STATUS QUO

It is important to note that most of our current modes of planning and delivering services are framed within the context of an old paradigm that does not necessarily recognise the potential impacts of the current global financial crisis, or the realities of some of the latest climate science. The process of the preparation of the ISDP has acknowledged that the achievement of desired outcomes is going to require quite radical thinking for an emerging new paradigm.

The ISDP Status Quo report evaluated the current situation in Kokstad and Franklin in relation to the ISDP Sustainability Framework and in terms of the stories. The following statements provide a high level synopsis of the main outcomes of the status quo report.

To facilitate this shift in thinking, the ISDP processes has used a visual framework (Oxfam GB, 2012) that works with the idea of environmental boundaries and social foundations, each forming an edge to the doughnut, with a “safe and just space for humanity” situated between the two edges, “within the doughnut”. A solid social foundation will only be achieved when basic human needs are met for all, globally. The environmental ceiling forms the outer edge of the doughnut. There are nine planetary boundaries that, if transgressed, could push the earth system into a new state that is no longer able to support human and other life. The aim of the ISDP is to develop strategies and plans that help to move Kokstad’s stories (the essence or lifeblood of Kokstad) towards the safe and just space for humanity. To do this requires the development of shared sustainability goals that are meaningful to all stakeholders and contextually relevant. At the core, the over-arching sustainability goal for Kokstad and Franklin is to foster resilience and agility in the face of impending global climate change, energy and financial shocks and that can both meet the social foundation and stay within the environmental ceiling. For a full explanation of the Sustainability Framework, please see the Status Quo report for this plan.

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INSTITUTIONS The GKM as a municipality is highly committed and very efficient at achieving their determined goals. They are also financially sound. However, some of their goals are misguided in terms of a long-term sustainability perspective. Many actions are based on standard practices that are not sustainable. There is also a lack of overall vision within the municipality - plans are made on a project-to-project basis and are often reactive to outside influences. Local government institutions and functions are not sufficiently collaborative; they do not cooperate or work cross-functionally.

CROSSROADS Kokstad has an important regional role in terms of the economy, education, housing and social services making it highly dependant on regional commuting and freight movement and exposed to high commuting costs and negative impacts of vehicular traffic.

TOWN Kokstad town has many unique and attractive qualities, with easy access to social facilities and shops, and strong links to nature and surrounding farmland. However it is spatially and socially fragmented with disparities between the ‘old’ town and the newer areas. There is a high demand for accommodation and growth in the town. There is opportunity for future growth to build on the existing attractive qualities, making use

of heritage features and landmarks to ensure inclusion and empowerment of residents and build a strong sense of identity with Kokstad.

INFRASTRUCTURE Kokstad and Franklin experience challenges around lack of basic infrastructure, degrading infrastructure, pollution of rivers, institutional alignment and management of service provision, inability to pay for basic services and a perception of high rates. The MSFM indicates budget capacity within Kokstad but there needs to be a focus on rehabilitation of infrastructure. There is a need to recycle to minimise space required for landfill sites, augment the fresh water supply, and reduce pollution of the natural resources.

NATURAL RESOURCES Kokstad and Franklin have a rich abundance of unique and attractive natural resources, cultural resources and open space amenities that could be used and enhanced to optimise the quality and experience of the towns. However these are under threat from pollution, over extraction of water, erosion, land-use change and climate change.

AGRICULTURE Kokstad has a very strong agricultural foundation based on milk, meat and maize and this base forms a critical part of the local economy. Agriculture is under threat because it is heavily reliant on external inputs - high input, high energy, high carbon. This makes it vulnerable, lacking resilience, and increasingly uncompetitive in global markets. Opportunities exist to diversify the crop base, experiment with new crops, build small-scale community based projects and investigate agriprocessing.


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SUSTAINABILITY FRAMEWORK

Fig 2. THE SAFE AND JUST SPACE FOR HUMANITY

Fig 3. SOCIAL FOUNDATION

The stories for Kokstad within the safe and just space for humanity.

An assessment of the ‘social foundation’ of Kokstad using the categories from the Oxfam model; each dimension is described as either critical, inadequate or adequate, according to the findings from the status quo report and feedback from the status quo workshop during May 2012. (adapted from Oxfam categories) FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012


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5.

DEVELOPMENT PRINCIPLES

This section sets out the overarching guiding development principles, the sustainability principles, and the urban design principles that have informed the strategies and plans of the ISDP.

5.1. GUIDING DEVELOPMENT PRINCIPLES RESILIENCE & AGILITY Resilience is about the capacity to withstand shocks and disturbances such as climate change or economic crises, and to use such events to catalyse renewal, novelty and innovation. It is about taking stock in diversity and spreading the risks. Resilience thinking helps us avoid the trap of simply rebuilding and repairing flawed structures of the past – be it around economic strategies, city development plans or infrastructure management. Resilience encourages us to anticipate, adapt, learn and transform human actions according to changes that take place.

JUSTICE & EQUITY A socially just society is based on the principles of equality and solidarity, understands and values human rights, and recognizes the dignity of every human being. Social justice means that the rights of all people in a community are considered in a fair and equitable manner. While equal opportunity targets everyone in the community, social justice targets the marginalised and disadvantaged groups of people in our society. Public policies should ensure that all people have equal access to education, health care, employment, and basic services. Social equity implies fair access to livelihood, education, and resources; full participation in the political and cultural life of the community; and self-determination in meeting fundamental needs. Social equity is the cornerstone of society, which cannot be maintained for a few DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

at the expense of the many. Increased equity results in decreased spending on prisons, security enforcement, welfare, and social services. It also creates new potential markets. Inequities magnify the challenge of creating reliable prosperity in several ways. Those who are marginalized may be tempted to eat into reserves of nature and society to meet immediate needs, while those with abundant choices may seek conspicuous forms of consumption which — unintentionally — have the same depleting effect.

INTEGRATION Integration – whether spatial, sectoral or socioeconomic - is fundamental to sustainable development. Segregated societies – whether segregated by income or ethnicity - are not and cannot be sustainable. At a project level, sustainable projects need to ensure integration of all development issues including transport, planning, economic development, etc. Vertical integration among the various levels of government and bodies involved in territorial governance (local, regional, national, private sector, civil society, etc.), and horizontal integration, among the various sectors of public action, are also key to achieving sustainable development.

5.2. SUSTAINABILITY PRINCIPLES CELEBRATE DIVERSITY Natural systems function and flourish through complexity. Diverse systems are strong, robust and resilient. They absorb shocks well and enable innovation. Mono-functional systems are vulnerable and less able to adapt in times of stress. Compared to the standard solutions of the industrial revolution and to the uniformity promoted through globalization, nature supports an almost unending abundance of variety and diversity. How we go about manufacturing products and finding solutions to problems must be similarly tackled with the same flair for diversity and variety? To concentrate on only the one criterion is to create instability and imbalance in a wider context.

WASTE = FOOD The processes of every single organism in a living system contribute to the health and wellbeing of the system as a whole. The leaves of a tree, for example, its “waste”, fall to the ground where they are broken down and become nutrients for other organisms. Microbes feed off this organic “waste” and, as a result, return many valuable nutrients to the soil that the tree can profit from. The “waste” of one organism is thus nutrients for another – a cyclical system. By contrast, almost all of our current humanmade systems and processes are linear. They are throughput systems with a beginning and an end, with resources being transformed into waste at a rapid rate. To be sustainable, we need to work towards emulating nature’s cyclical systems - to ensure that the waste produced by every industrial process is a resource (‘food’) for another industry.

USE RENEWABLE ENERGY Our global economy runs on fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas). These release large and unsustainable quantities of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.

The first industrial revolution obtained its energy predominantly from the reservoirs of the past. Fossil fuels were used that had been created millions of years ago. Nuclear energy places great strains and very dangerous responsibilities on many future generations. Systems that are driven using solar energy are systems that are using today’s energy without having to put the futures of our children and their children at risk. It is most certainly within the capabilities of today’s technology to profitably incorporate the use of and reliance on solar energy into the design of production systems. The direct capture of solar, wind and hydro energy are possibilities. These sustainability principles have been adapted from Cradle to Cradle (http://wisle.org/ theme).


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DEVELOPMENT PRINCIPLES | SUSTAINABILITY PRINCIPLES GUIDING PRINCIPLES

CELEBRATE DIVERSITY

WASTE = FOOD

USE RENEWABLE ENERGY

RESILIENCE & AGILITY

Diverse systems are strong, robust and resilient. They absorb shocks well and enable innovation. Mono-functional systems are vulnerable and less able to adapt in times of stress.

All of our current human-made systems and processes are linear.

In order to keep below 2 degrees of global warming, we need to urgently both increase our energy efficiency as well as shift to renewable energy sources.

JUSTICE & EQUITY INTEGRATION

SUSTAINABILITY PRINCIPLES CELEBRATE DIVERSITY

Extract Process Distribute

WASTE = FOOD USE RENEWABLE ENERGY

Consume Dump

URBAN DESIGN & SETTLEMENT PRINCIPLES STRUCTURE & CONNECTIVITY

We need to promote cyclical systems where one processes’ waste is another’s resource.

ACCESSIBILITY SAFETY CONSISTENCY & VARIETY ANIMATION & LIVENESS INCLUSIVENESS & INTEGRATION LEGIBILITY AND SENSE OF PLACE

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5.3. URBAN DESIGN & SETTLEMENT PRINCIPLES A number of key principles underpin the approach to the urban design and settlement planning aspects of the ISDP.

STRUCTURE & CONNECTIVITY ‘Structure’ refers to the way an urban area is physically put together – its layout, shapes of land parcels, routes of movement, street patterns and networks of public spaces. A town is more than the sum of these parts; connections between the parts make a coherent, functioning whole. These connections are supported by interlinked streets, which are accessible to everyone and so unite the entire town or city, giving them a fundamental influence. The structure of streets and other spaces and their interaction with local topography affect almost all other qualities of an urban area. A good urban structure provides a unifying setting for diverse activities and buildings and allows easy access between them. It can assist contact and engagement between people and this is important for a good public environment. More extensive and integrated street networks provide greater connectivity, increasing potential interaction, exchange and choice among cities’ inhabitants. This usually varies with the intensity of development. Activities, traffic and buildings come and go, but the organisation of streets and other public infrastructure is difficult to change. A good structure supports current activities and also provides the potential for changes in use and redevelopment. A good structure allows for change while it itself remains stable. Organise places so their parts relate well to each other.

ACCESSIBILITY Accessibility is based on the systematic and principled enabling of equitable access to DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

services, facilities, employment, training and recreation, including through a choice of safe and efficient transport modes (e.g. public transport, private vehicle, bicycle, walking and wheelchair). Accessibility also comprises of convenient and dignified access to private and public spaces for people with impaired mobility. If a public environment is valued, attractive and well used, then people must be able to get to it and move around in it with ease. Physical access combined with the ability to see into and understand places that cannot be physically reached are crucial qualities of a public environment. Support for different modes of travel and communication is essential. Good access depends above all on walking, but routes for bikes, prams, wheelchairs, cars and public transport are also important, as are connections between them. A choice of routes is important, to support different modes of travel, to link different destinations, to provide different experiences, and to ensure the capacity to avoid lonely places at night or other temporary impediments. Physical access needs to be supported by confident belief that a place can be reached. People do not go where they think they cannot go. Good public spaces invite freedom of access and avoid implicit limits, exclusivity or coercion. Visual access implies direct sightlines or unfolding views, signs or other visual cues, and being able to see other people, all of which help us to negotiate a place. Without these invitations and reassurances, even the most comprehensive street system can remain uninviting. Provide ease, safety and choice of access for all people.

SAFETY Design for safety is not merely about installing handrails and warning signs. A more basic concern is to create places where people can use their own natural aptitudes to keep themselves and others safe from harm. This requires support for human abilities of perception, as well as acknowledgement that

some people suffer from impaired eyesight or other abilities, and so require other cues to help them understand their environment. Safety is supported when people can see potential threats, judge risks, escape if a threat is perceived, seek assistance and give aid if needed. This is supported by views into and through spaces; by multiple access routes into and out of spaces; by mixed land uses that mean other people are around all the time; and by windows and activities in buildings located to overlook streets and other public spaces. Without denying the value of a charming surprise or vistas that unfold dramatically, logic and predictability in design are important to support our ability to interpret what we hear and see, and to reasonably anticipate what is around the corner. Design spaces that minimise risks of personal harm and support safe.

CONSISTENCY & VARIETY Variety in an urban environment is valued, for intellectual and aesthetic stimulation and as an expression of diversity in our society. But too much variety is chaotic. Rigid uniformity is rarely tolerated but neither is anarchy. Towns need a balance of individuality and community, of logic and feeling, of order and random incident. In many cases, a town’s public realm provides coherence and order while countless private ventures introduce variety and interest. One condition benefits from the other. A simple grid of streets could seem dull and repetitive without the accents and originality of individual buildings and visual cues to the activity they contain; but a town could be hopelessly confusing without the unifying influence of a pattern of streets and public spaces. Balance order and diversity in the interests of appreciating both.

ANIMATION & LIVELINESS Cities and towns are intended for human use, and urban spaces are safer and more attractive

when they are being used. Active, safe, wellused public spaces don’t happen by chance. Good urban design introduces, maintains and intensifies human activity within the public realm. Active building frontages are created by orienting public aspects of private land uses toward streets and other spaces. Activities in and overlooking public spaces contribute to passive surveillance, providing eyes on the street that increase personal safety and help prevent crime. Activation also extends to people on the move; the simple presence of people walking through urban spaces is one of the principal – if often unacknowledged – engines of public life. Animation involves more subtle processes. It too is concerned with the activity of a place and its evident social life, but intervenes in the management and use of spaces rather than only considering their built form. Comfortable and interesting spaces support public use and – sometimes – the life of a public space happens of its own accord when people simply move in and use it without waiting for an invitation. However, staged activities or other inducements are often necessary catalysts to prompt people to discover and use the public realm to its fullest potential. Careful attention to the processes of activation and animation creates opportunities for civic interaction and community development, and contributes to the visibility and sharing of culture. Stimulate activity and a sense of vitality in public places.

INCLUSIVENESS & INTERACTION Provided they respect others, everyone has the right to use and enjoy public space, regardless of mobility, gender or socio-economic status. People meet there as fellow citizens. Interaction, even among strangers, exposes people to cultural diversity. People are entertained by other people. They learn from one another, increase their sophistication and tolerance, and explore shared values. They are confronted by differences, inequities and weaknesses in our society and, while this may seem threatening, it


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can lead to some greater understanding of their responsibilities towards fellow citizens. Meeting acquaintances gives opportunities for sharing information and other kinds of support, and it promotes community cohesion and social health. Good urban design supports this civic interaction. It ensures equity of access throughout the public environment for all people. It encourages the orientation of activities towards the public realm rather than into private enclaves. It treats citizens as the collective owners of public space, and encourages them to use it in comfort and without sanction. Create places where all people are free to encounter each other as equals.

LEGIBILITY AND SENSE OF PLACE ‘Legibility’ concerns people’s ability to read the urban environment – to interpret what they see, to get useful information. Which streets lead through an area rather than running into a barrier? Where is it dangerous to walk? Reading is affected by legibility. As with prose, city spaces can be poorly organised or cluttered so that important information is hidden. Features with particular meanings may be used in confusing ways. A well-designed city, like good writing, needs to be intelligible to its audience, the public. Places are valued because of the individual qualities that make them distinctive from other places – because of their character. The form and character of urban areas is an expression of our needs and aspirations. In addition to our own will, it can express our respect for nature, heritage and other people. Sense of place or the identity of a city can be closely linked to our own sense of identity; both shape each other. Urban design should understand, protect, develop and celebrate local character. Recognise and enhance the qualities that give places legibility and a valued identity. These urban design and settlement principles have been adapted from the Urban Design Charter for Victoria (www.dpcd.vic.gov.au).

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KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

6. GREEN AMBASSADOR PROGRAMME 6.1. OVERVIEW As has been described in the Status Quo report, the Green Ambassador Programme (GAP) is an innovative initiative that forms a key part of the ISDP process. The purpose of the programme is to provide skills transfer and development in the arena of sustainable development and citizen journalism to local youth, whilst at the same time generating information and feedback about local conditions, aspirations and culture for use by the ISDP project team and the Greater Kokstad Municipality (GKM). The training programme has two parts to it: 1) The Foundation Phase training. This took place over the Status Quo phase of the ISDP, as well as at the beginning of the Strategy phase. 2) The Consolidation Phase training: this took place over the Strategy Development Phase, the Development Plan phase as well as the Implementation Plan phase.

6.2. FOUNDATION PHASE PROGRAMME The 3 month long foundation phase of the GA program, which was funded by the ISDP budget, commenced in April 2012 and was concluded on 21 June 2012. The final outputs by the Green Ambassadors for this phase included: •

4 household surveys about water, energy, food, social capital, employment and other relevant issues

16 short movies about community life and sustainability issues in Kokstad and Franklin

A series of photo essays on Food Security

Regular contribution to a blog communicating sustainability issues that affect the Kokstad and Franklin communities – citizen journalism (www.gkm-ga.blogspot. com)

6.3. CONSOLIDATION PHASE 6.3.1. “SEEDS OF SUSTAINABILITY” MOVIES One of the main foci of the consolidation phase of the Green Ambassador training was for each green ambassador to make a minimum of 2 movies showcasing inspirational projects in Kokstad, Franklin and environs that are already examples of local sustainability. During the month of July, the Green Ambassadors researched their topics and identified a range of possibilities. Each idea was discussed and explored during the two-day Meshfield training session that took place on the 30th and 31st July 2012, with the Green Ambassadors motivating why they thought their choices were examples of sustainable development. In this way, their knowledge of sustainability was tested. The final topics were agreed to and then the GAs went on to film and edit their movies over the months of August and September, with some fine-tuning (particularly sub-titling) taking place in October. Dominique Vandenhout from the Media Academy continued to provide mentoring support to the GAs.

Fig 4. “SEEDS OF SUSTAINABILITY” MOVIES

One of the main intentions behind the movies was to provide an entry point for Kokstad community members around the ISDP by showing that the plan is not being produced in a vacuum and that there are in fact many existing examples of “seeds of sustainability”. The movies were then embedded into a Google Earth image of Kokstad and uploaded onto their blog site under a tab marked “Seeds of Sustainability”.

Fig 5. PREPARATION FOR AWARENESS RAISING SESSIONS DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM


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6.3.2. SUSTAINABILITY TRAINING SESSIONS AND MENTORING Five days of Meshfield sustainability training took place during the consolidation phase. The first training session took place over two days on 30th/31st July. In addition to defining and refining the subject matter for the “seeds of sustainability” movies, the GAs also explored and tested their knowledge of the ISDP content that was being generated by the ISDP professional team, as well as attending all the ISDP sessions that took place in Kokstad over this period. Links between movie ideas, the stories that were identified in the STATUS QUO report, as well as the key STRATEGIES were made, and in this way, the GA understanding of key sustainability concepts was deepened. The second training session took place over three days – 17-19th September 2012. Here the focus was on revision of key concepts, as well as an in-depth reflection into “What is the Green Ambassador Programme”? The GAs spent a full day exploring this question, developing a series of responses and translating their responses into isiXhosa. They then filmed themselves responding to this question, and their finished movie has been posted up on their blog (on the “seeds of sustainability” map). The GAs also all watched each others’ movies and used these as training material in preparation for the awareness raising sessions that they will be doing with Kokstad citizens in the months of November, December and January.

6.3.3. GREEN AMBASSADOR BLOG The GAs continued to blog regularly during this phase, reporting on life in their town.

6.4. SUSTAIN OUR AFRICA CONFERENCE The GAs, along Mr Abongile Zimu, the IDP coordinator at the GKM, were given complimentary tickets to attend the inaugural Sustain our Africa Summit at the V&A Waterfront in Cape Town. The GKM covered the costs of the transport, and one the GAs, Lindiwe Ntaka kindly provided the GAs with accommodation with her Cape Town based family. For most of the GAs, this was their first trip to Cape Town, and for all of them, their first exposure to the levels of sustainability thinking offered at the SOA summit. Anna Cowen of Meshfield gave a fifteen-minute presentation about the Green Ambassador Programmed and the ISDP. This talk can be listened to at this link: http://new.livestream.com/co-opT/ SustainourAfrica/videos/5266645. The GAs and Mr Zimu all came up on stage at the end of the talk, along with Mr Piet Bosman, a Kokstad based farmer and sustainability practitioner who has been providing essential on-the-ground advice and support to the GAs, during the consolidation phase.

Fig 6. GREEN AMBASSADORS’ BLOG

Fig 7. SUSTAIN OUR AFRICA CONFERENCE

Fig 8. SUSTAIN OUR AFRICA CONFERENCE ARTICLE FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012


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KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

7.

DEVELOPMENT SCENARIOS

It is important that decisions about where and how Kokstad and Franklin grow is informed by a clear understanding of the impacts of growth on the municipal finances and the ecosystem services upon which Kokstad and Franklin depend. A set of growth scenarios has been developed as a basis for comparison and to test the affordability and viability of urban expansion. Three future scenarios, plus the footprint proposed in the current 2012 GKM SDF, have been tested against two sets of measurements: •

Impacts on municipal finances

Impacts on the local ecosystem services

BACKGROUND During the course of the status quo analysis and stakeholder engagements conducted for the Kokstad and Franklin ISDP, it became clear that there is a strong (although not unanimous) aspiration for Kokstad to expand and for new developments outside the urban edge to be realised. This aspiration is manifested in two existing planning documents: •

The latest SDF, which delineates an urban edge that is 11 times bigger than the existing urban footprint.

The SANRAL plan (2010) for a new road network south of the existing town, the enactment of which will open up an area bigger than the entire existing urban footprint for new development on greenfield sites.

This particular aspiration for growth and development has prompted an exploration around whether physical growth – expansion of the urban footprint – really contributes to economic and social development and the longterm sustainability of the town.

WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO CONSIDER THE IMPACT OF GROWTH ON MUNICIPAL FINANCES? The notion that development and growth will increase the rates base and therefore improve the financial situation of the municipality seems to be widespread within the GKM, coupled with the popular belief that growth and new development is a sure way to avoid the ‘dying town’ syndrome whereby small towns servicing rural communities decline compared to large cities. However, the real costs of providing new infrastructure and rehabilitating existing infrastructure in a scenario of high growth is often not fully understood. It is possible that high levels of growth in Kokstad, when unaccompanied by high levels of economic growth and/or the means to improve the financial operating account, may result in reduced ability to provide and rehabilitate infrastructure, and the subsequent decline of the town. In order to determine the potential financial implications of various growth scenarios, PDG was appointed in April 2012 to complete a Municipal Services Financial Model (MSFM) for the GKM. The MSFM is a modelling tool that projects the full operating and capital accounts associated with infrastructure provision in a municipal area over 10 years, based on a userdefined service delivery programme.

WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO CONSIDER THE IMPACT OF GROWTH ON ECOSYSTEM SERVICES? Ecosystem services can be defined as services that are generated by the natural environment, which enhance human well-being, and are directly used by people. As defined by the Millennium Assessment, ecosystem services include: •

DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

provisioning services (provision of goods such as water, food, and raw materials),

regulating services (ecological processes that contribute to economic production or savings, such as flood attenuation),

cultural services (value derived from use or appreciation of biodiversity, including spiritual and educational value),

and supporting services (ecological processes that underlie or support the previous services (soil fertility, pollination etc.).

Development decisions are often primarily based on financial and social criteria, despite the fact that development often removes or transforms existing land types, thereby altering the ability of the landscape to provide ecosystem services. As the natural environment and associated ecosystem services are provided for free and not traded, they are perceived not to have financial value. Consequently, trade-offs around financial returns, jobs, and the environment are made with incomplete information in respect of the real value of ecosystem services that may be affected or lost. So, while developments may be financially and socially feasible, the economic costs of the loss or reduction of ecosystem services are left to the users of the services to bear. In order to determine the potential implications for ecosystem services of various growth scenarios, Futureworks! was appointed to undertake an Eco-Futures: Ecosystem Services Supply And Demand Assessment. The ecofutures process uses a systems model to assess the supply of ecosystem services (the ecological component) and then assesses the demand for these services (the social component). The assessment itself is a social learning process whereby a group of stakeholders populate the model using their own knowledge; model inputs therefore include local wisdom, expert wisdom and basic available data. The workshop component of the Eco-Futures process was undertaken in a two-day workshop in Durban on 2 and 3 October 2012. A summary of the results of these models is provided here, and the full reports are included an appendix to this report.

STATUS QUO Franklin 977 p 6.5du/ha 47ha

Kokstad 30 524 p 7.5du/ha 1 296ha

In a recent study, it was estimated that the total value of natural-products, such as fish, water lilies, figs, umhlanga (reeds), thatching grass, and ibhuma (craft sedge), harvested from the Pongola River floodplain was worth an estimated R 69 million per annum. This is equivalent to approximately R 5,300 per annum for each of the 12,987, largely lowincome, households on floodplain (Lankford et al. 2010).


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DEVELOPMENT SCENARIOS WHAT IF... [0] PROPOSED SDF

Household growth = 5.4%

WHAT IF... [1] BUSINESS AS USUAL Franklin 2 000 p 6.5du/ha 89ha

Economic growth = 3.0% p.a.

WHAT IF... [2] SMART GROWTH Franklin 2 000 p 6.5du/ha

Household growth = 2.0%

Household growth = 2.0%

Economic growth 3.0%

Economic growth 3.0%

Kokstad 110 000 p 7.5du/ha 4 772ha Conventional density & land use Conventional infrastructure & technology

Kokstad 55 000 p 7.5du/ha 2 367ha Conventional density & land use Conventional infrastructure & technology

Scenario 1 is a model of the 2011/2012 SDF, which, if the development parcels that are indicated are to be realised, assumes a very high household growth rate (5.4%), which would result in a population of approximately 110’000 in 25 years. This model assumes an economic growth rate of 3%, conventional land use and densities, and conventional infrastructure and technologies. In this scenario there would be a substantial increase in the urban areas of Kokstad (from 1,296ha to 4,979ha) and Franklin (from 47ha to 89ha).

Scenario 1 assumes a moderate population growth rate (2%), which would result in a population of approximately 55’000 in 25 years. This model assumes an economic growth rate of 3%, conventional land use and densities, and conventional infrastructure and technologies. It is assumed that new development occurs within the land parcels identified in the 2011/2012 SDF, and although less extreme than in Scenario 0, there would still be a considerable increase in the urban areas of Kokstad (1,296ha to 2,367ha) and Franklin (47ha to 89ha).

WHAT IF... [3] SMART & SUSTAINABLE Franklin 2 000 p 14du/ha 47ha

Franklin 2 000 p 14du/ha Household growth = 2.0% Economic growth 3.0%

Kokstad 55 000 p 14du/ha 1 296ha

Kokstad 55 000 p 14du/ha 1 296ha

Compact development & complementary mixed uses Conventional infrastructure & technology

Compact development & complementary mixed uses Sustainable infrastructure & technology

Similarly to Scenario 1, Scenario 2 assumes a moderate population growth rate (2%), which would result in a population of approximately 55’000 in 25 years, and an economic growth rate of 3%. However, instead of business-asusual growth outside the urban edge as the population increases, this model tests the implications of ‘smart growth’, including higher than usual densities and complementary mixed-use development. In this scenario it is not necessary to develop outside the existing urban edge at all, the increase in population can be accommodated through densification within the urban edge, so the urban areas of Kokstad and Franklin remain unchanged (1,296ha and 47ha respectively).

Similarly to Scenario 1 and 2, Scenario 3 assumes a moderate population growth rate (2%), which would result in a population of approximately 55’000 in 25 years, and an economic growth rate of 3%. Similarly to Scenario 2, this model assumes ‘smart growth’, whereby the increase in population can be accommodated through densification within the urban edge, so the urban areas of Kokstad and Franklin remain unchanged (1,296ha and 47ha respectively).

The characteristics of smart growth include higher density, clustered activities, infill rather than greenfield development, mixed land use, human scaled blocks and buildings, multimodal transport and land use patterns that support walking, cycling and public transit, and emphasis on the public realm.

In addition, this scenario assumes the use of sustainable infrastructure and technologies at household and municipal scales of development. The sustainable technology mix considered in this final scenario includes green technologies for new households and retrofitting of existing households (solar water heaters, grey water recycling), small scale anaerobic digestion, institutional anaerobic digestion, a constructed wetland, treated effluent used to water the golf course, PRVs in Shayamoya and leak repair programmes in Shayamoya.

FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012


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KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

7.1. MUNICIPAL SERVICES FINANCIAL MODEL RESULTS CAPITAL EXPENDITURE REQUIRED For the high growth scenarios, expenditure of about R1 billion over 10 years is required, around R480 million of which will be for GKM. Under the more moderate growth path of Scenario 1, capital expenditure of about R750 million is required over 10 years, R320 million of which will be for GKM. Compact development (Scenario 2) leads to further capital cost savings while green technology (Scenario 3) requires capital investment in the early years.

OPERATING ACCOUNT PROJECTIONS The SDF scenario shows declining operating performance over the model run. This is due to the fact that economic growth is insufficient to support high levels of household growth under this scenario. A large proportion of capital expenditure must be used to support low income households, who are typically not able to pay the full cost of providing them with services. The result is declining operating performance. All of the other scenarios show improving operating performance over time. Note that Scenario 3 is not shown, due to the uncertain impacts of green technologies on the operating account.

CAPITAL FINANCE SOURCES Under the SDF scenario, significant external funding is required (R107 million over the 10 years). Given the poor operating performance under this scenario, it is unlikely that it will be possible to borrow this amount, and so the external funding requirement is effectively a funding gap. Under both of the moderate growth scenarios, no external funding is required. Note that Scenario 3 is not shown, due to the uncertain impacts of DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

green technologies on the operating account and thus uncertainties about access to internal funds.

CONCLUSIONS The results of the various scenarios produced by the MSFM demonstrate that the way in which growth takes place over the next 10 years will have significant implications for the financial performance of the municipality and its ability to finance capital expenditures required. The capital expenditure required under a high growth scenario, as anticipated in the SDF, will only be affordable if high household growth is accompanied by high economic growth. Economic growth in excess of 5.0% p.a. is required to sustain the growth anticipated in the SDF, and growth of this magnitude is very unlikely to be achievable. Under a more moderate growth path, current rates of economic growth will result in an improvement in operating performance over time and capital expenditure should be affordable without any external funding. Compact development will lead to further capital cost savings and also to improved operating viability. Introducing green technologies requires capital expenditure. The impact on operating performance is uncertain: there are operating cost savings, but also potentially lost revenue. As a result, the implications for capital finance are unknown. However, total capital expenditure required over 10 years is lower than that under a moderate growth scenario without compact development and green technologies, and so it is likely that GKM will be able to afford this capital expenditure comfortably and that no external funding will be required.

Fig 9. CAPITAL EXPENDITURE

Fig 10. OPERATING RESULT

Sound financial management is critical to GKM no matter what the growth path. All growth scenarios run have assumes an operating surplus of 10% of revenue in the base year (2011/12). If this is not realised, then some external funding will be necessary under the moderate growth options. Fig 11. CAPITAL FINANCE SOURCES


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DEVELOPMENT SCENARIOS | FINANCIAL MODEL RESULTS WHAT IF... [0] PROPOSED SDF

Capital expenditure required

WHAT IF... [1] BUSINESS AS USUAL

Capital expenditure required

WHAT IF... [2] SMART GROWTH

WHAT IF... [3] SMART & SUSTAINABLE

Capex required is 17% lower than Scenario 1 and 39% lower than SDF scenario.

Compact development results in capital cost savings (on new infrastructure).

Current GKM requirement approximately equal to moderated capex budget but ten times Sisonke’s current allocation to GKM. Long term capital costs not affordable (especially to Sisonke).

Capex required is 26% lower than under SDF scenario and is affordable.

Capital expenditure required

Capital expenditure required

Total capex required over 10 years is lower than that under Scenario 1 but slightly higher in early years.

Operating result

Operating result

Operating result

Operating result

Declining operating performance over time from surplus of R20million to deficit of over R15million.

Operating position improves over time – surplus position is sustained.

Economic growth cannot support the high level of household growth - Result is a slight downward drag on income distribution.

Economic growth is able to sustain the household growth.

Operating result is fractionally better than Scenario 1, but difference over 10 years is barely observable - some operating cost savings which will increase over time period beyond 10 years.

Financial impacts of many green tech options are uncertain but savings in operating costs result (but may also result in some lost revenue - very difficult to model.

Increases affordability / cost savings for households that are not captured in the MSFM.

Green tech results in significant cost savings to households.

Funding mix

Funding mix

Funding mix

Funding mix

Declining operating performance means declining ability to generate internal funds, and growing need for external funding, borrowing unlikely thus = FUNDING GAP.

No external funding required.

No external funding required.

Likely that GKM will be able to afford this capex comfortably and that no external funding will be required.

FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012


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KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

7.2. ECO-FUTURES MODEL RESULTS CHANGES IN SUPPLY OF ECOSYSTEM SERVICES IN FUTURE SCENARIOS FOR KOKSTAD Kokstad has a very high capability to provide Flood attenuation, Conservation targets, and Carbon storage services. While there are a relatively large number of beneficiaries that benefit from the provision of these services, their dependence on the supply of these services is relatively moderate. Kokstad has a high capability to provide Water supply regulation, Waste assimilation, and Soil stability services. While there are a relatively moderate number of beneficiaries that benefit from the provision of these services, their dependence on the supply of these services is relatively high. Kokstad has a very low capability to provide water supply and waste dilution services. While there are a relatively moderate number of users that benefit from the provision of these services, their dependence on the supply of these services is relatively high. The implication is that any losses in the supply of these services can result in significant impacts on the welfare of users of these services. There is a decrease in the supply of services from current levels in all the scenarios. These decreases are largely driven by the change in land use from natural areas, which have a high capability to supply ecosystem services, to urban areas, which have a low capability to supply ecosystem services. The decrease in the average service supply levels is the greatest in the SDF scenario (43% decrease), followed by the Business-As-Usual scenario (34% decrease), and the Smart Growth scenario (24% decrease). The implication is that built infrastructure will be required to provide the services that were previously generated by the ‘green infrastructure’ of nature, which has cost implications.

DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

The reduction in the supply of Water supply and Waste dilution services in the SDF, Business-AsUsual, and Smart Growth scenarios is an area of concern. In contrast, there is an increase in the supply of these services in the Sustainable Growth scenario due to rainwater / greywater harvesting. The implication is that in order to avoid losses in welfare, the capability of the settlement areas to provide these services, should be increased through the use of rainwater / greywater harvesting technologies.

CHANGES IN SUPPLY OF ECOSYSTEM SERVICES IN FUTURE SCENARIOS FOR FRANKLIN

remaining natural assets with the businessas-usual approach to development and management of built-up areas. The reduction in the supply of the water supply and waste dilution services in the SDF and Business-As-Usual scenarios is an area of concern. There is an increase in supply of all ecosystem services in the Smart Growth (9% increase) and Sustainable Growth (12% increase) scenarios, including the vulnerable services of water supply and waste dilution. This increase is driven by an improvement in the condition of the remaining natural assets, particularly the

rivers and wetlands, with the implementation of the proposed rehabilitation programmes. The implication is that it is possible to offset the loss of ecosystem services resulting from a change in land use by improving the condition of the remaining natural areas, and that supply of selected services can be increased through the rehabilitation of the land cover types which have the highest capability to provide those particular services.

Franklin has a very high capability to provide knowledge generation, refuge (plants & animals), and food (plants & animals) services. There is however a relatively low number of users and low levels of dependence of the provision of these services. Franklin has a high capability to provide flood attenuation, water supply regulation, and waste assimilation services. While there are a relatively moderate number of beneficiaries that benefit from the provision of these services, their dependence on the supply of these services is relatively high. Franklin has a very low capability to provide water supply and waste dilution services. While there are a relatively moderate number of beneficiaries that benefit from the provision of these services, their dependence on the supply of these services is relatively high. The implication is that any losses in the supply of these services can result in significant impacts on the welfare of users of these services. There is a decrease in supply of all ecosystem services in the SDF scenario (43% decrease) and the Business-As-Usual scenario (34% decrease). The reduction in the supply of services is the result of a change in land use from natural areas, which have a high capability to supply ecosystem services, to urban areas, which have a low capability to supply ecosystem services, and the decrease in condition of the

Fig 12. KOKSTAD’S ECOSYSTEM SERVICES Supply levels in the different scenarios

Fig 13. FRANKLIN’S ECOSYSTEM SERVICES SUPPLY LEVELS IN THE DIFFERENT SCENARIOS Supply levels in the different scenarios


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DEVELOPMENT SCENARIOS | ECO-FUTURES MODEL RESULTS WHAT IF... [0] PROPOSED SDF

WHAT IF... [1] BUSINESS AS USUAL

WHAT IF... [2] SMART GROWTH

WHAT IF... [3] SMART & SUSTAINABLE

Kokstad:

Kokstad:

Kokstad:

Kokstad:

Decrease in average supply of ecosystem services of 43%

Decrease in average supply of ecosystem services of 34%

Decrease in average supply of ecosystem services of 24%

Decrease in average supply of ecosystem services

Built infrastructure will be required to replace the decrease in ecosystem services

Built infrastructure will be required to replace the decrease in ecosystem services

Built infrastructure will be required to replace the decrease in ecosystem services

Built infrastructure will be required to replace the decrease in ecosystem services

Reduction in supply of water supply and waste dilution services a concern for welfare of users

Reduction in supply of water supply and waste dilution services a concern for welfare of users

Reduction in supply of water and waste dilution services a concern for welfare of users

Increase in supply of water and waste dilution services compared to other scenarios due to rainwater / greywater harvesting, thereby avoiding losses in welfare of users

Franklin:

Franklin:

Franklin:

Decrease in average supply of ecosystem services of 43%

Decrease in average supply of ecosystem services of 34%

Increase in average supply of ecosystem services of 9%

Reduction in supply of water supply and waste dilution services a concern for welfare of users

Reduction in supply of water supply and waste dilution services a concern for welfare of users

Increase in supply of water and waste dilution services driven by improvement in the condition of remaining natural assets, particularly rivers and wetlands, with the implementation of rehabilitation programmes

Franklin: •

Increase in average supply of ecosystem services of 12%

Increase in supply of water and waste dilution services driven by improvement in the condition of remaining natural

The radargraphs present the changes in the supply of ecosystem services generated by the natural assets within the urban edges of Kokstad and Franklin in the different scenarios. In these figures, the changes in level of service supplied are presented as a factor of the status-quo (i.e. in relation to the current situation). The following are important points to note: •

The current level of supply of ecosystem services is represented by the red line. Its value is 1.

If the supply level of a particular service is on the inside of the red line, then that service is supplied at levels lower than it is today (i.e. <1).

If the supply level of a particular service is on the outside of the red line, then that service is supplied at levels greater than it is today (i.e. >1).

The further from the red line, the greater or smaller the levels of service supply in comparison to today’s levels.

Fig 14. ECOSYSTEM SERVICES SUPPLY LEVELS IN THE DIFFERENT SCENARIOS In relation to the current situation (Kokstad - left - and Franklin - right). FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012


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8. ISDP STRATEGIC OUTCOMES & STRATEGIES It is essential that the strategies for the ISDP are focused and directed by a clear goal rather than a long shopping list of everyone’s pet projects. An outcomes-based approach has been used to ensure that the selected strategies will contribute to achieving results that are in everyone’s interests.

8.1. DESIRED OUTCOME FOR KOKSTAD AND FRANKLIN A working statement of the desired outcome of the ISDP has been developed. This tries to distil the key policy and stakeholder sentiments encountered in the project. It reads as follows: Future Kokstad and Franklin are safe and just with a strong social foundation where poverty and inequality is eradicated and all human needs are met, in dynamic balance with the finite environmental resource base that supports all life.

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8.2. THE 5 MAIN STRATEGIES This report proposes 5 strategies twoards the achievement of the overall outcome statement. Each of the proposed strategies draw on leading edge sustainability theory and successful practical application in many different, yet relevant contexts. They are viewed as part of an integrated whole, gaining strength and durability through their complementary interactions. Working together, they provide a focus for plans and project that can create a SAFE and JUST Kokstad and Franklin that is: •

living within the environmental limits of a finite planet

underpinned by a strong social foundation

where human needs are being met in an equitable way.

The 5 main strategies identified for Kokstad and Franklin are: 1.

Localise

2.

Develop, Contain and Safeguard

3.

Develop Skills and Promote Innovation

4.

Diversify and Intensify

5.

Promote Access, Identity and Integration


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STRATEGIC OUTCOMES & STRATEGIES TOWARDS SUSTAINABILITY

Kokstad and Franklin’s economies are resilient and localised.

Localise markets, businesses, building, agriculture, industries and technologies and skills to build a strong and equitable local economy that reduces poverty, is resilient to energy and price shocks, diminishing resources and climate change.

2. DEVELOP, CONTAIN AND SAFEGUARD Grow within available resource limits, and ensure access to resources for the poor. Contain the negative impacts of development and settlement to protect the natural resource and agricultural base of Kokstad and Franklin and optimise ecosystem services potential for all.

3. DEVELOP SKILLS AND PROMOTE INNOVATION Make Kokstad a centre of skills development and innovation in sustainable development, sustainable agriculture, and the green economy, with high quality affordable access to information, training and technology.

Kokstad and Franklin are lively and interesting with a wide range of economic and social choices and opportunities.

4. DIVERSIFY AND INTENSIFY Increase the range, mix and intensity of opportunity, accommodation, services and amenities, and entertainment in Kokstad, making Kokstad a livelier place with increased choice and diversity for everyone.

The people of Kokstad and Franklin are proud to belong and there is equitable and affordable access to opportunity.

5. PROMOTE ACCESS, IDENTITY AND INTEGRATION Promote Kokstad and Franklin as places with a strong, united sense of identity. Build a new heart for “one Kokstad” to promote a sense of belonging and to integrate the town. Ensure equitable access to opportunities and services. Inspire involvement in civic ‘projects’ by all segments of the population.

FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012

STRATEGIES

1. LOCALISE

Kokstad and Franklin grow within their resource limits and the negative consequences of development are contained.

Appropriate skills development for all the people of Kokstad and Franklin is prioritised. Access to information and technology for sustainable development is easy and affordable.

STRATEGIC OUTCOMES

Future Kokstad & Franklin are safe and just with a strong social foundation where poverty and inequality is eradicated and all human needs are met, in dynamic balance with the finite environmental resource base that supports all life.


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STRATEGY

PART II STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT & IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

INSTITUTIONS CROSSROADS TOWN INFRASTRUCTURE NATURAL RESOURCES AGRICULTURE IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

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DEVELOPMENT PLAN

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN


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THE STORIES

This chapter outlines the strategies, development plan component and implementation programmes for each of the stories. As in the Status Quo report, the ‘Institutions’ story is considered as the foundation of the other stories. Each story is introduced by the following: •

A status quo statement briefly summarising the findings from the Status Quo report

An outcome statement, providing an overarching vision for the story to work towards

Indicators by which the successes of each story can be measured

Policy directives informing the story strategies

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The strategies for the story are then stated and illustrated, leading to the Development Plan, which is again broken down into sub-stories that match specific spheres of action. Each substory is expanded on according to the following headings: •

Rationale, Principles and Approach Explains what challenges it aims to address and what the proposals set out to achieve. It outlines the approach (the underlying professional philosophy) that has been taken to achieve these aims.

The Plan and Key Proposals This section describes the plan itself and unpacks and highlights particular proposals within the plan to contextualise and provide background to the projects.

the stage that the project is at (some projects are current projects that have been brought into the implementation plan);

the agency responsible for implementation (in this way a Programme Manager will have easy reference to all project managers both within and outside the GKM and the Implementation Programme then becomes a tool for inter-governmental cooperation, programme coordination and so on);

related projects (highlighting linkages between projects);

project duration indicating how long the various steps in project implementation could be expected to take once the project is initiated (enabling proper budgeting, to support funding applications as well as manage unrealistic expectations with respect to achievable timeframes);

a project owner;

the estimated project budget;

potential funding sources.

part of a larger initiative to set up a new space of communication and cooperation between the municipality and citizens, and to overhaul municipal policies, bylaws, and other regulatory mechanisms (like the zoning scheme) to align with the principles and goals of the ISDP, and as such are summarised in the Institutions Programme. Key catalytic projects driving individual programmes and the plan as a whole are indicated on the Programme Matrix as Priority Projects. Since the full range of projects within each programme cannot be fully implemented over the short term, Priority Projects are those that are suitable for immediate implementation and/or critical for driving the success of others. These are also the projects that will serve as learning experiences for multi-disciplinary, multiagency and integrated facilities planning and delivery, and will benefit the largest number of people.

Supporting institutional, policy and legislative initiatives are listed for each programme on the left-hand table. These are generally cross-cutting subsets of overall initiatives that have to happen at an organisational level to promote the goals of the ISDP and integrate its logic into the basic operations of the municipality. These include:

Development and Urban Design Guidelines Guidelines indicating how to achieve aims of the plan.

At the end of each set of substories, the implementation plan is presented for the story as a whole, in the form of a Programme Matrix (each story has between one and three programmes). Each programme is introduced by an overall description and a statement of its aims, the background policy context and/or framework,

and an outline of critical project/programme alignments. The programme matrix or table is made up of the constituent projects that would support the overall programme (a number of projects are cross-cutting, but they have been located within the programme/story that accords most closely with their purpose). The table provides a high level project description and “at a glance” summaries of the proposed projects including:

Fig 15. THE STORIES WITH INSTITUTIONS AS FOUNDATION

Communication, Partnership and Engagement

Policy, Incentives and Guidelines

Bylaws and Zoning Scheme Amendments

While they are unpacked in the matrix at the level of each programme, together they will form FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012


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Number of personnel with key result areas in their performance agreements that relate to the ISDP and the proportion of their time dedicated to its implementation.

Number of meetings held each quarter by the cross-functional ISDP implementation structure.

The number of conflicts within and between the various planning frameworks.

The number of formal agreements (contracts, MoUs etc) between the GKM and others facilitated by the specialist facilitating entity.

STATUS QUO Local government institutions and functions are not sufficiently collaborative and need to cooperate and work cross-functionally to achieve the complex and challenging results required for the implementation of the ISDP.

WHAT COULD FUTURE KOKSTAD LOOK LIKE? • A specialist capacity is created within the GKM tasked with promoting and supporting the implementation of the ISDP. • The GKM has the authentic ability to implement participatory, transversal and collaborative projects across its internal functional areas. • There is a visible, clear and direct correlation or alignment between the ISDP and other planning frameworks including the IDP in particular.

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AGRICULTURE

• A specialist entity dedicated to facilitating and entering into sustainability oriented partnerships is created.

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KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

The legislation promotes a more strategic approach to financial management, linking the municipal budget, the IDP and resources. It also advocates a separation of oversight, fiduciary, operational and other responsibilities of the various stakeholders in order to develop more operational accountability. Operational efficiency is improved as managers have the authority to run their operations, subject to clear statements of policy and strategy.

9.1. INSTITUTIONS This story is primarily concerned with the relationship between the GKM and other spheres of government, as well as the relationships between the GKM, business, civil society and individual citizens. The current situation, in which there is limited interaction and little collaborative work, should change into one characterised by partnerships and cooperation.

9.1.1. POLICY DIRECTION INFORMING INSTITUTIONAL AND GOVERNANCE SUPPORT

The Municipal Structures Act of 1998 (as amended in 2000) set out a standard division of powers which allocated to district municipalities key areas such as water, sanitation, bulk electricity, municipal health services and other functions servicing the entire district (such as fire-fighting, passenger transport, markets, promotion of tourism etc). The remaining functions were assigned to local municipalities.

Key policies and acts that inform this plan are: •

The Constitution binds all spheres of government and organs of state in each sphere of government to three basic principles: --

A common loyalty to the Republic as a whole. This mean that all spheres are committed to secure the well-being of the people of the Republic and, to that end, must provide effective, transparent, accountable and coherent government for the Republic as a whole.

--

The distinctiveness of the spheres should be respected. A sphere must remain within its constitutional mandate, and when exercising those powers, must not do so in a manner that encroaches on the geographical, functional or institutional integrity of another sphere, except where specifically directed otherwise.

--

The spheres of government must take concrete steps to realise cooperative government by fostering friendly relations; assisting and supporting one another; informing one another of, and consulting one another on, matters of common interest; coordinating their actions and legislation with one another; and adhering to agreed procedures. The Municipal Financial Management Act (MFMA) emphasises accountability, oversight and transparency, and there will be more clarity over roles and responsibilities of municipal councils.

In compliance with the basic constitutional provisions and requirements in respect of municipal service provision, the Local Government: Municipal Systems Act determines specific duties and requirements for all municipalities, which must be complied with. As a general duty, a municipality must give effect to the provisions of the Constitution and must: --

give priority to the basic needs of the local community

--

promote the development of the local community

--

ensure that all members of the local community have access to at least the minimum level of basic services It requires that municipal services are equitable and accessible; provided in a manner that is conducive to prudent, economic, efficient and effective use of available resources and the improvement of standards and quality over time; financially sustainable; environmentally sustainable; regularly reviewed with a view to upgrading, extension and improvement. The Intergovernmental Relations Framework Act (IGRFA) of 2005 sketches out a broad statutory framework for the practice of IGR, provides for the

establishment of IG forums and provides a basic framework for the settlement of IG disputes. With the increased formalisation in the regulatory environment, there is a shift of emphasis to IG instruments facilitating the effective practice of IGR.

STATUS QUO CONTEXT: GKM at present has a limited strategic and operational policy making capacity. Its plans have a very limited transversal or integrated component and tend to be overly financially oriented without enough attention to the performance dimension. GKM’s approach to local regulations focuses on enforcement and regulation that stifles local innovation and creativity. While the GKM is in a relatively good position from a financial perspective, it urgently needs to be directing resources at the maintenance of its infrastructure. The GKM’s tendency to separate work functions into separate and distinct units that communicate and collaborate across functions inadequately is a major concern. Also, it does not successfully collaborate with its local stakeholders effectively, leading to charges that it is aloof and distant. The Sisonke District Council’s poor performance in the management of Kokstad’s water supply and the Province’s equally problematic performance in the management of its roads are major stumbling blocks. The GKM invests resources in the development of its human capital but it is not clear that enough of a return is being achieved on this significant investment. From a performance measurement and management perspective the GKM has significant room for improvement: the indicators used to assess performance are largely generic and insufficiently customised to the specific local context and management responses to reports are muted and often altogether silent. Information is not managed well within the municipality itself and the silo-based approach to its dissemination exacerbates the problem. Kokstad’s ability to generate, manage and disseminate knowledge does not harness the

possibilities presented by technology or social networking. Efforts to reach out to stakeholders and communities are not adequate and do not create the necessary sense of inclusion or responsiveness. Advocacy efforts are muted and delayed, with local and provincial government speaking to communities without authentically listening or incorporating what is said in plans and programmes.

STRATEGIC FOCUS: The focus is to build the GKM’s ability to enter into and deliver on partnerships, which will be a very challenging task, given the prevailing practices and its constraining policy framework. An important requirement is to create specialist capacities that will firstly take responsibility for driving the implementation of the ISDP and secondly to act as a facilitator of partnerships with external stakeholders. As part of this overall approach, GKM needs to be identifying ways in which it can reduce its dependence on other spheres of government, especially with regard to its relationship to the Sisonke District Council regarding water and sanitation and the provincial government regarding roads.

9.1.2. INSTITUTIONS AND GOVERNANCE DEVELOPMENT PLAN RATIONALE AND APPROACH Kokstad’s currently has a major advantage in that it serves as an important service centre, providing government and private services to a range of service users. It has successfully managed to retain its effective character and it is widely regarded as a functional, well-performing community. However, there are limits to its control and autonomy in important areas that affect its ability to ensure its sustainability. The aim is to build strong, purposeful partnerships and collaborate with other towns in order to build on competitive regional advantages. This has been shown to

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be at the heart of global success stories for sustainable human settlements of all sizes. Kokstad should be making the most of its own particular advantages while working closely with its neighbouring communities, towns and cities on the basis of cooperative relationships of mutual benefit. Kokstad should be undertaking cross cutting interventions in partnership with nearby towns such as Port Shepstone and Mthatha (more on this in Crossroads 1: Developing the Region). In practice, developing such partnerships will be very challenging, since they need to cross provincial boundaries, in the case of Mthatha, while a number of political and cultural challenges will also need to be overcome.

stakeholders, since overcoming the silonature of so many development institutions has proved such a major challenge. •

INFRASTRUCTURE

TOWN

Specifically, GKM should:

AGRICULTURE

NATURAL RESOURCES

Build its internal ability to conceptualise high-level policy (within the specific terrains for which it is responsible) as well as improve its implementation policy, meaning developing clear ideas on how to set about implementing the complex and challenging tasks that need to be completed if sustainability is to be addressed. An important component of this policy making capacity that needs to be built is the ability to identify what trade-offs need to be made and to provide spaces or arenas in which affected parties can meet to negotiate and reach agreement on how to mitigate losses and manage the negative consequences of necessary but potentially painful choices. The implementation of the ISDP requires that the GKM and its partners develop a clear sense of the physical space in which it works and of the whole complex range of dynamics that affect and shape it, including how the system interacts to accommodate or repel change. Ideas of how pushback against certain interventions can be managed need to be debated and solutions agreed upon. It is particularly important that plan making capacity have the ability to conceive of and implement integrated solutions that involve a number of different functional components within different

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Implementing the ISDP requires that the GKM be able to make the kinds of by-laws and regulations that will drive change, support innovation and promote dynamism. In practice, this will really mean knowing which current practices need to be eased up on and which should be driven rigorously. Finding the right balance between rigour and accommodation is a difficult challenge which will require that the parties responsible be finely attuned to local dynamics and responsive to feedback. Responsiveness to feedback requires the conscious and deliberate building of feedback loops within regulatory and management systems, a key characteristic of the ability to manage complexity. It is not necessarily desirable for the implementation of the ISDP that the GKM be able to generate new forms of income, but it is essential that it become better at taking a long term perspective and approach to its decision making, in particular around the allocation of its existing income. The priority here is for GKM to be more flexible and thoughtful with regard to apportioning funds between capital and maintenance line items. GKM should also have creative and effective approaches to incentivising desired behaviours and to penalising those that it is agreed are unwanted. Successful implementation of the ISDP will require that GKM’s budgeting become more authentically participatory and inclusive and that the entire process provide more opportunities for public participation. The GKM also needs to become more comfortable in allocating resources to making its local democracy thrive: this means allocating resources to innovative interventions such as the Green Ambassadors, since they enhance the local democratic machinery and strengthen the voice of marginalised people and communities.

Work plans need to be integrated around clearly defined outcomes and coordination and integration needs to be a standard operating practice. Clear, distinct and dedicated capacity to make cross functional operations a standard practice must be in place, and should have the necessary political and senior support.

Collaboration and cooperation should be standard and integrated not only into operations within local government, but should also be characteristic of its relationships with other local stakeholders. Non-government actors should also have a general practice of open networked relationships that support the formation of ongoing, results oriented partnerships and projects.

The key to developing responsive, flexible, learning organisations is effective human resource development and of all possible options Kokstad really needs to prioritise this area of activity.

Kokstad needs to be in a position where it has improved its own management performance, particularly with regards to planning and reporting and has ensured that an acceptable rate of return is achieved on every capacity development initiative that gets implemented.

Kokstad also wants to be in a position where all information and knowledge generated by monitoring and evaluation processes has clear management responses and that performance failures are addressed appropriately and speedily so that remedial actions are successful and effective. The current approach in which information gathered from quarterly reporting processes is not acted upon should be addressed. For successful implementation of the ISDP, Kokstad’s development partners need a clear, shared sense of what they need to learn, how that knowledge should be collected and how to share and apply it. This consensus on the overarching approach to knowledge and information management should be supported by a clear and dedicated capacity to its

implementation which should have both statistical or quantitative and qualitative or case-based components. Such capacity should have a central dimension – likely to be best placed within the GKM – but should also have decentralised components, in order to ensure that the social periphery is properly represented. •

The ability to communicate both ways (i.e. to and from government) and between other stakeholders will be essential for effective sustainable development. Communication needs to be in real-time and what is heard needs to be seen to be systematically and deliberately incorporated into development processes.

PRINCIPLES •

Alignment between all the planning frameworks adopted by the GKM must be ensured, both at the level of values and principles as well as in more practical ways.

Explicit efforts should be made to encourage transversal, collaborative service delivery that overcomes the institutional divisions created by the GKM’s institutional set up.

All development planning undertaken by GKM must explicitly seek to build partnerships with other government bodies, civil society groups and the private sector.

GKM should seek to build a culture of cooperation and collaboration in order to increase institutional resilience

Management systems should have a longterm orientation that is more concerned with effectiveness than the current efficiencybased perspective.

THE PLAN AND KEY PROPOSALS •

Build policy analysis capacity within the MM’s Office. This capacity could either take the form of a dedicated post (or posts) or could (more creatively) involve the in- or out-sourcing of capacity through a partnership arrangement with another institution, academic or non-profit.


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

Enhance and increase the capacity of the Town and Regional Planning component of the GKM and encourage other key stakeholders, particularly the Chamber of Business to commission and fund research and related projects that contribute to improvements in this regard. Include this area of work within the scope of the Policy Analysis component in the MM’s Office proposed above.

Investigate the possibility of having some policy related work outsourced to local organisations and representative bodes to ensure their voice is also heard and their interests represented.

A systematic and thorough review of all existing regulations should be commissioned from an independent, unaffiliated specialist and recommendations made on what needs to be added, removed and changed. A long-term agenda in this regard should form part of the IDP and the ISDP.

GKM should have a public process to assist with the development of its own fiscal and financial model in which the source of resources and the proportion of resources to be allocated to specific issues is clearly stated. The performance of this model should be reviewed and it should be adjusted every five years.

The GKM should consider the possibility of undertaking a comprehensive change management or transformation programme that has four distinct components: --

Re-engineering of all appropriate products and their underlying business processes

--

Re-organisation, involving the reconfiguration of the GKM to meet the revised developmental needs of the Council in order to achieve its IDP and ISDP goals

--

Performance management, involving the implementation of a number of interventions that seek to understand the reasons for performance levels and to improve the current situation and

--

Culture change, which will involve undertaking research to understand the current culture of the GKM and to identify processes and structures that can assist in making it more developmental, progressive and inclusive. (All four change management components would need to interact with one another for maximum effectiveness and could be an initiative undertaken over a number of years.)

The creation of a knowledge or information centre that would both facilitate learning and house evidence collected through research, analysis and monitoring and evaluation processes. Such a facility should have both a knowledge generation and a dissemination function, and its communication strategies should be geared towards the provision of feedback loops and ensuring that Voice is provided to sectors that are traditionally marginalised and excluded.

Capacity to engage with and consult communities needs to be built. This should draw on the Green Ambassador experience and could, for example, involve scaling the programme up so that it better represents the full diversity present in Kokstad. Other sectors of the Kokstad community should also be prevailed upon to find advocacy mechanisms and systems.

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STRATEGY

9.1.3. PROGRAMME 0: ENABLING INSTITUTIONAL INTERVENTIONS PROGRAMME This programme is cross cutting. There are overarching Institutional amd Governance interventions as well as enabling institutional interventions for each of the other programmes, bylaws, and other regulatory mechanisms (like the zoning scheme) to align with the principles and goals of the ISDP. Supporting institutional, policy and legislative initiatives are listed for each programme. These are generally cross-cutting subsets of overall initiatives that have to happen at an organisational level to promote the goals of the ISDP and integrate its logic into the basic operations of the municipality. These include: •

Communication, Partnership and Engagement

Policy, Incentives and Guidelines

Bylaws and Zoning Scheme Amendments

A key element of this programme is also to ensure that the ‘rules’ by which the municipality operates are changed to promote and enforce compliance with the ISDP and the ISDP programme. To this end, the following areas will be addressed in each programme: •

policies, incentives and guidelines,

bylaws and zoning scheme,

communication, partnership and engagement.

These culminate as three single interventions under the Enabling Institutional Interventions Programme.

ENABLING INSTITUTIONAL INTERVENTIONS COMMUNICATION, POLICY, PARTNERSHIP INCENTIVES & ENGAGEMENT & GUIDELINES DESCRIPTION

1. Establish an ISDP Stakeholder Forum where Development Charter signatories (civil society, local business and government) can network, share ideas, and hold each other accountable for the progress of the ISDP and subsidiary programmes.

1. Develop guidelines and incentive schemes across GKM Departments to encourage development that is in line with the ISDP.

2. Review policies that conflict with ISDP aims. (For example regulations, laws and policies that favour the 2. Partner with NGO’s formal economy and e.g. Yondlabantu through disadvantage informal co-funding projects to builders and workers.) optimise benefits and stakeholder involvement

While they are unpacked in the matrix at the level of each programme, together they will form part of a larger initiative to set up a new space of communication and cooperation between the municipality and citizens, and to overhaul municipal policies The aim of this programme is to make sure that the essential institutional changes are made to ensure that the preconditions for success for the ISDP programmes are met. Key measures in this regard are the establishment of a Management Unit to implement and monitor the ISDP, to ensure that all sectors and spheres of government comply with and propagate the principles and proposals of the ISDP, and to build capacity around climate change mitigation and adaptation, maintenance of municipal infrastructure, and building a low carbon economy. In addition, it is proposed that the Green Ambassador programme is continued into the future to serve as a key interface between the municipality and civil society, especially in educating the next generation.

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

DEVELOPMENT PLAN

DURATION APPROX. BUDGET FUNDING SOURCE Matrix.1. PROGRAMME 0: ENABLING INSTITUTIONAL INTERVENTIONS

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BYLAWS & ZONING SCHEME AMENDMENTS 1. Institute a wall-towall zoning scheme that is up-to-date with the latest legislation and ensure that zoning scheme aligns with the intents of the ISDP. (Specific zoning scheme amendments are unpacked in subsidiary programmes of the ISDP.)

Short term


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

PROJECT NAME

COMMUNICATION, POLICY, PARTNERSHIP & INCENTIVES & ENGAGEMENT GUIDELINES

PROJECT DESCRIPTION

1. Establish an ISDP Stakeholder Forum where Development Charter signatories (civil society, local business and government) can network, share ideas, and hold each other accountable for the progress of the ISDP and subsidiary programmes. 2. Partner with NGO’s e.g. Yondlabantu through cofunding projects to optimise benefits and stakeholder involvement

BYLAWS AND ZONING SCHEME AMENDMENTS

1. Develop guidelines and incentive schemes across GKM Departments to encourage development that is in line with the ISDP.

1. Institute a wall-to-wall zoning scheme that is up-todate with the latest legislation and ensure that zoning scheme aligns with the intents of the ISDP. (Specific 2. Review policies zoning scheme that conflict amendments with ISDP aims. are unpacked (For example in subsidiary regulations, laws programmes of and policies that the ISDP.) favour the formal economy and disadvantage informal builders and workers.)

PROJECT STAGE:

PRIORITY PROJECT A) ISDP: PROGRAMME MANAGEMENT UNIT

1. Set up a cross-sectoral programme management unit to champion and co-ordinate the ISDP Implementation: a. Assign programme managers to ISDP programmes, who in turn assign project managers to ISDP projects. b. Allocate dedicated annual ISDP capital and operating budgets for crosscutting project implementation.

B) CLOSE THE INSTITUTIONAL LOOPS

C) GKM CAPACITY BUILDING

1. Build on the Sustainability Charter and develop ISDP performance objectives for all relevant departments.

1. Develop and commit to an ongoing capacitybuilding project for municipal staff as well as civil society organisations, especially ISDP 2. Integrate the programme and ISDP with the next project managers, IDP review. and community leaders. 3. Set up mechanisms for 2. Allocate annual co-ordination with ISDP capacityother relevant building budget spheres of for training and government. awarenessraising on the 4. Lobby for green economy, commitment climate change to supporting and sustainable ISDP initiatives development. at every level of government. E.g. allocation of EPWP funding, buying ‘Farming for the Future ‘ produce for hospital kitchens.

E) CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION & ADAPTATION STRATEGIES

1. Pilot innovative sustainable management and maintenance programmes for municipal infrastructure:

1. Commission Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation strategies for Kokstad and Franklin. Use the Climate Change Toolkit, and the Risk and Vulnerability Atlas as tools.

a. Explore opportunities for community-based management initiatives b. Build partnerships with District and Parastatals to coordinate management and maintenance

Initiation and set up GKM Spatial Planning and LUMS Dept.

GKM Spatial Planning Dept.

ISDP Steering Committee

ISDP PMU

ISDP PMU

PROJECT CONTACT

Kobus Marais / Samora Madikizela

Kobus Marais / Samora Madikizela

Abongile Zimu

Abongile Zimu

Abongile Zimu

Short term

Ongoing

Abongile Zimu

1. Develop the skills of the current Green Ambassadors as well as train new Green Ambassadors on a regular basis to raise awareness in communities around Sustainable Development, to provide monitoring and evaluation of the ISDP, to document existing and new sustainability initiatives and to mentor youth in the region.

G) PARTNERSHIPS FOR SUSTAINABILITY & LOW CARBON ECONOMY INITIATIVE 1. Identify potential strategic partners from business, civil society or NGO sector to work towards sustainability goals and a low carbon economy. 2. Set up a Corporate Social Investment Network to link businesses (especially national chains) with local enterprises which meet ISDP sustainability goals to retain money in the local economy

PIP: Project Implementation Phase

AGENCY ISDP PMU (PROVISIONAL)

PROJECT DURATION

D) MUNICIPAL INFRASTRUCTURE MAINTENANCE AND MANAGEMENT INITIATIVE

PRIORITY PROJECT F) GREEN AMBASSADOR PROGRAMME

Municipal Mananger

ISDP PMU

ISDP PMU

Abongile Zimu

Abongile Zimu

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Value of locally produced building materials in Rand

Percentage of people who take pride in their town in survey area

Percentage of household expenditure spent on transport

Percentage of ‘cost of business’ spent on transport and freight.

Number of people in survey area with a tertiary education qualification

Average monthly rental / average house prices as a proportion of household income

Reduction in proportion of households dependent on social grants

Number of business owners or people in full time employment who permanently reside in the area

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INDICATORS

DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

STATUS QUO Kokstad has an important regional role in terms of the economy, education, housing and social services. However, it is dependent on regional commuting and freight movement, making it highly vulnerable to predicted future energy shocks (fuel price increases and breaks in supply).

WHAT COULD FUTURE KOKSTAD LOOK LIKE? Kokstad has a vibrant and resilient, low carbon economy that has built independence from expensive fossil fuel based energy. It is an attractive, affordable place to live and work, with a skilled population and efficient public transport connections to and from the broader region.


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

9.2. CROSSROADS

9.2.1. POLICY ALIGNMENT Key policies and acts that inform this plan are: •

The Energy White Paper (1998) aims to address energy requirements of the poor; enhance the competitiveness of the economy by provision of low cost, high quality energy inputs to industrial, mining and other sectors; and achieve environmental sustainability of natural resources.

The Integrated Resource Plan for South Africa (2010) directs the expansion of the electricity supply over the given period and aims to ensure sustainable development, taking into account technical, economic and social constraints as well as externalities. The New Growth Path (2010) is a broad policy framework to guide economic reconstruction and development by identifying key economic sectors for special programs of interventions to promote the Green Economy. The Green Economy Accord (2011) identifies nine key focus areas in the green economy that could create jobs and additionally address climate change concerns helping to meet South Africa’s commitments to mitigation. It was signed by government, labour and business and makes twelve commitments to developing the green economy. The 2011 KwaZulu-Natal Provincial Growth and Development Strategy (KZN PGDS) focuses on increased use of productive land, alternative energy generation, management of pressures on biodiversity and disaster management. It recognises the intensifying competition for limited water resources and requires that catchment and river management form part of all land use management schemes, and promotes local water harvesting.

The Strategic Plan for South African Agriculture acknowledges the diversity of the sector and aims to ensure a place and role for all farmers in a united sector, including small, medium and large enterprises and historically disadvantaged groups. Its key strategies are to ensure equitable access and participation, to remain globally competitive, and to manage resources sustainably. The National Climate Change Response white paper (NCCR) (October 2011) “presents the SA Government’s vision for an effective climate change response and the long-term, just transition to a climateresilient and lower carbon economy and society”. The strategic intentions of a localised economy – consumer goods, food, energy, manufacturing, building coupled with innovation around improved transportation options contribute to a more climate resilient and low carbon growth path. The National Transport Vision requires government to “provide safe, reliable, effective, efficient and fully integrated transport operations and infrastructure which will best meet the needs of freight and passenger customers at improving levels of service and cost, in a fashion which supports government strategies for economic and social development whilst being environmentally and economically sustainable”

The Sisonke District Municipality Public Transport Plan (PTP) Review recognises the significant change in transport policy, and shifts in focus from infrastructure development to public transport. In addition, there has also been a move from a supplydriven transport system to a demand-driven transport system, based on plans/ forward planning.

The National Land Transport Strategic Framework (2002) aims to promote public transport over private transport
, to

have safer public transport services for passengers
, and to formalise and regulate the taxi industry, and recapitalise the minibus-taxi fleet. •

The National LED Framework (2006 2011) takes a strategic approach to the development of local economies with a shift away from narrow municipal interests focussed only on government inputs into ad-hoc projects. It also re-emphasises the importance of innovation, collaboration, knowledge transfer and networking within economic clustering.

Economic localisation means bringing economic activity closer to home – supporting local economies and communities rather than huge, distant corporations. It means a smaller gap between rich and poor and closer contact between producers and consumers. This translates into greater social cohesion: a recent study found that shoppers at farmers’ markets had ten times more conversations than people in supermarkets.

“Economic development in the green economy through promotion of localisation, youth employment, cooperatives and skills development” Green Economy Accord “A long-term, just transition to a climate-resilient and lower carbon economy and society” Climate Change Response Paper “Targeting investment in rural development nodes to provide livelihoods, infrastructure, irrigation, electricity, telecommunications, transportation, training and skills development” Strategic Plan for South African Agriculture

Photo 1. LOCALISE INITIATIVE IN THE USA

Note: Please see Annexure C: Precedent, for more examples.

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STRATEGY

9.2.2. STRATEGY The following four pages define and illustrate the strategies that have informed the formulation of the ISDP in terms of this story. These strategies should also guide the decision-making process in terms of other statutory plans (like the IDP and SDF) and should guide decision-making in the execution of the ISDP.

DEVELOPMENT PLAN

STATUS QUO 1 Goods come in, money goes out.

TOWN

CROSSROADS

ENABLING INSTITUTIONS

40

INFRASTRUCTURE

Photo 2. SHOPRITE CENTRE, HOPE STR, KOKSTAD

Fig 16. CROSSROADS / STATUS QUO / GOODS

AGRICULTURE

NATURAL RESOURCES

STRATEGY 1 Localise Kokstad – promote local produce, processing, manufacturing, brands, local markets, and celebrate local building materials and construction methods.

Photo 3. LOCAL VEGETABLE MARKET DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

Fig 17. CROSSROADS / STRATEGY / GOODS

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

STATUS QUO 2 Surrounding villages come to shop, school, services and have fun in Kokstad; Kokstad people go to Durban, Pietermaritzburg and Johannesburg to do this.

Photo 4. DOWER STR TAXI RANK, KOKSTAD

Fig 18. CROSSROADS / STATUS QUO / PEOPLE

STRATEGY 2 Promote Kokstad as a vibrant regional service centre, premium tertiary education hub and affordable place to live.

Photo 5. LOCAL VEGETABLE MARKET

Fig 19. CROSSROADS / STRATEGY / PEOPLE

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STRATEGY

TOWN

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STATUS QUO 3 Large amounts of money, energy and resources are spent on transporting both people and goods.

Photo 6. N2, KOKSTAD

AGRICULTURE

NATURAL RESOURCES

INFRASTRUCTURE

STRATEGY 3 Reduce dependencies and the need to travel, improve the efficiency and affordability of transport options, and develop resilient supply systems and more efficient information and transport logistics.

Photo 7. THE ROLLING HIGHWAY TRANSPORTING TRUCKS BY RAIL

DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

DEVELOPMENT PLAN

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

STATUS QUO 4 Tourists bypass Kokstad on their way to the Wild Coast, the Maloti Drakensberg, the KZN coast and the Midlands.

Photo 9. ENGEN SERVICE STATEMENT, N2,, KOKSTAD

Fig 20. CROSSROADS / STATUS QUO / TOURISM

STRATEGY 4 Promote local identity with regards to cultural and natural assets to transform Kokstad into an attractive tourist destination.

Photo 8. GUIDE TO MALOTI-DRAKENSBERG AREA

Fig 21. CROSSROADS / STRATEGY / TOURISM

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STRATEGY

DEVELOPMENT PLAN DEVELOPMENT PLAN

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

CROSSROADS I : REGIONAL RESILIENCE Rail-Trail: Put Kokstad on the map for adventure and sports tourists with the Kokstad Triathlon swim Crystal Pools dam, ycle to Franklin and run back to Kokstad.

In 2040, Kokstad has a vibrant and resilient low-carbon economy that has built independence from expensive fossil fuel based energy.

R617

FRANKLIN

ECOTOURISM INITIATIVE Develop the Kokstad-Franklin “Rail Trail” as a major new integrated eco-tourism project along the defunct Kokstad-Franklin rail line. The trail can include mountain biking, hiking, flyfishing and birdwatching, and link restored wetlands, guest farms and agri-tourism enterprises between Kokstad and Franklin. This would establish the region as a unique new tourist destination, and form the base for major new annual events (e.g. the Kokstad triathlon).

TOWN

CROSSROADS

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FRANKLIN WETLANDS

PROPOSED HIKING TRAIL

Franklin-Mount Currie Hiking Trail: Create a three-day hiking trail between Franklin and Kokstad, taking in the Franklin wetlands, the top of Mount Currie and ending at the Crystal Pools campsite.

PROPOSED RAIL-TRAIL Overnight Hut/Farmstay on the Rail Trail: An integrated eco-tourism project along the defunct Kokstad– Franklin rail line, including a mountain biking, hiking, flyfishing and birdwatching trail linking restored wetlands.

REGIONAL SERVICE CENTRE Initiate a supply chain development project to map the farming/agricultural cluster (across all farming activity). MOUNT CURRIE NATURE RESERVE

R617

N2 TO PORT SHEPSTONE

FREIGHT LOGISTICS Minimise road-based transport of goods. Reduce transport costs and other related environmental impacts by developing a transport, freight and logistics programme, and promote the wholesale, trade and distribution sectors within the GKM spatial economy. Establish a local GKM logistics info centre to help prevent trucks travelling empty, and launch a small vehicle/taxi emissions reduction and safety initiative.

AGRICULTURE

NATURAL RESOURCES

INFRASTRUCTURE

Kokstad should protect and enhance its role as a regional service centre by developing itself as a regional centre of excellence in education and skills development. Supporting the Digital Hub idea, Kokstad could tap into new free, world-class online access to tertiary degree programmes.

Franklin eco-tourism centre: Build on Franklin’s unique location at the heart of a precious wetland system by providing eco-tourism and local homestay facilities within the town. This will also serve as the start/end point of the Mount Currie Hiking Trail and the Rail Trail.

DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

Kokstad Triathlon Swim event at Crystal Springs Dam.

The Rail Trail

KOKSTAD R56

Proudly Kokstad campaign.

Launch a transport, freight and logistics programme.

Launch a sector supply chain development programme,.

Ecotourism Initiative Regional Service Centre Freight Logistics

N2 TO MTHATHA


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

9.2.3. DEVELOPMENT PLAN This section sets out the development plan for the Crossroads story, as informed by national, provincial and regional policies, and the story strategies. The main sub-stories of the Crossroads story are: •

Crossroads I: Regional Resilience

Crossroads II: Localise

9.2.3.1 CROSSROADS I: REGIONAL RESILIENCE The Regional Resilience story is primarily concerned with the relationship between Kokstad and Franklin and the broader region. As a service centre, regional retail hub, centre for education and training (although there is much room for improvement in this area), and as an area with undeveloped tourism assets, there is huge potential for enhancement of existing regional roles.

RATIONALE Kokstad and Franklin have a number of significant locational and development advantages. Kokstad is an important regional centre on a national route and linking several smaller towns and destinations within the local region. The area is also a tourism gateway with underexploited tourism assets of its own, and is in an area with high agricultural potential. In terms of this story, all of these elements must be optimised. However, Kokstad and Franklin are relatively remote from the economic engines of the metropolitan areas and highly reliant on the transportation of goods and people too and from these economies. This makes them vulnerable to economic and population decline. The GKM does not want Kokstad to be a dying town. At the same time national policies including the NDP and CRDP recognise the importance of strengthening local economies within rural areas

as an important part of balancing national growth and development and taking pressure off the metropolitan areas. International sustainability debates have highlighted the need to strengthen local rural economies to address poverty and exclusion. For all of these reasons it is important that the regional economy of Kokstad and its rural neighbours is strengthened.

PRINCIPLES The following development and sustainability principles have informed the plan for the Crossroads Story: •

Build resilience and promote of self – reliance, and reduce dependence of the towns on external factors that impact on local social and economic conditions, for example, fuel, power, staple food prices, etc;

Maximize skills and improve flows of information and knowledge. Coordinate, optimise and improve local skillsdevelopment centres, linking with other centres in the regional economy to share and develop resources and learning.

Develop a culture of cooperation and collaboration to increase the resilience of the town in its role as a regional service centre, and ensure its agility under pressure.

Protect and enhance tourism assets and optimise their potential to contribute to the area’s social, economic and environmental sustainability and attractiveness as a destination rather than a way station.

a strong vision and plan that can pull together the many current and potential initiatives and establish the area as a tourist destination in its own right. This in turn requires commitment to long-term investment in the enhancement and protection of the natural, cultural and heritage assets that are the foundation of this tourism potential. The second driver is to optimise and protect the service centre role of Kokstad while managing the impacts of and dependencies on fossil fuel based transport that supports this role. Kokstad needs to offer a range of goods, services, amenities, and opportunities to residents, businesses, and visitors, in order to be attractive in its own right rather than relying solely on its crossroads location. Strengthening partnerships and collaboration with other towns in order to effectively leverage competitive regional advantages is at the heart of global success stories for contemporary sustainable cities. This implies making the most of Kokstad’s strengths while partnering with its regional neighbours to form cooperative relationships of mutual benefit.

Set Up an Economic Cooperation Triangle (ECT) with Mthatha and Port Shepstone to increase the collective regional strength of the towns through cooperation and coordination. Areas of cooperation to include freight logistics, education, skills development, agricultural supply chains,

APPROACH The approach taken in the Crossroads Plan is to develop two complementary drivers for strengthening the regional role and potential of Kokstad and Franklin. The first driver is to build on the significant ecotourism potential within the towns of Kokstad and Franklin, and more significantly in the natural assets of the surrounding areas by developing FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012

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KEY PROPOSALS

Kokstad including its landscape, views, local produce, heritage buildings and cultural diversity.

BUILD REGIONAL STRENGTH

A specific project proposal is the development of the “Rail Trail” between the towns of Kokstad and Franklin. This project brings together a range of emerging or potential eco-tourism, heritage, cultural, agri-tourism, event and sport related initiatives and projects under a single catalytic project banner that could have far-reaching impacts on the local tourist economy. It proposes to utilise the disused rail line that runs between Kokstad and Franklin (41km) as a ‘rail trail’ – a cycling and hiking trail that runs along the railway track. One of the key attractions of the rail trail is the beautiful natural environment that the route travels through. The Franklin wetland is one of the most significant natural assets in the region, and the rail line travels right through it. Investing in the health of this ecosystem will ensure the overall attraction of the route while at the same time appealing to niche markets such as birders and other nature-enthusiasts.

The crossroads plan proposes the following key interventions to build Kokstad’s regional strength:

NATURAL RESOURCES

INFRASTRUCTURE

TOWN

CROSSROADS

AGRICULTURE

DEVELOPMENT PLAN DEVELOPMENT PLAN

STRATEGY

Building regional partnerships by developing cross-cutting interventions with partner towns such a Port Shepstone and Mthatha, including shared research, development; networking and information sharing; and shared training programmes with joint supplier, developer and enterprise development projects

Developing sector supply chain support, which includes the agriculture, agroprocessing and food processing, forestry and building industries, as well as all their downstream industries.

Launching a transport, freight and logistics programme, including promotion of the wholesale, trade and distribution sectors to minimize road-based transport.

Halting the decline in the agricultural sector through a business retention and improvement strategy, as well as relevant skills development and education.

Attracting investment and make business more sustainable by transitioning to green energy, waste, and water systems.

ECO-TOURISM CATALYTIC PROJECT To attract visitors, tourists and retail the plan recommends protecting and enhancing the immense natural and heritage assets of the town to build a strong new eco-tourism sector. The plan proposes that Kokstad and Franklin are developed and marketed as a major regional eco-tourism gateway linking the coast with the Drakensberg and KwaZulu Natal with the Eastern Cape by integrating and coordinating current and planned initiatives spatially and institutionally. At all levels of the ISDP it is essential that investments, institutions and civic society celebrate what is unique and special about DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

The hiking trail could go through Mount Currie Nature Reserve (past the Adam Kok monument) and could include overnight stops at local farms. It would also coincide with the roll-out of the Bicycle Empowerment Centres by the Bicycle Empowerment Network (see under Town); which would promote cycling amongst Kokstad inhabitants as well, thereby ensuring it is not a project exclusively aimed at tourists but can be used and enjoyed by locals too. To promote the new trail, it is proposed to develop, pilot and implement an annual triathlon event that includes swimming across Mount Currie Dam, cycling on the rail-trail and running on the hiking trail between Kokstad and Franklin

REGIONAL SERVICE CENTRE & FREIGHT LOGISTICS •

Launch a transport, freight and logistics programme, including promotion of the wholesale, trade and distribution sector. In this instance the strategic sustainability objective is to minimize road based transport of good and to reduce transport costs, and emissions and related environmental costs. Launch a sector supply chain development programme, which includes agriculture and downstream industries, such as agroprocessing and food processing; forestry industry and downstream industries, including building materials and furniture, and local manufacturing.

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES The following guidelines should be followed to ensure that the intentions of the Crossroads Plan are achieved: GG

Build the urban management capacity of the municipality, condition of infrastructure, efficiency of services provision, attractiveness of the town.

GG

Ensure that LED initiatives are informed by a clear understanding of the economic capacity and potential of the area. Start with mapping out and fully understanding of the local product supply chains and services and relevant regional ones.

GG

Ensure that new development and investment projects maximise local opportunities for production, enterprise development, job creation and the concomitant circulation of income, value and social benefit in local economy, while ensuring that mutually beneficial exchange potentials are optimised.

GG

Promote and support investments that build capacity, skills and livelihoods in meaningful, dignified green economy sectors


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

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TOWN

CROSSROADS II : LOCALISE Future Kokstad is an attractive, affordable place to live and work, with a skilled population and efficient public transport connections to and from the broader region.

17

FRANKLIN A strong local food production economy addresses food security and reduces pressure on local household costs.

Fig 23. TOWN III - FRANKLIN

Park maintenance (restoring the commons) in exchange for ‘civics’.

INFRASTRUCTURE NATURAL RESOURCES

RK

BA

T

EE

TR

S ER

Local brickyard.

ET RE ST ER W DO KOKSTAD CENTRAL

Processing of local natural material (e.g. hemp).

Processing recycled material into new products.

Establish an Industrial Ecology Precinct in the Kokstad industrial area to reduce production and service costs/ inputs and attract new, sustainable industries.

Water tank construction.

Neighbourhood Activity Node: Local Economy & Digital Hubs Complementary Mixed Use + Local Economy Support Industrial Ecology Precinct

Fig 22. TOWN III - KOKSTAD

Packaging of local agricultural produce.

DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

Establish appropriate new economic activity centres at high access points in existing and new settlement areas. Set up digital hubs at all community activity centres to stimulate local business investment and entrepreneurialism and connect residents and businesses to regional and global knowledge, skills development and economic opportunities.

NEIGHBOURHOOD ACTIVITY NODE: LOCAL AGRI-PROCESSING Support value-adding beneficiation of agricultural products and processes (such as milk processing and cheese manufacturing, timber (low grade) processing and manufacturing, maize processing, poultry processing and vegetables and fruit processing) within neighbourhood activity nodes.

MICRO-UTILITY Establishment of micro-utilities to supply, manage and maintain sustainable hot water, energy and other services to household clusters (15-20 hh).

BHONGWENI

56

Timber processing.

Neighbourhood Activity Node: Agri-Processing Node

HORSESHOE

Wetland rehabilitation (restoring the commons) in exchange for ‘civics’.

INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY PRECINCT

R

Micro-utility

Bio-fuel production.

NEIGHBOURHOOD ACTIVITY NODE: ECONOMIC & INFORMATION NEIGHBOURHOOD ACTIVITYCOMPONENT NODE

BAMBAYI

JA ROAD

ET

RE

ET

RE ST

ST

Promote sustainable economic development by establishing appropriate new economic activity centres at high access points in existing and new settlement areas.

GCADIN

IN

PE

6

R5

Free WIFI for the whole town – starting with “knowledge hubs” at activity nodes.

“I was always at home doing nothing - didn’t know much about life in general, but when CLIQ (Community based SHAYAMOYA Micro utilities provide Learning ICTs and and maintain household Quality of Life) came services. along it opened another world in my life and I gained more knowledge about things that I never thought I would know, in the computer. Khetha MZINTLAVA RIVER FY (2010)

MA

E

NU

E AV

HO

E TH

Proactively include informal and micro business as a key part of the economy. Focus on promoting local businesses - ones that are locally owned and carry locally-produced stock or offer locally-sourced services - and make allowance for mixed-use live-work units that can encourage people to start and run their own businesses from their living places.

R6

17

Map local supply chains and services to uncover opportunities for diversification of demand and supply, leading to greater economic resilience, local economic self-reliance, greater circulation of money, and balancing of flows of goods and services into and out of the local economy.

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

SUPPORT FOR LOCAL ECONOMY

EXTENSION 7

AGRICULTURE

DEVELOPMENT PLAN DEVELOPMENT PLAN

STRATEGY

R6

CROSSROADS

ENABLING INSTITUTIONS

48

N2

Establish the Kokstad Industrial Area as an Industrial Ecology Precinct to attract new green industry that can benefit from reduced service costs derived from optimised “waste to energy” flows between industries (one business’ waste becomes another’s resource). The park should also reduce stormwater pollution to zero using swales, bioswales, soakaways, wetlands, etc.


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

9.2.3.2 CROSSROADS II: LOCALISE The Localise Crossroads story is about building resilience from within, and includes developing a robust local economy, civic pride, and practices that optimise the value of local resources in a carefully managed way. It focuses on local economic, social and environmental initiatives that have the potential to create meaningful livelihoods, provide entertainment and activities for the youth of Kokstad and Franklin and attract and retain investment and businesses, especially those related to the green economy. These include significant spatial, including approaches to the spatial structure, land use management and public investment in facilities, space and infrastructure. The proposals contained in the stories that follow have all been informed by the aims of this story so these are not repeated here. This story will deal with some of the spatial issues that are unique to the Crossroads story but will also touch on associated institutional and sector aspects.

RATIONALE The challenge is to make Kokstad a viable and attractive place for people to live and work in the long term, reversing the trend of skills and youth leaving if they have the opportunity. Sustainable growth of the population and the local economy, within the limits of the local resource base, is important for the long-term sustainability of the town. There are many ways in which Kokstad and Franklin can innovate to improve and create new local opportunities that also improve the sustainability of the town. Localising is key to building a green economy, the construction, agricultural and retail sectors all provide many obvious opportunities to do so.

PRINCIPLES •

Promote local economies to keep money, skills and goods circulating in the local economy

Promote green technologies, especially those that build a local skills and manufacturing base

Promote eco-efficiency, creating more value with less impact to reduce the consumption of resources, reduce environmental costs of doing business and increase service value

Improve the character and quality of the towns to build citizen pride and investor confidence

Cascading resource use

Build resilience by promoting decentralization and semi-decentralisation of economies, technologies and systems and

Increase service value taking into account user and community needs and providing more appropriate solutions (that often cost less and have greater benefits, such as using wetlands instead of concrete channels to deal with stormwater and at the same time creating a great recreational amenity)

Promote resource efficiency through green building and sustainable infrastructure options including passive design

Build a circular economy through food infrastructure that closes waste and nutrient cycles promoting local food production and consumption

APPROACH The plan is built around the primary strategies of localisation, intensification and diversification. It proposes that the economy is developed to be locally appropriate and responsive, to use resources efficiently and effectively; to conserve and replenish the natural environment; to implement sustainable procurement; and to utilise locally sourced materials and skills. The Crossroads Local Economy story is based on a “whole systems thinking” approach to sustainably development, where “the interconnections between systems are actively considered, and solutions are sought that address multiple problems at the same time” While this is the ethos of the entire ISDP, it

is particularly relevant here. This suggests reconfiguring Kokstad and Franklin to operate as integrated economic, social and environmental systems and to ensure that new development and investment is thought of as integrated “ecourbansim” rather than a series of unrelated parts. With respect to the economy a whole system thinking approach needs to understand local supply chain and services as these will reveal opportunities for diversification of demand and supply which could underpin greater economic resilience, local economic self-reliance, greater circulation of money, and balancing of flows of goods and services into and out of the local economy. Diversification of demand is a function of more people with buying power in the local economy and an increase in demand in a wider range of products services. It is also related to an increase in the variety of suppliers of good and services. The ideas presented in the plan for crossroads are intended to build on this thinking but further detailed analysis of the supply chains and demand should inform the next LED strategy.

significant potential to build the economy and many home based, micro and informal businesses are the foundation of local entrepreneurial development.

DEVELOP AN INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY PARK •

Facilitate green industry through initiating and supporting an industrial ecology approach and precinct; a national exemplar of a zero waste, resource efficient “industrial ecology”, where one industry’s waste becomes another’s resource.

Do a materials flows audit to see how different industries’ outputs and inputs can be aligned.

PROMOTE LOCAL ECONOMIES •

Promote business and community transactions that keep money, skills and goods in the local economy

Build a strong local food production economy to address food security, to reduce pressure on local household costs (food currently accounts for 26% of household expenditure), and to boost the local economy through developing the food sector.

Map local supply chain and services within the local economy to identify opportunities for diversification of demand and supply and use this understanding to develop new LED strategies and projects that build the local economy

Introduce a local currency (see ‘civics’ precedent) and use to support local job creation linked to urban management such as open space maintenance, wetland rehabilitation, street cleansing etc

Establishment a micro-utilities enterprise to supply, manage and maintain sustainable hot water, energy, waste and stormwater management to household clusters (15-20 households). This is a private business promotion with local community microenterprises; local established contractors, plumbers and electricians, and suppliers of technology, finance and management

KEY PROPOSALS ENSURE THAT THE SPATIAL STRUCTURE OF THE TOWN ENABLES SUSTAINABLE LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND LIVELIHOOD OPPORTUNITIES •

Promote sustainable local economic development by establishing appropriate new economic activity centres at high access points in existing and new settlement areas. This is more sustainable than malls, especially out-of-town malls as these optimize existing infrastructure. Proactively include informal and micro business as a key part of the economy. Survivalist businesses are often marginal and vulnerable, and need support, especially given their significant role in reducing poverty and dependence on grants. Equally, these businesses have

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50

CROSSROADS

ENABLING INSTITUTIONS

support take responsibility for multiple management tasks, such as: installation and/or replacement of solar water heating and heat exchangers, including on-going repair and maintenance, electricity savings measures, household metering, meter reading and collection, and water leakage prevention. Their fees are generated directly from the savings residents get from more efficient infrastructure, and in return the residents get more reliable and bettermaintained services.

LEAPFROG INTO THE NEW DIGITAL ERA

INFRASTRUCTURE

TOWN

Invest in economic activity centres (aligned with proposed public space and service nodes in Town story) including free knowledge hubs.

Communal woodlots for construction timber at institutions.

NATURAL RESOURCES

Green buildings use fewer resources in both their construction and operation. The plan proposes that green building technologies and principles are used in the construction of all new municipal buildings so that these can serve as demonstration projects for new development.

Develop local green construction skills and establish Kokstad as a regional leader in sustainable development.

Promote use of local building materials (regulate quotas for public works)

Internet café.

Retail Parking Sale of medicinal herbs.

Fresh food restaurant

Bicycle repair centre & storage

Seedling nursery

Business & Skills development centre Micro-processing (drying, pickling, brewing, freezing, packing)

Corner shop Recycling drop off point Green building support & advice centre

Recycling businesses

Recycling collection centre

DEVELOP LOCAL AGRI-PROCESSING CAPACITY Facilitate and support local beneficiation of local agricultural produce, at small and industrial scales, such as: • •

Fig 24. NEIGHBOURHOOD ACTIVITY NODE: ECONOMIC & INFORMATION COMPONENT

DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

Food market

Public transport hub

Invest in free wi-fi access for the whole town to enhance business development as well as education and skills development.

Develop and support green technology construction methods, materials manufacturing and skills development as this sector offers many green economy opportunities that can be the focus of green economy initiatives

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

NEIGHBOURHOOD ACTIVITY NODE: ECONOMIC & INFORMATION COMPONENT

DEVELOP A GREEN CONSTRUCTION ECONOMY

AGRICULTURE

DEVELOPMENT PLAN DEVELOPMENT PLAN

STRATEGY

• • •

Milk processing and cheese manufacturing Timber (low grade) processing and manufacturing for building material Maize processing Poultry processing Vegetables and fruit processing


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

DEVELOPMENT & URBAN DESIGN GUIDELINES GG

GG

GG

Encourage investment in, and upgrade of, the existing town rather than support or allow new developments on the fringes that potentially undermine and discourage this through spreading resources too thinly as well as entrenching socio-economic segregation. Where such new developments have been approved, mitigation measures, and offsets, to protect the existing town must be considered. New greenfield developments must comply with green building principles and must be as self-reliant as possible in terms of infrastructure requirements. Assess interventions and investments for their potential to facilitate local business opportunities, including home-based, informal, micro businesses and formal largescale businesses, that use local resources and local labour, and facilitating growing local markets, should drive interventions. Investigate carefully designed incentives programmes.

GG

GG

Install solar hot-water systems or heat pumps.

GG

Install properly insulated ceilings.

GG

Place and size windows to make optimal use of natural light, winter heating and ventilation without creating draughts, gaining too much heat in summer or losing heat in winter.

GG

GG

GG

Avoid the use of air conditioning, or at least ensure that the correct size air conditioner is installed and that use of the unit is minimised.

GG

Make use of indigenous planting and efficient irrigation methods, such as drip irrigation.

Ensure that energy-efficient light bulbs, such as CFLs or LEDs, are used where possible.

GG

GG

Consider the installation of independent renewable electricity generators, such as PV panels or wind turbines.

Use a pool blanket to reduce water loss through evaporation.

GG

GG

Further reduce the electrical energy used to heat water by installing geyser blankets, pipe insulation and a geyser timer.

In consultation with the local authority, introduce waterless sanitation and alternative grey-water systems that clean black and grey water, while providing useful by-products such as fertiliser and biogas.

GG

Install low-flow shower heads.

GG

Recommendations for water efficiency:

GG

Ensure that only water-efficient devices, such as low-flow taps, low-flow shower heads, washing machines and dishwashers, are used.

GG

Ensure that all toilets are low-volume (9,5 litres or less), with dual-flush or multi-flush systems.

GG

Ensure that public buildings and outside taps and showers are fitted with meteringtap buttons, which have set timers to prevent taps from being left on or dripping.

GG

Design the layout of the plumbing system so as to avoid long pipe runs between the geyser and supply points.

GG

Reduce hard surfacing to encourage rainwater to seep back into the ground rather than being carried away into the sea by piped drainage systems.

GG

Design paved areas so that water run-off is slowed down, and use soak-aways or “rain gardens” and permeable paving wherever possible to allow water to filter into the ground.

GG

Ensure that the optimum pipe size and water pressure are used. A pressurereducing valve can be installed at a point nearest to where the supply enters the building, to ensure that all water supplies in the building are balanced.

Ensure that the building is constructed so as to be tightly sealed to prevent unwanted air flows. Doors and windows must be appropriately sized and fitted with seals. Energy-efficient electrical installations should be used.

However, ensure that the local ecological system is not polluted and that it is managed correctly.

GG

GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY

Ensure that artificial lighting is designed so that light is focused where necessary, such as on areas where tasks are being performed, with more ambient light elsewhere. Avoid the use of ‘up-lighting’ to reduce light pollution.

GG

Install systems for rainwater harvesting and the reuse of grey water where appropriate.

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR HUMAN HEALTH AND COMFORT GG

Reduce the risk of Sick Building Syndrome through natural ventilation, natural light, good acoustics and ergonomics.

GG

Ensure that microbial growth is prevented by regularly cleaning and servicing airconditioning equipment and ducts.

GG

Prevent damp conditions that lead to microbial and bacterial growth, by ensuring exteriors are properly sealed and drained. Rising damp and associated fungal and bacterial growth should also be prevented by using breathable paints, so that water cannot accumulate under the paint surface.

GG

Avoid building and decorating materials (such as paint, varnished wood and carpets) which may emit high levels of VOCs. Rather use natural wood finishes or paints (which are commercially available) and limit the use of particleboards.

GG

Ensure that no CFC-based air conditioners are used.

GG

Encourage the use of organic cleaning products, which do not contain harmful chemicals.

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR WASTE REDUCTION GG

Aim for and promote zero waste in the planning, operation, management, maintenance and demolition of a building. Zero waste emulates the closed-loop processes found in nature, taking a ‘cradleto-cradle’ approach to designing products and buildings.

GG

Incorporate waste avoidance into the process at the design phase already, by specifying products and materials that have less wasteful production processes and do not create wasteful emissions during construction, maintenance and demolition of a building.

GG

Ensure that all buildings that are to be demolished compile a demolition plan, outlining how the building material and rubble will be used to avoid waste sent to landfill.

GG

If waste is created, consider how this can firstly be reused and then recycled to recover the value invested in these materials, rather than losing this value when the resource is simply dumped in a landfill or incinerated.

GG

Provide waste compactors in buildings where large amounts of waste are created, to save landfill air space and the transport costs associated with waste removal.

GG

Facilitate the separation of waste at source for composting, reuse and recycling when designing waste management systems. The building management plan should encourage people to recycle their waste. FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012

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STRATEGY

9.2.4. IMPLEMENTATION PLAN The implementation plan for this story has three programmes: •

Watershed Investment Programme

Localised Economy Programme

Green Building Programme

PROGRAMME 1: WATERSHED INVESTMENT PROGRAMME The Watershed Investment Programme is aimed at developing the Kokstad-Franklin region (as defined by its watershed boundaries) as a significant attractor of investment and tourism. A dual strategy of investing in its natural capital and in the heritage and recreation assets of the region aim to combine the payoff of both to transform Kokstad/Franklin into a resilient and attractive place to live and a destination worthy of travelling to. The successful outcome of this programme would see Kokstad and Franklin capitalizing on their natural assets to a) earn through protecting them in a Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) scheme, and b) use their protected status to attract visitors to the area. A key driver for an ecosystem servicebased approach to water resources is the National Water Act, with its emphasis on equity, sustainability and maintaining the integrity of the ecosystems that supply South Africa’s water resources. It requires water to be set aside for both human and ecological consumption, recognizing the need to balance the maintenance of ecosystem service delivery and human welfare. An understanding of the interdependence of biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being offers an alternative, and fruitful approach which can ask what levels of eco system functioning are needed for rivers to provide a full range of regulatory, production and life-enhancing services. This is in line with the intent of the Water Act and with the environmental clause of the Constitution. DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN PLAN IMPLEMENTATION

DEVELOPMENT PLAN

The National Environmental Management Act - NEMA (1998), The National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act (2004), and the National Environmental Management: Protected Areas Act (2003) all validate government’s ability and duty to protect and rehabilitate the region’s unique resources. There are two key subsets of this programme – developing the tourist potential, and rehabilitating and protecting ecosystems and ecosystem services within the watershed: •

The Kokstad-Franklin Rail Trail: --

Declaration and upgrading of ‘Heritage Precincts’ around the Kokstad and Franklin railway stations.

--

Expansion of the project scope to include a hiking and biking path

--

Wetland upgrade

--

Promotion of the route through special events

The Franklin Wetlands Programme: --

Create sustainable rural livelihoods based on the ongoing management and sustainable use of natural assets

--

Build a supply chain for trade of increased baseflow and sediment reduction services

--

Implement appropriate a suite of watershed management activities

--

Generate a model for PES implementation by DWA, WFW and South Africa as a whole

This programme is aligned with that of the Localised Economy Programme, the Public Space, Street and Facility Investment Programme and the Open Space Services Programme. All aim to make Kokstad/Franklin a more attractive place for inhabitants, visitors and investment, and to protect the environment with its vital resources and services,and align closely with the aims and goals of the ISDP.

ENABLING INSTITUTIONAL INTERVENTIONS COMMUNICATION, POLICY, PARTNERSHIP INCENTIVES & ENGAGEMENT & GUIDELINES DESCRIPTION

1. Support active participation of local residents in tourism decision making, planning and management through the establishment of a community “Wetland Management Forum”. 2. Initiate collaboration between the tourism sector and the wetland conservation sector

DURATION

1. Integrate wetland conservation and sustainable use approaches into tourism policies and planning. 2. Ensure that wetland areas are clearly excluded from development in the SDF..

Short term

APPROX. BUDGET FUNDING SOURCE Matrix.3. PROGRAMME 1: ENABLING INSTITUTIONAL INTERVENTIONS

BYLAWS & ZONING SCHEME AMENDMENTS 1. Ensure that coverage limits indicted in the Zoning scheme take account of the need to recharge wetlands and limit pollution


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

PRIORITY PROJECT

PRIORITY PROJECT

PROJECT NAME

A) KOKSTAD TOURISM PROMOTION & CAPACITY BUILDING

B1) KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN RAIL-TRAIL: RAIL-TRAIL / RAIL-BIKE TOURISM

B2) KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN RAIL-TRAIL: BIATHLON / TRIATHLON

B3) KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN RAIL-TRAIL: RAILWAY STATION HERITAGE PRECINCTS UPGRADING

C1) FRANKLIN WETLANDS: RESTORING THE NATURAL CAPITAL

C2) FRANKLIN WETLANDS: OPTIMISATION OF ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

PROJECT DESCRIPTION

1. Consolidate and expand the capacity and reach of Kokstad Tourism Organisation:

1. Create, signpost and advertise a hiking and rail-trail / rail-bike tourism route between Kokstad and Franklin:

1. Develop and implement an annual triathlon event that includes swimming across Mount Currie Dam, cycling on the rail-trail and running on the hiking trail between Kokstad and Franklin.

1. Conserve and upgrade the existing disused railway station precincts in Kokstad and Franklin as heritage-tourism destinations and start/end points of the Rail-Trail.

1. Develop and implement a plan to enhance the Franklin wetlands, which are considered of international significance (and are officially recognised by Ramsar), through interventions to protect, rehabilitate and, where appropriate, expand the existing wetlands.

1. Environmental Evaluation and Framework for the Franklin Wetlands to:

a. Evaluate capacity needs b. Develop Management & Organisational plan c. Develop, vision, mandate and capacity d. Develop marketing plan, identifying potential platforms (website / brochure etc.) e. Develop, with stakeholders, a programme of sustainable public events, such as festivals and sports events, and publish for public comment RELATED PROJECTS PROJECT STAGE

IMPLEMENTING AGENT

• Sisonke Stimela

• Kokstad Community Sports Agency

• PDP: Project Development Phase • PIP: Project Implementation Phase

• PDP: Project Development Phase • PIP: Project Implementation Phase

• PDP: Project Development Phase • PIP: Project Implementation Phase

Kokstad Tourism Organisation

Kokstad Tourism Organisation / Kokstad Tourism Organisation Sisonke Stimela Margi Fleming: Acting Chairperson (KTO)

Margi Fleming: Acting Chairperson (KTO)

Cell: 084 831 3352

Cell: 084 831 3352

Cell: 084 831 3352

Email: margifleming@gmail. com

Email: margifleming@gmail. com

Email: margifleming@gmail. com

Phase 1: Capacity baseline needs assessment: 3 mo.

1 – 5 years

Pilot: event set up 1- year

Phase 2: Management and organizational plan: 4 mo. PRECONDITIONS

2. Align with Community Coordination and Participation Sports Agency initiative.

• Kokstad Marketing Board, Kokstad & Franklin RailTrail: Biathlon / Triathlon

PROJECT OWNER Margi Fleming: Acting Chairperson (KTO)

PROJECT DURATION

• Cycling trail along disused rail line that runs between Kokstad and Franklin . • Hiking trail through Mount Currie Nature Reserve (past the Adam Kok monument • Overnight stops at local farms.

a. Work with stakeholders to develop a sustainable management and financing model for the Kokstad and Franklin Station Precincts.

• Assess potential ecosystem services, including tourism. • Prepare a management plan for rehabilitation and maintenance.

2. Establish a payments system for watershed b. Prepare Heritage and Urban management services in the Design Frameworks for both short term, which will form a precincts. foundation for the development of a PES (Payment for Ecosystem Services) market in the long term.

• GKM Biodiversity Sector Plan • PDP: Project Development Phase • PIP: Project Implementation Phase

• PDP: Project Development Phase • PIP: Project Implementation Phase

• PDP: Project Development Phase • PIP: Project Implementation Phase

AMAFA / KZN Heritage

Working for Wetlands / KZN Wildlife

Working for Wetlands / KZN Wildlife

Mbali Kubheka: KZN

Mbali Kubheka: KZN

Provincial Coordinator

Provincial Coordinator

Working for Wetlands Programme

Working for Wetlands Programme

Email: M.Goge@sanbi.org.za

Email: M.Goge@sanbi.org.za

Planning and Design: 1-2 years

Environmental Evaluation

Implementation: 2 years

• Secure support and buy in from EG Encounters

APPROX. BUDGET R250 000

R500 000

FUNDING SOURCE

R300’000 has been secured from DTI for the Development Phase.

R1 million for P&PD Working for Wetlands DAFF

Matrix.4. PROGRAMME 1: WATERSHED INVESTMENT PROGRAMME FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012

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PROGRAMME 2: LOCALISED ECONOMY PROGRAMME This programme is built around the primary sustainability strategies of localisation, intensification and diversification. It proposes that the local economy is developed so that it is locally appropriate and responsive, uses resources efficiently and effectively, implements sustainable procurement; and utilises locally sourced materials and skills. The projects are a combination of local economic production (such as an open collaborative manufacturing centre, a light industrial park, a micro-utility project, etc.) and the measures required to help this new kind of production succeed – such as a local complementary currency, a ‘Kokstad Brand’ marketing board and a youth development (Youth for the Future) programme. One of the National Development Plan (2011) scenarios to create approximately 11 million jobs by 2030, and reduce unemployment to about 6% by 2030, aims to create a diversified dynamic economythrough attracting more substantial investments, strengthening municipal infrastructure and services, education systems, and generate better access to capital for new and expanding firms. The Vision set out in the LED Masterplan developed by all key stakeholders says that: ‘By 2030 Greater Kokstad will have emerged as an internationally acclaimed best practice of sustainable development and living’. Integration of the imperatives of economic growth and environmental sustainability captured in South Africa’s Green Economy Accord, described by the South African government as being “one of the most comprehensive social pacts on green jobs in the world, that builds partnerships to create 300 000 new jobs by 2020, in economic activities as diverse as energy generation, manufacturing of products that reduce carbon emissions, farming activities to provide feedstock for biofuels, soil and DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

environmental management and eco tourism.” The accord places a strong emphasis on a localisation strategy - fostering local industrial capacity, local jobs and local technological innovation. The accord creates a supportive policy environment within which to meet Kokstad’s urgent need for decent work for all, in an ecologically sound manner. This programme includes interventions that are essentially about positioning Kokstad for sustainable, inclusive economic growth. The range of projects addresses planning, institutional and management aspects, social support, skills development and capacity building, as well as highlighting specific new economic development opportunities. An integrated approach to implementation of this programme is paramount.

DEVELOPMENT PLAN

Open Collaborative Manufacturing - skills development and partnerships

Skills Development - shared learning and local education development

Job Linkage Centre – employment seeker support, match jobs to job seekers

Small Business Support Programme – support and incubation, including for micro and informal businesses

The programme components are as follows: •

Review Existing LED Plan - to align closely with the opportunities identified in the ISDP

Support for Green Economy - to identify and support green economy opportunities

Local Currency – to stimulate trade in local goods and services

Kokstad Marketing Board – to establish and market a local brand

Community Based Micro-Utilities Services Enterprises-Feasibility Study to reduce external dependencies

Eco-Industrial Park – to shift to more efficient closed loop systems

Agro-Processing Plant - to localise agricultural beneficiation opportunities

Bhongweni Light Industrial Park - to provide local entrepreneurial support

Community Development Centres - free wi-fi and entrepreneurial support

Kokstad Community Sports Agency – coordination and promotion of local sporting opportunities

Youth for the Future - entrepreneurial training, mentorship, and awareness raising

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN PLAN IMPLEMENTATION

This programme is cross cutting, but is closely aligned with the infrastructure programmes in particular the energy and waste management programmes, the Green Building Programme which presents many green economy opportunities, the Settlement programme, which through promoting a more compact and intense footprint increases local economic thresholds, and the farming for the future programme, which includes localising agricultural production and food security projects.

ENABLING INSTITUTIONAL INTERVENTIONS COMMUNICATION, POLICY, PARTNERSHIP INCENTIVES & ENGAGEMENT & GUIDELINES DESCRIPTION

1. Set up a regional cooperation and partnership with Mthatha and Port Shepstonte to strengthen these towns within the region

1. Develop an incentive scheme to reduce local transport emissions and promote road safety.

2. Conduct a feasibility study of developing an online matching and linkage platform to encourage efficient logistics and closed material loops. 3. Set up information sharing platform to encourage information and experience sharing between small businesses DURATION APPROX. BUDGET FUNDING SOURCE Matrix.5. PROGRAMME 2: ENABLING INSTITUTIONAL INTERVENTIONS (1)

BYLAWS & ZONING SCHEME AMENDMENTS 1. Amend ByLaws and Zoning Scheme to accommodate private second dwelling or lodgers’ rooms, as well as home-based businesses.


PRIORITY PROJECT

PROJECT NAME

A) REVIEW EXISTING B) SUPPORT FOR LED PLAN GREEN ECONOMY

C) KOKSTAD MARKETING BOARD

PROJECT DESCRIPTION

1. Review LED Plan to take into account opportunities to localise the Kokstad economy by managing supply chains, identifying opportunities for local value-adding operations and strengthening the wholesale, trade and distribution role of Kokstad.

1. Establish a Kokstad Marketing & Branding Agency: • Coordinate and support local businesses through collective research, marketing, branding and advertising. • Develop regionally and nationally recognised “Kokstad Brand” for locally produced food and goods.

RELATED PROJECTS

1. Develop a Green Economy Plan including: • Bicycle-related business • Nurseries • Solar heater manufacturing, installation and maintenance. • WaterTank manufacturing. • Greening and maintenance of landscaping • Insulation manufacturing & installation • Compliant building products e.g. window &wall solutions.

PROJECT STAGE

IMPLEMENTING AGENT

GKM LED

PROJECT OWNER PROJECT DURATION

PRIORITY PROJECT

D) COMMUNITY BASED MICROUTILITIES SERVICES ENTERPRISESFEASIBILITY STUDY 1. Investigate feasibility of establishing a network of micro-utility enterprises that: • Provide household level water and electricity demand management services to GKM. • Install and maintain photo-voltaic power generation, solar water heating and waste recycling for low and middle income homesteads in Kokstad and environs.

E) AGROF) KOKSTAD PROCESSING PLANT COMMUNITY SPORTS AGENCY

G) OPEN COLLABORATIVE MANUFACTURING

H) SKILLS DEVELOPMENT

The establishment of small Poultry Producers supplying broilers to a central processing facility would provide longterm employment opportunities, entrepreneurial development and upliftment for those persons who are interested in chicken production in this area. Could also include vegetable packaging and value-adding under the Kokstad Brand.

Establish Manufacture Capability for skill development and self-empowerment by proving how open collaborative manufacturing systems supported by engineering sciences, innovation platforms and co-creative designs can contribute to the development and empowerment of rural communities. s.

1. Establish Kokstad Learning forum to encourage engagement and collaboration between education practitioners in Kokstad, Mthatha and Port Shepstone: • Education support for marginalised groups to access skills and critical thinking abilities • Homework support / mentorship for scholars • New and improved tertiary education opportunities

• PDP: Project Development Phase • P&DP: Pilot and/ or Demonstration Projects

• PDP: Project Development Phase

• Local Produce Market

1. Establish a Kokstad Sport Coordination Agency: • Increase opportunities for Kokstad and Franklin residents to participate in sport and recreation activities. • Co-ordinate and manage all existing sporting resources and projects (private and public), • Increase access for previously marginalised groups, and to diversify sport activities. • Triathlon, MultiPurpose Sports Complex

• PDP: Project Development Phase

• PDP: Project Development Phase

• PDP: Project Development Phase (Feasibility Study required for local scope)

GKM LED

GKM

Scientific Roets

Manufacturing Research Centre at the Dept of Mech Eng Science, UJ)

John Spiropolous (083 260 6687) PDP: 3 months for feasibility

Dr Merida Roets (039 727 1515) Planning phase: 5 months Implementation and training phase: 3 years

Mr Piet Bosman 0710361408 Phase 1: 1 year Phase 2: 3 years

Feasibility Study required

Community support and involvement. MOU with established networks. Partnering with local organizations.

R 47 million

PDP: 250 k, P&DP: 300k, PIP: 850 k

PRECONDITIONS

APPROX. BUDGET FUNDING SOURCE

KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

R469,500 excl VAT

Unknown at this time

• PDP: Project Development Phase • PIP: Project Implementation Phase

Matrix.6. PROGRAMME 2: LOCALISED ECONOMY PROGRAMME (1) FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012

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STRATEGY

DEVELOPMENT PLAN

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN PLAN IMPLEMENTATION

PROGRAMME 2: LOCALISED ECONOMY PROGRAMME (II)

INFRASTRUCTURE

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ENABLING INSTITUTIONAL INTERVENTIONS COMMUNICATION, POLICY, PARTNERSHIP INCENTIVES & ENGAGEMENT & GUIDELINES

NATURAL RESOURCES

DESCRIPTION

1. Initiate ‘Proudly Kokstad Campaign’: a. Support for local products & initiatives. b. Mobilise public involvement.

1. Develop strategies and guidelines for management and support for private rental accommodation at individual household scale as well as for home-based businesses.

DURATION AGRICULTURE

APPROX. BUDGET FUNDING SOURCE Matrix.7. PROGRAMME 2: ENABLING INSTITUTIONAL INTERVENTIONS (2) DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

BYLAWS & ZONING SCHEME AMENDMENTS 1. Amend zoning scheme to allow complementary mixed uses around proposed neighbourhood centres and along activity streets, as identified in the ISDP.


PRIORITY PROJECT

KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

PROJECT NAME

I) COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT CENTRES (PILOT AT MOUNT CURRIE COMMUNITY CENTRE)

J) BHONGWENI LIGHT INDUSTRIAL PARK

K) YOUTH FOR THE FUTURE

L) ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARK

M) SMALL BUSINESS N) LOCAL CURRENCY SUPPORT PROGRAMME

PROJECT DESCRIPTION

Develop a plan to provide community-based learning hubs at ISDP neighbourhood centres, including: a. Free Wi-Fi spots with access to computers with assistance and homework support / mentorship.

To implement the construction and operation of a Light Industrial Park Incubator in Bhongweni, so as to provide entrepreneurial training, infrastructure and mentorship support to artisanal entrepreneurs that will provide technical services to the Green Economy (technical skills required for solar power, recycling, water use, agriculture, manufacturing, etc.) in order to contribute to the wider economic growth of the region.

Initiate a “Youth for the Futuere Programme: a. Entrepreneurial training and mentorship of a group of approximately 110 Green, Gardening, Tourism, Re-cycling and Artisanal “Ambassadors” to support and serve the development of the ISDP initiative of Kokstad.

1. Commission a materials flow analysis to identify existing flows and stocks of materials and energy in the Kokstad and Franklin industrial zones.

1. Develop Micro-business and start up support strategy Small business support and incubation especially for green economy Facilitate access to markets, finance, technical support, and infrastructure (such as storage and public ablutions).

b. Centres and miniexhibition spaces for ISDP programmes and projects, participatory action research initiatives and Green Ambassador projects. 2. Pilot the Community Development Centre concept at the Mount Currie Community Development Centre.

b. Awareness raising initiatives and education around ISDP stories and programmes for children and youth.

Pilot prototype versions of local currency modeled on examples like the Civic, the Torekes, the Eco-Pesa and the Brixton Pound to: a. Stimulate trade in local goods and services and

2. Use the baseline data to identify opportunities to b. Maintain and rehabilitate shift industrial processes essential ecosystem from open loop (linear) services. systems to closed loop systems where waste from 2. Include micro one process becomes businesses and the inputs for another. informal economy.Support and facilitate diversification of informal economy

O) JOB LINKAGE CENTRE

Re-invigorate job linkage centre and online job linkage platform: a. Match work seekers with employment opportunities and vice versa. b. Partner with NGO sector to facilitate job seekers access to assistance with cv preparation, interview skills, and general job readiness.

c. Link to eco-schools school food gardens. d. Partner with schools, churches, sports clubs etc.

RELATED PROJECTS • PIP: Project Implementation Phase (If funding is obtained - Feasibility Study complete).

• PIP: Project Implementation Phase

• PDP: Project Development Phase

IMPLEMENTING Piet Bosman AGENT PROJECT OWNER Community

Scientific Roets

Scientific Roets

GKM LED / Durban University

PROJECT DURATION

Planning phase: 5 months 1 year to set up and start running Implementation and training phase: 3 years

PROJECT STAGE

PRECONDITIONS

• PDP: Project Development Phase • P&DP: Pilot & Demonstration Phase

Dr Merida Roets (039 727 Dr Merida Roets 1515) (039 727 1515)

• P&DP: Pilot and/ or Demonstration Projects NAFCOC & Kokstad Chamber of Business

Complement rather Funding required than duplicate existing computer literacy courses offered at the FET college.

APPROX. BUDGET

R23 million

FUNDING SOURCE

Unknown at this time

Matrix.8. PROGRAMME 2: LOCALISED ECONOMY PROGRAMME (2) FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012

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STRATEGY

PROGRAMME 3: GREEN BUILDING PROGRAMME The Green Building Programme focuses on mainstreaming sustainable building across Kokstad and Franklin. The aim of the programme is to support a new culture of design and construction where ‘green’ is not an added extra, but is the natural and logical starting point for any intervention in the built environment. The programme proposes a series of interconnected projects that if implemented collectively, will support the realisation of this aim. It includes proposals around the creation of an enabling legislative environment, through the development of Green Building Guidelines as well as suggesting two projects aimed at stimulating the local economy and building local skills. It is suggested that these projects are enabled through 2 capital investment projects - GKM led public works building projects and an energy retrofit initiative. Both the Green Economy Accord and the National Climate Change Response White Paper advocate the necessity of Green Building to grow South Africa’s economy responsibly, as well as to mitigate and adapt around climate change. Also, a number of municipalities around the country have developed a set of regionally appropriate Green Building Guidelines. Further, SANS 204 introduces a rigorous suite of energy efficiency measures that are now mandatory in new builds nationally.

Ensuring that all new builds on GKM owned property are green, as well as supporting catalytic node development where all built works are exemplars of green materials and technologies.

Supporting an energy efficiency retro-fit programme that is piloted in GKM owned buildings

This programme aligns with the Local Economic Development Programme as it intends to develop a resilient green building economy through the Green Building Materials Business Network and the Green Building Skills Development Initiative. It also works closely with the Settlement Response Programme as well as the Sustainable Urban Drainage Project in the Water Cycle Management Programme. They are further supported by the GKM driven Energy Efficiency Retrofit Programme.

ENABLING INSTITUTIONAL INTERVENTIONS COMMUNICATION, POLICY, PARTNERSHIP INCENTIVES & ENGAGEMENT & GUIDELINES DESCRIPTION

The programme proposes that the GKM commits to: •

Developing a set of regionally appropriate Green Building Guidelines

Supporting the development of a Green Building Materials Business Network that will support local micro-enterprise development coupled with a Green Building Skills Development Initiative that will develop skill and excellence through courses and apprenticeships in Green Building related services and trades.

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN PLAN IMPLEMENTATION

DEVELOPMENT PLAN

1. Support active participation and education of all stakeholders in Green Building.

1. Develop regionally appropriate Green Building Guidelines.

1 year

2 years

2. See Green Building Guidelines from City of 2. Provide Green Cape Town (July 2012) Building Council of South as precedent. Africa training to key officials. DURATION APPROX. BUDGET FUNDING SOURCE Matrix.9. PROGRAMME 3: ENABLING INSTITUTIONAL INTERVENTIONS

DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

BYLAWS & ZONING SCHEME AMENDMENTS


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

PROJECT NAME

A1) KOKSTAD GREEN BUILDING MATERIALS: BUSINESS NETWORK

PROJECT DESCRIPTION

1. Develop and support the establishment of a vibrant network of local businesses producing green building materials and components.

RELATED PROJECTS

• Develop this project in conjunction with the Kokstad Green Building Skills Development programme and the • “Kokstad Brand”. • Link Green Roof and Wall project to the SuDS project.

• Develop this programme in conjunction with the Kokstad Green Building Materials Network.

• Develop this in conjunction with all other Green Building Programme projects – GKM led projects provide a market for green building materials and specialist green building skills.

PROJECT STAGE

• PDP: Project Development Phase

• PDP: Project Development Phase

• PDP: Project Development Phase

IMPLEMENTING AGENT

• LED • GKM • Kokstad Chamber of Commerce

• LED • GKM • Kokstad Chamber of Commerce

• GKM • Spatial Planning

PROJECT OWNER PROJECT DURATION

A2) KOKSTAD GREEN BUILDING MATERIALS: SKILLS DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVE

B) PUBLIC SPACES & NEW SETTLEMENT GREEN BUILDING PROJECT

1. Develop and implement a Green Building Skills Development 1. Ensure that all buildings in public spaces (e.g.: Shayamoya programme focusing on locally appropriate building technologies neighbourhood node at iThembalabantu) as well as in GKM and locally produced materials. initiated housing projects (R56) provide living examples of green building materials and technologies. 2. These could include timber and timber products (eg: plywood, 2. Skills could include green roof and wall installation, plumbing composite boards, doors and windows, cordwood walling etc.), services for solar applications, water harvesting, conservation 2. All state owned buildings to be a minimum of SA Green Star poles, bricks (reinforced earth block, stabilized cement), hemp and recycling, electrical services for photovoltaic, solar water Rated: Four Star. (boards, bricks), wattle and daub systems, green walls and heater and heat pump installation and maintenance, masonry, roofs, stone, chip to name a few. stone and timber work with locally produced materials to name 3. Incentivise this project through appropriate mechanisms a few.

GKM and NGOs Inception: 1 year to set up network, raise seed funding and enroll participants.

Inception: 1 year to enroll partnership organisations and raise seed funding.

1 year to commission and design pilot green building precincts

5 years to develop a reasonable critical mass of participant businesses.

3 years to build a suite of demonstration precincts across 5 years to develop a robust suite of apprenticeship programmes Kokstad and Franklin. linked to micro-enterprises 5-10 years to roll out beyond pilot areas

Green Economy

Green Economy

Green Economy

PRECONDITIONS APPROXIMATE BUDGET FUNDING SOURCE Matrix.10.

PROGRAMME 3: GREEN BUILDING PROGRAMME FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012

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Value of locally produced building materials in Rand

Percentage of people who take pride in their town in survey area

Percentage of household expenditure spent on transport

Number of people in survey area with a tertiary education qualification

Average monthly rental / average house prices as a proportion of household income

Reduction in proportion of households dependent on social grants

AGRICULTURE

NATURAL RESOURCES

INFRASTRUCTURE

TOWN

INDICATORS

DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

STATUS QUO Kokstad town has many unique and attractive qualities, with easy access to social amenities and strong links to nature and surrounding farmland. However, town is spatially and socially fragmented with disparities between the ‘old’ town and the newer areas and the potential of the natural, agricultural and cultural assets of the place are not celebrated.

WHAT COULD FUTURE KOKSTAD LOOK LIKE? Future Kokstad and Franklin are attractive, well-managed, affordable, socially vibrant and integrated places. They are built on a shared sense of pride and identity and their many attractive natural, rural, heritage and built qualities and landmarks are celebrated. Cultural diversity is valued and celebrated.


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9.3. TOWN

National Heritage Resources Act introduces an integrated system for the identification, assessment and management of heritage resource. It requires that all heritage assets are protected.

The Sisonke District Public Transport Plan recommends the provision of multimodal public transport facilities at the main nodes of commercial activities

9.3.1. POLICY ALIGNMENT The following key policies have a direct bearing on the approach taken in the proposals developed for the Town story: •

The National Development Plan contains a number of priorities relevant to the Town story. These include the creation of jobs and livelihoods, expanding infrastructure, transitioning to a low-carbon economy, transforming urban and rural spaces, improving education & training and transforming society. The Spatial Planning and Land Use Management Bill (2012) requires that plans promote social inclusion, spatial equity, desirable settlement patterns, rural revitalization, urban regeneration and sustainable development. Spatial planning must be based on the “principle of spatial justice, whereby past spatial and other development imbalances must be redressed through improved access to and use of land; spatial development frameworks and policies at all spheres of government must address the inclusion of persons and areas that were previously excluded, with an emphasis on informal settlements, former homeland areas and areas characterised by widespread poverty and deprivation”.

The National Land Transport Strategic Framework (2002) promotes public transport over private transport, prioritising safer public transport services for passengers and upgrading public transport infrastructure.

The Comprehensive Plan for Sustainable Human Settlements: Breaking New Ground (BNG) of 2004 emphasizes the creation of sustainable human settlements promoting more efficient urban areas, spatial restructuring and the need to “integrate previously excluded groups. It promotes densification including “housing products which provide adequate shelter to households whilst enhancing flexibility and mobility”.

The Social Housing Policy, 2005: aims to contribute to restructuring South African society in order to address structural, economic, social and spatial dysfunctionalities and contributing to government’s vision of an economically empowered, non-racial and integrated society living in sustainable human settlements. It also aims to improve and contribute to the overall functioning of the housing sector and in particular the rental sub-component enabling social housing to contribute towards widening the range of housing options available to the poor. The Community Residential Units: Policy Framework and Guidelines, 2006 highlights the importance of public rental stock for low-income households. It promotes the need to make more effective use of the existing rental housing stock owned by provinces and municipalities as well as the provision of new stock. From this developed the Community Residential units Policy Framework and Guidelines, 2007.

KwaZulu-Natal Province has strong policy on transitional and special needs housing. This applies particularly to the allocation of institutional subsidy on a per-bed or per room basis. However little use in made of this policy despite its potential usefulness in meeting the demands within this sector.

The GKM SDF Review (2011) identifies the need to redirect growth and development to the previously disadvantaged areas and areas of economic opportunity while focusing on the redevelopment of deteriorating areas and infrastructure.

“Promote the social, physical, and economic integration of housing development” Social Housing Policy “Multi-purpose cluster concept to be applied in provision of services and amenities” BNG “Funding support for social institutions” BNG “Ensure the development of compact, mixed-use, diverse, life-enhancing environments with maximum possibilities for pedestrian movement and transit” BNG

Complete Streets are streets which are safe, comfortable, and convenient for travel for everyone, regardless of age or ability; motorists, pedestrians, bicyclists, and public transportation riders. They are also streets that are pleasant to walk along, offering shelter and interest along the way. This involves not only infrastructure provision (ensuring there is space for pedestrians and cyclists) but that surrounding land uses offer a pedestrianfriendly environment. This includes higher densities (so that trip distances are shorter), mixed use (so that amenities and shops are closer), and passive surveillance from street edges (so that streets are safer).

“Promote housing delivery for a range of income groups” Social Housing Policy

Photo 10. BOGOTA, COLUMBIA Before and after a complete streets/ neighbourhood approach was taken

Note: Please see Annexure C: Precedent, for more examples.

FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012


STRATEGY

9.3.2. STRATEGY The following four pages define and illustrate the strategies that have informed the formulation of the ISDP in terms of this story. These strategies should also guide the decision-making process in terms of other statutory plans (like the IDP and SDF) and should guide decision-making in the execution of the ISDP.

DEVELOPMENT PLAN

STATUS QUO 1 The town is fragmented and people are segregated.

TOWN

CROSSROADS

ENABLING INSTITUTIONS

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INFRASTRUCTURE

Photo 12. SHAYAMOYA AND KOKSTAD CENTRAL - TWO TOWNS

Fig 26. TOWN / STATUS QUO / ACCESS

AGRICULTURE

NATURAL RESOURCES

STRATEGY 1 Integrate the physical structure of the town and connect and cluster appropriate amenities, services and economic hubs around a new public space system.

Photo 11. DENSIFICATION AND INTENSIFICATION AROUND MOVEMENT CORRIDORS DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

Fig 25. TOWN / STRATEGY / ACCESS

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

STATUS QUO 2 Positive initiatives are undertaken in isolation and opportunities for coordination are missed.

Photo 13. SOCIAL INITIATIVES IN ISOLATION

Fig 27. TOWN / STATUS QUO / INTEGRATION

STRATEGY 2 Integrate and connect people and initiatives physically, socially and institutionally.

Fig 28. TOWN / STRATEGY/ INTEGRATION FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012

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DEVELOPMENT PLAN

TOWN

CROSSROADS

ENABLING INSTITUTIONS

STATUS QUO 3 Kokstad’s neighbourhoods are mono-functional, mono-density, there are limited housing options, and cars are given priority over people.

INFRASTRUCTURE

Photo 14. LACK OF NMT FACILITIES, KOKSTAD

Fig 29. TOWN / STATUS QUO / DIVERSITY

AGRICULTURE

NATURAL RESOURCES

STRATEGY 3 Diversify and intensify all parts of town to create complete neighbourhoods that are safe and mixed-use, providing equal access to opportunity.

Fig 30. TOWN / STRATEGY / DIVERSITY DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012

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New neighbourhood nodes (within convenient walking distance of all residents).

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Taxi rank upgrading and improved linkages to and from the region, especially at the town centre and the hospital.

BHONGWENI

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through new development parcels between Bhongweni and Shayamoya connect the two areas.

LEVEL 2 NODE

400M RADIUS

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New street connection from Bhongweni into Shayamoya. New pedestrian bridges across the river that divides Kokstad Central from Bhongweni and Shayamoya.

Level 1 Node Level 2 Node

PUBLIC SPACE

PUBLIC SPACE PUBLIC SPACE

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Level 3 Node CLUSTERED MIX OF ACTIVITIES

Neighbourhood Activity Street

Pedestrian Route

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The Rail Trail

Notional internal public transport route

Notional omnibus public transport route Existing/Proposed Settlement Footprint

Fig 31. TOWN I - KOKSTAD DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

Interchange points generate large flows of people, and represent points of high accessibility. It therefore makes sense to make these places pleasant, landscaped public spaces, which can accommodate informal trading and services such as the pension payout point, and to locate public amenities such as parks, totlots and sports fields nearby.

HORSESHOE

Regional Activity Routes

AGRICULTURE

The centre points of these notional zones of access are transportation interchange points. They are places where modes of transport are integrated and where changes of direction are possible.

New connection from R617 into Shayamoya.

MZINTLAVA New RIVER connections

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In terms of public transportation-based movement systems, the most equitable systems are ones where people can switch direction, as well as modes of movement, quickly and easily. When this is possible, the system provides ‘access to access’, rather than being overly destinationdetermined.

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New connections across the stream dividing Shayamoya.

Re-integration of existing malls and parking into Main Street.

ACCESSIBILITY GRID

Review layout of next phases of Franklin housing project to align with the proposed public space and street network. R6 17

In 2040 Kokstad and Franklin have well-integrated and connected neighbourhoods, where a network of people friendly, safe and attractive streets links main destinations.

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

PARK ST

TOWN I : STRUCTURE

Strategic street framework identifying complementary activity and green streets connecting all parts of Kokstad.

NATURAL RESOURCES

DEVELOPMENT PLAN DEVELOPMENT PLAN

STRATEGY

17

CROSSROADS

ENABLING INSTITUTIONS

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New settlement with a finegrain, pedestrian friendly grid and activity / green streets where appropriate.

Interchange points are ideal places for government to reach the people with the support services they provide. Clusters of social services (a ‘kit of public parts’) should be associated with the interchange points. The precise make-up of the ‘kit’ varies with the hierarchical level of the interchange. The clustering of facilities also promotes a ‘one-stop shopping’ type of service provision, in addition to making a space ideal for retailing, commerce and manufacturing. It also significantly enhances convenience and opens up the possibility of sharing facilities, particularly between schools and the broader community.


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

9.3.3. DEVELOPMENT PLAN This section sets out the development plan for the Town story, as informed by national, provincial and regional policies, and the story strategies. The main sub-stories of the Town story are: •

Town I: Structure

Town II: Streets

Town III: Public Space

Town IV: Land Use and Activity

Town V: Settlement

accessible to the majority, and to create a new pattern of clustered opportunities and special places. It is also essential that services, facilities and activities that require public support are located at accessible locations. A clear system of spatial connection can also assist in building social and institutional integration.

PRINCIPLES The following development and spatial principles have informed the plan for Town I: Structure: •

Increasing equitable access to amenities and opportunities by ensuring an equitable spatial distribution of these across the settlement.

Increasing connectivity by linking key destinations, facilities and opportunities with a clear and legible network of links.

9.3.3.1 TOWN I : STRUCTURE The plan for Town I: Structure deals with the establishment of a hierarchy of activity nodes throughout the towns and the definition of a network of access linkages between them. These nodes and linkages establish the underlying spatial structure of Kokstad and Franklin and form the basis for proposals for streets, public space, social facilities, land use, settlement and public transport routes.

Improving accessibility through the establishment of a fine-grained accessibility grid ensuring permeability for pedestrians (and disabled individuals), and generally convenient, safe and efficient access across the urban area.

Increasing choice and convenience through increasing the range and number of high opportunity places and promoting a range of sustainable transport modes.

Promoting the integration of activities and communities.

RATIONALE While Kokstad and Franklin have small footprints, accessibility between different areas is weak. Neighbourhoods are isolated by poorly maintained and unsafe open spaces with inadequate linkages between them. The monofunctional character of Bhongweni, Shayamoya and Extension 7 intensifies this poor accessibility and increases levels of spatial inequity in the town. The concept of broadly equitable access is central to making a more spatially equitable and integrated town and dealing with past spatial development imbalances. Equity means that all people have easy access to a broadly similar range of opportunities, facilities, special places and events. In order to achieve equity and integration, it is necessary to make existing opportunities more

APPROACH The approach to Town I: Structure is to establish a network of connected routes and hierarchy of activity nodes that provide a flexible, and therefore robust, network of accessibility and increases choice while clearly identifying areas of high access and opportunity. Connecting the fragmented parts of the town to improve spatial integration and providing a legible network of routes provides the framework for the establishment of vehicular, pedestrian, bicycle and public transport routes and services. The location of the activity nodes is intended to ensure that everyone can access an activity

node within 400 meters. These nodes are located at the most accessible points within an integrated network of connecting routes and provide a hierarchical framework or logic for locating public facilities, community amenities and social, cultural and economic opportunity as well as access to transport services over time. The establishment of such nodes would introduce diversity and choice, increasing “neighbourhood completeness” in areas that are currently mono-functional, dormitory areas. These nodes serve as structuring elements for the urban renewal of existing areas new development areas proposed in the Settlement Plan.

KEY PROPOSALS Key proposals relating to the street grid include: •

A series of new streets and bridges connecting fragmented parts of Kokstad and reforging broken links.

New pedestrian routes, including bridges across Mill Stream that divides Kokstad Central from Bhongweni and Shayamoya - this is covered in Natural Resources II: Public Open Space.

New routes to service approved development to the south of Kokstad, and to the west of Franklin are also highlighted in the plan. It is important that the design of these new routes takes into account the street design guidelines provided in Town II: Streets.

THE PLAN The plan identifies a town-wide network of connecting routes that spatially integrate and link people, places and initiatives. These routes are differentiated according to their level of connectivity for vehicles versus pedestrians and non-motorised transport users - this is covered in detail in Town II: Streets. The plan identifies of a town-wide hierarchy of nodes at points of high accessibility within the access network. This builds on the clear, accessible structure of the original Kokstad CBD and reinforces existing, high access activity nodes. It also identifies the location of a new set of activity nodes at points of high accessibility within the route network described above. The plan identifies two notional public transport routes that reinforce the access network and activity nodes. The first connects all central areas of Kokstad Central, Shayamoya and Bhongweni via activity streets. The second is a route that goes in and out of town, around the outer edges, connecting new and existing residential areas with areas earmarked for a range of agricultural typologies (more on this in the Agriculture story).

Key proposals relating to the neighbourhood activity nodes include: •

Reinforcing and supplementing the CBD, specifically at the intersections of Barker/ Dower and Hope/ Main. This is, and should remain, the centre of activity within Kokstad

Reinforcing the Usher Memorial hospital as a locally and regionally important node (already a point of high activity). Development of the R56 housing development will mean that thresholds of support for a this node will increase.

New activity nodes, less high order than the CBD and the hospital, are proposed in Bhongweni, Shayamoya and Extension 7 these are identified on the plan.

The plan proposes to set up two public transport services: •

The first connects internal areas of the towns via activity streets. This should increase convenient and dignified access for people with impaired mobility.

The second connects intensive agricultural areas on the outskirts of town with the centre. This second public transport route could be serviced by a regular omnibus service which can carry passengers and/or small volume freight between the proposed agricultural areas and agri-processing facilities or retail outlets.

FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012

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DEVELOPMENT PLAN DEVELOPMENT PLAN

ENABLING INSTITUTIONS

STRATEGY

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

SHAYAMOYA

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SHAYAMOYA

HOSPITAL

SHAYAMOYA BHONGWENI HILL

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NEW CONNECTION FROM R617 INTO SHAYAMOYA

NEW CONNECTION ACROSS RIVER DIVIDING SHAYAMOYA

The plan proposes a new road connection from the R617 into Shayamoya, to form a new link that runs right through the neighbourhood and connects to town and to Bhongweni via Murray Road and July Road. This creates an alternative entrance to the town that includes the townships in the public face of town, and improves accessibility and permeability for both private and public transport and freight.

The plan proposes a road connection (including bridge) across the stream that separates a small satellite of Shayamoya from the broader neighbourhood. Currently this fragment is only accessible via the R617, despite being only a couple of dozen meters from the rest of Shayamoya. This will serve to integrate this little fragment of the community into the whole.

AGRICULTURE

NATURAL RESOURCES

INFRASTRUCTURE

TOWN

CROSSROADS

BOSMAN FARM

DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

NEIGHBOURHOOD ACTIVITY NODES The plan locates and defines a series of new neighbourhood activity nodes throughout all sections of town, with the intention that no household should live more than 400m from a neighbourhood activity centre. Different activity centres will have different characters, but all will have components relating to commercial activity, social amenities, transport stops, and parks or playgrounds.

NEW CONNECTIONS BETWEEN SHAYAMOYA AND BHONGWENI The plan proposes a new connection between Bhongweni and Shayamoya, that moves along the contour and thus is more friendly to pedestrians and cyclists. This route is located within proposed new housing development.


connects downtown PLAN Long KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

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Beach 69

The new mixed-use districts

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NEW CONNECTION BETWEEN BHONGWENI AND HORSESHOE

RECONSTITUTION OF BARCLAY STREET

The plan proposes reconstituting the connection between Bhongweni and Horseshoe, and adding two new ones. Currently Horseshoe is accessible by one highly circuitous route, which leaves it completely isolated. These new connections would integrate it with Bhongweni and greatly increase the number of services and amenities available to its inhabitants. (While three locations are suggested, these are subject to more detailed consideration and might change - the focus is that Horsehoe is connected into the Bhongweni grid).

The construction of the mall on Main Street disrupted the structure of the street grid and the dynamics of Main Street shopping, as well as created an extensive blank facade onto St Johnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s St. It is proposed that a long-term strategy is formulated for recreating the Barclay St. connection between Main St. and St Johnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s, and to rebuild the relationship between the shops and the street within this development.

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FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012


ENABLING INSTITUTIONS

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STRATEGY

DEVELOPMENT & URBAN DESIGN GUIDELINES

GG

Refer to the guidelines for land use and activity to determine the appropriate location of different types of facility

The following development, design and land use management guidelines should be followed to ensure that the intentions of the Town Structure proposals are achieved:

GG

Appropriate new commercial development should be encouraged at the identified neighbourhood activity nodes

GG

Refer to the guidelines for land use and activity to determine the appropriate location of different types of non-residential uses

AGRICULTURE

NATURAL RESOURCES

INFRASTRUCTURE

TOWN

CROSSROADS

REDUCE FRAGMENTATION GG

New infrastructure projects, developments and urban renewal projects should be structured to increase integration between parts of town

GG

New developments and projects should not create barriers to access between neighbourhoods

GG

No dead end street networks or gated communities should be permitted

ESTABLISH AN INTEGRATED ACCESS NETWORK GG

Ensure that existing areas are linked by a safe, clear/ legible system of streets and that road infrastructure planning and implementation takes into account these spatial requirements

GG

Structure new development with permeable access networks and limit block sizes to a maximum length of 150m for vehicles and 75m length for pedestrians.

GG

Dead end developments, that do not provide connecting routes into adjacent areas, should not be permitted

GG

Prevent the obstruction of important linking routes by large institutions or gated developments

DEVELOP AND REINFORCE THE IDENTIFIED ACTIVITY NODES GG

Locate activity nodes at approximately 800m intervals and at the high access points identified in the plan

GG

Locate public facilities within walking distance of public transport routes and stops.

GG

Ensure that new social facilities are located at activity nodes

DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

ESTABLISH CLEAR, EFFICIENT AND SAFE PUBLIC TRANSPORT AND NON-MOTORISED TRANSPORT SYSTEMS GG

Locate public transport routes and interchanges to support indentified routes and nodes

GG

Ensure that land use and infrastructure planning and development decisions support a range of sustainable modes of transport to support regional and local accessibility

DEVELOPMENT PLAN DEVELOPMENT PLAN

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

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DEVELOPMENT PLAN DEVELOPMENT PLAN

STRATEGY

TOWN II : TRANSPORT In 2040 Kokstad and Franklin streets are safe and attractive spaces that prioritise pedestrians, bicycles and public transport, as well as enabling easy logistics access.

These streets link into the regional route network, have an important mobility role and provide high visibility and access. They accommodate all users and ensure access for private and public motorised transport. These streets facilitate linear and nodal mixed use development and higher densities along sections of the route. They accommodate higher order retail such as national retail chains and local enterprises and should support delivery and access requirements..

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Fig 34. TOWN II - FRANKLIN

NEIGHBOURHOOD ACTIVITY STREET (E.G. GCADINJA STREET) These are the spines of local neighbourhoods and link local neighbourhood nodes. They accommodate mixed traffic but prioritise pedestrians, bicycles and public transport. They facilitate linear mixeduse development, neighbourhood businesses and higher residential densities along sections of the route. They offer landscaped edges, street trees, street furniture and allow direct access, ease of pedestrian crossing and high levels of public transport access.

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SHAYAMOYA

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A regular and regulated public transport line is established (the yellow circuit).

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Photosimulations are for visualization purposes only, and are not intended to show specific details and dimensions

Green streets allow for easy pedestrian and cycling movement through the town.

GREEN STREETS (E.G ELLIOT STREET)

Neighbourhood Activity Street

The Rail Trail

Notional internal public transport route

Notional omnibus public transport route Existing/Proposed Settlement Footprint

Fig 33. TOWN II - KOKSTAD DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

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Pedestrian Route

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Green Street

These streets are continuous streets that link key areas of the town. They facilitate easy and safe pedestrian, cycle and public transport connections between one part of town and another, while still guaranteeing ease of access for private vehicles. Surrounding buildings and edges are encouraged to maintain a relationship with the street.

BHONGWENI

Level 3 Node

Connector Street

CONNECTOR STREETS (E.G COULTER STREET) This photo-simulation illustrates how the Better Streets Plan guidelines could be applied to a typical mixed-use San Francisco street to improve the pedestrian environment

Regional Activity Routes

AGRICULTURE

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

REGIONAL ACTIVITY ROUTES (E.G. HOPE STREET)

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ENABLING INSTITUTIONS

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N2

These streets connect parks, playgrounds and crèches and provide a safe, attractive network of people-friendly routes throughout the towns. They include intense tree planting (such as fruit trees), very wide pedestrian walkways and a cycle path or bicycle boulevard. Signage and lighting prioritises pedestrians and cyclists. Vehicular movement is limited to one lane in each direction only, with a narrow carriageway width to slow cars. The surrounding land uses will mostly be residential, and residents will be encouraged to retain a positive interface with the street for passive surveillance.


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

9.3.3.2 TOWN II: STREETS

APPROACH

Town II: Streets deals with the location, design and function of a proposed network of streets that reinforces the Town Structure of nodes and linkages. This network of key streets is identified in the plan and then the role, character and facilities provided by a range of key street typologies providing guidance on how key streets can be redesigned to be more pedestrian friendly.

RATIONALE

The approach for Town II: Streets is based on the concept of complete streets. A ‘Complete Street’ is a street that allows pedestrians, bicyclists, transit riders, and motorists of all abilities to safely travel between destinations. In addition to providing facilities for all these users, Complete Streets encourage sound land-use decisions and policies that foster environments that appeal to people traveling by foot and bicycle, taking into account way finding signs, landscaping, benches and other amenities.

While Kokstad and Franklin have a functioning road network, the streets of the town have been designed and planned with cars and not people in mind. Great towns and cities have great streets and great street spaces attract private sector property investment, and convey a sense of dignity and pride to residents. They are the most public and visible face of the town and their quality, cleanliness and levels of activity can inspire confidence and investment or detract from these.

The intention of the plan is to transform key street network into attractive, safe, vibrant, comfortable, landscaped spaces that are well defined and overlooked by adjacent development. The idea is to establish a legible system of activity streets, connector routes and green streets linking the key nodes highlighted in the plan for Town Structure that are safe, stimulating, enjoyable and convenient places to walk, shop, drive or watch the world go by spaces for every event and interest.

PRINCIPLES

THE PLAN

Promote streets as multi-purpose spaces designed to accommodate all modes of transport

Promote streets that accommodate a range of activities and that provide positive social, economic and environmental spaces for the town

Prioritise pedestrian convenience, safety and activity

Support cyclists and public transport, while enabling efficient vehicular and delivery movement

The plan proposes an integrated network of multi-modal, pedestrian, cycle and public transport priority streets. These are made up of a range of key new street types that are defined by what they link, what movement they prioritise, their adjacent land uses, the level of street furniture and amenities, and the features and qualities of the buildings and structures that define their edges. The Town II: Streets plan identifies:

Promote permeability and promote ease of access for pedestrians and cyclists

Promote a variety of activities within street spaces

Promote safety and surveillance

1.

A town-wide network of strategically chosen streets, classified either as regional activity routes, neighbourhood activity routes, connector streets and green streets.

2.

A proposed network of pedestrian paths and streets, within parks and through mid-block connections.

REGIONAL ACTIVITY ROUTE

NEIGHBOURHOOD ACTIVITY STREET

CONNECTOR STREET

GREEN STREET Fig 35. ILLUSTRATIVE STREET SECTIONS FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012

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3.

Two notional public transport routes, one an internal activity route connecting central neighbourhoods and one connecting outer neighbourhoods and agricultural areas.

4.

The proposed rail trail entering Kokstad town from the east and winding through to the old station.

AGRICULTURE

NATURAL RESOURCES

INFRASTRUCTURE

TOWN

CROSSROADS

KEY PROPOSALS 1.

Setting up a Bicycle Empowerment Centre (BEC) through the Bicycle Empowerment Network (BEN) that trains a local member of the community as a bicycle mechanic and cycling trainer.

2.

Main Street upgrading and refurbishment, including the reconfiguration of existing big box retail to provide an attractive, safe and accessible environment to shopper and other users.

3.

Upgrading the existing rail-way line that runs through Kokstad into a bicycle track, or the Rail-Trail - for more on this see Crossroads I: Developing the Region.

4.

Setting up one or two critical public transport routes within the town, connecting disparate areas and ensuring inclusivity for vulnerable people, including disabled and elderly people.

5.

Upgrading of strategic streets, starting with the streets that have been identified in the plan as green streets and activity streets. Some examples of how streets could be upgraded are included here, and a full set of drawings for proposed street upgrades is included in the annexures of this report.

Proposed green streets along Elliot, Baker, Murray, Nkulululeko, Mnyaiza Streets and through Shayamoya.

Proposed activity streets along Bower, Main, and Gcadinja Streets and the Avenue, and Murray Street between the Avenue and Shayamoya.

Proposed connector routes linking the northeast corner of Shayamoya with Murray Street, and Coulter Street though town to Bhongweni.

DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

Protecting and enhancing the regional nature of regional activity routes, such as Hope Street.

6.

Upgrading of narrow, incomplete streets in Shayamoya into shared-surface mixed use environments that integrated all modes without differentiation, but traffic calming measures and the narrowness of the streets ensure that vehicles travel slowly and pedestrians and bicycles are prioritised.

DEVELOPMENT PLAN DEVELOPMENT PLAN

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

Fig 36. MAIN STREET EXISTING

Fig 37. MAIN STREET [PROPOSED ACTIVITY STREET]

MAIN STREET Main Street is a busy and vibrant existing street that runs north-south through the centre of Kokstad Central. It is bustling with traders, and very well connected to the existing commercial centre and taxi rank, but space for pedestrians and traders is limited, and there are no facilities for traders. The plan proposes to upgrade Main Street into an activity street by removing two traffic lanes to increase space for bicycles, pedestrians and traders. It is recommended that the proposed street upgrading incorporates the following:

6.5m wide sidewalks for pedestrians and traders on either side of the street, with 1.5m of sheltered, unobstructed walking space directly adjacent to the building line

2m for sustainable drainage controls (SuDS)

2 traffic lanes in either direction, with parallel parking on either side of the street

1.5m wide bicycle lanes in both directions, separated from the street and protected from the parking lanes by a physical barrier or SuDS (or as per recommendations for Class 2 cycling lanes)


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

Fig 38. NKULULEKO STREET EXISTING

Fig 40. TYPICAL 6M STREET EXISTING

Fig 39. NKULULEKO STREET [PROPOSED GREEN STREET]

Fig 41. TYPICAL 6M STREET PROPOSAL

NKULULEKO STREET

Nkululeko Street is an existing street that runs north-south through the west side of Bhongweni. It is wide and under-utilised with low density residential on either side.

2 traffic lanes in either direction, with parallel parking on either side of the street

1.5m wide bicycle lanes in both directions, integrated into the street between the vehicular lanes and the parallel parking (as per recommendations for a Class 3 cycling lane)

The plan proposes to upgrade Nkululeko Street into a park street, running through an area earmarked for densification as part of the plan. It is recommended that the proposed street upgrading incorporates the following: •

3m wide sidewalks for pedestrians on either side of the street, with 1.5m of unobstructed walking space directly adjacent to the building line

3m for sustainable drainage controls (SuDS)

Permeable surfaces within the entire road reserve

TYPICAL 6M STREET IN SHAYAMOYA The typical 6m street is the dominant street typology in Shayamoya. It is a narrow, low quality street usually with no sidewalk at all.

cyclists, but still allows slow speed vehicular traffic. Vehicles are slowed by the narrowness of the street, and by clear indication through signage and traffic calming measures.

The plan proposes to upgrade the typical 6m streets, even where they are not specifically designated as activity or green streets, into real ‘complete streets’, thereby demonstrating that narrow streets can be very high quality public environments. It is recommended that the proposed street upgrading transforms these streets into 6m-wide shared surface mixed use environments which can be used safely by pedestrians, children and FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012

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DEVELOPMENT PLAN DEVELOPMENT PLAN

STRATEGY

DEVELOPMENT & URBAN DESIGN GUIDELINES STREETS AS MULTIFUNCTIONAL SPACES GG

Prioritise pedestrian movement and promote pedestrian comfort, safety and convenience by:

GG

Ensuring a minimum sidewalk width of 1,5m is provided on all identified routes in the Town Structure

GG

Ensuring that safe pedestrian crossing points are provided at least 75m intervals within the street network

GG

Limiting vehicle crossing across sidewalks by limiting driveway widths, and promoting consolidated driveways and mid-block, lane access

GG

Encourage garages to be set back from road (alleyway leading to garage in backyard) rather than lining street with garage doors.

GG Thresholds: In predominantly residential areas, allow a threshold space between the public nature of the street and the private nature of the home

GG Permeable paving: Use permeable paving for side-walks and road-ways

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

GG Bicycle lanes: On green streets there should be 1.5m wide bicycle lanes in both directions, integrated into the street between the vehicular lanes and the parallel parking

GG Tree planting: Green streets should incorporate as much intensive tree planting as possible. These spaces should be seen as linear parks, providing shelter, shade and street furniture.

AGRICULTURE

NATURAL RESOURCES

INFRASTRUCTURE

Promote cycling by: GG

Developing a fine-grained bikeway network

GG

Developing a cohesive network of lowstress bikeways

GG

Providing direct access to common destinations

Promote activity and vibrancy within street spaces. Refer to the active edge guidelines for public space, but also specifically consider: GG

Limit blank walls fronting onto street edges

GG

Limit garage entrances

GG

Ensure that streets are designed to have a clearly designated purpose and use and encourage adjacent businesses, institutions and residents to develop a sense of responsibility and contribute to the use, management and maintenance of sidewalk spaces.

GG

Limit large parking areas along street edges and promote the establishment of parking courts to the rear of properties

GG Sidewalks: Allow minimum 1.5m clear, unobstructed and well-maintained side-walk next to the building line, on either side of the street.

GG Trees and lighting: Allow minimum 1m for trees and street lighting

Figâ&#x20AC;&#x201A;42.â&#x20AC;&#x201A;GUIDELINES FOR GREEN STREETS DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

GG SuDS: Allow between 1m and 4m for sustainable urban drainage controls such as swales, filter strips and infiltration trenches.

GG Vehicle lanes: On green streets there should be a maximum of two vehicle lanes, and these should be narrow (2.5 - 3m maximum) to ensure slow driving speeds

GG Parallel parking: Provide parallel parking on green streets where the street width can accommodate it. On green streets sustainable urban drainage controls and tree planting should be prioritised over parking.


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

SAFETY AND SURVEILLANCE: Increase the “extent of visual contact people have with a space”. Promote safety and passive as well as active surveillance of streets by: GG

Encouraging pedestrian traffic along important routes

GG

Increase the degree of environmental visibility through elements such as effective street lighting and uninterrupted sight lines

GG

Roads should not terminate on vacant open land; rather they should end at property edges, controlled spaces or pedestrian paths

GG

Provide legible, clearly defined pedestrian routes; incorporate informal traders into any crime prevention strategy (providing passive surveillance within the public realm)

GG

Promote active surveillance: patrol by police or neighbourhood watch

GG Thresholds: On activity streets there should be a maximum set-back from the building line to ensure a continuous street wall. Public uses should be encouraged at ground floor level.

GG Bicycle lanes: On activity streets there should be 1.5m wide bicycle lanes in both directions, separated from the street and protected from the parking lanes by a physical barrier or SuDS

GG Traders: Activity streets should provide space and facilities for traders where possible.

Avoid blank walls fronting onto street edges as they reduce the safety of public streets and private properties and reduce vibrancy and attractiveness of the public environment Boundary walls and security features should allow for passive surveillance from the street by: GG

Limiting boundary walls to residential property to a maximum height of 1.5m

GG

Ensuring that new perimeter fencing is visually permeable to ensure that streets are overlooked - a minimum of 40% of the area of boundary walls should be permeable

COMFORT AND SUSTAINABILITY Ensure pedestrian and cycle comfort, providing shade to pedestrian and cycle routes, reduce the urban heat island effect and promote sustainable drainage: GG

Set aside a planting strip into the sidewalk section on green streets to accommodate trees and greening and support sustainable urban drainage systems

GG

Promote colonnades and covered walkways to buildings along retail street frontages on activity streets

GG

Provide appropriate street furniture and amenities to encourage activity

GG Sidewalks: Allow minimum 1.5m clear, unobstructed and well-maintained side-walk next to the building line, on either side of the street. On activity streets this space should be sheltered from rain and sun.

GG Trees and lighting: Allow minimum 1m for trees and street lighting

GG SuDS: Allow between 0.5m and 1m for sustainable urban drainage controls such as swales, filter strips and infiltration trenches.

GG Parallel parking: Provide parallel parking on activity streets where the street width can accommodate it. On activity streets provision of appropriate parking and loading spaces should be prioritised.

Fig 43. GUIDELINES FOR ACTIVITY STREETS FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012

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TOWN III: PUBLIC SPACE In 2040, Kokstad and Franklin’s streets, squares and open spaces are safe, attractive, well-managed, integrated containers for lively public life and social and economic interaction, promoting a sense of belonging and wellbeing.

Public spaces at public transport interchanges provide comfort, convenience and amenity for public transport users. They should provide public ablutions, trading facilities, seating, lighting, security , bicycle facilities and storage, while the surrounding activities should include retail, transport businesses (taxis, vehicle repairs), and cafes and eateries.

R6

17

FRANKLIN

MARKET SPACES

Fig 44. TOWN III - FRANKLIN

17 SHAYAMOYA

CIVIC SQUARES

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NATURAL RESOURCES

Civic squares are important town-wide gathering and civic spaces provide a place where the public can express their right to democratic space - space where public displays and civic activities can happen, or where people can demonstrate or even protest. Such spaces are centrally located and usually associated with a town hall, library, court or similar civic use. Elements include a landscaped plaza, seating, and lighting.

MZINTLAVA RIVER

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Public spaces at market places provide space for emerging retail activities, food markets, and periodic markets. They should be located at central points close to main activity streets, and should include a market structure providing shelter and basic services (water, toilets, etc) for traders. Surrounding activities that would do well are nurseries and agri-processing businesses.

Develop urban design guidelines to ensure that buildings and structures edging streets and public spaces provide a positive interface, promoting passive surveillance, spatial definition and enclosure.

R6

TOWN

Develop and implement a landscape and public space upgrading framework for the main public spaces, street networks and open spaces.

E TH

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

TRANSIT SQUARES

EXTENSION 7

INFRASTRUCTURE

DEVELOPMENT PLAN DEVELOPMENT PLAN

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HORSESHOE

NEIGHBOURHOOD SQUARES Neighbourhood squares house local community activities, and are small hang-out places for people to meet. They are located within local communities and at clusters of social facilities. Elements include a landscaped plaza, seating, lighting, children’s play areas, play equipment (ball courts etc.), and activities suited to the area are crèches, halls, schools, NGO offices, and places of refuge.

BHONGWENI

HERITAGE PRECINCT

AGRICULTURE

56

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Heritage precincts

Public Open Space

Fig 45. TOWN III - KOKSTAD DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

N2

Heritage precincts are located in areas of historical significance within the town. This includes the area around both the Kokstad and Franklin railway stations, intact parts of the historic Kokstad CBD, and the central part of Franklin.


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

9.3.3.3 TOWN III: PUBLIC SPACE

Provides the potential for a comprehensive integrated view of public management responsibilities and initiatives;

The “public realm” is the shared environment within cities and towns such as sidewalks, streets, squares, open spaces, parks plazas, and so on. Town Public Space deals with the location and design principles for urban public spaces that are surfaced spaces including landscaping, seating and lighting. These spaces include civic, market and community squares and spaces.

Accommodates the broadest cross-section of society. As such, it is a genuine meeting ground, where people from all walks of life can interact;

Complements the private domains of the city. Public space provides a medium for personal encounters. For this reason, a healthy public domain is essential for private interests as well as the public good;

Helps define character. The city is experienced as an array of streets, squares, parks, gardens, laneways and alleys. These public spaces give structure and coherence to what would otherwise appear to be a chaotic collection of unrelated incidents; and

RATIONALE Kokstad & Franklin suffer from a lack of investment in their public spaces and streets. Streets lack sidewalks and the towns as a whole have no dignified civic spaces to enable social interaction, a key ingredient to breaking down the socio-economic and racial barriers of the communities of Kokstad and Franklin. To build a strong sense of place and identity for all, it is important that the unique qualities and characteristics of Kokstad, including its streets and spaces, heritage buildings and precincts, unique cultural history, attractive views and vistas and leafy streets are enhanced. Public space is the container for public life and the foundation for healthy social, economic and civic interaction and communication. A well-designed public realm encourages and enables human interaction. Public spaces offer places where people can connect, celebrate, exchange ideas and goods – they are essential to the collective identity and social vitality of towns. Good quality, welcoming public spaces also provide relief from overcrowding and small homes and enable all citizens, wealthy or not, to live in dignified circumstances. All neighbourhoods require appropriate and authentic public places that are accessible to all. In general terms, the public environment is important because it: •

Binds together social and physical circumstances within a city or town;

Performs an important symbolic role. It helps to record the origins and aspirations of a community, and it provides the primary venue for civic occasions.

A good public environment doesn’t happen by chance. It requires care, skill and attention in its creation and management. It can always be improved.

PRINCIPLES The central development principles that guide Town 3: Public Space are:

APPROACH The approach proposed is to develop the public realm as people-friendly, high-quality, attractive, safe and well-landscaped public spaces that add to the attraction of Kokstad and Franklin. Over time, the intention is to establish a townwide system of urban public spaces and streets that are comfortable, climate-sensitive, safe, attractive and active. The Public Space plan is intended to guide the realisation of these spaces over time informing public, community and corporate investment in the construction of the spaces themselves. The plan should also be a guide to land management, ensuring that changes to land uses, buildings and structures defining these planned public spaces are appropriate. The supporting guidelines are intended to assist with this. Great public spaces have the following characteristics and features: They •

Promote human contact and social activities;

Are safe, welcoming, and accommodating for all users;

Have design and architectural features that are visually interesting;

Promote community involvement;

Reflect the local culture or history;

Ensuring the clear spatial definition and delineation of public space.

Relate well to bordering uses;

Are well-maintained;

Promoting a legible system of public spaces that assists people to find their way around, guides appropriate land use, investment and activities.

Have a unique or special character.

Promoting safe and active public spaces.

Promote a sense of place and identity in the public environment through the design of public space that celebrates and enhances local character, culture, heritage and events.

Developing a diverse range of different public space types that have a clear role and character.

Promote and enable the multi-functional use of urban public spaces.

THE PLAN

The aim is to increase the amount of space within or immediately adjacent to the town that is made up of managed and maintained quality public places and to ensure that no person needs to walk more than 400 meters to find a public space. This is an ambitious target, given that Kokstad and Franklin currently have no meaningful, quality urban public spaces so achieving the plan would require the establishment of an entirely new system of public spaces.

KEY PROPOSALS While an overall upgrading of public spaces are proposed, there are some key spaces that should be prioritised: •

Gateway spaces that reinforce and bring activity to the edges of the proposed Green Heart Park .

Heritage spaces supporting the proposed Station Heritage Precincts.

A market square at the current entrance to Kokstad town from the N2.

Neighbourhood squares at existing or proposed community facilities such as schools, libraries, NGOs, etc.

Transit squares at public transport interchanges.

Depending on the local context, the upgrade can take the form a fully-fledged public plaza, or simply be a pedestrian-friendly section of street, complete with wide sidewalks, street furniture, and appropriate amenities.

The plan proposed a system of high quality, welldefined system of urban public spaces located at the activity nodes identified in the Town Structure map. These establish a hierarchy of landscaped public spaces, including major new civic spaces and market squares as well as small, localised neighbourhood spaces. These spaces are seen as urban public spaces that can accommodate a range of activities and events depending on their context and surrounding land uses. FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012

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DEVELOPMENT PLAN DEVELOPMENT PLAN

STRATEGY

DEVELOPMENT & URBAN DESIGN GUIDELINES The following development, design and land use management guidelines should be followed to ensure that the intentions of the Town Structure proposals are achieved.

SPATIAL DEFINITION AND ENCLOSURE Promote safe and vibrant public spaces by locating buildings to define, enclose and overlook streets, squares and open spaces. GG

Where appropriate design buildings to ‘front’ onto public streets and to make a positively defined space by creating a ‘street’ wall’ that adheres to common street boundaries set-backs

GG

Establish a common build-to or setback line from the street edge and ensure that all buildings edging the space locate on this line

GG

Edges onto streets and public spaces should be clearly defined - allowing people to recognise public, semi-public and private spaces; edges should be defined through:

--

Planting

--

Low walls or fences

--

Lighting

--

Surface level change

--

Surface material change

--

Street furniture

--

Access and escape routes

GG

Locate parking so that it is convenient but does not sterilise the quality and definition of the public environment (e.g. provide landscaped parking courts to the rear of developments).

GG

Design and locate social facility and retail buildings so that they enclose public spaces to promote activity, which in turn creates economic and social opportunity.

GG

Design social facilities so that they define and enclose public space to increase the sense of surveillance and safety and promote activity and vibrancy.

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

SURVEILLANCE OF URBAN PUBLIC SPACES GG

Ensure a positive interface with the urban public spaces by ensuring active edges and passive surveillance/ overlooking of these spaces.

GG

Relate entrances and windows to the street to assist with passive surveillance. No blank walls fronting onto public streets and spaces.

GG

Limit the blocking of openings onto the street in existing buildings and ensure that placement of openings in new buildings includes windows, doors and shopfronts that overlook streets.

GG

Promote multifunctional land uses to ensure long hours of use – day and night.

GG

Orient residential buildings and place streets so that open spaces are overlooked by homes and not enclosed by the backs of properties and blank walls.

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Fig 46. SPATIAL DEFINITION GUIDELINES Establish a common build-to or setback line from the street edge and ensure that all buildings edging the space locate on this line DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

Photo 15. VPUU ACTIVE BOXES Relate entrances and windows to the street to assist with passive surveillance. No blank walls!


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

GG

GG

Limit blank walls on retail streets by locating big box retail, malls and parking so that they accommodate street-facing activities and land uses that make a positive and attractive street interface. Locate parking so that it is convenient but does not sterilise the quality of the public environment (e.g. provide landscaped parking courts to the rear of developments).

ACTIVITY

LEGIBILITY

GG

All spaces should have a clearly designated role, use and be the clear responsibility of an individual or group. Where appropriate, encourage residents to take responsibility and ownership of streets and public spaces.

GG

Promote a clear and logical system of open space so that people can find their way easily

GG

Promote the multi-functional street spaces and squares by:

Protect important views to natural and built landmarks

GG

--

Designing the spaces to be as flexible and generous as possible, avoid tailoring spaces to specific uses such as far as possible

Provide a clear visual links between primary routes and spaces

GG

Establish a clear sense of identity for public spaces

GG

--

Limit blank walls on retail streets by locating big box retail, malls and parking so that they accommodate street-facing activities and land uses that make a positive and attractive street interface

Clarify the definition of public space so that that people understand what is public and private.

GG

Create a semi-public zone between public and private realms to articulate the scale of privacy required: from very public streets to semi-public threshold spaces, to private living spaces using low walls, canopies, landscaping and level changes]

GG

--

Fig 47. SURVEILLANCE GUIDELINES Orient Residential buildings and place streets so that open spaces are overlooked by homes and not enclosed by the backs of properties and blank walls.

Fig 48. SURVEILLANCE GUIDELINES Ensure a positive interface with the urban public spaces by ensuring active edges and passive surveillance.

GG

Include surfaces, structures and equipment that encourage activity and play for the youth, especially in local community spaces (these may include walls and courts for ball games, ramps for skating and so on) but ensure that these can serve other functions (for example walls serving as signage, mural spaces, skate ramps as seating and so on) Connect entrances onto public spaces to generate activity.

Photo 16. VPUU ACTIVE POS Design social facilities and retail so that they enclose public space to promote activity

Photo 17. MOTOMACHI STREET, YOKOHAMA Create a sense of continuity by establishing a ‘street wall’ to create a lively and well-overlooked street FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012

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TOWN IV : LAND USE & ACTIVITY 17

FRANKLIN

NEIGHBOURHOOD ACTIVITY NODE

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Fig 50. SOCIAL COMPONENT MZINTLAVA RIVER

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Social facility precincts around schools.

6

The neighbourhood activity node is based on the ‘kit of parts’ concept that relates to the collective provision of public or community facilities in clusters or “activity centres” that are located in places of high accessibility, particularly in terms of public transport and non-motorised transport.

Fig 53. TOWN IV - FRANKLIN

New commercial nodes at appropriate locations (at activity centres and along main connecting routes).

R5

Mixed-use development is the practice of having more than one form of “use” or activity (e.g., residential, commercial, office, recreational, industry) in a building or building complex. The combination of uses, when planned according to people’s needs, can create a more walkable, people-oriented space, and help prevent urban sprawl.

R6

In 2040, Kokstad and Franklin are attractive, well managed, affordable, socially vibrant and integrated places that attract visitors, the youth and investment by promoting mixed-use development in appropriate locations.

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HORSESHOE

BHONGWENI Bhongweni Light Industrial Park.

Fig 51. SOCIAL AND COMMERCIAL COMPONENTS

Consolidate and protect the Main Street mixed use zone as a regional shopping precinct. (Do not allow outof-town malls!) Public Open Space

AGRICULTURE

Proposed/Existing Secondary School Proposed/Existing Sportsfield Proposed/Existing Government Facilities

Fig 49. TOWN IV - KOKSTAD

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IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

MIXED USE ZONES

EXTENSION 7

INFRASTRUCTURE

DEVELOPMENT PLAN DEVELOPMENT PLAN

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Establish an “Industrial Ecology Precinct” in Kokstad industrial area to attract new investment and stimulate new industries.

DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

N2

Fig 52. ALL USES

At such a node, a range of land use mixes are encouraged - social, education, economic, recreational, agricultural and transport - all at a scale that is appropriate to the size of the node. While a single node is unlikely to contain all these land uses, by encouraging a mix of activities a local character emerges so that some nodes are predominantly social/educational in character, others are mostly commercial and others might centre around a neighbourhood park, agricultural allotments and a weekly market - the nature of the node develops in response to the needs of its community. The surrounding urban fabric should support such a node through developing higher residential densities and pursuing a complete street approach, with provision for pedestrian and cycling streets, and transit stops. The kind of social facilities that work well within such a node are schools, clinics, libraries, digital hubs, community halls, and so on. In a town location, these kinds of uses are complemented by a range of commercial activity, while in an agricultural node or quieter residential area the focus might be on nurseries or playgrounds, while a higher-order node would include larger retail and services (these are unpacked under the Agriculture, Natural Resources and Crossroads stories respectively).


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

9.3.3.4 TOWN IV : LAND USE & ACTIVITY The Town Land Use and Activity Plan identifies the location and types of mixed use development that should be promoted within Kokstad and Franklin. It is not a comprehensive land use plan but rather indicates where non-residential uses should occur to support the proposed Town Structure and system of Streets and Public Space.

RATIONALE Single use of land can induce social fragmentation, especially separating housing from work places, commercial and social uses. The UNHabitat’s 2012 guide; “Urban Planning for Leaders” identifies three key areas that benefit from allowing compatible uses to coexist. Firstly, social benefits are achieved through improving access to services and urban amenities, improved levels of choice and increased safety resulting from increased numbers of people on the street. Secondly, economic benefits result from increased business potential of transactions and trade generated by more potential customers, this in turn translates into increased business taxes. Thirdly, land and infrastructure benefits can be achieved by reducing the demand for travel as well as the amount of land required for parking as more people are able to access what they need on foot. The grouping of facilities (including social, education, economic, recreational, agricultural and transport facilities) ensures convenience for users, reduces trip numbers, creates focal points for development and infrastructure provision and enables the sharing of resources and management capacity. Clustered social and business facilities provide a ‘one-stop shopping’ type of service provision and opens up the possibility of sharing facilities particularly between schools and the broader community. These clusters in turn generate higher flows

of foot-traffic that generate the thresholds of support required for successful business activities including retail, personal services and small scale production of goods for sale. They are good places for entrepreneurial development hubs.

PRINCIPLES •

The central development principles that guide Town Land Use and Activity plan are to:

Promote a diverse combination of land uses across the towns and also at the level of individual erven or subdivisions of land.

Promote resilience and the capacity to accommodate land use change over time of the built fabric through flexible layout and building design

Promote the principle of live-work-play by locating residential and employment opportunities in close proximity to or integrated with each other.

Promote clustering and overlap of public and commercial activities to improve convenience and accessibility

Respect and enhance the unique character, cultures and heritage of the towns

APPROACH The plan aims to increase the safety, vibrancy and convenience of the public environment in Kokstad and Franklin to attract visitors, the youth and investment by promoting mixeduse development in appropriate locations. It is built around the concept of “neighbourhood completeness”, which recommends that “great neighbourhoods host a mix of uses in order to provide for our daily need to live, work, play, worship, dine, shop, and talk to each other. Each neighbourhood has a centre, a general middle area, and an edge. The reason suburban sprawl sprawls is because it has no defined centres and therefore no defined edge. Civic spaces generally (though not always) define a neighbourhood’s centre while commerce tends to happen on the edges, on more highly trafficked

streets and intersections easily accessible by two or more neighbourhoods. (Adapted from http://www.placemakers. com/2012/08/30/the-five-cs-of-neighborhoodplanning) The logic of the Land Use and Activity Plan is to establish a cluster of public facilities at each of the identified activity centres. The idea is that different types of nodes are appropriate for different kinds of facilities, and that these can be thought about as a “kit of parts” made up of a complementary range of public and private non-residential uses located in places of high accessibility, particularly related to public transport and non- motorised transport. The co-location of appropriate levels of commercial activity reinforces the convenience and vibrancy of these activity nodes. The ‘kit of parts’ concept is strongly hierarchical with the provision of a series of facility clusters that range in size and levels of service provision. The appropriate components of each ‘kit” is informed by the location, accessibility, role, thresholds of support and historical provision types of need featured in the various activity nodes.

Establish town, neighbourhood and local activity centres as safe, vibrant social, economic and entertainment zones and social support clusters linked to the accessibility networks.

Develop new community facility clusters, retail and employment centres in underserved areas such as Bhongweni and Shayamoya.

Build a network of social support services around existing and future schools. Medium-density, mixed-use neighbourhoods provide a far higher level of amenity and activity than monofunctional sprawl. There are many such neighbourhoods all over the world, most creating a highly attractive picture of urban living:

THE PLAN AND KEY PROPOSALS The plan proposes the location of social service clusters, and commercial activity at highly accessible and visible points in the movement network to promote accessibility and convenience, especially in currently underserved ‘township’ areas. •

Protect and enhance the mixed use character of Kokstad’s main street

Permitting appropriate mixed uses at identified activity nodes and along activity corridors to support the development of local retail, these include nodes at the Central Square in town, iThembalabantu Centre at Shayamoya, and the Gcadinja/ Nkqubela intersection area, and activity corridors on Hope, Main, Dower and Gcadinja Streets.

Note: See Annexure B for more precedent.

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DEVELOPMENT PLAN DEVELOPMENT PLAN

STRATEGY

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

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NEIGHBOURHOOD ACTIVITY NODE The Neighbourhood Activity Node relates to the collective provision of public or community facilities in clusters or “activity centres” that are located in places of high accessibility, particularly related to public transport and non-motorised transport. The grouping of facilities including social, education, economic, recreational, agricultural and transport facilities ensures convenience as well as promotes the sharing of resources. The ‘kit of parts’ concept is strongly hierarchical with the provision of a series of facility clusters that range in size and levels of service provision that is informed by location, accessibility and levels of need. The elements of the kit of parts will vary in terms of thresholds of support and historical provision.

Communal woodlots for construction timber at institutions.

Food market

Eco-schools programme centre Active box

Internet café.

Heath facility

Retail

TOWN INFRASTRUCTURE

Biodiversity park & constructed wetlands

Primary / tertiary education

Biogas digester

Playground, skate park & outdoor gym

Parking Fresh food restaurant

Sale of medicinal

Seedling nursery Pocket wetlands

Community kitchen

Creche

Heath care / refuge / info

Community garden

Bicycle repair centre & storage

Business & Skills development centre Micro-processing (drying, pickling, brewing, freezing, packing)

Corner shop

Sustainable stormwater management systems

Recycling drop off point Green building support & advice centre

NATURAL RESOURCES

Public internet & internet information hub

Public transport hub

Play lot

The ‘Kit of Parts’ concept relates to the collective provision of public or community facilities in clusters or “activity centres” that are located in places of high accessibility, particularly related to public transport and non- motorised transport. The grouping of facilities including social, education, economic, recreational, agricultural and transport facilities ensures convenience as well as promotes the sharing of resources. The ‘kit of parts’ concept is strongly hierarchical with the provision of a

AGRICULTURE

Multipurpose hall

Rainwater tanks

Biogas digesters

Fig 54. NEIGHBOURHOOD ACTIVITY NODE DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

Library

Recycling businesses

series of facility clusters that range in size and levels of service provision that is informed by location, accessibility and levels of need. The elements of the kit of parts will vary in terms of thresholds of support and historical provision.

Recycling collection centre


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

DEVELOPMENT & URBAN DESIGN GUIDELINES ENSURE THAT LAND USES AND ACTIVITY WITHIN DEVELOPMENTS CONTRIBUTES POSITIVELY TO THE PUBLIC ENVIRONMENT GG

GG

GG

GG

GG

Manage changes to the built form of private development so that buildings, structures and landscaping reinforce the safety, definition and quality of the public spaces and streets of the towns. Preserve existing streetscape character on town grid by infilling with complementary built form, but allow more flexibility in land use along connectors and activity routes. Promote diverse (but coherent?) street interfaces by building flexibility into the range of land uses, building sizes that can be accommodated (in terms of plot size, width of frontage, height and land use). Ensure that development articulates the transition between public and private on its edges to create appropriate spaces for interaction that are safe, stimulating, enjoyable and convenient Design buildings and public spaces that can be effectively maintained so as to ensure continued public use of spaces and prevent places from becoming locations for criminal activity; ensure visibility of public ablution facilities

PROMOTE MIXED USE

CLUSTER SOCIAL FACILITIES

PROMOTE FLEXIBILITY

GG

GG

Ensure that new social facilities are located within activity nodes

GG

GG

Cluster social facilities so that they support spatial and social integration, efficiency of management, shared resources and security (including government services, NGOs and other support organisations) and establish activity centres of safe, vibrant and convenient public amenity:

Promote appropriate non-residential uses including social facilities, retail, commerce and light manufacturing:

--

at identified activity nodes and along identified activity route

--

at gateway sites and activity nodes

--

within multi-level residential developments

--

at the ground floor of the street edges of multi-level developments as appropriate for the location.

--

Major civic buildings such as municipal offices, libraries, hospitals should be located near transit interchanges and at other high-traffic, easily accessible places.

GG

Limit mono-functional developments

GG

Protect and enhance the CBD mixed-use zone currently located along Hope and Main Streets by:

--

--

Not approving out of town, mono-functional malls (ref malls to mainstreets) that will draw large retailers out of the town centre

Promote local neighbourhood retail and small enterprise development at neighbourhood activity nodes.

--

--

Promote intensification and reinforcement of existing and proposed activity nodes and streets rather than allowing new development to dissipate activity

Locate public facilities around public spaces to optimize co-location (shared management, security) and convenience for users.

GG

Reinforce existing community facility nodes and schools.

GG

Ensure integration of the social, economic, institutional and physical aspects of land development by considering the management, operational and community dimensions in decisions on the location of public buildings

Promote flexibility in land subdivision, site layout, plot configuration and building design and placement to enable changes in use over time:

--

Promote a flexible grid layout over highly varied/ complex road configurations as these enable more flexible and varied uses

--

Promote long narrow plots as these offer the potential to incorporate multiple uses in an efficient and flexible way

--

Limit purpose built and inflexible layouts that are completely tailored to single uses and therefore limit adaptation to other uses

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STRATEGY

TOWN V : SETTLEMENT

DEVELOPMENT PLAN

Future Kokstad and Franklin provide safe, vibrant and convenient neighbourhoods

Review Low Density developments = 10du/ha (example: Mamiesa/Middelvlei)

R6

17

FRANKLIN

nett density range: 5 to 20 du/ha

Fig 56. TOWN IV - FRANKLIN

MEDIUM [GROSS] DENSITY = 25 DU/HA New Medium density mixed use developments = 25 du/ha (example: along R56 and between Shayamoya and Bhongweni)

R6

17

New settlement areas.

SHAYAMOYA

35 du/ha gross density

EXTENSION 7

MZINTLAVA RIVER

W

DO

T

EE

TR

S ER

T

EE

R ST

BAMBAYI

JA ROAD

25 du/ha gross density

ER

RK

BA

ET

RE

ET

RE ST

R

ST

56

PE

VE EA

TH

IN

E NU

MA

NATURAL RESOURCES

Proposed layout of new neighbourhood blocks between Shayamoya and Bhongweni

GCADIN

Develop a range of new settlement areas including the R56, as sustainable, complete neighbourhoods including strong components of private rental and social housing (using Kokstad’s new

HO

INFRASTRUCTURE

TOWN

Proposed layout of new neighbourhood blocks along R617 to Franklin

nett density range: 15 to 75 du/ha HIGH [GROSS] DENSITY = 35 DU/HA New High density mixed use development = 35 du/ha gross density (at nodes, along corridors, and adjacent to active open space, especially the proposed new Green Heart Park)

Sample infill densification HORSESHOE layout with highest densities onto corridors and public open space.

BHONGWENI

nett density range: 60 to 100 du/ha

KOKSTAD CENTRAL

Review Mamiesa and Middelvlei Projects to incorporate sustainable design principles and infrastructure options.

Densification and infill (in the blocks between St Johns, Murray and 1st Avenue).

DENSIFICATION AND INFILL Densification and infill (in the blocks between St Johns, Murray and 1st Avenue)

Densification up to 35du/ha Densification up to 25 du/ha High Density New Development (35du/ha) Medium Density New Development (25du/ha) Low Density New Development (10du/ha)

Fig 55. TOWN IV - KOKSTAD DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

56

R

AGRICULTURE

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

LOW [GROSS] DENSITY = 10DU/HA

New settlement areas.

CROSSROADS

ENABLING INSTITUTIONS

86

N2

10 du/ha gross density

100 to 200 % densification

In selected parts of Kokstad it is possible to increase gross densities from below 10du/ha to 25 du/ha. These opportunities are cost effective, sustainable and resource efficient ways to provide new housing opportunities.


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

9.3.3.5 TOWN V : SETTLEMENT

PRINCIPLES

The settlement proposals deal with the location and typology of new settlement areas as well as identifying opportunities for densification and infill. Both new settlement areas and densification proposals respond to and support the network of activity nodes, linkages, public spaces, streets and social facilities described in the proposals described for Town Structure, Streets and Public Space.

RATIONALE Overall densities in Kokstad and Franklin are too low to support sustainable infrastructure and services. While the perception is that low densities generate better liveability and/or environmental quality, higher densities allow for greater concentrations of amenities, reduce the costs of economic transactions, enable more accessible transport systems, and promote integration and diversity. Low densities increase costs to cities and residents while higher densities enable the more efficient and cost effective use of infrastructure and increase the potential for rates to cover the costs of operating towns and cities. Residential development in Kokstad and Franklin is an opportunity to restructure the form of the settlement as a whole, by creating high-quality, integrated sustainable living environments that provide equitable access to opportunities, amenity and services, and are diverse, locally appropriate, compact and efficient. A diversity of dwelling options is required to accommodate the varied need for housing over a lifetime, and to meet varied income levels and circumstances. A variety of housing types enables different types of people to live together in the same neighbourhood, and it helps people to find housing that suits their circumstances and means.

Promote compact development to improve accessibility and protect valuable ecosystem services and agricultural land

Promote densification and infill over new development to retain the clear identity of the towns within the natural and rural landscape

Promote diversity in settlement and unit typologies as well as land use to increase choice and accommodate a wider range of households and income groups

Ensure that development has a positive impact on the public environment

Ensure that new development is spatially integrated with the existing town structures

providing a range of types of places to live and offering choice and variety.

THE PLAN AND KEY PROPOSALS The plan accommodates population growth in the long-term, without needing to radically expand the physical footprint of the town. The settlement plan indicates a range of new settlement and infill and densification opportunities within a proposed urban edge. To see the calculations and input assumptions used to generate the figures quote here, please see the annexures of this report. •

APPROACH The approach taken in the Settlement Plan is to develop, contain and safeguard Kokstad’s unique qualities through responsible development and to limit the growth of the urban footprint. This will reduce impacts on the environment (ecosystem services), transport, infrastructure, operating and household costs, and loss of arable land. In parallel the approach is also to diversify and intensify all parts of town to create complete neighbourhoods that are safe and mixed-use, to achieve sustainable and liveable settlement growth and urban renewal, and to provide equal access to amenity and opportunity. The plan prioritises infill development and densification to keep the urban footprint compact and optimise existing infrastructure. The approach taken to new development is to identify locations that are suitable for development, support innovation, promotes urban restructuring and improves integration, diversity and access. The new settlement areas are viewed as spatially integrated, mixed-use, mixed income areas and are organised around the Town’s Structure of activity nodes and linkages as well as key streets, public spaces and green open spaces. The plan also recognizes that different parts of the town have different characters,

Infill and densification areas are identified in the east of Kokstad Central, in particular between St John’s Street and the proposed Green Heart Park. Here the intention is to increase densities from 4du/ha gross density to 25du/ha gross density and 35du/ around the park. At these densities, approximately 16 786 more people could be accommodated within the identified infill and densification areas of Kokstad, and 810 more people could be accommodated in Franklin. New settlement areas are proposed on land identified as suitable for development. This includes areas that can be spatially integrated with the existing structure of the towns. These areas are envisaged at a range of gross densities from low (10du/ ha), medium (25du/ha) to high (35-50 du/ ha). At these densities, approximately 20 776 households could be accommodated within the identified new settlement areas of Kokstad and approximately 2 068 in Franklin. Land suitable for urban development in the medium to long term is included within a revised urban edge. Land areas that have been specifically excluded from the urban edge are those that are steeper than 1 in 5, those identified as providing a high value ecosystem services or including an important landscape feature such as a hilltop or rocky outcrop. This is explained in more detail in Natural Resources 1: Ecosystem Services.

Fig 57. PLOTS: 5 - 20 DU/HA NETT DENSITY

Fig 58. PLOTS: 15 - 25 DU/HA NETT DENSITY

Fig 59. PLOTS: 35 - 50 DU/HA NETT DENSITY

Fig 60. INFILL AT 20 - 25 DU/HA NETT DENSITY

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DEVELOPMENT PLAN DEVELOPMENT PLAN

STRATEGY

LOW DENSITY DEVELOPMENT

MEDIUM DENSITY DEVELOPMENT

10du/ha (e.g. Mamiesa/Middelvlei)

25 du/ha (e.g. along R56 and between Shayamoya and Bhongweni)

Typologies •

Detached houses

Semi-detached houses

Single and double storey row and cluster (simplex/duplex) housing

Density •

In a low density development, a range of net density from 5du/ha to 20du/ha should aim to achieve an average gross density of 10 du/ha.

Approximately 10% of the development is needed for roads

Approximately 10% is needed for nonresidential uses, including active open space.

Allow maximum 40% coverage, including hardened or paved ground surface (e.g. patio/driveway), recognising the ecosystem services provided by residential garden space

AGRICULTURE

NATURAL RESOURCES

INFRASTRUCTURE

TOWN

CROSSROADS

ENABLING INSTITUTIONS

88

DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

HIGH DENSITY AND MIXED-USE NODE / CORRIDOR

URBAN AREA INFILL AND DENSIFICATION

Typologies

35 du/ha (e.g. at nodes, along corridors, and adjacent to active open space)

Densification and infill (e.g. in the blocks between St Johns, Murray and 1st Avenue)

Semi-detached houses

Typologies

Single and double storey row or cluster (simplex/duplex) houses

Double storey row or cluster (duplex) houses

Walk-up 2-4 storey flats

Walk-up 2-4 storey flats

Non-residential uses at ground floor with 2 storey duplexes/flats over

Non-residential uses at ground floor with 2/3 storey duplexes/flats over

In selected parts of Kokstad it is possible to increase gross densities from below 10du/ha to 25 du/ha . These opportunities are cost effective, sustainable and resource efficient ways to provide new housing opportunities.

Density

Density

In a medium density development, a range of net density from 15du/ha to 75du/ha should aim to achieve an average gross density of 25du/ha.

Approximately 20% of the development is needed for roads

Approximately 10% of the development is needed for roads

Approximately 16% is needed for nonresidential uses, including active open space.

Allow maximum 50% coverage, including hardened or paved ground surface (e.g. patio/driveway), recognising the ecosystem services provided by residential garden space

Non-residential uses, including active open space, will vary depending on the location. Most high density development will be located close to larger order non-residential facilities.

Allow maximum 50% coverage, including hardened or paved ground surface (e.g. patio/driveway), recognising the ecosystem services provided by residential garden space. Hardened parking areas should be kept to a minimum. Use permeable paving where possible.

Paved parking areas to double as recreation spaces, e.g. street ball court.

In a high density development, a range of net density from 60du/ha to 100du/ha should aim to achieve an average density of 35-50 du/ha.

Typologies •

Detached houses

Semi-detached houses

Single and double storey row-houses

Cluster (simplex/duplex) housing

Density •

Current net density in blocks identified for densification is between 5 and 10 du/ha

Potential density through sub-division and introduction of denser typologies is between 100 and 200%, depending on the extent of sub-division that has already taken place.

Target gross density for areas identified for densification should be 20-25 du/ha.


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

R56

ST-PATRICK’S SCHOOL SHAYAMOYA LINK

SHAYAMOYA - BHONGWENI LINK

GREEN HEART PARK EDGES

GOLF COURSE SHAYAMOYA

E

NU

VE EA

ST

PRISON

SHAYAMOYA R617 MZINTLAVA RIVER

ST PATRICK’S

BHONGWENI EKO LUL NKU

TH

AY RR MU

R56

SHAYAMOYA

ST

KOKSTAD CENTRAL

MILL STREAM

BHONGWENI

MILL STREAM

Total area: 97ha

Total area: 46ha

Total area: 31ha

Total area: 16ha

Total dwelling units: 1859

Total dwelling units: 1152

Total dwelling units: 783

Total dwelling units: 565

Total population: 5837

Total population: 3619

Total population: 2458

Total population: 1774

Density mix:

Density mix: 100% medium density (25 du/ha gross density)

Density mix: 100% medium density (25 du/ha gross density)

Density mix: 100% high density (35du/ha gross density)

New development is proposed around St Patrick’s School, also using some of the extensive land that forms part of the school grounds if possible, in order to tie the northern area of Kokstad Central into Shayamoya, and create a new formal entrance to the town, one that doesn’t by-pass Shayamoya.

The relocation of residents living on un-buildable slopes in Bambayi is already underway - to the last phases of Shayamoya.

The plan proposes high density residential development around the proposed Green Heart Park. This area is currently particularly low density, especially in the area between St John’s Street and Murrary Street, and there is room for new development parcels on the edge of park, which should be used as an opportunity to create a positive, active edge onto the park.

10% high density (35du/ha gross density) 44% medium density (25du/ha gross density) 46% low density (10du/ha gross density) The already conceptualised R56 project, on land between the golf course, the prison and the existing cemetry, is proposed as part of this plan. As already envisioned in the development charter for the R56, the development should be a model for sustainable, mixed-use, medium density development, and adhere to bestpractice sustainable development guidelines.

The plan proposes new development parcels between Bhongweni and Shayamoya, to knit these two settlements together with safe and lively streets that are overlooked by residences.

Acurate flood lines will have to be determined before development here can be planned.

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ENABLING INSTITUTIONS

90

DEVELOPMENT PLAN DEVELOPMENT PLAN

STRATEGY

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

POPULATION GROWTH ACCOMMODATED IN THE PLAN EXISTING URBAN AREAS

PROPOSED INFIL AND DENSIFICATION WITHIN EXISTING URBAN AREAS

PROPOSED NEW DEVELOPMENTS

PROPOSED NEW URBAN EDGE

30’524 people

47’310 people

68’086 people

86’402 people

Area: 1’297ha

Additional population: 16’786

Additional population: 20’776

Urban edge area: 1’965ha

Population: 30’524

Sub-total population: 47’310

Total population: 68 086

Gross base density: 7,5du/ha

Gross base density: 12du/ha

Urban area: 1’721ha Gross base density achieved: 13du/ha

Potential population accommodated within the urban edge (settlement containment area) at target density of 14du/ha: 86’402 (current population + 55’878)

INFRASTRUCTURE

TOWN

CROSSROADS

Kokstad

AGRICULTURE

NATURAL RESOURCES

Franklin

977 people

1’787 people

3’855 people

5’224 people

Area: 57ha

Additional population: 810

Additional population: 2’068

Urban edge area: 119ha

Population: 977

Sub-total population: 1’787

Total population: 3’855

Gross base density: 6,5du/ha

Gross base density: 10du/ha

Urban area: 119ha

Potential population accommodated within the urban edge (settlement containment area) at target density of 14du/ha: 5’224 (current population + 4’247)

Gross base density achieved: 10du/ha DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

DEVELOPMENT & URBAN DESIGN GUIDELINES Apply all guidelines for structure, street, public space and land use to densification initiative and new development areas.

SUSTAINABILITY GG

New development areas must not be located on areas identified as providing high value ecosystem services

GG

Develop all new settlement areas in terms of green building guidelines, using sustainable service technologies wherever possible and supported by a sustainable infrastructure development programme.

GG

New development areas should be located to support the efficient use of existing infrastructure as well as proposed new infrastructure

INCREASE OVERALL DENSITIES OVER TIME GG

Increase overall densities over time to an average gross density of 15 du/ ha.

GG

Set a minimum average density of xx du/ ha for new development areas

GG

Promote infill and densification and infill in identified densification zones, especially in areas close to open space and amenities

GG

Encourage double (or multi-)storey development in higher density areas and allow at least one second dwelling (more in low-density areas) on each residential lot as a primary right within the zoning scheme.

PROMOTE INTEGRATION GG

New development areas must be organised around the proposed structure of activity nodes and linkages, streets, public spaces, land uses and open spaces identified in the Town and Natural Resources Plan

PROMOTE DIVERSITY GG

Include a range of site sizes, housing typologies and net densities, and concentrate higher densities at nodes, along corridors, and facing onto primary public open spaces such as parks and squares.

GG

Locate medium densities throughout the town and lower densities in areas where the historic and green character of the town should be preserved.

GG

Allow for a mix of institutional and financing models as well as a mix of typologies in all development projects.

GG

Balance between distinct character areas and diversity of plots sizes, housing typologies and mix of uses within a given area.

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INFRASTRUCTURE

TOWN

CROSSROADS

ENABLING INSTITUTIONS

92

STRATEGY

9.3.4. IMPLEMENTATION PLAN The implementation plan for this story has two programmes: •

Public Space, Street and Facility Investment Programme

Settlement Response Programme

PROGRAMME 4: PUBLIC SPACE, STREET & FACILITY INVESTMENT PROGRAMME The Public Space, Street and Facility Investment Programme focuses on the transforming the public face of Kokstad and Franklin. This programme highlights the key interventions required for the public frameworks of Kokstad and Franklin to achieve integrated access, high-quality, safe and active streets and public spaces and appropriately located and designed social facilities. It includes a set of five capital investment projects and three support initiatives that are intuitional or operational in nature. Increasingly, national and provincial sector funding, including human settlement and transport projects, recognize the need for investment in public space to improve the social and economic performance of cities and towns. The following policies and funding mechanisms support the implementation of projects under this programme:

NATURAL RESOURCES

AGRICULTURE

Public space standards: “International comparison suggests an acceptable benchmark of 2 hectares of quality public open space per 1000 residents in dense urban settings. Such neighbourhoods require culturally appropriate and authentic public places that are accessible to all.”[1]

Design for Safer Communities guide prepared by the CSIR identifies critical

The National Thusong Service Centre Programme also recognises the importance of spatially integrated, accessible and managed social services – a key institutional consideration under this programme.

The National Treasury’s Neighbouhood Development Partnership Grant (NDPG) recognizes the importance of public investment in the public environment as a key to attracting private investment into marginalized or underdeveloped areas.

DEVELOPMENT PLAN

The strategic street upgrading project is also closely tied to the Sustainable Urban Drainage Project in the Water Cycle Management Programme and these projects must be managed in partnership.

The following enabling and institutional initiatives are required in order to achieve the programme aims: •

Update policies and develop urban design guidelines to ensure that buildings and structures that edge streets and public spaces provide a positive interface, thereby promoting passive surveillance, spatial definition and enclosure.

ENABLING INSTITUTIONAL INTERVENTIONS COMMUNICATION, POLICY, PARTNERSHIP INCENTIVES & ENGAGEMENT & GUIDELINES DESCRIPTION

Planning, design and upgrading of public spaces at neighbourhood centres identified in the ISDP;

1. Design and implement a stakeholder engagement process, including surveys with residents and businesses, to establish a baseline to inform public space and social facilities planning, and new LUMS.

Develop a social facilities plan to coordinate the location, clustering and design of social facilities at public spaces. The GKM would be responsible for planning and designing halls and libraries and for coordinating with Provincial and National departments and NGOs on health, social welfare and other facilities;

Develop a main street upgrading programme including a framework for sidewalk upgrading and landscaping, guidelines for active streets and heritage;

2. Seek opportunities for creative approaches to the management of public open space, including comanagement with property owners / developers / community organisations.

Develop and implement (incrementally), a Sustainable Streets Project to implement the Activity Streets, Green Streets and Connector Streets identified in the ISDP;

Collaborate with the Provincial Department of Transport, Bus and Taxi operators to investigate the feasibility of developing a free or subsidized local transport service to improve public transport connections between parts of town.

Develop and implement a landscape and public-space upgrading framework for the main public spaces, street networks and parks.

The programme proposes that the GKM commits to:

This programme is closely aligned with the Settlement Response Programme and both are aligned to urban renewal and densification projects as well as projects proposing new settlement areas.

1. Develop urban design guidelines for development in Kokstad and Franklin. 2. Incentivise compact, mixed-use development with ‘complete streets’, and penalise singleuse, auto-dependent developments.

3. Engage with taxi associations around strategies for more sustainable public transport. 4. Organise government departments to work together in a coordinated way and to sequence their maintenance and repair work for minimum wastage of resources and time DURATION APPROX. BUDGET FUNDING SOURCE Matrix.11.

DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN PLAN IMPLEMENTATION

PROGRAMME 4: ENABLING INSTITUTIONAL INTERVENTIONS

BYLAWS & ZONING SCHEME AMENDMENTS 1. Review zoning scheme to enable mixed use at identified neighbourhood centres


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

PRIORITY PROJECT

PROJECT NAME

A1) NEIGHBOURHOOD CENTRES: PUBLIC SPACE UPGRADE

A2) NEIGHBOURHOOD CENTRES: SOCIAL FACILITIES PROVISION PLAN

B1) URBAN AREA UPGRADING: MAIN STREET AND RETAIL / COMMERCIAL ZONES

B2) URBAN AREA C) PUBLIC TRANSPORT UPGRADING: SUSTAINABLE STREETS PROJECT

D) CREATING NEW ROAD LINKAGES

E) SETTING UP A BICYCLE EMPOWERMENT CENTRE

PROJECT DESCRIPTION

Develop a public space upgrading plan for upgrading and maintaining existing and new public spaces: a. Prepare a framework for upgrading and developing neighbourhood centres in Kokstad and Franklin, based on the identified neighbourhood centres (i.e. one centre within 400m of all residents)

Develop a social facilities provision plan: a. Prepare a framework for provision of social facilities

Refurbish, upgrade and maintain retail streets and commercial areas: a. Prepare a heritage conservation plan for Kokstad Central

Develop a comprehensive street upgrading plan: a. Prepare a street upgrading framework, building on the ISDP

Commission a feasibility study for the establishment of one scheduled and regulated circular route linking all Kokstad neighbourhoods, and one route linking Kokstad to Franklin.

Build new road linkages where the existing grid is disconnected and/or fragmented. These include connections

Set up a Bicycle Empowerment Centre through BEN (the Bicycle Empowerment Network) to promote cycling and maintain bicycles in the town. This involves training a local community member to become a bicycle mechanic, and organizing training school children and getting donated bicycles for them.

RELATED PROJECTS

• Community Development Centres

• Community Development Centres

• Local Currency

• Sustainable Streets Project, Green Heart Park.

• The Rail Trail, Sustainable Streets Projects, Green Heart Park.

PROJECT STAGE

• PDP: Project Development Phase • P&DP: Pilot and/ or Demonstration Projects • PIP: Project Implementation Phase

• PDP: Project Development Phase • P&DP: Pilot and/ or Demonstration Projects • PIP: Project Implementation Phase

• PDP: Project Development Phase • P&DP: Pilot and/ or Demonstration Projects • PIP: Project Implementation Phase

IMPLEMENTING AGENT

• GKM Spatial Planning and Community Services Departments

b. Plan, design and implement the construction of new social and community based facilities to support the neighbourhood centres

c. Coordinate the location and management of social facilities provided by all b. Identify, plan, design and implement five public spheres of government to space upgrades at priority ensure that new facilities are located to support centres identified neighbourhood activity centres.

PROJECT OWNER • GKM

• GKM, KZN Provincial Departments

b. Prepare a framework for upgrading retail streets and commercial areas, and for retrofitting existing big-box retail c. Identify, plan, design and implement public space upgrades in priority zones

b. Identify priority streets and plan, design and implement pilot / demonstration project c. Build on lessons from pilot and plan, design and implement all other strategic street upgrading projects

• PDP: Project Development Phase • PIP: Project Implementation Phase

• PDP: Project Development Phase • P&DP: Pilot and/ or Demonstration Projects • PIP: Project Implementation Phase

• GKM Spatial Planning Dept.

• GKM Spatial Planning Dept.

• GKM

BEN

• GKM • PDP: 1 year • P&DP: 4 years • PIP: 11 years

PROJECT DURATION

PRECONDITIONS APPROX. BUDGET

• PDP: R 300 000 • P&DP: R 35.54M • PIP: 294.03M • Total: R329.87M

• Training of BEC Manager: R6000 • Storage operation workshop: R30 000 • Bikes: R400x40

FUNDING SOURCE Matrix.12.

PROGRAMME 4: PUBLIC SPACE, STREET & FACILITY INVESTMENT PROGRAMME FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012

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STRATEGY

PROGRAMME 5: SETTLEMENT RESPONSE PROGRAMME

The programme proposes that the GKM commits to three sub-programmes and projects: •

The desired outcome is sustainable settlement growth. Residential development in Kokstad and Franklin is an opportunity to restructure the form of the settlements as a whole, through the creation of high quality sustainable living environments that are integrated; provide equitable access to opportunities and amenity; are diverse and locally appropriate; and are compact and efficient, optimizing natural, financial, infrastructure and human resources at all scales. The current need for new residential provision and improved access to a diverse range of accommodation, in terms of form, tenure and affordability, parallel with the imperative of containing the development footprint, gives rise to a response that is essentially about intensification.

NATURAL RESOURCES

The opportunity for re-structuring the spatial form of post-apartheid SA (including in Kokstad), has so far, largely been missed, however the RDP mechanism has been replaced by the Integrated Residential Development Programme (IRDP) mechanism. This provides for the development of sites within a project for income groups that fall outside of the subsidy affordability bands, as well as non-residential sites. The current KZN strategy indicates a policy shift from delivery of numbers and ownership, to sustainability, with emphasis on rental as a strategy for achieving this. Kokstad does not currently qualify for social housing funding as it does not have the required Urban Re-structuring Zone (URZ) however application can be made to have URZ’s designated.

New integrated neighbourhoods --

Pursue the R56 Integrated Sustainable Settlement Project as a pilot, and include a mix of uses, typologies, tenure, and delivery agents.

--

Plan new IDRP Project(s) within the existing urban footprint. Use the R56 concept as a reference. Package these parcels as one phased IRDP project even though the parcels are not contiguous.

--

Review current planned/approved projects in order to improve their sustainability as well as the sustainability of the town. Explore the feasibility of PPP arrangement that allows the GKM to apply for IRDP funding. (developer puts in the raw land and gets a portion of serviced land out)

--

-•

Facilitate new Private Rental development within IRPD projects, including the R56 project. Make parcels of land available on condition the housing remains rental for a reasonable period.

The GKM’s Kokstad Integrated Sustainable Settlements (KISS) Programme and the R56 project are aligned with the intentions of this ISDP. For an expanded introduction to this programme, please see the annexures of this report.

ENABLING INSTITUTIONAL INTERVENTIONS COMMUNICATION, POLICY, PARTNERSHIP INCENTIVES & ENGAGEMENT & GUIDELINES DESCRIPTION

Apply for urban re-structuring zones to enable Social Housing and engage with potential SHI’s to co-develop feasibility studies Re-develop existing CRU sites

1. Promote and enable infill development in recommended areas

2. Demand survey.

2. Establish green building guidelines and policies 3. Housing Sector Plan

Do detailed planning for densification of existing town, including changes to the Town Planning Zoning Scheme to enable private sector densification development.

This programme is closely aligned with all of the infrastructure programmes, and the Green Building Programme. New settlement projects must take cognizance of these. It is also aligned with the Public Space, Street and Facility Investment Programme, as well as the Localised Economy Programme, which aim to improve the long term sustainability of the whole town.

DURATION APPROX. BUDGET FUNDING SOURCE Matrix.13.

DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

1. Raise public awareness and co-operations.

3. Facilitate involvement of Social Housing Institution(s) in Kokstad, and co-develop prefeasibility studies>

Urban Densification and Intensification --

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN PLAN IMPLEMENTATION

DEVELOPMENT PLAN

Rental Housing --

The key interventions identified for this programme are grouped as 3 sub-programmes that include seven capital investment projects and three support initiatives that are institutional or operational in nature.

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GKM

PROGRAMME 5: ENABLING INSTITUTIONAL INTERVENTIONS

BYLAWS & ZONING SCHEME AMENDMENTS Scheme amendments to align with ISDP intents: • Second dwelling as a primary right • Recommended densities and coverage • Multi-storey walk-up and cluster residential development on vacant or under developed sites along main roads. • Completely prohibit new residential developments outside existing urban footprint.


PROJECT NAME

PROJECT DESCRIPTION

RELATED PROJECTS PROJECT STAGE

PRIORITY PROJECT

A1) NEW MIXED USE NEIGHBOURHOODS: R56 PILOT INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE SETTLEMENT PROJECT Pursue a first phase of the proposed: • R 56 Project as a Green Fund ‘Green Cities programme’ • “Flagship Pilot Mixed-Use integrated sustainable settlement project.” • Finalise Project Feasibility, Package IRDP application to DoHS for Tranche 1. Identify Pilot Phase. • Apply for additional innovation funding to pilot sustainability aspects.

A2) NEW MIXED USE NEIGHBOURHOODS: NEW IRDP

• P&DP: Pilot and/ or Demonstration Projects

• PDP: Project Development Phase

IMPLEMENTING Private Sector IA AGENT PROJECT OWNER GKMT PROJECT • Detailed Feasibility DURATION Study 1- 2 years • Funding approval Pilot Phase 1-5 years • Implementation of Pilot - 5 years • Implementation of subsequent phases 5 – 20 years PRECONDITIONS APPROXIMATE BUDGET

FUNDING SOURCE

Matrix.14.

PRIORITY PROJECT

• Feasibility Study • Funding Tranche 1:

R 2 186.40 per site Initial estimate 2000 sites (2500 units) • DoHS IRDP Programme • DBSA Green Fund • Private Developer finance

A3) NEW MIXED USE NEIGHBOURHOODS: CURRENT APPROVED PROJECTS OR PROJECTS IN PLANNING Develop land identified Together with private in the KISDP for new developers, review current medium density mixed use project approvals and (integrated sustainable) feasibility for the currently neighborhoods. proposed projects to the South of the old town. Areas linking Shayamoya and Bhongweni to Old Do not consider re-zoning Town, and Sites along R56 these sites for retail to Franklin. commercial use.

KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN PRIORITY PROJECT

B1) RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAMME: PRIVATE RENTAL DEVELOPMENTS

B2) RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAMME: SOCIAL HOUSING PROJECT

B3) RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAMME: COMMUNITY RESIDENTIAL PROJECT

C) URBAN DENSIFICATION & INTENSIFICATION

Set aside parcels in all phases of the R56 project for private rental housing to increase the range of tenure options, housing typologies and affordability.

Identify and set aside parcels identified as Medium to High Density including alongside proposed new central park, for Social Housing.

New CRU development

In areas identified with densification potential (e.g. St Johns and Murray Street Blocks), promote and facilitate second dwellings, and sub-division up to max net density 25 du /ha.

Prepare project feasibility studies and apply for CRU funding for implementation of CRU projects.

Follow up with DoHS Make parcels of land re Urban re-structuring available on condition the zones. housing remains rental for Engage with SHRA and a reasonable period. existing Social Housing Institutions, and codevelop Feasibility studies.

Re-develop the existing CRU sites in Bhongweni, Shayamoya, and

• PDP: Project Development Phase

• P&DP: Pilot and/ or Demonstration Projects • PDP: Project Development Phase

• Pre-Feasibility

• Pre-Feasibility

Private Sector IA

Private Sector

Private Sector

Private Sector SHI

GKM with Consultants

GKM • Project Packaging and funding approval 2 years • Phased development 2 – 20 years

Private Sector • Feasibility study and funding approval - 1-2 years • Phased development 2 – 20 years

Private Sector • Feasibility study and funding approval - 2 years • Phased development – 2 -20 years

Private Sector SHI • Establish Urban Restructuring Zones, attract SHI- 1 year • Feasibility study and funding approval 2 years • Phase development –3 – 20 years

GKM • 5 – 10 years

GKM • Scheme amendments - Short Term (1- 2 years) • Implementation – short to medium and long term –ongoing

• Environmental authorization

• Land Ownership • Zoning

• Feasibility of R56 Project

• Affordable land Confirmation of URZ

• Funding

R 350 000 per unit

CRU subsidy amount: Approx. R120 000 per person

• Land Ownership • Zoning

Preparation funding: R83000 per project

Current day costs

Tranche 1: R2186.40 per site • DoHS Packaging funding • IRDP Tranche 1 • Private Developer finance

• DoHS IRDP subsidies • Private Developer finance

• DoHS Packaging funding • DoHS IRDP subsidies • Private Developer finance

500 units = minimum viable stock for SHI • SHRA • DoHS Capital Restructuring Grant • Provincial Top-up

“Single Quarters” in Shayamoya. Investigate demand for CRU development in Franklin

• DoHS CRU Subsidy

Do detailed precinct densification planning for the identified areas.

• P&DP: Pilot and/ or Demonstration Projects, • PIP: Project Implementation Phase GKM with Consultants

• DoHS Capital Restructuring Grant • Provincial Top-up • DBSA Green Funding

PROGRAMME 5: SETTLEMENT RESPONSE PROGRAMME FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012

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Green drop score

Number of litres of water used per person per day

Organic load on WWTW

kWh of energy produced from biogas vs total energy demand

Kg of waste per person going to landfill

Water quality compliance of river downstream of town

Ratio of renewable versus non-renewable energy used in Kokstad

kWh/m3 of wastewater treated

AGRICULTURE

NATURAL RESOURCES

INFRASTRUCTURE

TOWN

INDICATORS

DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

STATUS QUO Kokstad has a substantial infrastructure foundation. However, there is inadequate basic infrastructure in some areas and many communities are not able to pay for services, while rates are perceived as very high. Ageing infrastructure, institutional misalignment and rehabilitation backlogs result in service inefficiencies, the pollution of rivers and excessive waste.

WHAT COULD FUTURE KOKSTAD LOOK LIKE? Future Sustainable Kokstad’s strategies of reducing demand, reuse and recycling have paid off and the towns’ energy, water and waste systems set the national benchmark. Kokstad and Franklin run on green and renewable energy. The towns use water sustainability with efficient systems and minimum waste as well as effective recharge of their sources. These all increase the affordability of doing business and have reduced pollution of the natural environment to zero.


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9.4. INFRASTRUCTURE 9.4.1. POLICY ALIGNMENT WATER & SANITATION POLICIES AND STRATEGIES With respect to drinking water, the two primary policies that the Kokstad ISDP is aiming to align with are the Water Conservation and Demand Management National Strategy and the Strategic Framework for Water Services. The former deals with the efficient use of water by institutions and users of water in South Africa, and therefore encompasses reuse and recycling of water and wastewater, greywater reuse, reduction of water demand and the repairing of leaks. The latter aims at ensuring sustainability of water services by means of addressing affordability (i.e. free basic water) and ensuring an adequate volume and consistency of supply. It is backed up by the Free Basic Water Policy and Free Basic Water Implementation Strategy. The Water Supply and Sanitation Policy outlines the institutional, financial and social policies essential for the supply of water and sanitation. Importantly, the policy sets out the minimum basic level of service that is required by government for water and sanitation. The Kokstad ISDP aims to meet and exceed these minimum levels of service. The National Sanitation Policy sets out that sanitation systems should not negatively impact the environment, be financially sustainable and should be equitable. These are all aligned with the Kokstad ISDP strategies.

WASTE POLICIES The National Waste Management Strategy is primarily focused on moving waste up the waste hierarchy, i.e. diverting waste from landfill. This is achieved by means of first reducing waste, then reusing it and then recycling, and this forms the basis of the approach towards waste for the Kokstad ISDP. Specifically, one of the goals is

for all large towns to initiate separation at source programmes.

ENERGY POLICIES Broad government policy and objectives regarding energy generation and consumption have been presented in the Energy White Paper (1998), the objectives of which were to: address energy requirements of the poor, enhance the competitiveness of the economy by provision of low cost, high quality energy inputs to industrial, mining and other sectors, and achieve environmental sustainability of natural resources. The National Government of South Africa adopted the New Growth Path in late 2010 as a broad policy framework to guide economic reconstruction and development. In essence, the aim is to target our limited capital and capacity at activities that maximise the creation of decent work opportunities. In addition, government, labour and business signed a Green Economy Accord on 17 November 2011 that identified 9 key focus areas in the green economy that could create jobs and additionally address climate change concerns helping to meet South Africa’s commitments to mitigation (Department of Economic Development 2012). The parties identified commitments they could make to assist in developing a green economy, some of which included: the rollout of one million solarwater heating systems by 2014/15, promotion of biofuels for vehicles, waste-recycling, and electrification of poor communities and reduction of fossil-fuel open-fire cooking and heating. The strategic intentions to localise energy production, water and sanitation, develop integrated, cyclical service systems, maintain and upgrade infrastructure and focus on energy efficiency and renewable energy all closely align with the intentions of both the Green Economy Accord and the National Climate Change Response white paper (NCCR) (October 2011).

“Link waste generators and waste re-users and recyclers through trading platforms” National Waste Management Strategy “Protection of water resources is essential for sustainability” Water Act

The Z-squared study for a One Planet Community in London mapped the flows of resources through the community; heat, cool, power, water, wastewater, waste – and evaluated technology options that could deliver zero carbon and zero waste to form new material inputs streams resulting in a closed loop system.

“Promoting energy efficiency across the economy” Green Economy Accord “33% of electricity generation from renewable resources” Integrated Resource Plan “Reducing, re-using, recycling and recovering waste” National Waste Management Strategy

Fig 61. A DIAGRAM OF Z-SQUARED INFRASTRUCTURE Increase renewable energy generation and decrease waste.

“Minimise the consumption of natural resources” National Waste Management Strategy Fig 62. THE Z-SQUARED CONCEPT DRAWING

Note: Please see Annexure C: Precedent, for more examples.

FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012


STRATEGY

9.4.2. STRATEGY The following four pages define and illustrate the strategies that have informed the formulation of the ISDP in terms of this story. These strategies should also guide the decision-making process in terms of other statutory plans (like the IDP and SDF) and should guide decision-making in the execution of the ISDP.

DEVELOPMENT PLAN

STATUS QUO 1 Water supply in Kokstad is vulnerable and inequitable; the town is dependant on 2 main sources and the existing infrastructure is poor. Poor treatment at the WWTW pollute the river.

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INFRASTRUCTURE

Fig 63. INFRASTRUCTURE / STATUS QUO / WATER

AGRICULTURE

NATURAL RESOURCES

STRATEGY 1 Reduce water use, reuse used water and diversify water sources to reduce vulnerability.

Fig 64. INFRASTRUCTURE / STRATEGY / WATER

DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

STATUS QUO 2 All waste brought into or created in Kokstad goes to the landfill. Leachate from the unlined landfill threatens the river.

Photo 18. LANDFILL SITE, SHAYAMOYA, KOKSTAD

Fig 65. INFRASTRUCTURE / STATUS QUO / WASTE

STRATEGY 2 Reduce the amount of ‘waste’ brought into Kokstad and reuse waste through intelligent supply chain management and public awareness.

Photo 19. WASTE SORTING, CURITIBA

Fig 66. INFRASTRUCTURE / STRATEGY / WASTE

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100

STRATEGY

DEVELOPMENT PLAN

TOWN

CROSSROADS

ENABLING INSTITUTIONS

STATUS QUO 3 Kokstad is dependant on energy from Eskom which comes from non-renewable resources - mainly coal. Parts of Kokstad are not electrified.

INFRASTRUCTURE

Photo 20. HOUSING DEVELOPMENT, SHAYAMOYA, KOKSTAD

Fig 67. INFRASTRUCTURE / STATUS QUO/ ENERGY

AGRICULTURE

NATURAL RESOURCES

STRATEGY 3 Reduce electricity use and supply vulnerability through increased efficiency and diversified and distributed supply.

Fig 68. INFRASTRUCTURE / STRATEGY / ENERGY

DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

STATUS QUO 5 Institutional weaknesses lead to inappropriate and insufficient infrastructure maintenance and management.

STATUS QUO 4 Plans for growth and inefficient usage patterns threaten the ability of the GKM to deliver basic services and meet the MDGs.

Fig 69. INFRASTRUCTURE/STATUS QUO/GROWTH PLANS

STRATEGY 4 Balance new development and rehabilitation to increase affordability of services.

Photo 21. POTHOLE ON A PROVINCIAL ROAD

STRATEGY 5 Promote alternate scales and ownership models of infrastructure to strengthen institutions.

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DEVELOPMENT PLAN DEVELOPMENT PLAN

STRATEGY

INFRASTRUCTURE I :

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

WATER-USE GUIDELINES AND INCENTIVES FOR NEW AND EXISTING DEVELOPMENTS Require water-efficient infrastructure and technology in new developments and incentivise retrofit options in existing development areas. These water-efficient technologies could include:

WATER & STORM WATER Future Kokstad and Franklin have developed within the sustainable capacity of local water supplies, and manages its water systems holistically. Require water-efficient infrastructure and technology in new developments and incentivise retrofit options in existing development areas (especially at institutions such as schools and the municipal offices).

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INFRASTRUCTURE NATURAL RESOURCES

grey-water reuse

low-flow shower heads

using rainwater for toilets

Fig 70. INFRASTRUCTURE I - FRANKLIN

Reduce water demand by repairing water leaks in Shayamoya (currently using 34% of total water supplied to Kokstad).

DIVERSIFICATION OF WATER SUPPLY THROUGH RAIN-WATER HARVESTING Support the diversification of water supplies to increase water security, through rainwater harvesting – promote the local production and installation of rainwater tanks.

WTW Reduce demand by using treated effluent rather than drinking water to water lawns, sports fields and golf course.

SUDS: STORMWATER SOURCE CONTROLS

SUDS: STORMWATER LOCAL CONTROLS

WWTW

Constructed wetland

Stormwater runoff quantity and quality control at or near its source

Green roofs, sand filters, soakaways, stormwater collection and reuse

Management of stormwater runoff from many source control catchments:

Bio-detention areas / filter strips / infiltration / trenches / permeable pavements

Management of stormwater runoff from local catchments

Constructed wetlands / detention ponds / retention ponds

Swales and other stormwater controls PRV

AGRICULTURE

Pressure Release Valve

New development according to SuDS Guidelines Incentivised rainwater harvesting (institutions and industry) SuDS: Conveyance and Infiltration SuDS: Infiltration

SuDS: Constructed Wetland

Fig 71. INFRASTRUCTURE I - KOKSTAD DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

SUDS: STORMWATER REGIONAL CONTROLS


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

This section sets out the development plan for the Infrastructure story, as informed by national, provincial and regional policies, and the story strategies.

in the form of a ‘treatment train’, i.e. a control at source, followed by a local control, and finally a regional control. The key objectives of this approach are the effective management of stormwater runoff quantity, quality and the associated amenity and biodiversity.

The main sub-stories of the Infrastructure story are:

KEY PROPOSALS

9.4.3. DEVELOPMENT PLAN

Infrastructure I: Water and Storm Water

Infrastructure II: Sanitation

Infrastructure III: Solid Waste

Infrastructure IV: Energy

9.4.3.1 INFRASTRUCTURE I: WATER & STORMWATER This sub-story focuses on the development of sustainable water and stormwater infrastructure throughout Kokstad and Franklin. This includes sustainable water demand and resource management as well as sustainable drainage systems (SuDS).

APPROACH AND RATIONALE It is essential to manage water resources sustainably in Kokstad and Franklin, as South Africa is a water scarce country. It is critical that the water services supplied to these towns should not be compartmentalised, but shared and circulated as in the natural water cycle process, i.e. there are multiple uses for treated sewage effluent and stormwater, which could replace significant quantities of potable water. This plan takes a Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) approach to integrate the management of the total water cycle into the land use planning and development process. WSUD regards urban stormwater runoff as a resource rather than a liability, with diverse impacts on biodiversity, water and land. In addition, SuDS offer an alternative approach to conventional drainage practices by attempting to manage surface water drainage systems holistically. They achieve this by mimicking the natural hydrological cycle, often through a number of sequential interventions

1.

Reduce demand by repairing water leaks (34% of the total water provided to the whole of Kokstad currently goes to Shayamoya because of leaks). It is estimated that between 1800 and 2500kl of water is lost per day in Shayamoya. Assuming a bulk tariff of R2.5/kl, this amounts to between R1.6 million and R2.2million per year in losses.

2.

Require water-efficient infrastructure and technology in new developments and incentivise retrofit options in existing development areas. These water-efficient technologies could include grey-water reuse, low-flow shower heads, rainwater harvesting and using rainwater for toilets.

Greywater Reuse: By installing a system to collect grey-water (i.e. from the washing machine, basins, shower and bath) and pump it onto the garden, households will eliminate the need for any additional garden watering. In higher income area this can reduce household water demand by approx. 25%.

Low flow showerheads: Low flow showerheads can be purchased in bulk by local authority and distributed free to households. There is an immediate saving to the WSA for houses that don’t pay for water and a very quick payback (<6 months) to the WSA for houses that pay a flat tariff.

Rainwater Harvesting: Rainwater can be collected from rooftops and be used for a number of non-potable purposes, such as: toilet flushing, irrigation, and laundry washing (Informal / low income areas).

Rainwater for toilets: A feasible option for rainwater reuse in institutions with large roof areas and many toilets (e.g. school,

municipal offices). It would be best to elevate the tank to provide sufficient head to gravitate into the toilet cistern. •

Hold flush/multi-flush toilets: Savings of approximately 2 kL per month per household can be achieved by installing a ‘dual-flush’ or ‘multi-flush’ (also known as hold flush or demand flush) toilet. Dual flush devices have two fixed settings, a light setting (3 litres) for urine and a heavier one (6 litres) for solids. Multi-flush devices allow households to flush any amount by holding down the handle for as long as is needed to flush the contents.

3.

Reduce demand by using treated effluent rather than drinking water to water lawns, sports fields and the golf course. It appears that the golf course uses approximately 2 Ml/d (20% of total water use) – a very high proportion. The treated effluent from the WWTW can be used to irrigate the golf course. This water is essentially “free” to the WSA and can be sold at a profit to the golf course, but it would still represent savings to the user as it would be less expensive than potable water. It would save approximately 2 Ml/d of potable water which is a 19% saving on the total water use in Kokstad.

4.

Support the diversification of water supplies to increase water security, through rainwater harvesting – promote the local production and installation of rainwater tanks.

5.

Apply WSUD/SuDS guidelines to all streetscapes to reduce runoff, and promote groundwater recharge.

DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES The National ‘Blue Drop’ criteria should be achieved as a minimum requirement for the treatment of all water resources. National Water Act 1998, Act 36 of 1998 should also be adhered to with all prospective development.

Fig 73. SUDS: SOURCE CONTROLS

Fig 72. SUDS: LOCAL CONTROLS

Fig 74. SUDS: REGIONAL CONTROLS FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012

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DEVELOPMENT PLAN DEVELOPMENT PLAN

STRATEGY

INFRASTRUCTURE II : SANITATION

Effectively large septic tanks from where gas can be extracted) serving 15-20 low income housing units. Anaerobic digesters remove approximately 50% of organic load. Liquid from anaerobic digesters goes to sewer. Gas is extracted and used in communal cook houses (reduced reliance on electricity or paraffin). Digested sludge would have to be removed every few years and could be used as a fertiliser if dried or composted.

R6

17

Kokstad and Franklin recharge their local water supplies and do not pollute their water sources or those further downstream.

FRANKLIN

Fig 75. INFRASTRUCTURE II - FRANKLIN

MEDIUM SCALE ANAEROBIC DIGESTERS FOR BIOGAS (INSTITUTIONS) Anaeriobic digesters (AD) installed at schools and municipal institutions. ADs remove approximately 50% of organic load. Liquid from ADs goes to sewer. Gas is extracted and used in canteens, thus reducing reliance on electricity or imported LPG. Can be supplemented with waste food or animal waste, if available, to increase gas yield. Digested sludge would have to be removed every few years and could be used as a fertiliser if dried.

R6

TOWN

Medium scale anaerobic digesters for biogas (institutional scale).

SHAYAMOYA

RK

BA

T

EE

TR

S ER

ET RE ST ER W DO KOKSTAD CENTRAL

COMPOSTING WASTE ACTIVATED SLUDGE

BAMBAYI

JA ROAD

GCADIN

ET

RE

Passive waste water treatment at the constructed wetland.

ET

RE ST

ST

6

R5

PE

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TH

IN

E NU

MA

NATURAL RESOURCES

MZINTLAVA RIVER

HO

INFRASTRUCTURE

EXTENSION 7

BHONGWENI

HORSESHOE

PASSIVE WASTE WATER TREATMENT: CONSTRUCTED WETLAND

Composting waste activated sludge.

Municipal Biogas Generator Composting Waste Water Treatment Works

Fig 76. INFRASTRUCTURE II - KOKSTAD DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

56

Constructed Wetland

R

Medium Scale Anaerobic Digesters for Biogas Integrated Waste Hub

Waste Activated Sludge (WAS) is produced at the WWTW and can be composted with greens and other organics. This allows for the reuse of nutrients which would otherwise be wasted.

Small scale anaerobic digesters for biogas (community scale).

Small scale Anaerobic Digesters for Biogas

AGRICULTURE

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

SMALL SCALE ANAEROBIC DIGESTERS FOR BIOGAS (COMMUNITY)

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N2

There is area downstream of the WWTW with space for approximately 7 to 8 ha of constructed wetland. This form of passive treatment does not require any energy and needs little maintenance. Such a constructed wetland could serve as a tertiary treatment/polishing step for the current WWTW and also act as a buffer to the ecosystem should there be a failure.


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

9.4.3.2 INFRASTRUCTURE II: SANITATION

Small scale Anaerobic Digesters for Biogas: Localised anaerobic digesters (AD; effectively large septic tanks from where gas can be extracted) serving 15-20 low income housing units. anaerobic digesters remove approximately 50% of organic load. Liquid from anaerobic digesters goes to sewer. Gas is extracted and used in communal cook houses (reduced reliance on electricity or paraffin). Digested sludge would have to be removed every few years and could be used as a fertiliser if dried or composted.

Medium Scale Anaerobic Digesters for Biogas: ADs installed at schools and municipal institutions. ADs remove approximately 50% of organic load. Liquid from ADs goes to sewer. Gas is extracted and used in canteens, thus reducing reliance on electricity or imported LPG. Can be supplemented with waste food or animal waste, if available, to increase gas yield. Digested sludge would have to be removed every few years and could be used as a fertiliser if dried.

3.

Composting of treated sewage sludge from the WWTW after active sludge treatment process (aerobic treatment).

4.

Using sludge digestate from the anaerobic digestion process as fertiliser for agricultural or domestic uses.

This sub-story focuses on the identification of functional sanitation practices and presenting household and industrial sewage as a valuable resource. Proper, dignifying sanitation infrastructure is a critical component of Kokstad and Franklin’s urban functionality.

APPROACH AND RATIONALE Modern water-based sewage models are designed and built on the premise that human excreta are waste constituents suitable only for disposal. Yet this sets up a linear flow of nutrients from soil to agricultural produce to town to treatment works, wasting large amounts of nutrients and organic matter. The approach of this plan is to capture both the energy and the nutrients by closing these loops, and using waste to generate energy and fertilisers.

KEY PROPOSALS 1.

2.

Implementation of a constructed wetland downstream of the waste water treatment works (WWTW) to cater for additional hydraulic loading and potential mechanical failure during power outages, also reducing energy demands in the future. There is area downstream of the WWTW with space for approximately 7 to 8 ha of constructed wetland. This form of passive treatment does not require any energy and needs little maintenance. Such a constructed wetland could serve as a tertiary treatment/polishing step for the current WWTW and also act as a buffer to the ecosystem should there be a failure. A constructed wetland of this size is able to treat approximately 1.5 Ml/d of raw sewage independently of the WWTW (27% of the existing capacity). Harnessing the waste-to-energy potential of the primary and secondary sludge that passes through the WWTW and at a smaller household level by way of anaerobic digestion (AD).

DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES 1.

Bylaws – Organic loading: Bylaws to limit the organic and nutrient load from industry into the sewerage network. This will save capacity at the WWTW and prevent shock loading, which causes the WWTW to treat waste water incompletely, resulting in pollution of the river. Industry can be forced to undertake pre-treatment and reuse/ recycling of water on site.

2.

Bylaws – Hydraulic loading: Bylaws to prevent stormwater ingress into sewerage system should be implemented and enforced as stormwater ingress results in hydraulic overloading of the WWTW, causing sludge carry-over and pollution of the river. Fig 77. HARNESSING WASTE TO ENERGY POTENTIAL FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012

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DEVELOPMENT PLAN DEVELOPMENT PLAN

STRATEGY

INFRASTRUCTURE III : SOLID WASTE

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

WASTE PICKERS’ RECYCLABLES COLLECTION POINT Waste pickers collect co-mingled recyclables from each household (a plastic bag per household per week), and take the recyclables to a central site where they are remunerated accordingly.

R6

17

Future Kokstad turns ‘waste’ into a resource, drastically reducing the volumes going to landfill and creating jobs through recycling.

FRANKLIN

MATERIALS RECOVERY FACILITY Materials Recovery Facility (MRF): Mixed recyclables are sorted into various fractions (on this scale it would be manually sorting) and reused in industry.

Fig 78. INFRASTRUCTURE III - FRANKLIN

ANAEROBIC DIGESTER FOR ORGANIC WASTE

R6

17

Develop industry and economic opportunities from the sale, reuse and recycling of materials generated by a Materials Recycling Facility (MRF) associated with the industrial area.

Anaerobic digester of organic waste: Organic waste is digested to generate biogas which can be used in the industrial area to fire boilers or it can be used to generate electricity by way of the combustion of methane.

SHAYAMOYA

Pilot a household level two bag waste collection system as a job creation initiative.

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COMPOSTING PLANT

NATURAL RESOURCES

Ensure that the location of the new landfill site takes into consideration opportunities for synergy with the industrial area. HORSESHOE

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HAZARDOUS WASTE DROP-OFF AND STORAGE Hazardous waste drop-off and storage: Hazardous waste such as batteries, electronics and paint can be dropped off by the public and stored safely. This waste is not permitted to go to landfill in terms of the new waste regulations.

BHONGWENI Develop the Kokstad Industrial area into an “Industrial Ecology Precinct” as a national exemplar of a zero-waste, resource-efficient “industrial ecology”. In such a precinct, the waste of one industry becomes another’s resource.

KOKSTAD CENTRAL

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N2

Waste Pickers’ Recycleables Collection Point Existing Proposed Landfill Site Potential Landfill Site

Fig 79. INFRASTRUCTURE III - KOKSTAD DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

WASTE EXCHANGE / SWAP MALL Reusable waste can be dropped off or exchanged for tokens to buy other reusable products. This would include items such as books, clothes, toys etc.

R

Leachate from the new landfill site may need to be treated at the WWTW.

Composting Plant

?

Composting plant: Waste activated sludge (WAS) from the anaerobic digester can be composted with garden waste (also see Infrastructure II – Sanitation).

ET

AGRICULTURE

BAMBAYI

JA ROAD

GCADIN

ET

Materials Recovery Facility

RE

Integrated Waste Hub

RE ST

Develop industry and economic opportunities from the sale, reuse and recycling of materials generated by a Materials Recycling Facility (MRF) associated with the industrial area.

ST

R

PE

56

IN

E

NU

E AV

Develop a “waste hub” or Integrated Waste Management Facility near the industrial area T to divert recyclables and REE ST organics from the landfill R E RK site. BA MA

E TH

The current landfill MZINTLAVA RIVER could be transformed into a park.

HO

INFRASTRUCTURE

EXTENSION 7

Reduce the amount of ‘waste’ brought into Kokstad through intelligent supply chain management and public awareness.

KOKSTAD INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY PRECINCT Develop the Kokstad Industrial area and the new industrial area proposed to the south of the town into “Industrial Ecology Precincts”, as national exemplars of a Zero Waste (ZW).


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

virgin resources would make recycled and recyclable materials a financially logical choice for manufacturers.

9.4.3.3 INFRASTRUCTURE III: SOLID WASTE The focus of this sub-story is the solid waste generated by the residents and other entities in Kokstad and Franklin. In South Africa, solid waste is increasingly being seen as a valuable resource rather than garbage. Making a significant and long-term impact in the towns’ solid waste streams means more than simply recycling. It will require a transition in waste management philosophy, from ‘cradle-to-grave’ towards ‘cradle-to-cradle’.

5.

1.

2.

Redesigning products and packaging: planning in advance to minimise waste production and harmful materials (Clean Design and Clean Production); also known as ‘precycling’. Producer responsibility: placing the primary burden of responsibility on manufacturers for the impact that materials they produce have on people and the environment, including materials that end up as waste because they cannot be used otherwise or easily recycled or composted.

3.

Infrastructural investment: instead of investing in landfills and incinerators, investing in new resource recovery facilities and other sustainable infrastructure.

4.

Monetary efficiency: Manufacturers use natural resources as raw materials because tax subsidies and policies make the use of such resources cheaper and easier than finding alternatives or using recycled resources. Changing this to a system which enforces real costs for the use of

Composting plant: Waste activated sludge (WAS) from the anaerobic digester can be composted with garden waste (also see Infrastructure II – Sanitation).

Hazardous waste drop-off and storage: Hazardous waste such as batteries, electronics and paint can be dropped off by the public and stored safely. This waste is not permitted to go to landfill in terms of the new waste regulations.

Waste Exchange/Swap Mall: reusable waste can be dropped off or exchanged for tokens to buy other reusable products. This would include items such as books, clothes, toys etc. This facility could potentially be located elsewhere in town and could operate once a month perhaps.

KEY PROPOSALS 1.

Reduce the amount of ‘waste’ brought into Kokstad through intelligent supply chain management and public awareness.

2.

Develop industry and economic opportunities from the sale, reuse and recycling of materials generated by a Materials Recycling Facility (MRF) associated with the industrial area.

3.

Develop the Kokstad Industrial area into an “Industrial Ecology Precinct” as a national exemplar of a ZW, where the waste of one industry becomes a resource to be shared amongst others.

4.

Ensure that the location of the new landfill site takes into consideration opportunities for synergy with the industrial area (e.g. gas from landfill could fire boilers in the industrial area).

5.

Develop a “waste hub” or Integrated Waste Management Facility near the industrial area to divert recyclables and organics from the landfill site, thereby reducing the airspace required in the landfill, extending its lifespan and alleviating the need for another landfill site in the future. The Integrated Waste Management Facility could include the following components:

Materials Recovery Facility (MRF): Mixed recyclables are sorted into various fractions (on this scale it would be manually sorting) and reused in industry.

Anaerobic digester of organic waste: Organic waste is digested to generate biogas which can be used in the industrial

APPROACH AND RATIONALE Zero Waste (ZW) is a term used to describe sustainable waste management. It requires preventative methods rather than managing waste. The idea is that discarded resources equate to jobs instead of trash to emulate nature’s vibrant flow of energy. Five basic principles of ZW are

Job creation: There are many more potential ‘job creation’ and business opportunities in the zero waste concept than in the traditional land filling and incineration model. Research suggests that sorting and processing recyclables sustains 10 times more jobs than the land filling and incineration of waste streams.

area to fire boilers or it can be used to generate electricity by way of the combustion of methane.

DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES All waste management development should adhere to the latest environmental regulations as disseminated by the Department of Environmental Affairs.

Fig 80. WASTE MANAGEMENT DIAGRAM

FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012

107


DEVELOPMENT PLAN DEVELOPMENT PLAN

STRATEGY

INFRASTRUCTURE IV: ENERGY

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

MICRO-UTILITIES Establishment of micro-utilities to supply, manage and maintain sustainable hot water and energy to household clusters (15-20 hh).

R6

17

Future Kokstad has reduced its overall electricity use and vulnerability through increased efficiency, diversified and distributed supply. The large roofs of the

FRANKLIN

Fig 81. INFRASTRUCTURE IV - FRANKLIN

Biogas can be generated at a regional anaerobic degester at the WWTW. This would involved the co-digestion of waste food, animal waste and industrial organic by-products.

17

industrial area are ideally suited for photovoltaic panels.

REGIONAL BIOGAS FACILITY

R6

CROSSROADS

ENABLING INSTITUTIONS

108

TOWN

SHAYAMOYA

INSTITUTIONAL SOLAR ENERGY HARVESTING & ENERGY EFFICIENCY

Increase energy efficiency across households and institutions.

NATURAL RESOURCES

RK

BA

T

EE

TR

S ER

ET RE ST ER W DO KOKSTAD CENTRAL

MZINTLAVA RIVER Micro-utilities to supply, manage and maintain sustainable hot water BAMBAYI and energy to household clusters.

JA ROAD

GCADIN

ET

Regional biogas facility.

ET

RE

ST

RE ST

PE

6

R5

IN

E

NU

E AV

MA

E TH

HO

INFRASTRUCTURE

EXTENSION 7

HORSESHOE

10 MEGAWATT SOLAR ENERGY FARM Solar PV requires about 1 sqm for every 100W of panels, so a 10MW project would require about 10 hectares. Together with improving the overall energy effficiency of the town, such a project would greatly increase the town’s resilience to Eskom’s rising prices and occasional blackouts.

BHONGWENI

KOKSTAD INSUTRIAL ECOLOGY PRECINCT 10MW solar energy farm. Energy Efficient New Development Main Biogas Facility (WWTW) Micro Biogas (Community Kitchens) Institutional Solar Energy Harvesting & Energy Efficiency Micro-Utility

Establish the Kokstad industrial area as an Industrial Ecology Precinct where a range of energy (and cost) saving measures can be implemented

Fig 82. INFRASTRUCTURE IV- KOKSTAD DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

56

R

AGRICULTURE

The large, north-facing roofs of the industrial area and institutions such as schools and shopping centres can be used for mounting photovoltaic (PV) cells for solar energy harvesting. These same institutions should be retrofitted with energy-saving mechanisms and devices to maximise energy efficiency.

N2

Establish the Kokstad industrial area as an Industrial Ecology Precinct where a range of energy (and cost) saving measures can be implemented, including efficient lighting, thermal saving, compressed air management and so on.


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

industrial appliances; switch from electricity and/or paraffin to biogas or LPG for cooking; and utilise one of many energy-efficient water heating technologies (low-pressure solar water heaters).

9.4.3.4 INFRASTRUCTURE IV: ENERGY This sub-story focuses on the development of sustainable energy generation and utilisation means in Kokstad and Franklin. Electrical energy became a household essential in South Africa the latter half of the 20th Century, and is increasing in demand annually.

5.

APPROACH AND RATIONALE Key to this plan is increasing energy efficiency, lowering consumption trends, and shifting from fossil fuels to renewable ‘fuel’ resources; thereby creating additional capacity, reducing energy costs, and allowing more people to be connected to reliable energy supplies. There are multiple energy sources that are not currently being exploited, many of which are renewable resources, such as organic waste, solar energy and wind power. These sources are typically available every day and expended whether they are harvested for human use or not.

6.

Regional biogas facility: Biogas is extracted from the WWTW’s main anaerobic digester (can be co-digested with waste food, animal waste, or industrial organic by-products). It can then be used for municipal purposes, particularly energy generation, i.e. water heating and augmenting the town’s energy supplies.

7.

The large, north-facing roofs of the industrial area and institutions such as schools and shopping centres can be used for mounting photovoltaic (PV) cells for solar energy harvesting. These same institutions should be retrofitted with energy-saving mechanisms and devices to maximise energy efficiency.

8.

PV Cells could also be implemented at a smaller, household and commercial size level.

9.

Solar PV requires about 1m2 panels for every 100W of power generation, so a 10MW project would require about 10 hectares. Together with improving the overall energy efficiency of the town, such

KEY PROPOSALS 1.

Reduce electricity use and supply vulnerability through increased efficiency and diversified and distributed supply.

2.

Establish the Kokstad industrial area as an Industrial Ecology Precinct where a range of energy (and cost) saving measures can be implemented, including efficient lighting, thermal saving, compressed air management and so on.

3.

Set up energy production and efficiency programmes that enable municipalities to be rewarded for driving energy reduction rather than for sales of electricity.

4.

Educate residents and business entities about the savings that can be achieved through energy efficiency through, inter alia, energy-efficient lights (e.g. CFLs) to replace incandescent bulbs; installing insulated ceilings and other no-cost measures to improve the thermal efficiency of the buildings (e.g. proper orientation on the site); promote more efficient household and

Establishment of micro-utilities to supply, manage and maintain sustainable hot water and energy to household clusters (15-20 hh). This is a private business promotion with local community micro-enterprises; local established contractors, plumbers and electricians, and suppliers of technology, finance and management support take responsibility for multiple management tasks, such as: installation and/or replacement of solar water heating and heat exchangers, including on-going repair and maintenance, electricity savings measures, household metering, meter reading and collection, and water leakage prevention. Their fees are generated directly from the savings residents get from more efficient infrastructure, and in return the residents get more reliable and better-maintained services.

a project would greatly increase the town’s resilience to Eskom’s rising prices and occasional blackouts.

DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES There are guidelines to minimise the harmful impacts of renewable energy interventions on wildlife, such as “Guidelines to minimise the impact on birds of Solar Facilities and Associated Infrastructure in South Africa”, and “BirdLife South Africa / Endangered Wildlife Trust best practice guidelines for avian monitoring and impact mitigation at proposed wind energy development sites in Southern Africa”. The White Paper on Renewable Energy (2003) has set a target of 10 000 GWh of energy to be produced from renewable energy sources

Fig 84. DIVERSIFIED ENERGY SOURCES

Fig 83. MICRO-UTILITY

FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012

109


NATURAL RESOURCES

INFRASTRUCTURE

TOWN

CROSSROADS

ENABLING INSTITUTIONS

110

STRATEGY

9.4.4. IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

An IWFM incorporates a Materials Recovery Facility (clean sorting of source separated recyclables), a biosolids processing plant (including anaerobic digestion), a composting facility, a hazardous waste dropoff, and finally a waste exchange/swop mall.

The 2 and/or 3 bag collection system enables the source separation and collection of household organics and recyclables, which can be used for multiple income generating streams.

The implementation plan for this story has three programmes: •

Integrated Waste Management Programme

Water Cycle Management Programme

Energy Programme

PROGRAMME 6: INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME Currently all solid waste generated in Kokstad is sent to Landfill, which is the least favourable option in terms of the Waste Hierarchy, which is the guiding policy in the National Environmental Management Waste Act (59 of 2008) and the National Waste Management Strategy. The Waste Hierarchy lists the following five waste management measures, in order of preference: (1) waste avoidance and reduction, (2) recovery, reuse and reduction, (3) treatment and processing, (4) disposal, and (5) remediation. The overall aim of the Integrated Waste Management Programme is to move up the waste hierarchy where waste is first avoided, then reused, then recycled and only landfilled as a last resort. The programme is designed to give residents and industry a viable and convenient alternative to disposal to landfill and to beneficiate the waste to make it financially attractive. Solid waste is increasingly being seen as a resource throughout the world, particularly in terms of energy generation. The programme revolves around three basic pillars, being a waste characterisation, an Integrated Waste Management Facility (IWFM), and a 2 and/or 3 bag household collection system, and : •

AGRICULTURE

A waste characterisation is essentially the starting point to of understanding the conventional waste flows in Kokstad and Franklin, and will greatly inform the planning, design and efficacy of an integrated waste management facility.

DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

It is critical that the proposed integrated waste management facility has full institutional support from the local municipality and the relevant stakeholders. This includes the drafting of enabling policies to support the implementation and management of the proposed integrated waste management facilities, and regulate the adherence to the Waste Hierarchy. Policies should in turn be supported by several development guidelines that clearly indicate the most appropriate interventions and technologies to be used in the waste facility as well as throughout the waste collection procedures. Guidelines should be drafted by drawing from national and international guidelines and successful applications, i.e. case studies, research, etc. The projects in this programme have a strong link with the ‘Water Cycle Management Programme’ and the ‘Renewable Energy Programme’. There are significant opportunities to produced alternative fuels for electrical and thermal energy output by harnessing organic materials from the current solid waste stream. The separation and digestion of biomass, and the combustion of biofuels such as biogas, will significantly reduce the carbon equivalent loading on the atmosphere by avoiding methane generation at landfills and reducing the need for fossil fuel based electricity. Furthermore, the prudent management of litter and debris in public areas, such as streets, parks and commercial nodes, will reduce the negative environmental impact on receiving watercourses and biodiversity, as well as increase the surrounding amenity of these areas.

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

DEVELOPMENT PLAN

ENABLING INSTITUTIONAL INTERVENTIONS COMMUNICATION, POLICY, PARTNERSHIP INCENTIVES & ENGAGEMENT & GUIDELINES

BYLAWS & ZONING SCHEME AMENDMENTS

DESCRIPTION

• Public awareness programme to encourage reduce, reuse and recycle. • Education w.r.t recyclables and organics that would go into 2/3 bag system. • E-waste collection programmes to promote diversion from landfill.

• Waste diversion from landfill policy

Rezoning for Integrated Waste Management Facility

DURATION

Long-term (+10 yrs)

Medium-term (+5 yrs)

Medium-term (+5 yrs)

APPROX. BUDGET

R25k (annually)

R50k

R5k (annually)

FUNDING SOURCE

GKM

GKM

GKM

Matrix.15.

PROGRAMME 6: ENABLING INSTITUTIONAL INTERVENTIONS


PRIORITY PROJECT

PRIORITY PROJECT

KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

PROJECT NAME

A) PILOT RECYCLING PROGRAMME

B1) IWF: MATERIALS RECOVERY FACILITY (MRF)

B2) IWF: WASTE EXCHANGE FACILITY

B3) IWF: REGIONAL BIO-SOLIDS PROCESSING PLANT

B4) IWF: REGIONAL COMPOSTING PLANT

B5) IWF: HAZARDOUS WASTE FACILITY

C) TOWN-WIDE WASTE CHARACTERISATION

PROJECT DESCRIPTION

Pilot recycling project – using existing waste pickers

A regional facility that sorts, compacts and distributes recyclable materials collected through various means from the town

The Waste Exchange Facility or Swap Mall will facilitate the exchange of ‘unwanted goods’, and reusable materials.

Anaerobic digester for industrial and (potentially) domestic organic waste and sewage sludge, with the potential to harvest biogas and generate electrical energy or fire boilers to improve AD process.

A regional composting plant will facilitate the composting of most organic substances from the town, especially garden wastes.

Hazardous waste dropoff and storage could be coupled with the prospective MRF and waste exchange facility to provide an integrated waste handling facility for Kokstad.

Evaluation of existing waste streams to identify opportunities for processing/re-use etc. (business, industry, agriculture, etc.).

The Regional Bio-Solids Processing Plant will be located at the proposed Integrated Waste Facility (IWF).

The Regional Composting Plant will be located at the proposed Integrated Waste Facility (IWF).

Recycling project: 2 bag/ 3 bag system.

The Waste Exchange Integrated with the ‘Pilot facility will be located at Recycling Programme’ the proposed Integrated and AD, composting and Waste Facility (IWF). hazardous waste facilities. The MRF will be located at the proposed Integrated Waste Facility (IWF).

RELATED PROJECTS

• City-wide Waste Characterisation • Materials recovery Facility (MRF)

PROJECT STAGE

• P&DP: Pilot and/ or Demonstration Projects

IMPLEMENTING AGENT

GKM

A composting plant could be seen as either an alternative or a Integrated with composting supplementary project plant as digestate needs to a regional bio-solids to be processed. processing plant.

The Hazardous Waste Facility will be located at the proposed Integrated Waste Facility (IWF).

A waste characterisation would aid in determining the potential for a pilot recycling programme

• Waste Exchange Facility • Regional Bio-Solids Processing Plant • Regional Composting Plant • Hazardous Waste Facility

• Materials Recovery Facility (MRF) • Regional Bio-Solids Processing Plant • Regional Composting Plant • Hazardous Waste Facility

• Materials Recovery Facility (MRF) • Waste Exchange Facility • Regional Composting Plant • Hazardous Waste Facility

• Materials Recovery Facility (MRF) • Waste Exchange Facility • Regional Bio-Solids Processing Plant • Hazardous Waste Facility

• Materials Recovery Facility (MRF) • Waste Exchange Facility • Regional Bio-Solids Processing Plant • Regional Composting Plant

• Materials Recovery Facility (MRF) • Regional Bio-Solids Processing Plant • Regional Composting Plant • Hazardous Waste Facility

Civil Engineering Consultants

Trade Consultant

Civil Engineering Consultants

Civil Engineering Consultants

Civil & Environmental Engineering Consultants

GKM

PROJECT OWNER GKM/PPP

GKM/PPP

Private owner

GKM/PPP

GKM/PPP

GKM/PPP

GKM

PROJECT DURATION PRECONDITIONS

Short term

Short term

Short term

Medium term

Short term

Short term

Short term

• Municipal capacity assessment. • Land/space for collection and sorting

• Reconsider location of proposed landfill – taking into account proximity of MRF. • Waste Licence.

• Venue for the swap mall. • Sponsorship

• Identification of a significant source of industrial organic waste. • Waste Licence.

• Allocation of space. • Waste Licence.

• Allocation of space. • Waste Licence.

• Status quo assessments (private waste and recycling figures).

APPROXIMATE BUDGET

±R50k (capex)

±R5mil (capex)

±R2mil (capex)

±R20mil (capex)

±R2mil (capex)

±R1mil (capex)

±R30k (capex)

FUNDING SOURCE

GKM (using existing stipend)

MIG

Privately funded – IDEAS fund

Green Fund/MIG

MIG

GKM

GKM

Matrix.16.

• PDP: Project Development Phase • P&DP: Pilot and/ or Demonstration Projects • PIP: Project Implementation Phase

• P&DP: Pilot and/ or Demonstration Projects • PIP: Project Implementation Phase

• PDP: Project Development Phase • P&DP: Pilot and/ or Demonstration Projects • PIP: Project Implementation Phase

• PDP: Project Development Phase • P&DP: Pilot and/ or Demonstration Projects • PIP: Project Implementation Phase

• PDP: Project Development Phase • P&DP: Pilot and/ or Demonstration Projects • PIP: Project Implementation Phase

• P&DP: Pilot and/ or Demonstration Projects

PROGRAMME 6: INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012

111


AGRICULTURE

NATURAL RESOURCES

INFRASTRUCTURE

TOWN

CROSSROADS

ENABLING INSTITUTIONS

112

STRATEGY

PROGRAMME 7: WATER CYCLE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME One of the potential constraints on the sustainable development of Kokstad and Franklin will be the availability of water to support the growth of urban population and business. In order to grow sustainably, Kokstad and Franklin are going to have to manage their water resources by adopting the principles of the waste management hierarchy, where water wastage is completely eliminated. According to the hierarchy water is then reused, then water is recycled and only as a last resort is water disposed of (into a natural watercourse). Therefore, this programme proposes projects whereby potable water supply, wastewater treatment and stormwater are managed in an integrated manner. Understanding the integration of these fundamental water services is essential in ensuring their long-term use and sustainability. The 21st Century has presented a move from ‘hard’ infrastructural development to more natural, ‘soft’ interventions, which is have a pronounced effect on the urban water cycle. Hardened surfaces typically result in increased stormwater runoff peaks and flooding. High runoff velocities have a destructive effect on the tidal and riparian zones of natural watercourses, which in turn results in poorer quality water resources for potable extraction purposes. The leaking of sewerage infrastructure is also inextricably linked to the deterioration of natural watercourse and potable water resources. Therefore, it makes economic, social and environmental sense to seek more natural, sustainable means of managing the natural water resources within urban developments. The programme is in line with Water Conservation and Demand Management National Strategy and the Strategic Framework for Water services which deals with the efficient use of water by institutions and users of water in South Africa. The National Sanitation Policy sets out that sanitation systems should not DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

DEVELOPMENT PLAN

negatively impact the environment, be financially sustainable and should be equitable. In addition, other national policies advocate that developers should minimise the impact of stormwater runoff on downstream environments by detaining and treating SW before it leaves ones site. It is critical that water is seen as a valuable resource, and that municipalities and residents are collective stewards in managing it. The ‘Water Cycle Management Programme’ thus recommends projects in the following areas: •

Water demand management;

Wastewater reuse;

Water loss management;

Passive wastewater treatment;

Pre-treatment of wastewater with combined energy generation;

Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS).

It is critical that the proposed integration of water services receives full institutional support from the local municipality. This includes the drafting of enabling policies to support and regulate the implementation and management of sustainable water use interventions. Policies should in turn be supported by several development guidelines that clearly indicate the most appropriate interventions and technologies to be used. Guidelines should be drafted by drawing from national and international guidelines and successful applications, i.e. case studies, research, etc. The projects in this programme have a strong link with the ‘Integrate Waste Management Programme’ and the ‘Renewable Energy Programme’. Water and a number of the water services components are key drivers in the functionality of the two other abovementioned infrastructure programmes. Water essentially drives the waste-to-energy process as well as aids in the proposed composting project and a whole host of proposed small energy interventions.

DESCRIPTION

ENABLING INSTITUTIONAL INTERVENTIONS COMMUNICATION, POLICY, PARTNERSHIP INCENTIVES & ENGAGEMENT & GUIDELINES

BYLAWS & ZONING SCHEME AMENDMENTS

Education and 1. Policies: awareness project – water cycle and scarcity. • SW management policy

Possible rezoning required for SuDS schemes (public open spaces/parks)

Acceptable water use 2. Incentives: practices at a household • Grey-water level. recycling • rainwater harvesting • reduced water use • water demand management strategy

DURATION

Long-term (+10 yrs)

Medium-term (+5 yrs)

Medium-term (+5 yrs)

APPROX. BUDGET

R25k (annually)

R50k

R5k (annually)

FUNDING SOURCE

Sisonke/GKM

Water Research Commission of South Africa (WRC)

GKM

Matrix.17.

PROGRAMME 7: ENABLING INSTITUTIONAL INTERVENTIONS


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

PRIORITY PROJECT

PRIORITY PROJECT

PRIORITY PROJECT

PROJECT NAME

A) SUDS ROLL-OUT & SUBSIDISING PROJECTS

B1) WASTE WATER TREATMENT: SEWAGE PRETREATMENT

B2) WASTE WATER TREATMENT: CONSTRUCTED WETLAND

B3) WASTE WATER TREATMENT: TREATED EFFLUENT REUSE

C) WATER EFFICIENCY CAMPAIGN

D) FIXING LEAKS IN SHAYAMOYA TOWNSHIP

PROJECT DESCRIPTION

Apply strategic SuDS controls at source, local and regional levels, to mimic the natural hydrological conditions.

Incentive project to promote local pre-treatment of sewage in residential clusters or at institutions. Pre-treatment would involve small scale anaerobic digesters that could generate electricity by way of the combustion of biogas.

Re-use of treated effluent to water golf course and other park spaces which currently account for a large portion of the total potable water supply.

Distribution of water saving appliances by local authority to small and medium scale consumers.

SuDS provides stormwater runoff quantity, quality, amenity and biodiversity benefits that supersedes those of conventional systems.

Initiate a 7-8ha constructed wetland west of existing WWTW, to treat sewage over flows, particularly during peak rainfall conditions. The wetland will also serve to increase capacity of WWTW to offset future expansion, as well as increase the amenity and biodiversity in the immediate and surrounding areas.

This project includes a series of bulk effluent lines and associated pumps from the wastewater treatment works.

Installation of pressure reducing valves, repair of leaks and watermain refurbishment, to reduce the magnitude of leakage into the underlying water table.

SuDS also allows for increased rainwater use which is likely to decrease potable water consumption throughout the city.

This must be coupled with public participation drives to promote acceptable water use practices at a household level.

This must be performed in conjunction with a project to identify and remove illegal watermain connections, which typically result in large water loses.

RELATED PROJECTS

• Waste Water Treatment: Constructed Wetland

• IWF: Regional Bio-Solids Processing Plant

• SuDS Roll-out and Subsidising Projects

• Water Efficiency Campaign

• Waste Water Treatment: Treated Effluent Reuse • Fixing leaks in Shayamoya Township

• Water Efficiency Campaign

PROJECT STAGE

• PDP: Project Development Phase • P&DP: Pilot and/or Demonstration Projects • PIP: Project Implementation Phase

• PDP: Project Development Phase • P&DP: Pilot and/or Demonstration Projects • PIP: Project Implementation Phase

• PDP: Project Development Phase • PIP: Project Implementation Phase

• PIP: Project Implementation Phase

• PDP: Project Development Phase • P&DP: Pilot and/or Demonstration Projects • PIP: Project Implementation Phase

• PIP: Project Implementation Phase

IMPLEMENTING AGENT

Civil & Environmental Engineering Consultants

Civil Engineering Consultants

Civil & Environmental Engineering Consultants

Civil Engineering Consultants

GKM with public participation consultants

Civil Engineering Consultants

PROJECT OWNER GKM/PPP

GKM/General public

GKM

GKM/PPP (golf course owners) GKM

GKM

PROJECT DURATION

Medium term

Medium term

Short Term

Short term

Medium term

Short term

PRECONDITIONS

• Assess extent of greenfields vs. retrofit space requirements.

• Assess space requirements and end use biogas.

• When additional WWT capacity is required.

• Assessment and confirmation of golf course water demand.

• Water use issue must be identifies and targeted throughout the campaign.

• Identification of illegal connection onto bulk and feeder water mains.

APPROXIMATE BUDGET (OPEX PER ANNUM)

±R20mil (capex)

±R10mil (capex)

±R15mil (capex)

±R3mil (capex)

±R5mil (capex)

±R7.5mil (capex)

±R1mil (opex)

±R250k (opex)

±R1.5mil (opex)

±R500k (opex)

FUNDING SOURCE

MIG

UISP/IRDP

MIG/GKM

MIG/Sisonke

Sisonke/GKM

Sisonke/MIG

Matrix.18.

PROGRAMME 7: WATER CYCLE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012

113


TOWN

CROSSROADS

ENABLING INSTITUTIONS

114

STRATEGY

The goal of the ‘Renewable Energy Programme’ is to develop sustainable energy infrastructure that improves the quality of local energy and electricity supplies, and simultaneously reduces local carbon emissions, while reducing reliance on outside energy and electricity sources. The programme aims to promote and increase local electrical energy generation capacity, and to take advantage of the associated benefits including the creation of local revenue streams, the creation of businesses and services in the energy sector, and related skills and jobs. The energy programme will be rooted in the following policy frameworks, but will aim to make Kokstad and Franklin leaders in local and municipal sustainable energy strategy by going beyond the national norms and standards:

NATURAL RESOURCES

INFRASTRUCTURE

AGRICULTURE

Specific regulations at municipal level are in a state of flux as small and large scale IPPs emerge.

PROGRAMME 8: ENERGY PROGRAMME

The National Environmental Management Act (NEMA) No. 107 of 1998: NEMA prescribes environmental protection principles, which allow municipalities to make conscious choices to engage in the development of energy efficiency and renewable energy projects and initiatives. White Paper on Renewable Energy of 2003: The White Paper outlines South Africa’s broader renewable energy goals and sets targets for national installed renewable energy capacities. The industry has changed significantly since its release, and the document should serve to provide a background on national renewable energy policy, rather than a guideline for specific local initiatives in Kokstad and Franklin. Amended Electricity Regulation Act of 2006: The amended electricity act makes specific reference to the need to use more diversified energy sources for the generation of electricity in South Africa. Energy regulations on new generation capacity (2009): Energy regulations on new generating capacity outline the regulations for entry into the electricity market of independent power producers (IPP).

New Growth Path (2010): The new growth path sets ambitious targets for job creation in the future through a variety of identified industries, one of which is the ‘green’ industry sector. Integrated Resource Plan (IRP) of 2010: The IRP makes projections on expected national energy and electricity demand and sets targets for capacities of various energy technologies, including renewables.

The long-term resilience of sustainable energy infrastructure delivery and maintenance will require developers to meet the following objectives: •

A diversity of supply and a reduction in a reliance on external suppliers;

Developing local skills and capacity, with a focus on leveraging the national imperative of building a green economy (Green Economy Accord, 2011);

A balance between infrastructure roll-out and sustainable growth; and

Fostering a culture of innovation, discovered through entrepreneurial micro-enterprise in the service delivery sector;

Local production and manufacture of components and products used in the local energy sector, including structural, mechanical and electrical systems.

It is critical that the proposed renewable energy programme has full institutional support from the local municipality and the relevant stakeholders. This includes the drafting of enabling policies to support the implementation and management of small- and large-scale renewable energy interventions. Policies should in turn be supported by several development guidelines that clearly indicate the most appropriate interventions and technologies to be utilised. Guidelines should be drafted by drawing from national and international guidelines and successful applications, i.e. case studies, research, etc. The projects in this programme also have a strong link with the ‘Water Cycle Management Programme’ and the ‘Integrated Waste Management Programme’, as should be integrate into the planning of each.

ENABLING INSTITUTIONAL INTERVENTIONS COMMUNICATION, POLICY, PARTNERSHIP INCENTIVES & ENGAGEMENT & GUIDELINES

Indicators of an emerging green economy with regards to the production and maintenance of sustainable service systems will include: •

Reaching specific energy efficiency and targets across the full range of domestic, commercial and industrial energy users;

Reaching specific renewable energy targets defined for a range of technologies, at the unit, neighbourhood and town scale;

Reaching specific targets for energy production from various waste-types, including municipal, agricultural, and industrial waste products;

Establishment of industrial ecologies (colocation of complementary industries such that one’s waste is the other’s “food”); and

DESCRIPTION

Public awareness campaign – increasing efficiency and reducing use

DURATION

Short term

b. Institutions Short term

APPROX. BUDGET

R5M

R1M

BYLAWS & ZONING SCHEME AMENDMENTS

Establish policies and regulations to incentivise to reduce electricity consumption and to use renewable energy: a. Household

FUNDING SOURCE

Matrix.19. DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

DEVELOPMENT PLAN

PROGRAMME 8: ENABLING INSTITUTIONAL INTERVENTIONS

Short term


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

PRIORITY PROJECT

PROJECT NAME

A) ENERGY EFFICIENCY RETROFIT PROJECT (GREEN ECONOMY)

B) BIOMASS POWER CO-GENERATION

C) SOLAR POWER (ROOFS)

D) SOLAR POWER (FARM)

E) BIOGAS POWER CO-GENERATION

PROJECT DESCRIPTION

Develop a retrofit project that pilots in all schools, public spaces and buildings and selected residential areas (possibly linked to the MicroUtility Project).

Franklin off-grid: • Biomass power, Co-generation at Franklin sawmill

Incentive scheme OR roof leasing for electricity production (PVs)

10MW solar electricity farm (PV)

Off-grid biogas power. Co-generation at local dairy

Retrofit mechanisms may include ceilings, insulation, sunscreens, larger windows on north elevations, energy efficient fittings and so on.

RELATED PROJECTS

• Develop this project in conjunction with the Kokstad Green Building Skills Development programme, the Kokstad Green Building Network and the “Kokstad Brand”.

PROJECT STAGE

• PDP: Project Development Phase

• PIP: Project Implementation Phase

• P&DP: Pilot and/or Demonstration Projects

• PIP: Project Implementation Phase

• P&DP

IMPLEMENTING AGENT

GKM

Private

Greater Kokstad Municipality and/or Private

Greater Kokstad Municipality and/or Private

Private

To be allocated at a later date.

To be allocated at a later date.

To be allocated at a later date.

To be allocated at a later date.

Medium term

Medium term

Long term

Short term

R2m

R10m

R150m

R1m – R5m

IDC/DBSA

IDC/ DBSA

IDC/ DBSA

IDC/DBSA

PROJECT OWNER PROJECT DURATION

1 year to pilot in a few schools and residential areas in Kokstad 5 years to roll out across town

PRECONDITIONS

APPROXIMATE BUDGET FUNDING SOURCE

Matrix.20.

Green Economy

PROGRAMME 8: ENERGY PROGRAMME FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012

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NATURAL RESOURCES

CROSSROADS

ENABLING INSTITUTIONS

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Number of square metres of public managed park space per person

Number of hectares of protected biodiversity areas in GKM

Condition of wetlands / rivers / grasslands

Value / desirability of properties facing onto public open spaces

Number of households in the survey area that make use of public parks and playgrounds

AGRICULTURE

NATURAL NATURAL RESOURCES

INFRASTRUCTURE

TOWN

INDICATORS

DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

STATUS QUO Kokstad lies in a unique and attractive natural landscape with abundant natural resources. However, these are under threat from pollution, over extraction of water, erosion, land-use change and climate change.

WHAT COULD FUTURE KOKSTAD LOOK LIKE? Future sustainable Kokstad and Franklin protect and appreciate the functional, cultural, spiritual and economic value of the natural landscape. The many crucial roles of natural resources are maintained and enhanced through responsible management and protection. The towns do not use more than can be regenerated, and wilderness areas that serve the needs of their communities have been recreated.


117

9.5. NATURAL RESOURCES 9.5.1. POLICY ALIGNMENT The National Environment Management: Biodiversity Act (2004) makes provision for the determination of critical biodiversity areas which need to be maintained in a natural state, firstly to ensure the continued existence and function of particular species and ecosystems and secondly to maintain supply of ecosystem s,ervices. The Act also makes provision for the determination of critical ecological support areas, which are areas that are not essential for meeting conservation targets, but which play an important role in supporting socio-economic development through ecosystem services, such as water provision, flood mitigation or carbon sequestration. The National Spatial Planning and Land Use Bill (2012) requires that plans: •

ensure that special consideration is given to the protection of prime and unique agricultural land;

uphold consistency of land use measures in accordance with environmental management instruments;

promote land development in locations that are sustainable and limit urban sprawl.

% improvement in green drop status.

% increase in volume of solid waste recycled.

Increased commitment to recycling supported by appropriate systems

The GKM SDF Review 2011/12 seeks to •

Optimise the use of existing resources including those related to agriculture, land, minerals, bulk infrastructure, roads, transportation and social facilities.

Discourage the phenomenon of urban sprawl in urban areas and contribute to the development of more compact towns and cities.

Encourage environmentally sustainable land development practices and processes.

Promote the sustained protection of the environment; meet the basic needs of all citizens in an affordable way; and ensure the safe utilization of land by taking into consideration environmental constraints.

The KwaZulu-Natal Department of Human Settlements Strategic Plan (2011/12 to 2015/16) states that it is important to manage development pressures in agricultural areas to ensure conservation of high value agricultural land.

There are also several pieces of legislation and policies that acknowledge that the supply of ecosystem services is a function of the condition of natural ecosystems. There are therefore acts and policies which seek to minimise the impacts of threatening processes on biodiversity in order to enhance the supply of ecosystem services. This includes for example the National Water Act (1998), Conservation of Agricultural Resources Act (1983), and NEMA (1998). Furthermore, this is one of the five strategic objectives of the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (2006).

The 2011 KwaZulu-Natal Provincial Growth and Development Strategy (KZN PGDS) focuses on increased use of productive land, alternative energy generation, and the management of pressures on biodiversity and water resources. It recognises the intensifying competition for limited water resources and requires that catchment and river management form part of all land use management schemes, and promotes local water harvesting. In addition, Strategic Objective 5.3 identifies the following indicators for measuring success around biodiversity protection:

There are also policies which seek to improve the condition of natural ecosystems in order to enhance the supply of ecosystem services. This includes for example the National Framework for Sustainable Development (2008), National Strategy on Sustainable Development and Action Plan (2010), New Growth Path (2010), and Green Accord (2011). These policies support the implementation of labourintensive programmes, such as Working for Water, Working for Wetlands, and the Landcare Programme, which benefit the environment, while creating much-needed jobs.

% improvement in biodiversity index.

% improvement in Blue Drop status.

“Everyone has the right to a healthy environment” the Constitution “Value our ecosystem services” MSA “Development must be socially, environmentally and economically sustainable” NEMA “Environmental justice must be pursued” NEMA “Protect critical biodiversity” NEMA “Everyone has the right to have the environment protected, for the benefit of present and future generations” the Constitution “Equitable access to environmental resources” NEMA

“Since the 90s, the parks encouraged tourists to stay longer in Curitiba - before it was just a overnight stop between North and South. After, tourists spent on average three nights instead of just one.” - Angela Bertolini (An Inconvenient Truth). Curitiba had a problem with low-income and informal housing located in floodplains. Unable to implement expensive engineering solutions, an alternative strategy was attempted - relocating all the homes in flood-prone areas and turning the land into seasonal parks that flood over rainy periods while keeping natural ecosystems intact. This turned flooding from the city’s largest problem to its biggest asset, with per-capita green space shifting from 0.5 m2 to 55 m2; an asset protected and maintained by a combination of municipal agencies and community organizations, and with a multiplier effect throughout all spheres social, environmental, financial, and even economic. Curitiba’s policy of using floodplains as parks - and their creative solutions for managing parks on light budgets - mean that Curitiba residents have access to some of the most extensive and highest quality urban green space networks in the world - not bad for a small city in a developing country!

Photo 22. BARIQUI PARK IN CURITIBA

FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012


STRATEGY

9.5.2. STRATEGY The following pages define and illustrate the strategies that have informed the formulation of the ISDP in terms of this story. These strategies should also guide the decision-making process in terms of other statutory plans (like the IDP and SDF) and should guide decision-making in the execution of the ISDP.

DEVELOPMENT PLAN

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

STATUS QUO 1 Existing ecosystems and natural resources are undervalued and insufficiently cared for.

STRATEGY 1 Connect, integrate and rehabilitate special places and natural corridors to create an intact, functional and flourishing natural system.

Photo 23. GRASSLANDS, KOKSTAD

Fig 86. BIODIVERSITY CORRIDORS

Fig 85. NATURAL RESOURCES/STATUS QUO/ ECOSYSTEMS

Fig 87. NATURAL RESOURCES/STRATEGY/ ECOSYSTEMS

AGRICULTURE

NATURAL NATURAL RESOURCES

INFRASTRUCTURE

TOWN

CROSSROADS

ENABLING INSTITUTIONS

118

DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

STATUS QUO 2 The town and its inhabitants impact on the natural environment far beyond the urban edge.

STRATEGY 2 Develop responsibly so as to contain the impacts of development and land use change and protect natural assets.

STATUS QUO 3 The open space running through and around town is unmanaged and uncared for, while the interface between the urban and the rural is negative.

STRATEGY 3 Protect and enhance unique natural features; integrate Kokstad around a new multi-functional ‘green heart’.

Photo 25. STORMWATER POLLUTION

Photo 24. POSITIVE INTERFACE WITH EDGE

Photo 26. UNMANAGED OPEN SPACE

Photo 27. POSITIVE OPEN SPACE

Fig 88. NATURAL RESOURCES/STATUS QUO/ POLLUTION

Fig 89. NATURAL RESOURCES / STRATEGY / POLLUTION

Fig 90. NATURAL RESOURCES / STATUS QUO / OPEN SPACE

Fig 91. NATURAL RESOURCES / STRATEGY /OPEN SPACE

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DEVELOPMENT PLAN DEVELOPMENT PLAN

STRATEGY

NATURAL RESOURCES I: ECOSYSTEM SERVICES In 2040, Kokstad and Franklin protect and appreciate the functional, cultural, spiritual and economic value of the natural landscape. The towns do not use more than can be regenerated, and wilderness areas that serve the needs of their communities have been rehabilitated.

INFRASTRUCTURE

These are key natural resource areas that should be protected and, where possible, rehabilitated and restored. These include highpotential biodiversity areas such as wetlands and intact grasslands, areas of high-value ecosystem services, and biodiversity/climate change corridors.

Protect critical biodiversity areas and connect them through a network of ecological corridors

R6

17

FRANKLIN

Fig 92. NATURAL RESOURCES - FRANKLIN

NON-DEVELOPABLE AREAS

R6

17

These are areas where development is inappropriate – steep slopes, viewpoints or view corridors, hilltops, valuable agricultural land and culturally significant landscapes.

Declare protective buffers around rivers

SHAYAMOYA

MZINTLAVA RIVER

AGRICULTURAL / RURAL DEVELOPMENT AREAS These are areas where ecosystem services are lower or can be maintained despite a light development footprint. Periurban/agricultural small-holding development is proposed within these areas. Typologies for these areas are explored under the Agriculture Story.

EXTENSION 7 BAMBAYI

BHONGWENI

6

R5

HORSESHOE

N2

56

Create a buffer at the urban edge with a peri-urban agricultural typology

R

NATURAL NATURAL RESOURCES

KOKSTAD CENTRAL

Wilderness / biodiversity areas

AGRICULTURE

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

CONSERVATION CORRIDORS AND PROTECTED AREAS

TOWN

CROSSROADS

ENABLING INSTITUTIONS

120

Non-Developable Areas Agricultural Typologies Urban edge

Fig 93. NATURAL RESOURCES- KOKSTAD DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

Don’t build on areas inappropriate for development

Declare an urban 2 will contain edge Nthat and focus all growth over the next 20 years to promote mediumdensity, mixed-used living rather than urban sprawl

PROPOSED URBAN EDGE This is the proposed urban edge beyond which development should not spread. It is informed by the identification of the elements above.


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

9.5.3. DEVELOPMENT PLAN

This section sets out the development plan for the Natural Resources story, as informed by national, provincial and regional policies, and the story strategies.

Balance between recreational space, productive agricultural land and ‘wild areas’.

which are located in a band around Kokstad Town (see the Agriculture Story for more details).

Preservation of large, connected habitat patches, and creation of wild and vegetated buffers to minimize negative effects of urban development on habitats and water

The plan proposes the establishment of a new urban edge, to be informed by the areas identified above as well as the development pressures identified in the other stories, which will give clear guidelines to developers and officials around where development should and should not happen. This proposed edge is a medium-term growth-management edge, that allows substantial space for growth but prevents limitless urban expansion. Growth is encouraged between Bhongweni and Shayamoya, and permissable towards the south and west of the town boundaries. Development should under no circumstances be permitted to leapfrog over this line until all land within the urban edge is developed up to the recommended densities.

The main sub-stories of the Natural Resources story are:

APPROACH

The Plan for Ecosystem Services deals with the designation, protection and management of biodiversity and key ecosystems. It identifies ‘no-go’ areas for development, areas that can tolerate peri-urban/agricultural development and integrated corridors protecting key ecosystem services.

The approach is to connect, integrate and rehabilitate special places and natural corridors to create an intact, functional and flourishing natural system, to develop responsibly so as to contain the impacts of development and land use change and protect natural assets prized by the citizens of the towns, and to protect and enhance unique natural features. Critically, the plan aims to safeguard the functionality of the GKM’s life-supporting ecosystem services (i.e. environmental goods and services), and to ensure development around ecological and social spaces is appropriate and sensitive.

RATIONALE

THE PLAN

The SDF identifies the loss of productive land due to bad land-use management, inappropriate development, land reform and insecure water supplies as key problems.

The plan identifies key natural resource areas that should be protected and, where possible, rehabilitated and restored. These include highpotential biodiversity areas such as wetlands and intact grasslands, areas of high-value ecosystem services, and biodiversity/climate change corridors. The Franklin wetlands, Mount Currie nature reserve, and the Mzintlava river course all fall under this category, as well as the provincially designated climate-change corridors that run to the north and south of Kokstad.

Natural Resources I: Ecosystem Services

Natural Resources II: Public Open Space

9.5.3.1 NATURAL RESOURCES I: ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

This plan aims to enhance the integrity, authenticity and accessibility of the significant farming, ecological, cultural, scenic and rural landscapes and natural resources of Kokstad and Franklin. It provides clarity on what kind of development is appropriate beyond the current settlement footprint, suitable locations where it could take place, and the desirable form and scale of such development. It also demarcates critical biodiversity areas that should be protected at all costs, and offers guidelines for appropriate management of these resources.

PRINCIPLES •

Spatial integration and continuity of urban and local area green systems to support biodiversity and ecological resilience.

It also includes areas where development is inappropriate – steep slopes, viewpoints or view corridors, hilltops, valuable agricultural land and culturally significant landscapes. The hill southwest of Kokstad town is an example, as is the hilltop between Shayamoya and Bhongweni. Finally, ‘compromise’ areas are also demarcated, where ecosystem services are lower or can be maintained despite a light development footprint. Peri-urban/agricultural small-holding development is proposed within these areas,

3.

Develop guidelines for agricultural and urban development to encourage practices that conserve and even rehabilitate natural systems and biodiversity. Develop guidelines for sensitive development in peri-urban/agricultural small-holding areas. These should entail measures for restoring biodiversity and ecosystem health as well as building in a way that contributes to the cultural landscape.

4.

Delineate a new urban edge and develop urban edge guidelines. The edge should be made in a strong and coherent way, with a clear division between urban and rural. Interface guidelines – creating a positive edge around town and facing on the public open space within town – are of key concern. The built edge should not present the rear and/or sides of developments onto scenic routes, rather fronts with public access routes and associated landscaping.

KEY PROPOSALS 1.

Develop a GKM Biodiversity Sector Plan to ensure that the municipality’s biodiversity assets are appropriately managed and protected. The Biodiversity Sector Plan should provide a synthesis of prioritised information to planners, land-use managers, and farmers, thereby enabling the integration of biodiversity planning into landuse planning and decision-making (LUPDM) and farming. The overall aim is to minimise the loss of natural habitat in Critical Biodiversity Areas (CBA) and prevent the degradation of Ecological Support Areas (ESA), while encouraging sustainable development in other natural areas. The broad objective is to ensure appropriate land-use for the best possible sustainable benefits and to promote integrated management of natural resources.

2.

Proactively conserve and rehabilitate land types that provide essential ecosystem services to the inhabitants of Kokstad and Franklin. Utilise government programmes like Working for Water, Working for Wetlands and Working for Fire to rehabilitate and restore critical ecosystems for maximum services benefit.

Fig 94. CONSERVATION CORRIDORS AND PROTECTED AREAS

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STRATEGY

DEVELOPMENT PLAN DEVELOPMENT PLAN

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY PLANNING GUIDELINES These are some key design and planning principles for combating landscape and ecosystem fragmentation and degradation that should guide development and land-use changes across the GKM. By using these three elements patches, corridors and matrices - these principles allow for the integration of nature and humans in a way that is sustaining to both. To protect its extraordinary natural resources and landscape, the GKM should develop a landscape ecology/biodiversity sector plan to carefully manage and guide all kinds of development including managing agricultural land - throughout the region. The guidelines on this page capture some of the key principles of landscape ecology planning.

SELECT PATCHES FOR CONSERVATION The selection of patches for conservation should be based on their 1) contribution to the overall system, i.e. how well the location of a patch relates or links to other patches within the region; and 2) unusual or distinctive characteristics, e.g. whether a patch has any rare, threatened or endemic species present. Using well-chosen patches increases species’ chances for survival.

BUNDLE ROADS, RAIL, AND SERVICE CORRIDORS TOGETHER TO MINIMISE DISRUPTION TO THE LANDSCAPE Road, railroad and powerline corridors tend to be relatively straight, and subject to regular human disturbance. Therefore, they often serve as barriers that subdivide populations of species, and sources of erosion, sedimentation, exotic species, and human effects on the matrix. Upgrading existing roads should be prioritised over building new roads.

CREATE PATCHES WITH ECOLOGICALLY OPTIMUM SHAPE An ecologically optimum patch provides several ecological benefits, and is generally ‘space-ship’ shaped, with a rounded core for protection of resources, plus some curvilinear boundaries and a few fingers for species dispersal.

AGRICULTURE

NATURAL NATURAL RESOURCES

INFRASTRUCTURE

TOWN

CROSSROADS

ENABLING INSTITUTIONS

122

ENSURE GAPS IN CORRIDORS DO NOT BECOME BARRIERS TO SPECIES MOVEMENT The effect of a gap in a corridor on movement of a species depends on length of the gap relative to the scale of species movement, and contrast between the corridor and the gap.

Adapted from Dramstad, Olson, & Forman (1996), Landscape ecology principles in landscape architecture and land-use planning. DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

ENSURE STEPPING STONE CONNECTIVITY

MAINTAIN CORRIDOR WIDTH FOR A RIVER

A row of ‘stepping stones’ (small patches) is intermediate in connectivity between a corridor and no corridor, and hence intermediate in providing for movement of interior species between patches.

To maintain natural processes, a river corridor should maintain an undisturbed border on both sides, as a safe corridor for species to travel along. In addition, maintaining at least a ladderpattern of large patches crossing the floodplain provides a hydrological sponge, traps sediment during floods, and provides soil organic matter for the aquatic food chain, logs for fish habitat, and habitats for floodplain species.


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

URBAN EDGE GUIDELINES

GG

The following issues, criteria and factors should be used as informants when determining the urban edge:

Higher order roads, access routes and transport infrastructure;

GG

Availability of developable land in urban area;

GG

Growth requirements;

GG

Visual impact;

GG

Cultural/heritage resource areas;

GG

Ownership of land and existing land use;

GG

Urban agriculture and small scale farming

GG

Bio-regional spatial planning categories (core and buffer); and

GG

Density policy for residential development.

GG

Prominent landform and character areas;

GG

Valuable soils;

GG

Ecological resources;

GG

Protected areas;

GG

High intensity /potential agricultural resources;

GG

Services infrastructure;

GG

Vacant/under-utilised land in urban area;

EXCLUDE POTENTIALLY VALUABLE AGRICULTURAL AND OTHER RESOURCES FROM THE URBAN EDGE: X indicates the high potential land or resources to be conserved, while the * indicates land suitable for development with little or no resource value

USE OF URBAN EDGES FOR URBAN RESTRUCTURING: Use edges to integrate segregated neighbourhoods, rather than individual growth around settlements

USE URBAN EDGES TO PROTECT ENVIRONMENTAL AMENITIES AND PREVENT LINEAR DEVELOPMENT: This illustrates a river, where X indicates the high potential land or resources to be conserved, while the * indicates land suitable for development with little or no resource value

USE URBAN EDGES TO LINE ENVIRONMENTAL FEATURES, NOT ROUND OFF ALONG CADASTRAL LINES: X indicates the high potential land or resources to be conserved, while the * indicates land suitable for development with little or no resource value

CREATE AN ‘EDGE’ WITH THE URBAN EDGE: Don’t block recreational areas and amenities with backyards ; create a positive edge with natural surveillance.

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NATURAL RESOURCES II: PUBLIC OPEN SPACE

17

In 2040, Kokstad has a worldclass multi-purpose park that attracts locals and visitors.

17

Implement a Kokstad and Franklin EcoSchools programme to develop environmental awareness in children and to encourage schools to participate in the management and development of the Kokstad Park.

R6

TOWN

New park at the entrance to Franklin from the Rail Trail.

FRANKLIN

Fig 95. NATURAL RESOURCES - FRANKLIN

Develop a multi-purpose park to establish a new green heart for Kokstad, linking communities and providing safe, exciting and active sporting, recreation, entertainment and productive spaces, as well as a haven for biodiversity. EXTENSION 7

BAMBAYI

JA ROAD

GCADIN

W

T

EE

TR

S ER

T

EE

TR

S ER

RK

BA

ET

RE

ET

RE ST

ST

R

PE

TH

56

IN

UE

N VE EA

MA

Golf course

MZINTLAVA RIVER

HO

INFRASTRUCTURE

A multi-purpose that will incorporate a broad variety of uses to ensure that it is used throughout the day and the year. The ‘Green Heart Park’ is conceptualised as a safe, carefully managed and beautiful park.

R6

DO

PASSIVE OPEN SPACE These are areas that are not formally designated nor maintained as parks, but are publicly accessible through walking and/or biking trails, and are maintained at a basic level through rubbish removal, eradication of alien species, etc., but not fully serviced such as a formal park might be.

Soccer, tennis, rugby, netball, basketball. Maintain views to prominent hills and landforms.

HORSESHOE

BHONGWENI

MULTI-PURPOSE SPORT CENTRE These are community sports complexes catering to a range of different ages and abilities in a range of different kinds of sports. Children in the community are provided with a safe environment in which to learn, interact and play with others, and are encouraged to be involved in organised sporting activities.

KOKSTAD CENTRAL

Rugby, soccer, tennis.

NEIGHBOURHOOD ACTIVITY NODES: PARK AND PLAYGROUND COMPONENTS

Parks Passive open space Multi-Purpose Sports Precinct

Biodiversity Areas Green Streets The Rail Trail

Fig 96. NATURAL RESOURCES- KOKSTAD DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

56

Proposed/Existing Sportsfield

R

Neighbourhood activity node - park / playground component

AGRICULTURE

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

MULTI-PURPOSE PARK

SHAYAMOYA

NATURAL NATURAL RESOURCES

DEVELOPMENT PLAN DEVELOPMENT PLAN

STRATEGY

CROSSROADS

ENABLING INSTITUTIONS

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N2

Parks and playgrounds are located near neighbourhood activity nodes, and linked with green streets and pedestrian and cycling facilities.


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

9.5.3.2 NATURAL RESOURCES II: THE PARK

promote economic integration and create jobs and livelihoods.

The plan proposes a framework for the development and management of a public open space system that provides equitable access to all.

THE PLAN

RATIONALE The primary goal of the open space plan is to transform an archetypal Apartheid town into a cohesive and integrated community, while filling significant needs for recreation, economic opportunities, and environmental rehabilitation and protection. The lack of entertainment and recreation is one of the key issues identified by stakeholders, this plan aims to create a sterling public open space system that can incorporate the need for many forms of public and social activity, becoming an upliftment programme that targets everyone in Kokstad rather than individual beneficiaries.

The plan proposes a complete overhaul of the public open space system of Kokstad and Franklin. The one important addition is the ‘Green-Heart Park’ running through the centre of Kokstad. This links to the ‘passive’ open space along the Mzintlava river, and incorporates a new multi-purpose sports centre at the iThembalabantu node in Shayamoya. In addition, a network of smaller neighbourhood parks and playgrounds are proposed around neighbourhood activity nodes to ensure a more equitable spread throughout all Kokstad’s communities.

KEY PROPOSALS 1.

PRINCIPLES •

Past injustices and inequitable distribution of land, facilities and amenities should be addressed by ensuring equitable access to high-quality public open space and recreational amenities.

Spatial and social integration of communities and neighbourhoods

Ensuring safety is critical if people are to take ownership of their public space. Designing POS to ensure community surveillance

2.

APPROACH The approach is to use public open space as an integrator, to promote spatial equity and to knit together the fragmented parts of Kokstad around social spaces that are accessible and central to all. In addition, the expansion of economic opportunity around the edges of the public open space system will facilitate and

3.

The plan proposes a new multi-purpose park that integrates Kokstad’s four distinct neighbourhoods – Bhongweni, Shayamoya, Extension 7 and Kokstad Central - around a new ‘green heart’. The ‘Green Heart Park’ is conceptualised as a safe, carefully managed and beautiful park, where land use on the edges of the park attract people and activity (such as shops, restaurants and schools) to ensure that the park feels busy and safe. Residents and land owners are encouraged to retain a positive interface with the park for passive surveillance. (This proposal is unpacked in more detail on the following page). Rehabilitate the old landfill site as a multipurpose sports complex and establish an agency for managing it. Use the smooth and level surface of the capped landfill to construct a variety of sporting facilities, to form an important anchor in the Green Heart Park and to offer top-quality sporting facilities to the communities of Shayamoya and Bhongweni.

Co-ordinate and manage all existing sporting resources and projects (private and public) in Kokstad and Franklin, including the proposed Shayamoya multi-purpose sports centre, to make the most efficient use of fields and facilities, to increase access for previously marginalised groups, and to diversify sport and recreation activities.

Carefully consider opportunities for pooling resources to reduce the need for large capital expenditure, so that money can be spent on proper maintenance and afterschool training programmes centred around existing facilities.

Work closely with the Rail-Trail / Rail-Bike Tourism initiative and the Kokstad-Franklin Triathlon initiative to design sporting events that encourage local participation as well as draw tourists from the wider region.

4.

Develop urban design guidelines that prescribe the interface between private and public space. Develop a boundary wall policy and by-laws to prohibit blank walls and anti-social facades along the edges of public open spaces

5.

Implement a neighbourhood park / playground upgrade. Plan, design and implement development of 17 new parks to ensure that there is a neighbourhood park / play-lot within 400m of all residents:

Shayamoya both wards: 4 Parks

Bhongweni both wards: 4 Parks

Horseshoe: 3 Parks

Extension 7 Entrance: 1 Park

Kokstad Lower Town: 2 Parks

Kokstad CBD: 2 Parks

Kokstad Upper Town: 2 Parks Develop a community-based park management and maintenance programme to ensure parks remain cared for, safe and accessible.

Establish an agency to increase opportunities for Kokstad and Franklin residents to participate in sport and recreation activities. The agency is to:

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DEVELOPMENT PLAN DEVELOPMENT PLAN

STRATEGY

NEIGHBOURHOOD ACTIVITY NODES: PARK COMPONENT

NEIGHBOURHOOD ACTIVITY NODES: PLAYGROUND COMPONENT Sport fields

Biodiversity corridor & park, River & constructed wetlands Creche

Multipurpose hall

CROSSROADS

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

Primary / tertiary education

Nursery

Picnic & passive recreation areas

Public internet & internet information hub

Community kitchen

Play lot

Food market & Public space

Active box

TOWN

Eco-schools programme centre

Playground & outdoor gym

Micro-processing (drying, pickling, brewing, freezing, packing)

Community garden

Recycling collection centre

INFRASTRUCTURE

Skate park

Corner shop

Pocket wetlands

Heath care / refuge / info

AGRICULTURE

NATURAL NATURAL RESOURCES

Recycling drop off point Sustainable stormwater management systems

Fig 97. NEIGHBOURHOOD ACTIVITY NODES: PARK COMPONENT

DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

Seedling nursery

Fig 98. NEIGHBOURHOOD ACTIVITY NODES: PLAYGROUND COMPONENT


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

R617 Sportsfield clusters catering to all kinds of sports and abilities. Schools coordinate their sports programmes to pool resources and offer comprehensive training.

Skatepark and graffiti wall for teenagers

GREEN-HEART PARK

The park should incorporate a broad variety of uses to ensure that it is used throughout the day and the year. Elements to include:

Promoting densification, mixed-use and activity around the edges of the park to promote safety and passive surveillance.

A multi-purpose sports-centre, managed by a community sports agency.

Safe, well lit pathways that accommodate pedestrians, cyclists and skaters;

Pedestrian bridges across the river, at least 3 new ones, mid-way between the existing vehicular connections

Sustainable Drainage Systems along roads, to protect the water quality of streams and ecosystems within the park.

Playgrounds;

Seating;

Picnic and braai facilities – ensure it is a place where families can come on day outings;

Swimming/splash pool – if water quality is sufficiently improved, it could be by forming a natural pool in the river course;

Allotments for urban agriculture;

Special recreation areas such as skate parks, fitness parks, an amphitheatre, etc.;

Biodiversity areas showcasing significant local and endemic species, how to use them in your garden and how to value them;

SHAYAMOYA Agricultural allotments

Biodiversity park areas BHONGWENI Edges are active, with cafes, shops, and multi-storey residential overlooking onto the park, which is in continuous use during the day and well after sunset.

Cafes, kiosks and entertainment venues are spaced throughout the park, ensuring continuous usage throughout the day.

KOKSTAD CENTRAL

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Everyone from all around use the park for a great variety of activities. It has truly become the ‘green heart’ of Kokstad.

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BHONGWENI

Fig 99. THE GREEN-HEART PARK Knits together the fragmented parts of kokstad

Small portions of school sites edging the park could also be incorporated into the park as part of the Eco-Schools Programme, so that each school becomes involved in protecting a biodiversity area, food gardens or food forests.

It is crucial that in addition to the design framework, a public / private / civil partnership is formed to build, manage and maintain the park, to ensure that it meets residents’ needs and is sustainable into the future. The park edges should be defined by active public space gateways that promote passive surveillance and increase safety in the park. At these gateways, public spaces are edged by community facilities and local retail and entertainment centres that also bring vibrancy and safety to the park. Supporting projects that are critical for this:

Pool for hot summers and swimming training

KOKSTAD CENTRAL

Fig 100. WELL-USED URBAN PARK The park will be a highly accessible recreational space for all kokstad residents and visitors.

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STRATEGY

GG

All households should be within 400m of a playground/totlot (CSIR Red Book) and 600m of a park. This is critical for providing children with safe places to play.

GG

Parks and playgrounds should be integrated with neighbourhood activity nodes - this grouping of facilities (including social, education, economic, recreational, agricultural and transport facilities) ensures convenience as well as promotes the sharing of resources.. By locating them at neighbourhood activity nodes, their proximity to schools, creches and other amenities are guaranteed. In addition, the extra activity generated by other activities within the node increases the overall safety and utilisation of these parks.

GG

Neighbourhood parks / play lots should also be accessible from Green Streets, where possible, as these are pedestrian and cyclefriendly streets that even children should be able to move along without danger.

AGRICULTURE

NATURAL RESOURCES

INFRASTRUCTURE

TOWN

DEVELOPMENT PLAN

NEIGHBOURHOOD ACTIVITY NODES: PARKS AND PLAYGROUNDS

CROSSROADS

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DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

Fig 101. NEIGHBOURHOOD ACTIVITY NODE: 3D PERSPECTIVE

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

URVEILLANCE OF OPEN SPACE BOUNDARY LINE GUIDELINES GG

Locate schools and sportsfields along edges with rivers, floodplains, parks and natural features. This ensures they remain publicly accessible and creates a gradual boundary between the urban and the rural/natural landscape.

GG

Create nodes of activity along park edges to maintain a high degree of activity and natural surveillance, thereby securing the site.

GG

Orient residential buildings and place streets so that open spaces are overlooked and not enclosed by the backs of properties and blank walls.

Fig 102. BOUNDARY LINE GUIDELINES Ensure that public open space is under natural surveillance.

Fig 103. BOUNDARY LINE GUIDELINES The interface between the park and urban area should be carefully managed to maximise public access and passive surveillance of the space ( no big walls or fences).

Photo 28. SEA POINT PROMENADE

Photo 29. GRAAFF REINET Use sportsfields and schools to line the urban edge

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STRATEGY

9.5.4. IMPLEMENTATION PLAN The implementation plan for this story has one programmes: •

PROGRAMME 9: OPEN SPACE SERVICES Programme The aim of the Open Space Services Programme is to protect, augment and celebrate existing biodiversity services and open space resources in and around Kokstad and Franklin so that they become real assets and amenities to the people of the towns. The projects identified in the ISDP aim to provide people with a range of green open spaces for sports, play, spiritual recharge and social engagement. The open spaces identified in the Programme also have a strong role to play in providing ecosystem services. The key project featured in this programme has been termed; “The Green Heart Park” which is an integrating and crosscutting project that aims to provide Kokstad with a new heart that connects the currently fragmented settlements of old Kokstad, Bhongweni, Shayamoya and Extension 7. Such a park has the potential to drastically improve the recreational opportunities for local residents and tourists alike and improve the attractiveness of Kokstad as a place to live. Located between the currently separate parts of Kokstad it can become a place that is for all communities, promoting social integration. The park includes a Multi-Purpose Sports Complex that could become the base to expand and develop the strong culture of sport in Kokstad in an inclusive way. The programme proposes that the GKM commits to: •

AGRICULTURE

Open Space Services Programme

Plan, design and implement the Green Heart Park, starting with an overall framework and plan for the Park to be implemented incrementally Develop a new Multi-purpose sports precinct on and around the solid waste dump once this is closed and capped off

DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

Develop a Biodiversity Management plan

Plan, design and implement 17 new neighbourhood parks (this project is already underway)

Establish a representative, community linked sports management body.

Develop the Terms of Reference, mandate and constitution for this body, which should include working with civil society organisations to support well-managed activities in parks, with a focus on children

Facilitate establishment of the Kokstad Community Sports Agency/ Body.

DEVELOPMENT PLAN

This programme is closely aligned to the Sustainable Urban Drainage Project in the Water Cycle Management Programme and these projects must be managed in partnership. The aim is also that the Green Heart Park will also play a key part in attracting youth and business to Kokstad through increasing recreational amenities and the overall attractiveness of the town, thus forming a strong link with the Localised Economy Programme.

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

ENABLING INSTITUTIONAL INTERVENTIONS COMMUNICATION, POLICY, PARTNERSHIP INCENTIVES & ENGAGEMENT & GUIDELINES DESCRIPTION

1. Establish a 1. Delineate a new urban representative, edge. community linked sports 2. Develop guidelines management body. governing the urban a. Develop the Terms of edge and open space Reference, mandate and interface. constitution for this body, 3. Develop guidelines which should include working with civil society for agricultural and organisations to support urban development to well-managed activities encourage practices that in parks, with a focus on protect and reinforce the resilience of natural children systems and increase biodiversity. b. Facilitate establishment of the 4. Develop a GKM Kokstad Community Biodiversity Sector Plan Sports Agency/ Body. including guidelines for integrated management of natural resources. 5. Develop guidelines for appropriate land-use in biodiversity areas

DURATION APPROX. BUDGET FUNDING SOURCE Matrix.21.

PROGRAMME 9: ENABLING INSTITUTIONAL INTERVENTIONS

BYLAWS & ZONING SCHEME AMENDMENTS 1. Develop boundary wall policy and by-laws to prohibit blank walls and anti-social facades along the edges of public open spaces.


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

PRIORITY PROJECT

PRIORITY PROJECT

PROJECT NAME

A1) GREEN HEART PARK: DESIGN AND MANAGEMENT

A2) GREEN HEART PARK: MULTI-PURPOSE SPORTS COMPLEX

A3) GREEN HEART PARK: BIODIVERSITY MANAGEMENT PLAN

B) NEIGHBOURHOOD PARK / PLAYGROUND UPGRADE

PROJECT DESCRIPTION

1. Plan, design and implement the proposed “Green Heart Park” between Kokstad Central, Bhongweni and Shayamoya:

1. Plan, design and implement a new multi-purpose sports complex with indoor and outdoor sport and recreation facilities on rehabilitated, capped landfill (due for decommissioning).

1. Conduct an Environmental Evaluation of the biodiversity potential of the Green Heart Park area

1. Plan, design and implement development of 17 new parks to ensure that there is a neighbourhood park / play-lot within 400m of all residents:

a. Biodiversity areas (90ha) b. Multi-purpose sports precinct c. Playgrounds (4) d. Play park incl. skate park

2. Develop the Terms of Reference, mandate and constitution for a community based sports management body and facilitate it’s establishment

e. Agricultural allotments

a. Identify and map areas for protection, rehabilitation and enhancement (hilltops, wetlands, the river course). b. The design of these areas should take into account the potential for biodiversity areas within the park to be sites of education and sources of information.

a. Shayamoya both wards: 4 Parks b. Bhongweni both wards: 4 Parks c. Horseshoe: 3 Parks d. Extension 7 Entrance: 1 Park e. Kokstad Lower Town: 2 Parks

f. Paths and pedestrian bridges

f. Kokstad CBD: 2 Parks

g. Landscaping and trees

g. Kokstad Upper Town: 2 Parks

2. Develop and implement park management plan

2. Develop a community based park management and maintenance programme

3. Establish Park Management Body RELATED PROJECTS

Sustainable Streets

Kokstad Community Sports Agency

Urban Area Upgrading: Neighbourhood Centres

PROJECT STAGE

PDP: Project Development Phase

PDP: Project Development Phase

PDP: Project Development Phase

1. : Appraisal and defining project scope

PIP: Project Implementation Phase

PIP: Project Implementation Phase

PIP: Project Implementation Phase

2. : Preliminary sketch plan and project scope 3. : Sketch plans and cost estimate 4. : Work documentation and invite bidders 5. : Appointment of service provider and supervision of works

IMPLEMENTING AGENT PROJECT OWNER

GKM: Parks and Gardens

PROJECT DURATION

Planning and design 9 months Implementation: 18 months (including procurement and construction)

PRECONDITIONS

A management agency and maintenance Closure and rehabilitation of the Kokstad Dump budget needs to be in place before construction in terms of NEMA regulations begins.

APPROXIMATE BUDGET

R300 000 for the preparation of the Green Heart Park Development Framework and Guidelines. Total Capital Costs: R191 million

FUNDING SOURCE

DBSA / Dept of Environment Green Fund

Matrix.22.

Working for Water DAFF DBSA

Municipal Budget (this project is already out to tender/ awarded)

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Value of locally produced food sold in a sample of four supermarkets in Rands

Number of locally owned agro-processing businesses registered with the Kokstad Chamber of Commerce

Number of fruit trees in survey area

Value of locally produced food sold in a sample of four supermarkets in Rands

AGRICULTURE

NATURAL RESOURCES

INFRASTRUCTURE

TOWN

INDICATORS

DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

STATUS QUO Kokstad’s economy is primarily agricultural, based on large-scale milk, meat and maize production. There are also many innovative small-scale projects underway. However, agriculture is threatened by climate change, volatile and limited market options, and capacity constraints around labour and skills. This sector is vulnerable to “peak energy” through reliance on distant markets and high input, fossil fuel based farming techniques. The lack of diversity of crop type, scale of operation and participation increases these vulnerabilities, as do the limited options in the current food system. The work creation potential of agri-processing is under-developed.

WHAT COULD FUTURE KOKSTAD LOOK LIKE? Future Kokstad has a resilient, diverse and strong local agricultural economy that offers diverse opportunities for all scales of agricultural enterprises, supported by a strong local food culture, and local agri-processing businesses. The region is a leader in agri-ecological practices.


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9.6. AGRICULTURE 9.6.1. POLICY ALIGNMENT The key policies that inform this plan in terms of agriculture and employment are: •

The New Growth Path (2010)

The Green Economy Accord (2011)

KwaZulu-Natal Provincial Growth and Development Strategy and Plan (2011)

Strategic Plan for South African Agriculture (2001)

The key policies that inform this plan in terms of food security are:

The Integrated Food Security Strategy For South Africa (2002)

The Zero Hunger Programme (in progress)

“Engender a culture of learning and innovation” Strategic Plan for South African Agriculture “Food security is the right to have access to and control over the physical, social and economic means to provide sufficient, safe and nutritious food at all times” Food Security Policy

The Belo-Horizonte Food Programme “To search for solutions to hunger means to act within the principle that the status of a citizen surpasses that of a mere consumer.” City of Belo Horizonte, Brazil

“Engender a culture of learning and innovation” Strategic Plan for South African Agriculture

Photo 30. BELO HORIZONTE VEGETABLE MARKET

GOALS • •

To create new channels of affordable access to healthy food To prioritise local producers in government purchases and selling initiatives to support family-agriculture and local livelihoods To make food programs universally accessible to reduce the stigma of poverty

STRATEGIES / CONCEPTS • •

Integrate logistics and supply chains of the entire food system Tie local producers directly to consumers to reduce food prices and increase sovereignty

FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012


STRATEGY

9.6.2. STRATEGY The following four pages define and illustrate the strategies that have informed the formulation of the ISDP in terms of this story. These strategies should also guide the decision-making process in terms of other statutory plans (like the IDP and SDF) and should guide decision-making in the execution of the ISDP.

DEVELOPMENT PLAN

STATUS QUO 1 Agriculture is dependent on long-haul transport, fertilizers and pesticides, making it vulnerable to oil price increases and energy shocks.

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INFRASTRUCTURE

Photo 31. ARTIFICIAL FERTILISERS AND AGRICULTURAL INPUTS

Fig 104. AGRICULTURE / STATUS QUO / AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES

AGRICULTURE

NATURAL RESOURCES

STRATEGY 1 Innovate around more sustainable production methods to minimise exposure to energy-related supply chain disruption. Incentivise practices that support soil health, water quality and availability and biodiversity.

Photo 32. PERMACULTURE AGRICULTURE, THAILAND DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

Fig 105. AGRICULTURE / STRATEGY / AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

STATUS QUO 2 Food travels far beyond Kokstad for processing and far back again to be sold.

Photo 33. CLOVER MILK TRUCK TAKING MILK TO PIETERMARITZBURG

Fig 106. AGRICULTURE / STATUS QUO / AGRICULTURE SUPPLY CHAINS

STRATEGY 2 Localise and diversify products and processing and foster a sustainable food system that includes a local culture of food.

Photo 34. LOCAL DAIRY, PRINCE ALBERT

Fig 107. AGRICULTURE / STRATEGY / AGRICULTURAL SUPPLY CHAINS

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DEVELOPMENT PLAN

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

TOWN

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STATUS QUO 3 Food is produced at two scales – large commercial farms and backyard gardens. Aspirant smallscale farmers are excluded from the market.

INFRASTRUCTURE

Photo 35. VEGETABLE GARDEN IN KOKSTAD (above), HAZELNUT PLANTATION NEAR FRANKLIN (below)

Fig 108. AGRICULTURE / STATUS QUO / INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS

AGRICULTURE

NATURAL RESOURCES

STRATEGY 3 Diversify scales of production to include small and emerging farmers.

Photo 36. KWAXOLO CHICKEN ABATTOIR

DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

Fig 109. AGRICULTURE / STRATEGY / INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS


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STATUS QUO 4 Labourers and aspirant farmers have little to no access to skills development and training, and existing facilities do not teach necessary business skills.

“A lack of education leads our youth to be farm workers at an early stage of 17 - that is not good. This young guy is a farm worker” - Green Ambassador Blog

STRATEGY 4 Promote and support Kokstad as a regional centre of excellence and innovation, with a strong focus on youth development.

Photo 37. OPPORTUNITY AND UPWARD MOBILITY FOR EMERGING FARMERS FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012


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DEVELOPMENT PLAN DEVELOPMENT PLAN

STRATEGY

AGRICULTURE

A SUITE OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION TYPOLOGIES

In 2040, Kokstad has a resilient, diverse and strong local agricultural economy that offers diverse opportunities for all scales of agricultural enterprises, supported by a vibrant local food system and local agri-processing businesses. The region is a leader in agri-ecological practices.

These include household gardens, communal gardens and allotments, school gardens and woodlots, food forests, land reform collectives, ‘eco-villages’, leased smallholdings and various forms of commonage on state owned land and

R6

17

FRANKLIN

NEIGHBOURHOOD ACTIVITY NODE - AGRICULTURE COMPONENT

Kokstad Agricultural Research Station.

INFRASTRUCTURE

Training courses at the research station.

17

Develop a local food supply chain.

AWARENESS, EDUCATION AND SKILLS DEVELOPMENT

SHAYAMOYA

Training courses MZINTLAVA RIVER at Scientific Routes.

EXTENSION 7

AGRI-ENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT New local agri-enterprises are supported through incubator and accelerator programmes to provide “value-add” to local produce.

BAMBAYI Develop a Kokstad brand.

BHONGWENI

6

R5

HORSESHOE Agrienterprises

KOKSTAD CENTRAL

Agri-enterprises

In addition to the full suite of urban, peri-urban and rural food production and processing, a sustainable food system includes equitable access to nutritious, affordable food and supporting educational programmes.

Develop a Kokstad fresh produce market. 56

Training courses at the FET college.

SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEM

R

NATURAL RESOURCES

A network of training centres, apprenticeships and skills development programmes is consolidated into a “Farming for the Future” College (secondary and tertiary levels) offering world-class accredited training in agro-ecological practices.

Apprenticeship on private farms.

R6

TOWN

KZN Agriculture and Environmental Affairs Conservancy.

These nodes are situated at the entrance points to the town as well as in the different neighbourhoods. They are focal points for civic life, and include a range of agricultural and food security related services, businesses and events.

Fig 110. AGRICULTURE - FRANKLIN

Analyse supply chain vulnerabilities.

Agri-enterprises.

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

N2

Awareness, education and skills development Agricultural production typologies on privately owned land

AGRICULTURE

Agricultural production typologies on state owned land Ecologically sensitive agricultural development in special biodiversity areas Biodiversity area Agri-processing nodes

Fig 111. AGRICULTURE - KOKSTAD DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

Develop a sustainable food system.

KOKSTAD BRAND AND LOCAL MARKETS The Sustainable Kokstad Brand combined with a local food market addresses the need for market outlets for food and other produce that is produces using agro-ecological practices.


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

9.6.3. DEVELOPMENT PLAN This section sets out the development plan for the Agriculture story, as informed by national, provincial and regional policies, and the story strategies. The main sub-stories of the Agriculture story are: •

Agriculture I: Agriculture

9.6.3.1 AGRICULTURE The development plan focuses on building and deepening capacity in one of Kokstad’s current core capacities – agricultural production. It aims to build resilience in the face of impending resource limits and climate change, creating a vibrant and robust local agricultural economy that is linked to the development of an integrated sustainable food system that mitigates against food insecurity and ensures long term food sovereignty.

RATIONALE The agricultural dimensions of Kokstad’s economy are primarily based on large scale milk, meat and maize production. These systems are currently under threat, and are not resilient in the long-term. The area as a whole is vulnerable to climate change, limited and constrained by volatile and limited market options, suffers capacity constraints around labour and skills and is exposed to “peak energy” through reliance on distant markets and high input, fossil fuel based farming techniques. The current lack of diversity of crop type, scale of operation and participation, limited access to land by the urban poor as well as current limited options in the food system increase Kokstad’s exposure. Importantly, the potential of developing a competitive agriprocessing fuelled local economy remains under exploited.

PRINCIPLES •

Promote food security, dignity and an improved quality of life for each rural household (CRDP)

Diversify scales and types of production to include small and emerging farmers, including urban agriculture.

Increase production and the optimal and sustainable use of natural resources including land, grass, trees, water, natural gases, mineral resources, etc. (CRDP).

Establish and strengthen rural livelihoods for vibrant local economic development (CRDP).

Localise and diversify products and processing and foster a sustainable food system, founded on a vibrant local culture of food.

Promote and support Kokstad as a regional centre of excellence and innovation, with a strong focus on youth development.

APPROACH The Comprehensive Rural Development Programme (CRDP) is the basis for the plan’s approach to agriculture. The agricultural dimension of the development plan not encompass an agriculture sector plan, but rather proposes development of state owned land to promote food security and resilience in the face of climate change and projected disruptions to global food supply chains. The plan suggests supporting the NDP’s call for agrarian reform through the adoption of an agroecological approach to the long-term production of food, fuel, fibre and pharmaceuticals. The plan also advocates supporting many forms of agri-enterprise development and growing local capacity in agro-processing, as a key dimension of the local economy. A range of innovative agricultural typologies could be piloted and tested in the areas identified for agrarian reform. Further, the plan promotes awareness raising, education and skills development, with a focus on farm labourers, youth as well as raising awareness on climate change vulnerabilities and fossil fuel dependencies amongst existing, largescale commercial farmers.

THE PLAN

ELEMENTS OF THE PLAN:

The plan combines a series of physical interventions related to new kinds of agricultural typologies, neighbourhood and gateway nodes and local food markets, with non-physical interventions focusing on skills development, entrepreneurial development, education and awareness raising. It also includes interventions that address the need for access to markets for local produce. Many of the elements of the plan combine to create a long-term, sustainable food system that goes beyond food production, addressing access and nutrition.

The elements of the plan are explained in more detail over the next few pages.

There is a strong focus on realising the potential of the extensive GKM landholdings both within and around Kokstad for agrarian reform.

KEY PROPOSALS Key proposals include: 1.

A suite of agricultural production typologies, mostly, but not exclusively focused on GKM owned land.

2.

Nodes in local neighbourhoods as well as at gateway points to Kokstad and Franklin that are focal points for civic life and include agricultural and food security themed components that are layered in addition to essential social services.

3.

A network of training centres, apprenticeships and skills development programmes that are consolidated into a “Farming for the Future” College (secondary and tertiary levels) offering world-class accredited training in agro-ecological practices.

4.

New local agri-enterprises that are supported through incubator and accelerator programmes to provide “value-add” to local produce (cheese from milk, cider from apples, preserves from fruit) as well as new businesses focusing on other yields from agro-ecological farming practices like honey, timber, seeds, medicinal herbs and so on.

5.

The development of a Sustainable Kokstad Brand and a local food market.

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STRATEGY

A SUITE OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION TYPOLOGIES These are to some degree, but not exclusively, focused on developing the unrealised potential of GKM landholdings for agrarian reform and equity of access. They include household and communal gardens, allotments, school gardens and woodlots, food forests, land reform collectives, ‘eco-villages’, leased smallholdings and various forms of commonage on state owned land and privately owned farms demonstrating agro-ecological principles.

LAND REFORM COLLECTIVES, ‘ECOVILLAGES’, LEASED SMALLHOLDINGS AND COMMONAGE ON STATE OWNED LAND

A number of Kokstad based farmers with significant land holdings are already pioneering innovative agro-ecological farming methods, as well as implementing land reform programmes. The potential thus exists for these farmers to demonstrate and develop a suite of appropriate agro-ecological strategies that work well in the region, providing some of the necessary research and development to support the bold approach to land reform that is being proposed for the GKM landholdings surrounding the town.

This group of typologies address the need for creating more diversity in the kinds of land holdings and erf size that currently exist. They are aimed at addressing agrarian reform, enabling the development of a new kind of producer that is neither large commercial farmer, nor home gardener. These typologies are situated on state owned landholdings that surround the town, and encourage more equitable access to land. It is envisaged that all this land is farmed under agroecological methods and that the primary water management method utilises key line ploughing and dam construction. The particular landforms surrounding Kokstad are ideal for this approach, and this will significantly contribute to water security in the area in times of water stress, as well as restoring bio-diversity and soil health. Global research has shown that the optimal size for a family managed smallholder unit that can provide household food security as well as having commercial capacity is in the region of 1ha, provided that they are farmed employing agro-ecological methods. Further research has indicated that the optimal number

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

for functional peri-urban and rural farming communities that share resources is around thirty extended households. The basic model proposed for this land then is to create clusters of 1ha land parcels (approximately 30 in each cluster) and for the land between to be put under forested shelterbelts with grazing and cropland in between. The 1ha land parcels could be structured under different kinds of ownership and management models, ranging from leased smallholdings (with clear conditions to prevent shack farming), to collectives, to privately owned units. These typologies would also change depending on where they are located and could include one that edge roads with a settlement edge, to ones that are located in the landscape and are on contour and linked to shelter belts. The land in between these settlement clusters could similarly be structured under different ownership models, with potential to develop innovative commonage models. Farmers would be supported with on-going mentoring and training (linked to the “Farming for the Future” College network, and their would be a strong emphasis on the commercial aspects of production and increasing market access).

AGRICULTURE

NATURAL RESOURCES

INFRASTRUCTURE

DEVELOPMENT PLAN DEVELOPMENT PLAN

PRIVATELY OWNED FARMS DEMONSTRATING AGRO-ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES

In addition to this, there is potential to further develop the work of foreign investors like the Italian company Ferrero Rocher who have identified the area as being climatically ideal for growing hazelnuts for their chocolates, and have invested significantly in the area already. Their model enables small-scale farmers to produce hazelnuts on their own land and be assured of a market. Whilst this model has much potential it is also important to bear in mind its vulnerability to climate change as well as to “peak energy” and it would thus be key that emerging farmers electing to work with Ferrero Rocher are not dependent on them as their sole market.

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Fig 114. AGROECOLOGY PILOT FARM WITH SETTLEMENT EDGE DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

Fig 113. SMALL HOLDINGS

Photo 38. IMAGE OF KEYLINE DAM AND PLOUGH

Fig 112. COMMONAGE


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

HOUSEHOLD GARDENS

COMMUNAL GARDENS AND ALLOTMENTS

FOOD FORESTS

SCHOOL GARDENS AND WOODLOTS

These gardens can range in size from small, backyard gardens with a few fruit and nut trees and vegetables to more substantially sized erven in new developments that are inspired by examples like the urban agricultural typologies of Graaf Reinet, where the urban form is built hard up against the street boundary and the land behind is freed up for food, fodder and fibre production.

Communal gardens would be situated in pockets of land in the middle of residential areas on very small erven, and would serve a number of households, under either a cooperative ownership or lease model.

Food forests are an ancient agricultural typology that has been finessed and modernised by permaculture practitioners over the past 40 years. They are highly land efficient ways of growing food in dense urban settlements, and provide a wide variety of fibre, fruit, nuts, vegetables and medicinal plants in a small area. Once they are established, they require very little maintenance, making them an ideal typology for road verges and certain kinds of buffer strips.

Schools offer one of the most effective lever points to change behaviours towards more sustainable practices as well as increasing both learners’ and teachers’ capacities and skills. In this proposal, each school in Kokstad would have it’s own vegetable garden, as well a medicinal herb garden and woodlot. These would be created using agro-ecological approaches. The woodlot would provide timber for hyperlocal use: poles, lathing for sunscreens, fuel for heating and so on. Trees that grow quickly and coppice easily would be used. If well managed then the food garden could provide a steady supply of fresh, nutritious fruit, nuts and vegetables to the learners and teachers of the schools as well as serving as “outdoor” classrooms. There is a lot of experience in South Africa around implementing school food gardens to draw from.

Fig 115. URBAN AGRICULTURE

Allotments are one of the most successful models for encouraging food production in urban areas. These are small pockets of land that are farmed by a household that are not attached to their houses, but are situated within close walking distance. In the plan, these are generally located at the neighbourhood and gateway nodes as well as within the Green Heart Park. There are many different kinds of management and ownership models available. One of the most innovative precedents is the Torekes Allotment Project in Ghent in Belgium where residents are “paid” in a locally created currency, the Torekes, to establish their allotments in exchange for locally produced food, public transport and energy saving fittings.

Photo 40. ALLOTMENTS FROM THE AIR SOURCE: Levene, D. http://www.guardian.co.uk

Photo 41. FOOD FOREST SOURCE: http://halifaxgardennetwork.wordpress. com/2012/05/08/garden-talk-permaculture-and-foodforest-gardens/

Photo 39. ECO-SCHOOL Source: http://www.wwf.org.za

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DEVELOPMENT PLAN DEVELOPMENT PLAN

STRATEGY

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

NEIGHBOURHOOD ACTIVITY NODE : AGRICULTURE COMPONENT These elements of the plan are nodes in local neighbourhoods as well as at gateway points to Kokstad and Franklin that are focal points for civic life and include agricultural and food security themed components that are layered in addition to essential social services. These may be agri-processing businesses (drying, pickling, brewing, freezing, packing), allotments, repair services, nurseries, composting businesses, nutrition advice centres, community food kitchens and periodic local food markets. These nodes form part of the network of elements that support the agrarian reform proposals outlined above through providing markets for produce as well as processing facilities to ensure “valueadd” to primary product. Community kitchens/eating houses are proposed as a way to raise public awareness about the importance of eating high quality nutritious food that is also affordable. This is one way to face the mounting challenge of diet related disease in South Africa: it is projected that type 2 diabetes will become a greater problem than HIV/Aids in South Africa due to the rapidly increasing consumption of nutrient deficient, fattening food by South Africa’s poor. It is envisaged that these kitchens are powered using bio-gas and solar energy sources, and that much of the food consumed is grown in the adjoining allotments. An excellent precedent for this are the community eating houses in Belo Horizonte.

NATURAL RESOURCES

INFRASTRUCTURE

TOWN

CROSSROADS

ENABLING INSTITUTIONS

142

Eating house

Agri-processing: - micro-brewery - che=icken abattoir - packaging - drying - freezing Public transport hub

AGRICULTURE

Info & demostration centre for agro-ecological research

Accommodation for volunteers & visitors

Seed bank & nursery

Space for small periodic market Community kitchen Tree & seedling nursery Meeting room

Fresh food restaurant

Agri-processing: - drying - pickling Shop Recycling depot

Equipment shed for shared machinery

Fig 116. NEIGHBOURHOOD ACTIVITY NODE : AGRICULTURE COMPONENT DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

Allotments

Micro-enterprises related to agricultural services: - tractor repair - seed store - retail outlets for produce - sale of beekeeping equipement

Agricultural typologies

Green building traning & advice centre


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

AWARENESS, EDUCATION AND SKILLS DEVELOPMENT The low levels of skill amongst farm workers in the area have been noted as a development constraint, along with a general perception that farming is not a profitable or desirable career path. Further, the dominant farming practices on the large-scale commercial farms are still high input and fossil fuel dependent, leading to vulnerabilities and the allied need to raise awareness around the threats of both climate change and “peak energy”. It is proposed that a network of training centres, apprenticeships and skills development programmes be developed into a consolidated “Farming for the Future” College (secondary and tertiary levels) offering world-class accredited training in agro-ecological practices. This would provide different levels of education for farm labourers, youth, emerging farmers that are engaged in the development of the land reform projects on the GKM landholdings around the town, as well as meeting the information needs of large-scale commercial farmers.

AGRI-ENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT Whilst the Kokstad region is well known as producer of primary agricultural product, little “value-add” takes place at source. This has been identified as a place of major potential for growing the local economy, as well as serving to increase local resilience in the face of rising energy costs and the current unsustainable scenario where primary product is trucked out of the area, processed elsewhere, and returned for consumption. This element of the plan focuses on developing a suite on new local agrienterprises that are supported through incubator and accelerator programmes to address this gap. For example: cheese from milk, cider from apples, preserves from fruit. This element also addresses the need to diversify into new crops, with their associated new opportunities for locally value addition. A host of service businesses would also naturally emerge from this kind of focused support, eg: tool repair and maintenance businesses and so on.

SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEM Food security is often understood solely in terms of food production. However, it is equally important to also address issues of access and nutrition. This element thus includes mapping the full suite of urban, peri-urban and rural food production and processing as well as examining equitable access to nutritious, affordable food, education around nutrition, school feeding programmes and elderly care, community

Commercial farm food production - milk, meat and maize.

kitchens, school food gardens, enabling policies and zoning by-laws, composting programmes, food safety certifications, periodic markets and many other dimensions. Both Toronto and Belo Horizonte have done extensive work around mapping their food systems, and these serve as useful precedent.

Seedling nursery.

Food festival.

Agri-enterprises, including bottling, preserving, pickling and freezing.

Food health and safety training and regulations. Nutrition advice centre.

This network would also engage with on going research to explore and test measures for increasing productivity and product diversification, dealing with supply side challenges including farm infrastructure and labour working conditions and training, as well as supply chain innovations. This would be in support of a gradual and systemic transition to more sustainable farming practices that are informed by agro-ecological methods.

Care packages for elderly. Community kitchens. School food gardens Enabling legislation. School feeding schemes.

Moms and babies advice centre.

This networked college would build on training and apprenticeship offerings that already taking place in Kokstad, as well as initiating new ones.

Spaza shops.

Traders and retail outlets.

Fresh produce market

Composting centre.

Medicinal herb processing.

Photo 42. KWAXOLO CHICKEN ABATTOIR

Fig 117. KOKSTAD SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEM FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012

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STRATEGY

This element addresses the need to create more markets at the local level for producers, and in so doing, help to stimulate a local food economy. There are two dimensions to this element. The first is the development of a Sustainable Kokstad Brand, much like the “Proudly South African” brand. This branding would go way beyond food product, extending to building materials, guesthouses, services etc, provided they meet

a set of sustainability criteria. In addition to the developing of this marketing vehicle, it is also proposed that a physical local food market be developed, at the entrance to the town. An excellent South African example of this is the Wild Oats market in Sedgefield. A local food economy can also be further stimulated with the use local currency mechanisms like the Totnes and Brixton Pound, both in the United Kingdom.

Many of the elements proposed in the development plan draw on leading edge global research in sustainable agriculture and food systems. As such, they are pioneering, and will require on going research and development at the local level to achieve good results. Kokstad has the potential to demonstrate leadership at a national level through prototyping and demonstrating sustainable agriculture and food systems, as many of the foundation stones are already in place. Moreover, the transition from current systems of agricultural production and our current food systems to more sustainable ones, is most helpfully viewed a process, and not one where sudden change takes place over night. The use of in-depth participatory mapping processes to raise awareness amongst all stakeholders around the current food systems and current supply chain vulnerabilities will go a long way in helping the Kokstad and Franklin communities take the first steps towards more sustainable ways of doing things.

INFRASTRUCTURE NATURAL RESOURCES

AGRICULTURE

DEVELOPMENT PLAN DEVELOPMENT PLAN

DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES

KOKSTAD BRAND AND LOCAL MARKETS

TOWN

CROSSROADS

ENABLING INSTITUTIONS

144

Fig 118. A NETWORK OF GROWERS

DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

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STRATEGY

9.6.4. IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

Championing the establishment of a “Farming for the Future” college - a network of existing and new educational and apprenticeship based initiatives that develop skill and knowledge in agro-ecological approaches to agriculture.

Supporting local economic development through the establishment of an Agrienterprise incubator that focuses on value-add to existing produce as well as developing new products and services.

Establishing a local produce market linked to the development of a “Kokstad Brand”

Prototyping new forms of landownership and development on GKM owned land

Supporting learners to learn about agroecological principles through the School Food Garden and Woodlot Project

Developing a series of neighbourhood nodes that include key components to support resilience at the local level – community kitchens, composting centres, nutrition advice centres, nurseries and repair services.

Supporting the establishment of a fully developed demonstration of permaculture methods and other innovations on the Bosman farm.

The implementation plan for this story has one programme: •

‘Farming for the Future’ + Sustainable Food Systems Programme

PROGRAMME 10: “FARMING FOR THE FUTURE” & SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEM PROGRAMME One implementation programme is proposed for the implementation plan: The “Farming For The Future” And Sustainable Food System Programme: This programme focuses on building and deepening capacity in one of Kokstad’s current core capacities – agricultural production. It aims to build resilience in the face of impending resource limits and climate change, creating a vibrant and robust local agricultural economy that is linked to the development of an integrated sustainable food system that mitigates against food insecurity and ensures long term food sovereignty. The policy environment in South Africa is still in its infancy with regards to agroecology and food security, however, The Green Economy Accord advocates the development of green jobs linked to some aspects of the agricultural sector, and the Zero Hunger Strategy (currently still in development) encourages the support of smallscale agriculture. A number of municipalities around SA are embarking on the development of local food security strategies. The programme proposes that the GKM commits to enabling the following components: •

AGRICULTURE

Supporting a public participation process to develop a shared community vision of a resilient food system that includes and goes beyond urban agriculture as the primary response to food security.

ENABLING INSTITUTIONAL INTERVENTIONS COMMUNICATION, POLICY, PARTNERSHIP INCENTIVES & ENGAGEMENT & GUIDELINES DESCRIPTION

Kokstad Sustainable Food System project: Develop a community generated vision and plan for a sustainable food system for Kokstad and Franklin that focuses on all aspects of food security (i.e. not just on urban agriculture)

DURATION

1 year

APPROX. BUDGET FUNDING SOURCE

Matrix.23. DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

DEVELOPMENT PLAN

R1.5M

BYLAWS & ZONING SCHEME AMENDMENTS

Develop suite of incentives for local business owners. Local currency issued by the GKM to stimulate local trade (e.g.: the Brixton Pound and the Totnes Pound) a. 1 year b. 2 years from inception to first prototype a. R500 000 b. R1M

PROGRAMME 10: ENABLING INSTITUTIONAL INTERVENTIONS

6 months

R500 000


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

PRIORITY PROJECT

PROJECT NAME

A) AGRI-ENTERPRISE B) NEIGHBOURHOOD C) “FARMING FOR INCUBATOR SCALE NODES – THE FUTURE” PROJECT FOOD SYSTEM COLLEGE ASPECT

PROJECT DESCRIPTION

Support the establishment of local agri-centred businesses in a structured incubator environment: 3. Focusing on “value-add” to locally produced produce eg: cheese from milk, cider from apples, preserves from fruit 4. As well as businesses based on micro-yields from agroecological farming practices – honey, timber, seeds, herbs, nurseries etc.

RELATED PROJECTS

PROJECT STAGE IMPLEMENTING AGENT PROJECT OWNER PROJECT DURATION

PRECONDITIONS APPROX. BUDGET FUNDING SOURCE

Matrix.24.

All projects in this programme are interconnected and related, and will reenforce each other if implemented simultaneously. PDP: Project Development LED, GKM, Scientific Roets, Chamber of Commerce 1 year: Research, partnership, identify pilots

Plan, design and implement 2 pilot neighbourhood centres at IThembalabantu, and in Franklin: 1. Community kitchen providing low-cost, nutritious and locally grown food, powered by bio-gas from surrounding homes. 2. Composting – centralised point for processing local food scraps and other biomass 3. Nutrition information centre and micro- clinic

Develop a leading edge secondary and tertiary level college focusing on agroecological practices and innovation. This could also comprise a network of existing and future educational initiatives that are all Kokstad based, but are not in one physical location (i.e Scientific Roets, St Patricks, 7 Fountains, Willowdale Farm, FET etc.)

D) LOCAL PRODUCE MARKET

E) SCHOOL FOOD F) “SMALLHOLDING GARDEN AND FOR RESILIENCE” WOODLOT PROJECT PROJECT

Develop a weekly farmers’ market at the R56 entrance to Kokstad (Southern entrance), modeled on the Wild Oats Market in Sedgefield.

Develop and pilot school gardens project where each school in Kokstad has a food garden, medicinal herb garden and community wood lot, and where the children both work in the garden and eat from it.

May include a combination of commonage; “ecovillages” of approx. 30 households each on 1ha smallholdings connected by cooperatively owned grazing lands and forestry belts.

4. Nursery 5. Microenterprise providing repair services for tools and machinery

PDP: Project Development Phase GKM

3 years: pilot areas.

5 years: Critical mass of local microenterprises to ensure viability of Local Market

7 years – roll out complete

R2-3M for phase one.

To be determined

Conceptualise and implement, through extensive community engagement, a new farming typology associated with new institutional arrangements and ownership structures on GKM owned land beyond the current settlement edge, and within the proposed new urban edge.

PDP: Project Development Phase GKM DOA, Landcare, St Patrick’s School, Piet Bosman

Feasibility Study/ PDP PDP: Project Development LED, GKM, Private Eco-schools, DOE, 7 enterprises Fountains School as mentor, GKM

PDP: Project Development Phase GKM DOA, Landcare

1 year: Research, partnership development and enrolment, identify pilots.

1 year: Feasibility, partnership development, pilot at special events.

1 year: Community engagement and research

7-10 years: Functioning “college”. R1.5M for first phase

5 years: Fully functioning

R1M for first phase

1 year: Pilot in 3 schools. 3 years: Roll out to all schools complete

G) ALLOTMENT PROJECT

PRIORITY PROJECT

H) COMMUNITY PERMACULTURE RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT & TRAINING FARM Plan, design and To establish a implement an allotment community integrated, project adjoining commercially neighbourhood productive research, nodes, at both the development and IThembalanbantu node training eco-agriculture in Shayamoya, and in operation on 150 Franklin. ha of commercial farmland made The set-up of these available by the JJP could be similar to Bosman Family Trust. the Torekes Allotment Which is vertically project in Ghent, and horizontally Belgium where integrated, the model residents are “paid” is Permaculture in a locally created and bio-dynamics currency, the Torekes, with Keyline design. to establish the Agro-biodiversity and allotments in exchange traditional livestock, for local food, public heirloom crops and transport and energy medicinal plants are saving devices. the focus.

PDP: Project Development Phase GKM

PDP: Project Development Phase Mount Currie Community Dev. Organisation Piet Bosman

1 year: pilot 5 years: roll out

5 years to achieve a working model

3 years: complete first pilot 10 years: roll out complete

R300 000 to pilot in 3 schools, including “train-the-trainers” development

R1M for year one

R750 000 for pilot

R350’000

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10. IMPLEMENTATION PLAN SYNTHESIS The following pages give an overall spatial representation of the programmes and projects listed under the implementation plans of the stories. It unpacks how the various projects and programmes fit together at a neighbourhood/ town level.

ENABLING INSTITUTIONS 0. ENABLING INSTITUTIONAL INTERVENTIONS PROGRAMME A) ISDP: Programme Management Unit B) Close The Institutional Loops C) GKM Capacity Building D) Municipal Infrastructure Maintenance & Management Initiative E) Climate Change Mitigation & Adaptation Strategies F) Green Ambassador Programme G) Partnerships for Sustainability & Low Carbon Economy Initiative

DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM


CROSSROADS

TOWN

INFRASTRUCTURE

1. WATERSHED INVESTMENT PROGRAMME

4. PUBLIC SPACE, STREET & FACILITY INVESTMENT PROGRAMME

6. INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME

9. OPEN SPACE SERVICES PROGRAMME

A) Kokstad Tourism Promotion & Capacity Building

A1) Neighbourhood Activity Nodes: Public Space Upgrade

A) Pilot Recycling Programme

A1) Green Heart Park: Design And Management

B1) Kokstad & Franklin Rail-Trail: Rail-Trail / Rail-Bike Tourism B2) Kokstad & Franklin Rail-Trail: Biathlon / Triathlon B3) Kokstad & Franklin Rail-Trail: Railway Station Heritage Precincts Upgrading C1) Franklin Wetlands: Restoring the Natural Capital

A2) Neighbourhood Activity Nodes: Social Facilities Provision Plan B1) Urban Area Upgrading: Main Street And Retail / Commercial Zones B2) Urban Area Upgrading: Sustainable Streets Project

B1) IWF: Materials Recovery Facility B2) IWF: Waste Exchange Facility B3) IWF: Regional Bio-Solids Processing Plant B4) IWF: Regional Composting Plant B5) IWF: Hazardous Waste Facility C) Town-Wide Waste Characterisation

C2) Franklin Wetlands: Optimisation of Ecosystem Services

C) Public Transport D) Creating New Road Linkages

7. WATER CYCLE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME

2. LOCALISED ECONOMY PROGRAMME

E) Setting Up A Bicycle Empowerment Centre

A) Suds Roll-Out & Subsidising Projects

5. SETTLEMENT RESPONSE PROGRAMME

B1) Waste Water Treatment: Sewage Pre-Treatment

A1) New Mixed Use Neighbourhoods: R56 Pilot Integrated Sustainable Settlement Project

B2) Waste Water Treatment: Constructed Wetland

A) Review Existing Led Plan B) Support for Green Economy C) Kokstad Marketing Board D) Community Based Micro-Utilities Services Enterprises-Feasibility Study E) Agro-Processing Plant F) Kokstad Community Sports Agency G) Open Collaborative Manufacturing H) Skills Development I) Community Development Centres (Pilot at Mount Currie Community Centre) J) Bhongweni Light Industrial Park K) Youth for The Future L) Eco-Industrial Park M) Small Business Support Programme N) Local Currency O) Job Linkage Centre

A2) New Mixed Use Neighbourhoods: New IRDP A3) New Mixed Use Neighbourhoods: Current Approved Projects or Projects In Planning B1) Rental Housing Programme: Private Rental Developments B2) Rental Housing Programme: Social Housing Project B3) Rental Housing Programme: Community Residential Project C) Urban Densification & Intensification

NATURAL RESOURCES

AGRICULTURE 10. “FARMING FOR THE FUTURE” & SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEM PROGRAMME A) Agri-Enterprise Incubator Project

A2) Green Heart Park: Multi-Purpose Sports Complex

B) Neighbourhood Scale Nodes – Food System Aspect

A3) Green Heart Park: Biodiversity Management Plan

C) “Farming For The Future” College

B) Neighbourhood Park

E) School Food Garden And Woodlot Project

/ Playground Upgrade

D) Local Produce Market

F) “Smallholding For Resilience” Project G) Allotment Project H) Community Permaculture Research, Development & Training Farm

B3) Waste Water Treatment: Treated Effluent Reuse C) Water Efficiency Campaign D) Fix Leaks In Shayamoya Township

8. ENERGY PROGRAMME A) Energy Efficiency Retrofit Project (Green Economy) B) Biomass Power Co-Generation C) Solar Power (Roofs) D) Solar Power (Farm) E) Biogas Power Co-Generation

3. GREEN BUILDING PROGRAMME A1) Kokstad Green Building Materials: Business Network A2) Kokstad Green Building Materials: Skills Development Initiative B) Public Spaces & New Settlement Green Building Project FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012

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INFRASTRUCTURE

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ENABLING ENABLING INSTITUTIONS INSTITUTIONS

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STRATEGY

0. ENABLING INSTITUTIONAL INTERVENTIONS PROGRAMME

1. WATERSHED INVESTMENT PROGRAMME

How all the projects come together around the eco-industrial park and the historic town centre.

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

DEVELOPMENT PLAN

+1 year (2013)

2. LOCALISED ECONOMY PROGRAMME 3. GREEN BUILDING PROGRAMME

4. PUBLIC SPACE, STREET & FACILITY INVESTMENT PROGRAMME

+5 years (2017)

5. SETTLEMENT RESPONSE PROGRAMME

6. INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME 7. WATER CYCLE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME 8. ENERGY PROGRAMME

AGRICULTURE

NATURAL NATURAL RESOURCES RESOURCES

+ 25 years (2037) 9. OPEN SPACE SERVICES PROGRAMME

10. “FARMING FOR THE FUTURE” & SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEM PROGRAMME

New Civic Centre DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN [4] PUBLIC SPACE, STREET & FACILITY INVESTMENT PROGRAMME (B2) URBAN AREA UPGRADING: SUSTAINABLE STREETS PROJECT

[6] INTEGRATED WASTE PROGRAMME (A) PILOT RECYCLING PROJECT [7] WATER CYCLE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME (B3) WASTE WATER TREATMENT: TREATED EFFLUENT RE-USE

[4] PUBLIC SPACE, STREET & FACILITY INVESTMENT PROGRAMME B1) URBAN AREA UPGRADING: MAIN STREET AND RETAIL / COMMERCIAL ZONES

[5] SETTLEMENT RESPONSE PROGRAMME (B1) RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAMME: R56 PILOT INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE SETTLEMENT PROJECT [4] PUBLIC SPACE, STREET & FACILITY INVESTMENT PROGRAMME (C) PUBLIC TRANSPORT PROJECT

[5] SETTLEMENT RESPONSE PROGRAMME (A1) NEW MIXED USE NEIGHBOURHOODS: R56 PILOT INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE SETTLEMENT PROJECT

[2] LOCALISED ECONOMY PROGRAMME (C) KOKSTAD MARKETING BOARD

[7] WATER CYCLE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME (B2) WASTE WATER TREATMENT: CONSTRUCTED WETLAND

[3] GREEN BUILDING PROGRAMME (A2) KOKSTAD GREEN BUILDING MATERIALS: SKILLS DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVE

[6] INTEGRATED WASTE PROGRAMME (B3) MRF: REGIONAL BIO-SOLIDS PROCESSING PLANT (B4) MRF: REGIONAL COMPOSTING PLANT

[2] LOCALISED ECONOMY PROGRAMME (A) REVIEW EXISTING LED PLAN

[6] INTEGRATED WASTE PROGRAMME (B1) MRF: MATERIALS RECOVERY FACILITY (B2) MRF: WASTE EXCHANGE FACILITY (B5) MRF: HAZARDOUS WASTE FACILITY

[2] LOCALISED ECONOMY PROGRAMME (H) SKILLS DEVELOPMENT [10] “FARMING FOR THE FUTURE” & SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEM PROGRAMME (D) LOCAL PRODUCE MARKET

[6] INTEGRATED WASTE PROGRAMME (C) TOWN-WIDE WASTE CHARACTERISATION

[2] LOCALISED ECONOMY PROGRAMME (N) LOCAL CURRENCY

[8] ENERGY PROGRAMME (D) 10MW SOLAR ELECTRICITY FARM [2] ENERGY PROGRAMME (E) BIOGAS POWER CO-GENERATION

[2] WATERSHED INVESTMENT PROGRAMME (E) KOKSTAD TOURISM PROMOTION & CAPACITY BUILDING

[5] SETTLEMENT RESPONSE PROGRAMME (A3) NEW MIXED USE NEIGHBOURHOODS: CURRENT APPROVED PROJECTS OR PROJECTS IN PLANNING

[2] LOCALISED ECONOMY (B) SUPPORT FOR GREEN ECONOMY

[2] LOCALISED ECONOMY PROGRAMME (L) ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARK

[8] ENERGY PROGRAMME (C) SOLAR POWER (ROOFS)

[3] GREEN BUILDING PROGRAMME (A1) KOKSTAD GREEN BUILDING MATERIALS: BUSINESS NETWORK

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STRATEGY

0. ENABLING INSTITUTIONAL INTERVENTIONS PROGRAMME

How all the projects come together around the park.

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

DEVELOPMENT PLAN

+1 year (2013)

1. WATERSHED INVESTMENT PROGRAMME 2. LOCALISED ECONOMY PROGRAMME 3. GREEN BUILDING PROGRAMME

4. PUBLIC SPACE, STREET & FACILITY INVESTMENT PROGRAMME

+5 years (2017)

5. SETTLEMENT RESPONSE PROGRAMME

6. INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME 7. WATER CYCLE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME 8. ENERGY PROGRAMME

AGRICULTURE

NATURAL NATURAL RESOURCES RESOURCES

+ 25 years (2037) 9. OPEN SPACE SERVICES PROGRAMME

10. “FARMING FOR THE FUTURE” & SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEM PROGRAMME

iThembalabantu neighbourhood activity node DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN [2] LOCALISED ECONOMY PROGRAMME (E) AGRO-PROCESSING PLANT

[5] SETTLEMENT RESPONSE PROGRAMME (A2) NEW MIXED USE NEIGHBOURHOODS: NEW IRDP

[7] WATER CYCLE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME (D) FIX LEAKS IN SHAYAMOYA [10] “FARMING FOR THE FUTURE” & SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEM PROGRAMME (C) “FARMING FOR THE FUTURE” COLLEGE

[9] OPEN SPACE SERVICES PROGRAMME (B) NEIGHBOURHOOD PARK / PLAYGROUND UPGRADE

[9] OPEN SPACE SERVICES PROGRAMME (A1) GREEN HEART PARK: DESIGN & MANAGEMENT

[2] LOCALISED ECONOMY PROGRAMME (I) COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT CENTRES (PILOT AT MOUNT CURRIE COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT CENTRE)

[2] LOCALISED ECONOMY PROGRAMME (G) OPEN COLLABORATIVE MANUFACTURING

[10] “FARMING FOR THE FUTURE” & SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEM PROGRAMME (H) COMMUNITY PERMACULTURE RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT & TRAINING FARM [2] LOCALISED ECONOMY PROGRAMME (D) COMMUNITY BASED MICRO-UTILITIES ENTERPRISES [2] LOCALISED ECONOMY PROGRAMME (K) YOUTH FOR THE FUTURE [4] PUBLIC SPACE, STREETS & FACILITY INVESTMENT PROGRAMME (E) SETTING UP A BICYCLE EMPOWERMENT CENTRE [2] LOCALISED ECONOMY PROGRAMME (F) KOKSTAD COMMUNITY SPORTS AGENCY

[9] OPEN SPACE SERVICES PROGRAMME (A2) GREEN HEART PARK: MULTI-PURPOSE SPORTS CENTRE [8] ENERGY PROGRAMME (A) ENERGY EFFICIENCY RETROFIT PROJECT [3] GREEN BUILDING PROGRAMME (B) PUBLIC SPACES AND NEW SETTLEMENT GREEN BUILDING PROJECT

[2] LOCALISED ECONOMY PROGRAMME (M) SMALL BUSINESS SUPPORT PROGRAMME

[5] SETTLEMENT RESPONSE PROGRAMME (B2) RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAMME: SOCIAL HOUSING PROJECT

[4] PUBLIC SPACE, STREETS & FACILITY INVESTMENT PROGRAMME (D) CREATING NEW ROAD LINKAGES

[9] OPEN SPACE SERVICES PROGRAMME (A3) GREEN HEART PARK: BIODIVERSITY MANAGEMENT PLAN [10] “FARMING FOR THE FUTURE” & SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEM PROGRAMME (E) SCHOOL FOOD GARDEN & WOODLOT PROJECT

[7] WATER CYCLE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME (A) SUDS ROLL OUT AND SUBSIDISING PROJECT [2] LOCALISED ECONOMY PROGRAMME (J) BHONGWENI LIGHT INDUSTRIAL PARK

[5] SETTLEMENT RESPONSE PROGRAMME (B3) RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAMME: COMMUNITY RESIDENTIAL UNIT

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INFRASTRUCTURE

TOWN

CROSSROADS

ENABLING ENABLING INSTITUTIONS INSTITUTIONS

154

STRATEGY

0. ENABLING INSTITUTIONAL INTERVENTIONS PROGRAMME

How all the projects come together around Franklin.

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

DEVELOPMENT PLAN

+1 year (2013)

1. WATERSHED INVESTMENT PROGRAMME 2. LOCALISED ECONOMY PROGRAMME 3. GREEN BUILDING PROGRAMME

4. PUBLIC SPACE, STREET & FACILITY INVESTMENT PROGRAMME

+5 years (2017)

5. SETTLEMENT RESPONSE PROGRAMME

6. INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME 7. WATER CYCLE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME 8. ENERGY PROGRAMME

AGRICULTURE

NATURAL NATURAL RESOURCES RESOURCES

+ 25 years (2037) 9. OPEN SPACE SERVICES PROGRAMME

10. “FARMING FOR THE FUTURE” & SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEM PROGRAMME

Railway-station heritage centre DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN [4] PUBLIC SPACE, STREET & FACILITY INVESTMENT PROGRAMME (A1) NEIGHBOURHOOD ACTIVITY NODES: PUBLIC SPACE UPGRADE

[4] PUBLIC SPACE, STREET & FACILITY INVESTMENT PROGRAMME (A2) NEIGHBOURHOOD ACTIVITY NODES: SOCIAL FACILITIES PROVISION PLAN [8] ENERGY PROGRAMME (B) BIOMASS POWER CO-GENERATION [10] “FARMING FOR THE FUTURE” & SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEM PROGRAMME (F) “SMALLHOLDING FOR RESILIENCE” PROJECT

[7] WATER CYCLE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME (B1) WASTE WATER TREATMENT: SEWAGE PRE-TREATMENT

[7] WATER CYCLE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME (C) WATER EFFICIENCY CAMPAIGN

[1] WATERSHED INVESTMENT PROGRAMME (B3) KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN RAIL-TRAIL: RAILWAY STATION HERITAGE PRECINCT UPGRADING

[10] “FARMING FOR THE FUTURE” & SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEM PROGRAMME (B) NEIGHBOURHOOD SCALE NODES - FOOD SYSTEM ASPECT

[10] “FARMING FOR THE FUTURE” & SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEM PROGRAMME (A) AGRI-ENTERPRISE INCUBATOR PROJECT

[10] “FARMING FOR THE FUTURE” & SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEM PROGRAMME (G) ALLOTMENT PROJECT

[1] WATERSHED INVESTMENT PROGRAMME (B2) KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN RAIL-TRAIL: BIATHLON / TRIATHLON

[1] WATERSHED INVESTMENT PROGRAMME (C2) FRANKLIN WETLANDS: OPTIMISATION OF ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

[1] WATERSHED INVESTMENT PROGRAMME (C1) FRANKLIN WETLANDS: RESTORING THE NATURAL CAPITAL

[1] WATERSHED INVESTMENT PROGRAMME (B1) KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN RAIL-TRAIL: RAIL-TRAIL / RAIL-BIKE TOURISM FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012

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PART III THE WAY FORWARD

MONITORING & EVALUATION CONCLUSION

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11. MONITORING & EVALUATION

11.2. EVALUATION APPROACH

A monitoring and evaluation plan is a key component of successfully implementing a projects, plans and programmes.

An evaluation is to be undertaken of the GKM’s implementation of the ISDP every fifth year. It will have two components; the first will be a technical exercise that review changes in the situation from that described in the Status Quo report prepared for the ISDP, the second component will be an integrated systematic report on a series of focus group interviews asking the question whether each of the intended outcomes described in the ISDP is being achieved and what has changed in the last few years.

Monitoring can improve cross-departmental communication. A key hurdle to implementing integrated plans is the tendency to work in silos. This may result in possible reluctance to sharing information. An internal communication effort that describes the common good goals of monitoring in combination with cross-sector indicators can induce departments to be more open towards information sharing. Evaluation informs leaders on what policies have had an impact and what resources might be needed. An evaluation needs to be well linked to both planning and budgeting to be meaningful; it allows plans to be responsive because it allows for decisions to be made about plans if an evaluation suggests expanding or redesigning them (adapted from UN Habitat, 2012).

11.1. MONITORING & REPORTING APPROACH Monitoring of the ISDP will be closely aligned to the monitoring of the GKM’s IDP. It will involve the preparation of an annual report called “Kokstad’s Annual Sustainability Report”, which will be compiled by the Strategic Planning and Intergovernmental Relations Office and will focus on performance against the indicators listed below. It will complement the report on its IDP. It will use information drawn from the number of sources including secondary data but will also require the implementation of a specially constructed Sustainability Survey (See below). The survey will be implemented by the Green Ambassadors and will comprise both quantitative data collection as well as the preparation of short movie clips. Actual data collection will also involve GKM Councillors and Officials. The Annual Progress Report will be prepared over a three month period each year, from (month) to (month) and will be a key input to the municipality’s strategic planning process which takes place in (month).

The evaluation will be put out on tender to two separate service providers - each of the two reports will contain a brief set of recommendations that clearly indicate who should do what by when and what the implementation of the recommendation will cost. The two evaluation processes will be undertaken simultaneously and will be managed by the Strategic Planning and IGR (SP&IGR) office. Provision for the cost of the evaluation must be included in the GKM budget for the respective years.

11.3. CAPACITY CONSIDERATIONS In order to implement this M&E approach, fieldwork, analysis and knowledge management capacity is needed in the GKM. This should meet the needs of both the ISDP and the IDP. The Office currently lacks this capacity - an additional post will be created in the SP&IGR office at level [-] to play the convening and coordinating role in this regard.

11.4. THE SUSTAINABILITY SURVEY In order to implement this strategy, a Sustainability Survey will be developed that will enable the collection of the information required to report on progress against the indicators contained below. This survey will be implemented in four sites that will be selected as part of the implementation of the overall strategy. The four sites will be chosen for their ability to represent Kokstad and to act as sentinel sites showing changes and trends in the ongoing

development of Kokstad and its implementation of the ISDP over the long term.

Ambassadors, in alignment with the guiding principles of the ISDP.

The data collection will be undertaken by Green Ambassadors working with officials and Councillors. The Survey will be reported upon in the Sustainability Survey.

This entity would also provide value to the GKM by being ambassadors of the ISDP into the future, as well as through playing a key role in monitoring and evaluation of the ISDP (as described above), creating video and photographic content and providing community liaison.

11.5. THE GREEN AMBASSADORS AWARENESS RAISING The Green Ambassadors remain under the EPWP stipend until the end of January 2013. Their work over the following three months (Nov, Dec and Jan) will include showing their “seeds of sustainability” movies across the different wards, as a way of introducing citizens to the content of the DEVELOPMENT PLAN. They will also be making a few more movies, some exploring “Christmas in Kokstad” and others documenting “Conversations with Elders” where they will find out how their elders have dealt with hardship in the past, as an introduction to thinking about resilience, one of the key guiding principles in the ISDP.

MONITORING AND EVALUATION BASELINE One of the key dimensions to the Monitoring and Evaluation Plan is that the implementation of a baseline Sustainability Survey. It is intended that the GAs work closely with the ward councilors in conducting the baseline survey. Further funding will be required for this process.

MICRO-ENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT One idea under consideration that still requires further workshopping by all stakeholders, is that Yondlabantu and Scientific Roets be viewed as temporary “caretakers” of the training equipment until such time as a youth owned and managed structure be set up, where the training equipment could form part of the ‘seed’ capital for this microenterprise. The microenterprise would be generating sustainability-focused citizen journalism, in support of Kokstad’s longterm sustainable development. It is intended that this youth owned entity would create sustainable employment for some of the Green

11.6. INDICATORS FOR MONITORING & REPORTING PURPOSES Indicators are the quantitative or qualitative variables that provide a valid and reliable way to measure achievement, assess performance, or reflect changes connected to a series of interventions. Indicators relate to both how the plan is being implemented and its impact. Basic indicators measure plan delivery, including land used, the number of building permits, resources invested, and the amount of infrastructure delivered. The outcomes of the plan can be measured by indicators such as density, mix of uses, the amount of land used for private and public uses, traffic conditions and taxes generated. Obtaining baseline information is a challenge many indicators, such as economic productivity and gross product are readily available at the national level, but not at the city/town level. This further reinforces the need to be prudent in selecting the number of indicators. A limited number of indicators works better. It is better to set a limited number of indicators that can be realistically measured and easily understood (UN Habitat, 2012). Accordingly, a list of thirty indicators, grouped per story, have been formulated for the ISDP. Their respective data sources (for efficiency, often overlapping) are stated in the left-hand column, and the desired outcome is stated on the right. Together, these should form a base for monitoring and evaluating Kokstad and Franklin into the future.

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MONITORING & EVALUATION IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

ROLE & RESPONSABILITY

CORE DELIVERABLES

KEY ACTIVITIES

PURPOSE

YEAR 1

YEARS 2 TO 4

YEAR 5

As part of refining the overall design of the Integrated Sustainable Development Programme and ensuring its integration into the GKM’s Strategic and Performance Plans, to clearly define monitoring and evaluation roles and responsibilities. Also to gather the baseline data against which future performance will be assessed.

Make use of the information generated by the Sustainability Survey and reported upon in Kokstad’s Annual Sustainability Report to inform planning and programme decisions made by the GKM.

Every fifth year the GKM will evaluate its own performance in implementing the ISDP and the progress it has made. The purpose of the evaluation is to identify what needs to be done to improve GKM performance and what strategic shifts and adjustments need to be made to the Plan.

Design and implementation of the Sustainability Survey and release of the inception Sustainability Report

Ongoing implementation of the Survey and preparation of the Report in time for their utilisation in strategic and programme planning.

Contracting an evaluation service provider to undertake the evaluation;

Supporting them in their implementation of the evaluation;

Receiving and making use of the recommendations contained in their report.

Sustainability Survey

Baseline Annual Sustainability Report

Development of the Sustainability Survey instrument: Contracted out?

Implementation of the Survey: Green Ambassadors

Preparation of Kokstad’s Annual Sustainability Report: SP&IGR office.

DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

Preparation and release of Kokstad’s Annual Sustainability Report and its dissemination and use in IDP, strategic and programme planning processes.

“A report on an evaluation of the GKM’s implementation of its Integrated Sustainable Development Plan”

Implementation of the Survey: Green Ambassadors

Contracting and procurement by the SP&IGR office.

Preparation of Kokstad’s Annual Sustainability Report: SP&IGR office.

Implementation: Specially contracted service provider.

Utilisation: To be determined.


159

INDICATORS FOR MONITORING & REPORTING PURPOSES DATA SOURCE

INDICATORS

Sustainability Survey

Percentage of household expenditure spent on transport

Sustainability Survey

Number of people in survey area with a tertiary education qualification

General Household Survey TBC SAPS administrative data Planning approvals Sustainability Survey Valuation roll

Average monthly rental / average house prices as a proportion of household income

Reduction in crime, especially violent crime Number of local recreation and entertainment options ‘Completeness’ of streets in survey area according to street survey checklist Gross base density (du/ha) Presence of a compatible mix of uses and activities in survey area / accessibility of a range of social facilities

Sustainability Survey

Presence of litter

TBC

Green Drop Report

Response time to respond to complaints about litter, dumping, potholes, broken street lights, leaking water Mix of unit types in survey area Green drop score Number of litres of water used per person per day

Blue Drop Report

Organic load on WWTW

Landfill data Green Drop Report

Future Kokstad’s strategies of reducing demand, re-using and recycling have paid off and the town’s energy, water and waste systems set the national benchmark. Dependence on Eskom has been cut and the towns run on green and renewable energy. These all increase the affordability of doing business and have reduced pollution of the natural environment.

kWh of energy produced from biogas vs total energy demand Kg of waste per person going to landfill Water quality compliance of river downstream of town

INFRASTRUCTURE

Blue Drop Report Electricity billing data

Future Kokstad and Franklin are attractive, well managed, affordable, socially vibrant and integrated places. They are built on a shared sense of pride and identity and their many attractive natural, rural, heritage and built qualities and landmarks are celebrated. Cultural diversity is valued and celebrated.

Reduction in proportion of households dependent on social grants

Sustainability Survey

Sustainability Survey

Future Kokstad has a vibrant and resilient, low carbon economy that has built independence from expensive fossil fuel-based energy. It is an attractive, affordable place to live and work, with a skilled population and efficient public transport connections to and from the broader region.

TOWN

Value of locally produced building materials in Rand Percentage of people who take pride in their town in survey area

CROSSROADS

Sustainability Survey Sustainability Survey

OUTCOME

Ratio of renewable versus non-renewable energy used in Kokstad

TBC

Property valuation roll Sustainability Survey

Sustainability Survey LED Department

Number of hectares of protected biodiversity areas in GKM Condition of wetlands / rivers / grasslands Value / desirability of properties facing onto public open spaces Number of households in the survey area that make use of public parks and playgrounds Value of locally produced food sold in a sample of four supermarkets in Rands Number of locally owned agro-processing businesses registered with the Kokstad Chamber of Commerce Number of fruit trees in survey area Value of locally produced food sold in a sample of four supermarkets in Rands

Future Kokstad and Franklin protect and appreciate the functional, cultural, spiritual and economic value of the natural landscape. The many crucial roles of natural resources are maintained and enhanced through responsible management and protection. The towns do not use more than can be regenerated, and wilderness areas that serve the needs of their

Future Kokstad has a resilient, diverse and strong local agricultural economy that offers diverse opportunities for all scales of agricultural enterprises, supported by a strong local food culture, and local agri-processing businesses. The region is a leader in agri-ecological practices.

FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012

AGRICULTURE

Annual questionnaire Chamber of Commerce membership

Number of square metres of public managed park space per person

NATURAL RESOURCES

Spatial Planning Department data: Land use register Spatial Planning Department data: Land use register


KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

DEVELOPMENT PLAN

HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLAN

Future Kokstad and Franklin are safe and just with a strong social foundation where poverty and inequality is eradicated and all human needs are met, in dynamic balance with the finite environmental resource base that supports all life.

COMPLETE NEIGHBOURHOOD ACTIVITY NODE

R6

17

FRANKLIN

Fig 119. DEVELOPMENT PLAN - FRANKLIN

R6

17

CROSSROADS

ENABLING INSTITUTIONS

160

Kokstad Total population: 68 086

SHAYAMOYA

TOWN

Urban area: 1’721ha

MZINTLAVA RIVER

ET

RE

NATURAL RESOURCES

ET

RE ST

ST

ST

T

EE

TR

S ER

W

DO

ER

RK

BA

T

E RE

Franklin

BAMBAYI

JA ROAD

GCADIN

IN

6

R5

PE

TH

MA

E

NU

VE EA

HO

INFRASTRUCTURE

EXTENSION 7

Total population: 3’855 HORSESHOE

Urban area: 119ha

BHONGWENI

KOKSTAD CENTRAL

Public Space Complementary Mixed Uses Industrial

AGRICULTURE

56

Proposed/Existing Sportsfield

R

Proposed/Existing Social Facilities

N2

Parks Peri-Urban Agricultural Typologies Biodiversity Areas and Passive Recreational Areas

Fig 120. DEVELOPMENT PLAN - KOKSTAD DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

Fig 121. KOKSTAD DEVELOPMENT PLAN - PERSPECTIVE

Fig 122. NEIGHBOURHOOD ACTIVITY NODE


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12. CONCLUSION AND WAY FORWARD The ISDP provides a coherent set of strategies, development proposals and frameworks for implementation of the ISDP Stories. The implementation programmes provide a basis for short, medium and long-term action while the Institutional Story outlines the key governance and evaluation foundations required to enable and sustain this implementation. To ensure the implementation of the proposals and projects outlined in the ISDP, a number of coordination, alignment, communication and implementation actions are required. The immediate next steps in these areas are highlighted here.

The success of the plan will depend on the extent to which the GKM can build constructive and effective partnerships with other spheres of government, parastatals and civil society. The GKM can achieve this through: •

onsidering the establishment of a GKM Youth Council to C develop leadership capacity and provide a voice for the youth in the management of the GKM.

xpanding and sustaining the Green Ambassadors E Programme.

ADOPTION The first step in implementation is the adoption of the ISDP as the guiding policy document for integrated sustainable development in Kokstad and Franklin (and the application of the development principles to the remaining settlements / towns in the GKM). The role and lifespan of the various components of the ISDP must be understood and reviewed in relation to the statutory instruments, policies and plans of the GKM. These life spans, relationships and roles are summarised in diagram opposite.

ALIGNMENT AND REVIEW The ISDP took into account existing GKM, Sisonke and Provincial policies and plans but has also made proposals that will require that some aspects of these plans are revised and updated. The following will need to be undertaken as first steps: •

onfirm plans and projects proposed in the ISDP and finalise C the Implementation Framework after internal departmental review; eview current GKM, Sisonke and KZN Provincial R programmes and projects in terms of ISDP objectives, plans and projects and minimize or stop contradictory projects;

evise the IDP, SDF, LED and Housing Sector Plans to R incorporate the key principles and projects proposed in the ISDP;

eview projects, policies and programmes and prioritise the R projects proposed in the implementation programmes; and

Revise and update the zoning scheme to align with the ISDP.

PARTNERSHIPS & BUY-IN

stablishing an ISDP Stakeholder Forum including other E spheres of government, civil society and agencies critical to the implementation of the ISDP. To limit duplication and overburdening key partners, this could be an expansion of an existing IDP or LED Forum.

COMMUNICATION A number of engagement processes informed the preparation of the ISDP, however these were limited by logistical and programming constraints. Wider and sustained communication of the ideas and proposals is essential to build consensus and support for the ISDP over the long term. Key instruments in this include providing and disseminating the ISDP proposals on the GKM website, advertisement in the print and digital media, the maintenance of the Sustainable Kokstad Facebook page and the inclusion of the ISDP ideas in the IDP roadshows.

GOVERNANCE: COORDINATION AND MONITORING Embedding the ISDP into the management and everyday business of the GKM is essential to achieving many of the ambitious aims of the plan. Key actions include: •

The appointment or nomination of an ISDP coordinator

Establish an ISDP Management Coordination committee

Assign custodianship of each of the Stories of the ISDP to a GKM Department Head

PILOT AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS While the governance and monitoring systems are put in place, it is important that the momentum of the ISDP is sustained, and that stakeholders start to see real outcomes. The immediate implementation of a few high-impact pilot projects can start to demonstrate visible results of the plan as well as test some of the principles and plans. A number of funded projects have been included in the implementation programmes and these would be ideal pilot or demonstration projects.

ISDP COMPONENTS

STATUS QUO (REVIEW EVERY 5 YEARS) Provides baseline (needs to be expanded to whole GKM).

LONG-TERM STRATEGIES (10 – 15 YEAR LIFE-SPAN) Remains in place to provide long-term guidance.

DEVELOPMENT PLAN PROPOSALS (REVIEW EVERY 5 YEARS) Foundation for new SDF (expanded to GKM).

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN (REVIEW ANNUALLY) Programmes and projects (institutional responsibilities revived & align with IDP).

MONITORING & EVALUATION FRAMEWORK

GKM STATUTORY INSTRUMENTS SDF REVIEW (REVIEWED EVERY 5 YEARS)

IDP (REVIEWED ANNUALLY)

NEW SDF (REVIEWED EVERY 5 YEARS)

IDP REVIEW (REVIEWED ANNUALLY)

PERFORMANCE AGREEMENT

Integrate with IDP targets & performance management.

GREEN AMBASSADORS PROGRAMME, BLOG & ISDP FACEBOOK PAGE Ongoing engagement with stakeholders.

DEVELOPMENT CHARTER

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PART IV ANNEXURES & APPENDICES

ANNEXURES APPENDICIES

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13. ANNEXURES 13.1. ANNEXURE A: STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT RECORD OF MEETINGS AND WORKSHOPS:

Kokstad Business Chamber Zwartberg Farmers Association Mount Currie Farmers Association Sisonke Development Agency Department of Economic Development and Tourism Spargs

1 December 2011: Meeting PSC

10 January 2012: R56 Project Meeting

30 January 2012: Presentation of Inception Report to GKM Council

Pick n Pay

14 to 16 February 2012: Presentations to PSC and GKM Council

Spar Rolyats

Public Relations Officer Kathy

Robinson

-

Meg

Rorich

-

Peter

Adam

CEO

Ray

Ngcobo

Deputy Manger

Sphamandla Madikiza

Manager Franchise Owner/ Manager Manager

Andrew

Waters

Ishwar

Manilall

Nick

Christodolou

Real Estate Agent

Francois

-

Owner

Max

Bastard

Manager

Tony

Miliatos

NAFCOC

Branch Chairperson

Naph

Juqu

Scientific Roets

MD

Merida

Roets

Sustainable Development Planning

Val

Payn

Interfin

PA/Secretaty

Loerney

Brand

Interfin

Accountant

Martin

Brand

Stephen Bischof

Accountant

Stephen

Bischof

CRD16 WHYLE

Architect

CRA16

WHYLE

Farmer

Piet

Bosman

Agri Consultant

DO

Richard

Bischof

Businessmen & Cllr.

Owner

Leon

Kotting

GKM

Co-ordinator

Abongile

Zimu

Zodaka Contractors

Director

Zodwa H.

Ludaka

GKM

Tourism International

Lindile

Dina

K.T.O.A.

Rank Manager

Malxole

Mfenqa

K.T.O.A.

Chairperson

O.M.

Mashalaba

K.T.O.A.

Secretary

S.

Mbambalala

K.T.O.A.

S.

Mfenqa

Hawkers

Secretary

Nomanesi

Ntsadu

T.A.M. Enterprise

Chairpeson

Siphiwe

Jubase

Charmaine

Herbert

Op. Manager

Patricia

Napier

Teresa

Olivier

7 March 2012: Team workshop in Durban

Willowdale Farm & Lodge Savvas Wholesale

8 March 2012: Green Ambassador selections in Kokstad

Franklin Sawmill

Manager

Grant

Herbert

9 March 2012: Green Ambassador 1st training session in Kokstad

-

-

-

-

Gerhard

-

10 – 14 April 2012: Green Ambassador Media Academy Training

EG Milling Ferrero Rocher Nut Farm Hido Clay Bricks Matatiele -

-

Hein

-

Local labour broker

Roland

-

Sisonke District

Director Planning

Lucky

Zondi

Sisonke District

Town Planner

Muzi

Luthuli

Yondlabantu Foundation

COGTA

-

Mndisa

Zungu

COGTA

Julian

Kiepiel

TLC Hospice

CEO

DBSA

Manager

DBSA

Programme Manager

Zanele

Shabalala

CTS

ISDP Team

Jo

Lees

LEDC

Mnoneli

Matam

GKM

CTP

K.

Marcuis

Kokstad Youth Coucil

Programme Implementation Manager Customer Service Area Officer Chairperson of NAFCOC Sisonke Treasury

GKM

Co-ord. Comm & IGR

Sabelo

Ncwane

HIV/AIDS Council

Chairperson

Tiny Nosisa Jojozi

GKM

Msiya

Nyaniso

People with Disability Faith Based Orgainisation Home of Comfort

Chairperson

JJ

Mhlongo

Lance

Fenn

Chairperson

SF

Papiyana

Nokuphiwa

Zondi

Chairperson

Phumza

Nompehle

DWA

Co-ord. Human Settlement Water services Authority Manager  

Angela

Masefield

Chairperson

Nomthunzi

Mhlana

Pat

Lowry

Chairperson

Charles

Walstroom

WESSA

Tim

Stubbs

RECORD OF INTERVIEWS

Hawkers Rate Payers Association SAWMU

KZN Wildlife

Secretary

Andile

Nkalweni

COGTA

Chief Town Planner

Pat

Luckin

Nonzukiso

Juqu

Mbali

Khubheka

14 February 2012: Interview Mr LT Somtseu from GKM

Chairperson

Imatu

Working for Wetlands

Pat

Ncumata

15 February and 16 February 2012: Interviews with key officials at GKM and business and community representatives in Kokstad and Franklin.

Chairperson

COSATU

KZN Planning Dept

Sisonke GIS Information & Inspiration Centre/ Sivile/BBI

GIS Specialist

Rendani

Mudau

KZN Agriculture

Zibusiso

Dlamini

Scientific Roets

Civil Engineer

Adriaan

Roets

DoHS

Manager Planning

Peter

Woolf

DoHS

Planner

Bongi

Mchunu

16 & 17 May 2012: Workshop with Councillors, PSC and GKM officials

20 June 2012: Workshop with Councillors, PSC and GKM officials

10 & 11 July 2012: Focus Groups with Small Business including the Taxi Owners, Civil Society Organisations and Large Business including Commercial Farmers

2 August 2012: Strategy Workshop

3 August 2012: PSC Meeting

18 & 19 September 2012; Green Ambassador Training

1 October 2012: M & E Workshops with GKM MANCO and Green Ambassadors

2 & 3 October 2012: Ecosystems Services Workshop

30 October 2012: Stakeholders Workshop on Development Plan and Implementation Plan Elements

Independent Development Trust Eskom NAFCOC

Sakhiwe

Zuma

Brian

Dlamini

Zolile

Ndamase

Bubele

Nogcantsi

Piet

Bosman

GKM SISONKE DM

Thulare

Table.25. LIST OF STAKEHOLDERS CONSULTED FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012


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KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

13.2. ANNEXURE B: SCENARIOS INPUT PARAMETERS USED IN THE MODELS BASELINE POPULATION FIGURES In the absence of a recent national population census, there is not good data on population and households in the GKM. A number of demographic estimates are available for the GKM for the period 2001 to 2011 that range between 46’724 (StatsSA Comminuty Survey, 2007) and 71’114 (Global Insight, 2010). The overall population of the GKM is estimated at approximately 50’000, according to Quantec’s Standardised Regional Dataset (2011). (See Table.26 ) In the absence of population or household numbers for urban areas, a dwelling count was completed in order to estimate the current urban populations of Kokstad and Franklin, based on the average household size of 3.14. The baseline population figures used in the scenario models are indicated in Table.27.

PROJECTED HOUSEHOLD GROWTH Despite the fact that the IDP and Quantec figures show a decline in population in the years leading up to 2007, the 2010/2011 SDF states that there is anecdotal evidence of high growth in Kokstad town due to inward migration from the Eastern Cape and Lesotho by people looking for employment. The incongruity between existing data and anecdotal evidence highlights the high level of uncertainty about the future, and the need to plan for resilience within any future scenario. The 4 scenarios (0-3) explore two different potential population growth rates. The high growth scenario (0-SDF) is based on the extreme levels of growth that would be required to fully develop the land parcels identified for development in the latest SDF (2010/2011) calculated as a total household growth in urban areas of approximately 5.4%. The other 3 scenarios are moderate growth scenarios that assume a household growth DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

Date

Population

Households

Household size

StatsSA Census

2001

56 525

20 567

2.75

StatsSA Community Survey (IDP)

2007

46 724

14 323

3.26

Global Insight

2010

71 114

Quantec (LED Strategy)

2010

50 592

16 124

3.14

Table.26. COMPARISON OF POPULATION AND HOUSEHOLD ESTIMATES

rate of 2%, which accounts for some degree of inward migration that is anticipated as long as Kokstad continues to provide houses, services and economic opportunity.

ECONOMIC GROWTH All 4 scenarios assume a 3% economic growth rate, in line with the reported growth rate over the last 10 years (GKM LED Strategy, 2011). The MSFM model is also re-run on Scenario 0 (SDF) with a higher growth rate of 5.4% – with interesting results.

DENSITY

Households

Population

Total GKM

16 124

50 629

Kokstad town (within SDF urban edge)

9 721

30 524

Franklin (within SDF urban edge)

311

977

Total (within SDF urban edges)

10 032

31 500

Table.27. POPULATION FIGURES USED IN THE SCENARIO MODELS

In order to test some of the implications of ‘smart growth’ versus business as usual, the second scenario assumes medium development and complementary mixed-uses. A lot of work was done to determine an appropriate target gross base density for the town, including comparing the existing density of various parts of the town with examples of high, medium and low-density environments across the world and density targets that have been set for other cities. Also taken into consideration was the importance of retaining Kokstad’s unique character as a rural South African town, as well as the importance of having neighbourhoods with varied gross and net densities, to accommodate the needs of different family types and lifestyle choices. The model assumes a target gross base density within the overall urban area of 14 du/ha, which is similar to the gross base density target for Calgary (City of Calgary, 2012). (See Table.28)

Average household size in 2012 (number of people)

3,14

Number of households in the GKM in 2012

16 124,00

Number of households in the Kokstad SDF Urban Edge in 2012

9 721,00

Kokstad gross urban area existing 2012 (ha)

1 296

SMART GROWTH

Existing gross base density within the Kokstad 2012 urban area 2012 (du/ha)

7,50

Average number of households in the Franklin SDF urban edge in 2012

311,00

Franklin gross urban area existing 2012 (ha)

47

Existing gross base density within the Franklin urban area 2012 (du/ha)

6,57

Target for gross base density across the built area of the town (du/ha)

14

Scenario 2 and 3 test the implications of ‘smart growth’, including higher than usual densities and complementary mixed-use development. The higher density, more compact ‘smart growth’ reduces public services capital costs and public services operating costs incurred by the municipality. A study by the City of Calgary entitled The Implications of Alternative Growth Patterns on Infrastructure Costs (Plan It Calgary, 2009) examines the infrastructure implications of compact, high-density growth versus sprawl, and shows the following key findings, which

Table.28. FINAL INPUT PARAMETERS USED FOR KOKSTAD AND FRANKLIN SPATIAL MODELS


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Roadways

Dispersed

Compact

Difference

Difference (%)

$17.6

$11.2

$6.4

(-36%)

Transit

$6.8

$6.2

$ 0.6

(-9%)

Water and Wastewater

$5.5

$2.5

$3.0

(-54)

Fire Stations

$0.5

$0.3

$0.2

(-46%)

Recreation Centers

$1.1

$0.9

$0.2

(-19%)

Schools

$3.0

$2.2

$0.8

(-27%)

Totals

$34.5

$23.3

$11.2

(-33%)

SOURCE: Victoria Transport Policy Institute, 2012

Dispersed

Compact

Difference

Difference (%)

Roadways

$0.23

$0.19

$0.04

(-18%)

Transit

$0.30

$0.30

$0.00

(0%)

Water and Wastewater

$0.06

$0.03

$0.03

(-55%)

Fire Stations

$0.28

$0.23

$0.05

(-18%)

Recreation Centers

$0.23

$0.19

$0.04

(-18%)

Totals

$0.99

$0.86

$0.13

(-14%)

SOURCE: Victoria Transport Policy Institute, 2012

For more information about this, refer to Understanding Smart Growth Savings (Victoria Transport Policy Institute, 2012) and The Implications of Alternative Growth Patterns on Infrastructure Costs (Plan It Calgary, 2009) – both provide great insights into the economic, social and environmental benefits of smart growth.

SUSTAINABLE INFRASTRUCTURE & TECHNOLOGIES

Table.30. PUBLIC SERVICES OPERATING COSTS, BILLIONS

Table.29. PUBLIC SERVICES CAPITAL COSTS, BILLIONS

have been used to ‘tune’ the MSFM model for Scenario 2 and Scenario 3 (See Table.29 and Table.30).

Scenario 3 assumes the use of sustainable infrastructure and technologies at household and municipal scales of development. The sustainable technology mix considered in this final scenario includes green technologies for new households and retrofitting of existing households (solar water heaters, grey water recycling), small scale anaerobic digestion, institutional anaerobic digestion, a constructed wetland, treated effluent used to water the golf course, PRVs in Shayamoya and leak repair programmes in Shayamoya. For more information about the input parameters used in the Municipal Financial Services Model and the Eco-Futures: Ecosystem Services Supply And Demand Assessment please refer to the separate reports included as appendices. Scenarios: land area and density calculations The land areas and densities applied in the various scenarios are explicated in the accompanying tables.

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SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT SCENARIOS

EXISTING GROSS BASE DENSITY WITHIN THE KOKSTAD 2012 URBAN AREA 2012 (DU/HA): 7,50 EXISTING GROSS BASE DENSITY WITHIN THE FRANKLIN URBAN AREA 2012 (DU/HA): 6,57 TARGET FOR GROSS BASE DENSITY ACROSS WITH THE URBAN EDGE (DU/HA): 14,00

SCENARIO SDF KOKSTAD Proposed SDF Urban Edge Existing urban area (gross base) 2012 Multi purpose retail and office (south entrance to town) Multi purpose retail and office (N2 to Mthatha) Urban expansion mixed node (Piet’s farm) Urban expansion mixed node (R56 Phase 1) Urban expansion mixed node (R56 Phase 2) Urban expansion mixed node (Middlefontein) Urban expansion mixed node (KromDraai) Urban expansion mixed node (Usherwood west) Proposed institutional (next to St Patricks) Proposed institutional (Diocese Umzimvubu) Commercial agriculture and tourism Intensive agriculture Nature reserve Poverty alleviation and LED initiative Small holdings Proposed hotel Sub-Total   FRANKLIN Proposed SDF Urban Edge   Existing urban area (gross base) 2012 Proposed Erven 1 - 506 of Farm No.122 Sub-Total   TOTAL

Table.31. SCENARIO 0 SDF DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

  m2 150 654 057   12 964 569 5 676 217 4 890 655 3 653 985 654 873 4 370 921 495 980 3 709 218 9 397 002 342 417 1 562 471 40 609 357 28 791 994 15 195 494 7 084 750 2 605 429 741 233 142 746 565     11 328 272   473 365 416 548 889 913   143 636 478

  % of total 100,0%   8,6% 3,8% 3,2% 2,4% 0,4% 2,9% 0,3% 2,5% 6,2% 0,2% 1,0% 27,0% 19,1% 10,1% 4,7% 1,7% 0,5% 94,8%     100%   4% 4% 8%    

  ha 15 065   1 296 568 489 365 65 437 50 371 940 34 156             4 772     1 133   47 42 89   4 861

CONVENTIONAL DENSITY Households     9 721 4 256 3 667 2 740 491 3 277 372 2 781 7 046 257 1 172             35 780         311 274 585   36 364

  Population     30 524 13 364 11 515 8 603 1 542 10 291 1 168 8 733 22 124 806 3 679             112 349         977 859 1 836   114 184

TARGET DENSITY Households     18 150,4 7 946,7 6 846,9 5 115,6 916,8 6 119,3 694,4 5 192,9 13 155,8 479,4 2 187,5             66 806         662,7 583,2 1 246   68 052

  Population     56 992 24 953 21 499 16 063 2 879 19 215 2 180 16 306 41 309 1 505 6 869             209 770         2 081 1 831 3 912   213 682


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SCENARIO 1 KOKSTAD Proposed SDF Urban Edge Existing urban area (gross base) 2012 Multi purpose retail and office (south entrance to town) Multi purpose retail and office (N2 to Mthatha) Urban expansion mixed node (Piet’s farm) Urban expansion mixed node (R56 Phase 1) Urban expansion mixed node (R56 Phase 2) Urban expansion mixed node (Middlefontein) Urban expansion mixed node (KromDraai) Urban expansion mixed node (Usherwood west) Proposed institutional (next to St Patricks) Proposed institutional (Diocese Umzimvubu) Commercial agriculture and tourism Intensive agriculture Nature reserve Poverty alleviation and LED initiative Small holdings Proposed hotel Sub-Total   FRANKLIN Proposed SDF Urban Edge   Existing urban area (gross base) 2012 Proposed Erven 1 - 506 of Farm No.122 Sub-Total   TOTAL

  m2 150 654 057   12 964 569 5 676 217 4 890 655 3 653 985 654 873 4 370 921 495 980 3 709 218 9 397 002 342 417 1 562 471 40 609 357 28 791 994 15 195 494 7 084 750 2 605 429 741 233 142 746 565     11 328 272   473 365 416 548 889 913   143 636 478

  % of total 100,0%   8,6% 3,8% 3,2% 2,4% 0,4% 2,9% 0,3% 2,5% 6,2% 0,2% 1,0% 27,0% 19,1% 10,1% 4,7% 1,7% 0,5% 94,8%     100%   4% 4% 8%    

  ha 15 065   1 296 568     65 437                       2 367     1 133   47 42 89   2 456

CONVENTIONAL DENSITY Households     9 721 4 256 0 0 491 3 277 0 0 0 0 0             17 746         311 274 585   18 330

  Population     30 524 13 364 0 0 1 542 10 291 0 0 0 0 0             55 721         977 859 1 836   57 557

TARGET DENSITY Households     18 150,4 7 946,7 0,0 0,0 916,8 6 119,3 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0             33 133         662,7 583,2 1 246   34 379

  Population     56 992 24 953 0 0 2 879 19 215 0 0 0 0 0             104 038         2 081 1 831 3 912   107 950

SCENARIO 2 & SCENARIO 3 KOKSTAD Existing urban area (gross base) 2012   FRANKLIN Existing urban area (gross base) 2012   TOTAL

  m2 12 964 569     473 365   13 437 934

               

  ha 1 296     47   1 344

CONVENTIONAL DENSITY Households 9 721     311   10 032

  Population 30 524     977   31 500

TARGET DENSITY Households 18 150     663   18 813

  Population 56 992     2 081   59 073

Table.32. SCENARIO 1 BUSINESS AS USUAL, SCENARIO 2 SMART GROWTH, SCENARIO 3 SMART & SUSTAINABLE GROWTH FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012


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13.3. ANNEXURE C: PRECEDENT 13.3.1. CROSSROADS LOCALISING THE ECONOMY “Too often, when we talk about social inclusion, we talk as if communities don’t do economics, they get economics done to them, while we try to fit social inclusion around the aftermath. But can we not organise our economy so that we involve people, so that more of them have a stake, so that they are involved as collaborators and not as pawns: as owners, financers, buyers, sellers, makers, providers and as community activists? And if we did this, doesn’t it in itself create stronger, more inclusive communities and greater equality in which economic participation becomes more immediate and accessible – even to the habitually excluded?”

Economic localisation means bringing economic activity closer to home – supporting local economies and communities rather than huge, distant corporations. Economic localisation means bringing economic activity closer to home – supporting local economies and communities rather than huge, distant corporations. It means a smaller gap between rich and poor and closer contact between producers and consumers. This translates into greater social cohesion: a recent study found that shoppers at farmers’ markets had ten times more conversations than people in supermarkets.

The Lakshman Sagar Resort in Rajasthan, India was designed according to these principles. An entire range of products and furnishings were the successful culmination of local culture, local skills and local materials of the villages and towns in and around Lakshman Sagar. By involving the local community, it evokes a sense of belonging and a sense of pride amongst them which can be groomed into long term partnerships.

Localise West Midlands is a not-for-profit organisation which exists to promote the environmental, social and economic benefits of: •

Local trading, using local businesses, materials and supply chains,

Linking local needs to local resources,

Development of community and local capacity,

Decentralisation of appropriate democratic and economic power,

Provision of services tailored to meet local needs.

The zero kilometre design concept is born out of the belief that designing beautiful and functional products should be combined with efforts to save and preserve local traditions, local craftsmanship and the ecology. A similar movement is taking place in the food industry in various parts of the world. The transportation of food from where it is produced to where it is consumed can create many social, environmental and economic problems. Long distance manufacturing leads to increase in prices of products due to ever-increasing oil prices, may lead to environmental pollution and makes it even more difficult to control the quality of the products. Moreover, it may eventually lead to homogeneity of tastes and flavours, depriving us of age old traditions and local recipes. Sharing similar concerns in the field of design and product development, the zero kilometre approach has been adopted by the designers to create entire ranges of products and furnishings by the successful culmination of local culture, local skills and local materials. Furthermore, by involving the local community, it evokes a sense of belonging and a sense of pride amongst them which can be groomed into long term partnerships between the locals and the enterprise. The advantages of creating a local building industry are numerous:

This localisation approach makes economic development and government systems more sensitive to local autonomy, culture, wellbeing and the responsible use of finite resources, and is growing in popularity with people and organisations all over the world. Localisation helps build social capital, targets regeneration to meet local needs, maximises local job creation, and reduces transport and CO2 emissions. (adapted from LWM, at http:// localisewestmidlands.org.uk/) Photo 44. LOCALISE INITIATIVE IN THE USA

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ZERO KILOMETER DESIGN - BUILDING A CULTURE OF LOCAL

Photo 43. LAKSHMAN SAGAR, RAJASTHAN, INDIA. An example of Zero Kilometer Design

The simplicity of the systems means “it enables a local workforce to be used … this ensures that a greater proportion of economic value is captured in the local economy”

Jobs would be created by the manufacturing of the materials

It would also result in professional skills development

a heightened sense of personal dignity and respect resulting from long-term professional employment

enhanced social well-being


169

improved social capital

healthier buildings

a more resilient building supply chain

reduced CO2 emissions and

increased longevity of the building stock

(Adapted from Hulme & Raford, 2010, Sustainable Supply Chains That Support Local Economic Development, - can be accessed at http://www.princes-foundation.org/sites/default/ files/pfbe_supplychains_paper_2010.pdf)

GREENING TRANSPORT The SmartWay Transport Partnership is likely to have increasing appeal in the coming years as fuel prices rise and as the prospect of global warming influences businesses and individuals to reassess their environmental footprint. By 2012, the SmartWay Transport Partnership aims to save between 3.3 and 6.6 billion gallons of diesel fuel per year, which translates to eliminating between 33 - 66 million metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions and up to 200,000 tons of nitrous oxide emissions per year. The Partnership also aims to reduce large amounts of particulate matter (PM). The SmartWay Partnership helps freight shippers and carriers discover ways to improve the efficiency of their supply chain and achieve superior environmental performance. SmartWay shippers fulfill their commitment by shipping their goods with SmartWay carriers, by using other, less-polluting modes of commercial transport including rail transport, and by reducing truck idling at their shipping facilities. SmartWay Logistics Partners inspire the fleets that they manage to join the Partnership, adopt fuel-savings strategies and technologies, and commit to increasing the amount of freight shipped by SmartWay carriers by 5% per year. SmartWay Affiliates, which include various state government agencies and trade groups, play a promotional role for SmartWay by educating policy-actors and their members about the benefits of the Partnership.

Similar initiatives are spreading through the developing world. In China, the GEF Guangdong Green Freight Demonstration Project has been set up as a pilot projectto address the very low energy efficiency in Chinese Road Freight. There are two major challenges, the first being truck technologies. According to the Ministry of Transport, (MoT), because fuel-saving technologies and practices have not been widely adopted in China, the fuel efficiency of Chinese trucks is about 30% lower than in advanced OECD countries. This market failure occurs because: (a) carriers are unwilling to experiment with new or unknown technologies; and (b) the market lacks information on the performance, cost and availability of fuel efficiency technologies.

The SmartWay Transport Partnership is a collaboration between freight shippers, carriers, and logistics companies to voluntarily achieve improved fuel efficiency and reduced emissions from freight transport.

GEF Guangdong Green Freight Demonstration Project: Goal: Addressing efficiency within the transport sector in China by addressing both truck technologies and logistics management in a developingworld context.

By providing mobile services such as mobile clinics, mobile libraries and periodic markets, the costs (financial and time) of travelling can be cut down significantly within the region. This eases the burden on poorer communities as well as cutting the carbon and energy costs of the region.

The second obstacle to improved energy efficiency is logistics management. The trucking industry in China is largely operated by the private sector, but in contrast with many industrialized countries, the sector is fragmented and most companies are very small – often single truck owner operators. Also, lack of modern logistics brokerage practices has resulted in a large number of annual empty back-haul kilometers -- reported to be more than 30% of all freight vehicle-kilometers traveled in Guangdong Province. (adapted from CAI-Asia, 2011, Design of Green Freight China Program).

Fig 123. GREEN FREIGHT: More efficient logistics management (top) and more fuel efficient trucking technology (bottom)

Photo 45.  MOBILE CLINICS Mobile services reduce the need for individuals to travels

FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012


13.3.2. TOWN COMPLETE STREETS AND NEIGHBOURHOOD COMPLETENESS, MIXED-USE AND DENSITY The streets of our cities and towns are an important part of the livability of our communities. They ought to be for everyone, whether young or old, motorist or bicyclist, walker or wheelchair user, bus rider or shopkeeper. Complete Streets are streets which are safe, comfortable, and convenient for travel for everyone, regardless of age or ability; motorists, pedestrians, bicyclists, and public transportation riders. They are also streets that are pleasant to walk along, offering shelter and interest. Density is a critical factor in place-making because it impacts on so many other aspects. Higher densities allow for a greater concentration of ameities, a greater diversity of commercial enterprises and public facilities, a greater availability of housing types (and a greater variety of housing types), a more accessible public transport system, and generally promotes greater integration of people. But it’s not just density that matters. In commercial and/or highly public streets, the interface between buildings and street are of critical importance. These ‘edges’ should be: •

active, so that there is activity going on within and without (like cafes spilling life onto the sidewalks);

transparent, so that one can easily deduce what sort of activity is happening inside a building and what its function is,

and permeable, so that it is easy to pass through shops/lanes/side streets without requiring significant detours to get to where one wants to be.

This high level of activity maintains econoic and social vitality, and becomes in itself and attractor of more people, investment and activity. Clustering of amenities Grouping together social and public amenities creates a more efficient land-use system, where local nodes can meet the needs of the local neighbourhood. There is an increasing trend, too, to cluster together different uses within the same building, so as to maximise efficient usage. The Hundsund School & Community Centre (Bærum, Norway) is such an example - it consists of a secondary school, a nursery school, a public swimming pool and sports hall, ice rink and clubhouse. The buildings are placed along an urban pedestrian street, so that the street becomes the ‘backbone’ of the project, and a meeting place for the local community. This grouping of public buildings, and multiplication of uses, means that it is more economic, efficient and affordable as it is used around the clock by a greater variety of people throughout the day.

Complete Streets are streets which are safe, comfortable, and convenient for travel for everyone, regardless of age or ability; motorists, pedestrians, bicyclists, and public transportation riders. They are also streets that are pleasant to walk along, offering shelter and interest along the way. This involves not only infrastructure provision (ensuring there is space for pedestrians and cyclists) but that surrounding land uses offer a pedestrian-friendly environment. This includes higher densities (so that trip distances are shorter), mixed use (so that amenities and shops are closer), and passive surveillance from street edges (so that streets are safer).

Photo 49. BOGOTA COMPLETE STREETS Before and after a complete streets/neighbourhood approach was taken

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Photo 46. SHAYAMOYA Undefined street edges and very low densities.

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Photo 47. MIXED-DENSITY, MIXED-USE DEVELOPMENT IN NORWAY

Photo 48. LIVABLE STREETS FOR THE FUTURE Where there is ample space and safety for pedestrians, cyclists, public transit and private vehicles.


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Incremental Housing PROVIDES A BASIC FOUNDATION FOR THE INHABITANT TO FILL IN THE REST. With too little budget to build high quality housing for a low-income housing development in Chile, Elemental decided to build half a good house, and the basic foundations for the inhabitants to fill in the rest. Since they wanted to maintain density and guarantee a good street-frontage, they decided to go build on the lot line and go up rather than sideways, leaving vertical spaces for residents to fill in in their own time. (This also meant that over time, houses would become personalised as different people make different kind of additions). Future inhabitants were asked to prioritise their own needs, such as choosing between bathtubs or geysers.

INCREMENTAL HOUSING When Alejandro Aravena and his company Elemental were asked to design low-cost housing on a particularly impoverished site in Iquique, Chile, they realised that the government budget (of US$7500) was simply not enough to build a whole house to middle-income standards. So instead, they decided to build half a good house, and the basic foundations for the inhabitants to fill in the rest. Since they wanted to maintain density and guarantee a good streetfrontage, they decided to go build on the lot line and go up rather than sideways, thereby leaving vertical spaces for residents to fill in in their own time. (This also meant that over time, houses would become personalised as different people make different kind of additions). Future inhabitants were also asked to prioritise their own needs, for example being allowed to choose between the installation of a hot water geyser or a bathtub, since both together were unaffordable. In the agency’s own words: “Instead of thinking in terms of a tiny unit that will add more bedrooms in time, we designed a middle income house, out of which we were giving just a small part now. This meant a change in the standard of the design. Kitchens and bathrooms had to be designed for a final scenario of a 72 m2 house. Bathrooms should consider the

Photo 52. ELEMENTAL HOUSING PROJECT, CHILE An incremental housing project that allows owners to gradually improve their property over time (above before; below - after).

Photo 50. ELEMENTAL_PARAISOPOLIS 120 Houses Complex | Project: 2009 | Initial Built Area: 44 m2 per unit | Expanded house: 63 m² | Sao Paulo

possibility of having a tub and not just a shower, kitchens should be able to become a separated room, some bedrooms should allow for queen size beds. The standard of the house had to be prepared both for a future more exigent dweller and to become a valuable good.” “A key issue in the economical take off of a poor family is the provision a physical space for the extensive family to develop. Multifamily lot occupancy is not just incapacity to have one’s own house; it is also an economic device that provides the place for “the extensive family”, an intermediate level of association that allows gaining some economies of scale and a support network to survive under fragile economic conditions. In this case, we introduced the collective space, conformed by 20 families around a common property with restricted access, that proved to be a way to successfully take urban living beyond the private realm and ensure its maintenance and in the end, its value.”

Photo 51. LANGA, CAPE TOWN Mixed-density, mixed-use development

The Lighthouses are free educational centres which include libraries, Internet access, and other cultural resources. Curitiba’s Lighthouses of Knowledge are a great example of social infrastructure. Job training, social welfare and educational programs are coordinated, and often supply labor to improve the city’s amenities or services, as well as education and income. Due to these ‘Lighthouses’, Curitiba boasts one of the highest literacy rates in the country.

Photo 53. FAROL DO SABER, CURITIBA A ‘Lighthouse of Knowledge’ containing a library, free internet, and the access point to social programmes

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13.3.3. INFRASTRUCTURE ZERO-CARBON ZERO-WASTE INFRASTRUCTURE SYSTEMS The aim of the Z-squared project team was to develop a concept design for a zero carbon and zero waste community (hence “Z-squared”) for up to 5,000 people for the Thames Gateway regeneration area east of London. Where there are technical or commercial limits to achieving zero carbon and zero waste, the report outlines the gap and identifies what is needed to achieve these targets over a given timescale. Z-squared, a mixed use, mixed tenure development is intended as a model One Planet Living Community that provides homes, office and light industry workspaces, shops, education, leisure, health and community facilities together with green open space. Z-squared aims to integrate a variety of residential, commercial and leisure uses, with most facilities within walking distance and efficient public transport and a car club, making it easier to live without owning a car, following the “Compact City” form advocated in Cities for a Small Planet12. Many young people and key workers are currently struggling to afford housing, car ownership and feed their families. Z-squared aims to ensure that the local infrastructure is in place to enable these people to enjoy a better quality of life, thereby strengthening the fabric of society. Modern cities consume resources from all over the globe, with little thought as to where they originate or where the wastes end up. The linear flow of resources through our society sees raw materials extracted and processed into consumer goods which ultimately end up as waste, 75% of which currently ends up in landfill sites; food is imported, consumed and discharged as sewage with little recovery of nutrients. This linear model of production, consumption and discharge is unsustainable. “Cities will need to adopt circular metabolic systems to ensure their own long-term viability and that of the rural developments on whose sustained productivity they depend” (Girardet). DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

The metabolism of Z-squared is one that follows the principles of industrial ecology, maximising recycling of glass, paper, plastics and metals, anaerobically digesting organic waste and sewage to produce biogas that can be converted to energy in a CHP plant, nutrientrich digestate and fibre, and attracting clusters of businesses that maximise resource efficiency and energy use. In addition, a mix of renewable energy technologies will be used to reduce the continually increasing demand on local infrastructure. The objective is to create a thriving and successful new urban quarter, where people will want to live, work and enjoy leisure time. The delivery of zero carbon and zero waste objectives will work with this vision to produce an outstanding environment that: •

Supports a successful, vibrant and integrated mix of homes, shops, businesses, leisure facilities and other uses and activities;

Has its own clear and positive identity, that builds on the strengths of its surrounding context;

Has suitable size, scale, density and layout to support other amenities in the neighbourhood, whilst minimising resource – including land;

Will contain high quality recreation facilities;

Is safe, secure and free of the fear of crime;

Supports centres of learning and training at all levels;

Gives priority to pedestrians, public transport and cycling,rather than cars;

Has direct or close proximity to public transport, linking it to urban, regional and rural centres;

Has a high quality, attractive and successful public realm of streets and spaces that are well-designed, safe to use and easy to understand;

Is clean and well-maintained;

Has an integrated network of high quality green spaces and green lanes that draws people into and through the area,

THE Z-SQUARED STUDY FOR A ONE PLANET COMMUNITY IN LONDON MAPPED THE FLOWS OF RESOURCES THROUGH THE COMMUNITY; HEAT, COOL, POWER, WATER, WASTEWATER, WASTE – AND EVALUATED TECHNOLOGY OPTIONS THAT COULD DELIVER ZERO CARBON AND ZERO WASTE TO FORM NEW MATERIAL INPUTS STREAMS RESULTING IN A CLOSED LOOP SYSTEM.

Fig 125. Z-SQUARED INFRASTRUCTURE DIAGRAM Increasing renewable energy generation and decreasing waste.

Fig 124. THE Z-SQUARED CONCEPT DRAWING


173

encourages activity and improves the appearance of the area and the quality of life of the people in it; •

Provides for the economical, educational, cultural, social and other needs of a diverse mix of residents;

Provides a balanced and integrated mix of residential accommodation of different types and tenures to support a range of household sizes, ages and incomes;

Has easy access to a diverse range of high quality local public facilities and services, including education and training opportunities, health care and community and leisure; (adapted from Bioregional, 2004)

At Kalundborg, steam and various raw materials such as sulphur, fly ash and sludge are exchanged in what is the world’s most elaborate industrial ecosystem.

“Everyone told us we were crazy. But within three months of launching the programme, , 70% of families were separating their garbage”.

The participating firms each benefit economically from reduced costs for waste disposal, improved efficiencies of resource use and improved environmental performance.

INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY The exchange of ‘wastes’/commodities between independent firms in some sectors has been taking place for over a century, simply because it makes good business sense. The establishment of ‘industrial ecosystems,’ however, is a relatively new phenomenon, with one of the best known example being located in Kalundborg, Denmark. An industrial ecosystem has been established in this town, which involves an oil refinery, a gypsum factory, a pharmaceutical firm, a fish farm, a coal-fired electrical power station and the municipality of Kalundborg, among others. At Kalundborg, steam and various raw materials such as sulphur, fly ash and sludge are exchanged in what is the world’s most elaborate industrial ecosystem. The participating firms each benefit economically from reduced costs for waste disposal, improved efficiencies of resource use and improved environmental performance. For example, gas captured from the oil refinery, which had previously been flared off, is now sent to the electrical power station which expects to save the equivalent of 30,000 tonnes of coal a year. (National Waste Management Strategy, Annexure G, RSA 2004)

“Garbage That Is Not Garbage” Curitiba’s recycling programme.

Children collect recyclable material in their community and trade it for snacks, toys and educational materials www. swop-shop.za.net

Curitiba launched a comprehensive recycling policy that started with encouraging residents to separate waste for recycling and expanded to a host of programmes including exchanging garbage in low-income communities for fruit, vegetables and bus passes; an innovative recycling education plan aimed at school children; and the employment of homeless people and recovering drug addicts in the recycling station, as part of a rehabilitation programme focussing on skills-building.

The Recycle Swop Shop (Hermanus, Western Cape)

COMBINING INFRASTRUCTURE SOLUTIONS WITH SOCIAL SOLUTIONS While the right infrastructure is key, a holistic approach to problem-solving can allow a single approach to solve many problems. Thus, Curitiba managed to combine the need for more sustainable waste management with social programmes that addressed homelessness, unemployment, drug rehabilitation and poverty. Furthermore, it was understood from the beginning that the programme itself could not be viable if it was not embraced and owned by the population at large. Accordingly, a comprehensive campaign aimed at educating school children (entailing radio, television, and school activities) was launched at the same time as the recycling programme. By getting buy-in from the children, three months after the launch of the campaign, 70% of families were participating in the programme by separating their waste. A similarly creative approach has been taken by a South African NGO initiative, the Swap Shop, that allows children to trade recyclebable materials for snacks, toys and educaitonal materials. Throughout the week, children are encouraged to collect and sort recyclable “litter” within their neighbourhood. Once a week, children bring in their collections where material is weighed and the child receives a ticket bearing points based on the quantities they have collected. From there, they go to the “shop” where they can “buy” items with their points. On their way out, all children receive a nutritional snack regardless of the amount of recycling they brought in. Every aspect of the RSS process plays a developmental role in the children’s lives. Through sorting, counting, calculating, weighing, budgeting, saving and banking points, the children are being introduced to educational processes and valuable life skills that are practiced and reinforced in a practical manner.

Photo 54. WASTE SORTING FACILITY, CURITIBA, BRAZIL

FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012


13.3.4. NATURAL RESOURCES CURITIBA’S PARK PROGRAMME: PROTECTING AND ENHANCING NATURAL ASSETS Curitiba took an innovative approach to green space and flood control too. Numerous small rivers run through the city’s urban area, and flooding has been a seasonal problem since encroachment into the floodplain began. Typical engineering solutions - such as channelising the rivers or creating drainage systems - merely transferred the problem to other areas, so a more holistic approach was sought. The solution that was found worked not only because it addressed the problem of flooding, but because social and environmental needs were all incorporated into the response. Land within the floodplains were reclaimed and transformed into parks, which were protected and maintained by a municipal corporation (called the ‘Green Guards’), while programmes were rolled out to encourage community responsibility for care and maintenance. Accordingly, the Boy Scout Bicycle Watch patrolled the parks to look out protect both park and users, while local schools were actively encouraged to use the parks to promote knowledge about them and about ecological principles. Where budgets ran short, creativity was substituted for financial resources - such as utilising flocks of sheep instead of lawnmowers to keep lawns short.

“Since the 90s, the parks encouraged tourists to stay longer in Curitiba - before it was just a overnight stop between North and South. After, tourists spent on average three nights instead of just one.”

Curitiba had a problem with low-income and informal housing located in floodplains. Unable to implement expensive engineering solutions, an alternative strategy was attempted - relocating all the homes in flood-prone areas and turning the land into seasonal parks that flood over rainy periods while keeping natural ecosystems intact.

Since this plan/programme was first implemented, over 1.5 million trees have been planted by the city, and the ratio of open space to inhabitant has increased from 0.5 square meters to 52 square meters per person - one of the highest averages of green space per inhabitant among urban areas worldwide.

This turned flooding from the city’s largest problem to its biggest asset, with per-capita green space shifting from 0.5m2 to 55m2; an asset protected and maintained by a combination of municipal agencies and community organisations, and with a multiplier effect throughout all spheres - social, environmental, financial, and even economic.

DEVELOPING RESPONSIBLY: A POSITIVE URBAN EDGE

“You see, the houses round the park increased in value, and hence land and property taxes increased. So the money collected in rates and taxes have paid for these parks many times over. “

AGRICULTURE

NATURAL NATURAL RESOURCES RESOURCES

INFRASTRUCTURE

TOWN

CROSSROADS

ENABLING INSTITUTIONS

174

Fig 126. COMPARISON OF GREEN SPACE PER CAPITA M2 of green space per person in cities of the world DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

Photo 55. INTERVIEW WITH CURITIBA PLANNERS Curitiba’s planners and engineers talk about the advantages their parks have brought their city.

Photo 56. BARIQUI PARK IN CURITIBA Curitiba’s policy of using floodplains as parks - and their creative solutions for managing parks on light budgets - mean that Curitiba residents have access to some of the most extensive and highest quality urban green space networks in the world - not bad for a small city in a developing country!

Adelaide, Australia and Graff Reinet, Eastern Cape, South Africa are relevant precedent to both understand the structure of Kokstad, and when considering an approach to sustainable growth and development of the town. All three settlements respond positively to their river systems, using the river course to structure the layout of the settlement. The edge treatment of both Adelaide and Graaf Reinet represent a sustainable approach to place making, locating appropriate land uses (i.e. sports fields and large parks) between the built edge and the sensitive riverine environment. This approach limits inappropriate intrusive and insensitive development on the edge of towns, and reinforces urbanity and the natural landscape, while protecting the place-making elements and the setting of the town. The green system of Adelaide also serves to integrate a dispersed settlement, something that could be implemented in Kokstad to unify and consolidate the different part of the town. The green space in Adelaide is a focus for communal facilities such as sport fields, parks, concert venues, botanic gardens, memorials and related education facilities (i.e. environmental centre and aquatic centre etc), and in Kokstad could be used to respond to local needs such as communal food production and agricultural training.


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CITIES AND TOWNS THAT SUCCESFULLY MANAGE AND DESIGN THEIR INTERFACES WITH NATURAL FEATURES (SUCH AS RIVERS, PARKS AND THE SURROUDING COUNTRYSIDE), INCREASE THE QUALITY OF THEIR URBAN ENVIRONMENT.

KOKSTAD

CONNECTING AND INTEGRATING SPECIAL AND NATURAL SPACES: THE IMPORTANCE OF BIODIVERSITY CORRIDORS Environmental services of biodiversity corridors include: •

reduced flooding,

reduced soil erosion,

improved water quality,

increased water quantity,

groundwater recharge,

bank stabilization, and

improved air quality.

Photo 57. ACTIVE USE OF RIVERLANDS

Fig 127. FIG  11.  NATURAL CONNECTIVITY SHOULD BE MAINTAINED OR RESTORED

GRAAF-REINET

ADELAIDE

Photo 59. URBAN NATURE INTERFACE

Photo 58. CREATE APPROPRIATE BIODIVERSITY CORRIDORS

FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012


AGRICULTURE

NATURAL RESOURCES

INFRASTRUCTURE

TOWN

CROSSROADS

ENABLING INSTITUTIONS

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13.3.5. AGRICULTURE BUILDING A LOCAL CULTURE OF FOOD IN BELO HORIZONTE, BRAZIL Belo, a city of 2.5 million people, once had 11 percent of its population living in absolute poverty, and almost 20 percent of its children going hungry. Then in 1993, a newly elected administration declared food a right of citizenship. The officials said, in effect: If you are too poor to buy food in the market—you are no less a citizen. I am still accountable to you.

“We’re fighting the concept that the state is a terrible, incompetent administrator,” Adriana explained. “We’re showing that the state doesn’t have to provide everything, it can facilitate. It can create channels for people to find solutions themselves.” (adapted from Lappe, 2009 on http://www. yesmagazine.org/issues/food-for-everyone/thecity-that-ended-hunger)

THE BELO-HORIZONTE FOOD PROGRAMME

Goals

“TO SEARCH FOR SOLUTIONS TO HUNGER MEANS TO ACT WITHIN THE PRINCIPLE THAT THE STATUS OF A CITIZEN SURPASSES THAT OF A MERE CONSUMER.”

To prioritise local producers in government purchases and selling initiatives to support family-agriculture and local livelihoods

CITY OF BELO HORIZONTE, BRAZIL

Integrate logistics and supply chains of the entire food system

The new mayor, Patrus Ananias—now leader of the federal anti-hunger effort—began by creating a city agency, which included assembling a 20-member council of citizen, labor, business, and church representatives to advise in the design and implementation of a new food system. The city already involved regular citizens directly in allocating municipal resources—the “participatory budgeting” that started in the 1970s and has since spread across Brazil. During the first six years of Belo’s food-as-a-right policy, perhaps in response to the new emphasis on food security, the number of citizens engaging in the city’s participatory budgeting process doubled to more than 31,000.

DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

To make food programs universally accessible to reduce the stigma of poverty Strategies / Concepts

Tie local producers directly to consumers to reduce food prices and increase sovereignty Use government purchases to stimulate local, diversified agricultural production Educate the population about food security and good nutrition Regulate markets on selected produce to guarantee the right to healthy, high-quality food to all of its citizens To built trust in government through commitment to high quality and a vision of ‘food with dignity’

The city agency developed dozens of innovations to assure everyone the right to food, especially by weaving together the interests of farmers and consumers. It offered local family farmers dozens of choice spots of public space on which to sell to urban consumers, essentially redistributing retailer mark-ups on produce— which often reached 100 percent—to consumers and the farmers. Farmers’ profits grew, since there was no wholesaler taking a cut. And poor people got access to fresh, healthy food. Another product of food-as-a-right thinking is three large, airy “People’s Restaurants” (Restaurante Popular), plus a few smaller venues, that daily serve 12,000 or more people using mostly locally grown food for the equivalent of less than 50 cents a meal.

To create new channels of affordable access to healthy food

Photo 60. BELO HORIZONTE VEGETABLE MARKET

Fig 128. BELO HORIZONTE FOOD PROGRAMME: RESULTS

Photo 61. BELO HORIZONTE PUBLIC RESTAURANT


177

KWAXOLO CHICKENS (Hibiscus Coast Municipality) A chicken production and processing facility that contracts small-scale farmers to supply its broilers. Strategy To increase skills levels, create jobs and increase food security through co-operative farming enterprises. While small-scale farmers can’t compete directly with large-scale farmers due to economies of scale, institutional arrangements – like contract growing and buying inputs in bulk – can help.

“CONTRACT GROWING CAN PROVIDE LOW-RISK, EFFECTIVE AND EMPOWERING MARKET LINKAGES FOR SMALL-SCALE FARMERS WHO FIND IT DIFFICULT TO MARKET THEIR PRODUCE.” DR. ROETS

DIVERSIFYING SCALES OF PRODUCTION: KWAXOLO CHICKEN FARMS KwaXolo Chickens, situated in KwaXolo, outside Port Edward in KZN, consists of an R8,6 million abattoir and processing facility run by a youth co-operative, the KwaXolo Processing Primary Co-operative Limited (KPPCL), which contracts small-scale farmers to supply broilers to the facility. KwaXolo currently processes between 300 birds per day and 600 birds per day, and is working toward its capacity of 2 000 per day. The facility provides an opportunity for smallscale farmers to participate in the local economy. From as few as 50 birds every eight weeks, these farmers can eventually scale up their operations, provided the central facility and their farms are run efficiently. Whereas standard commercial broilers are commonly slaughtered at 1,8kg to 1,9kg between the 33-day mark and 35-day mark, these farmers must grow birds to 2,8kg at 49 days. Scientific Roets managing director Dr Merida Roets, explains, “Because they’re small- scale, farmers are able to pay keen attention to detail. Their training has taught them about biosecurity and they feed the chickens properly and know how to manage environmental conditions. This helps them achieve good growth rates.”

Photo 62. KWAXOLO CHICKENS

Photo 63. KWAXOLO CHICKENS ABATTOIR

Once processed, the birds are sold fresh whole, or frozen whole, and a small range of valueadded items like crumbed breasts, chicken sausages and flatties are produced. KwaXolo delivers to a number of retail outlets and tuck shops along the south coast, including some Spars.

Small-scale farmers need to make smaller, more frequent deliveries to markets, which pushes up transportation costs substantially. In addition, they pay about R5,50 per day-old chick, while commercial farmers pay about R2,75 per dayold chick as they buy in bulk. The same applies to feed and input purchases. While small-scale farmers can’t compete directly with large-scale farmers due to economies of scale, institutional arrangements – like contract growing and buying inputs in bulk – can help. KwaXolo Chickens uses a contractual growing system, which means the farmer’s market is set, so there are no unsold birds or wasted costs associated with growing unwanted birds. Dr Roets says, “Contract growing can provide lowrisk, effective and empowering market linkages for small-scale farmers who find it difficult to market their produce.” To achieve economies of scale, the central facility manages bulk ordering and delivery of day-old chicks, bedding material, feed and medicine to the broiler producers. These costs are deducted from the bill paid to each broiler producer on delivery (and weighing) of the birds. Dr Roets says the retail sector also has a role to play – “it can contribute to transformation by expanding the volume of goods procured from black farmers through enterprises such as these.” - Adapted from ‘Buy in Needed for Success’ by Robyn Joubert (Farmer’s Weekly, 16/09/2011)

But like many fledgling businesses, KwaXolo’s abattoir is constrained by cash-flow, and a lack of commitment from suppliers and buyers alike. Currently, the abattoir isn’t slaughtering every day, as there’s uncertainty about the market for the processed goods. Dependent on the abattoir’s productivity, the salaries of KPPCL’s members vary from as little as R300 per month to R1 300 per month.

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KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

Area

13.4. ANNEXURE D: POPULATION GROWTH ACCOMMODATED IN THE PLAN

Target gross base density (du/ha)

m2

Ha

No.

No.

668

2 098

KOKSTAD Medium density intensification area existing density

1670313

167

Medium density intensification are proposed density

1670313

167

4176

13 112

3 508

11 014

Newly accommodated dwellings / population

14,0

High density intensification area existing density

875333

88

350

1 099

875333

88

2188

6 871

1 838

5 772

Target high density (du/ha)

35

High density intensification area proposed density

Target medium density (du/ha)

25

Newly accommodated dwellings / population

Target low density (du/ha)

10

Additional population achieved through infill and densification

Average household size

Area Dwelling Population Unit

3,14

KOKSTAD existing population

30 524

FRANKLIN existing population

977

16 786

FRANKLIN Medium density intensification area existing density

122785

12

49

154

Medium density intensification area proposed density

122785

12

307

964

258

810

Newly accommodated dwellings / population Additional population achieved through infill and densification Table.33. INPUT PARAMETERS FOR POPULATION CALCULATIONS

Table.35. POTENTIAL POPULATION TO BE ACCOMMODATED THROUGH DENSIFICATION

Area

Area

m2

Ha

Existing Gross Base Urban Area

12 969 481

Proposed Gross Base Urban Area Proposed Urban edge

Dwelling Population Unit

Difference

Area

Area

m2

Ha

No.

161 464

16

No.

No.

No.

1 297

18 157

57 014

26 490

17 206 848

1 721

24 090

75 641

45 117

19 654 664

1 965

27 517

86 402

55 878

KOKSTAD

FRANKLIN 571 469

57

800

2 512

1 535

Proposed Gross Base Urban Area

1 188 412

119

1 664

5 224

4 247

Proposed Urban edge

1 188 412

119

1 664

5 224

4 247

Existing Gross Base Urban Area

Table.34. POTENTIAL POPULATION THAT CAN BE ACCOMMODATED AT A TARGET GROSS BASE DENSITY OF 14DU/HA DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

810

Dus Population No.

High density %

Medium density %

Low density %

565

1 774

100%

0%

0%

KOKSTAD Around the Green Heart Park

1 036 642

104 2 075

6 516

0%

67%

33%

R-56

972 508

97 1 859

5 837

10%

44%

46%

St Patrick’s - Shayamoya Link

460 959

46 1 152

3 619

0%

100%

0%

Bosman Farm

182 331

18

182

573

0%

0%

100%

31

783

2 458

0%

100%

0%

313 6 617

20 776

8%

61%

31%

Mamiesa & Southern Gateway

Shayamoya-Bhongweni Link Total

313 132 3 127 036

FRANKLIN Between the R617 and the existing town

188 176

19

659

2 068

100%

0%

0%

Total

188 176

19

659

2 068

100%

0%

0%

Table.36. POTENTIAL POPULATION TO BE ACCOMMODATED THROUGH NEW DEVELOPMENTS


179

KOKSTAD Existing population

30 524

New population achieved through densification

16 786

Sub total -

47 310

Gross base density (du/ha)

12

New population accommodated within new developments

20 776

Total - Population accommodated in development plan

68 098

Gross base density (du/ha)

13

FRANKLIN Existing population New population achieved through densification Sub total Gross base density (du/ha)

977 810 1 787 10

New population accommodated within new developments

2 068

Total - Population accommodated in development plan

3 865

Gross base density (du/ha)

10

Table.37. TOTAL POTENTIAL POPULATION THAT CAN BE ACCOMMODATED

FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012


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KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

13.5. ANNEXURE E: STREETS

EXISTING

PROPOSED ACTIVITY STREET Fig 129. MAIN STREET

MAIN STREET Main Street is a busy and vibrant existing street that runs north-south through the centre of Kokstad Central. It is bustling with traders, and very well connected to the existing commercial centre and taxi rank, but space for pedestrians and traders is limited, and there are no facilities for traders. The plan proposes to upgrade Main Street into an activity street by removing two traffic lanes to increase space for bicycles, pedestrians and traders. It is recommended that the proposed street upgrading incorporates the following:

DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

6.5m wide sidewalks for pedestrians and traders on either side of the street, with 1.5m of sheltered, unobstructed walking space directly adjacent to the building line

2m for sustainable drainage controls (SuDS)

2 traffic lanes in either direction, with parallel parking on either side of the street

1.5m wide bicycle lanes in both directions, separated from the street and protected from the parking lanes by a physical barrier or SuDS (or as per recommendations for Class 2 cycling lanes)


181

EXISTING

Fig 131. TYPICAL 6M STREET EXISTING

PROPOSED GREEN STREET

Fig 132. TYPICAL 6M STREET PROPOSAL

Fig 130. NKULULEKO STREET

NKULULEKO STREET

Nkululeko Street is an existing street that runs north-south through the west side of Bhongweni. It is wide and under-utilised with low density residential on either side.

2 traffic lanes in either direction, with parallel parking on either side of the street

1.5m wide bicycle lanes in both directions, integrated into the street between the vehicular lanes and the parallel parking (as per recommendations for a Class 3 cycling lane)

TYPICAL 6M STREET IN SHAYAMOYA

Permeable surfaces within the entire road reserve

The plan proposes to upgrade the typical 6m streets, even where they are not specifically designated as activity or green streets, into real ‘complete streets’, thereby demonstrating that narrow streets can be very high quality public environments.

The plan proposes to upgrade Nkululeko Street into a park street, running through an area earmarked for densification as part of the plan. It is recommended that the proposed street upgrading incorporates the following: •

3m wide sidewalks for pedestrians on either side of the street, with 1.5m of unobstructed walking space directly adjacent to the building line 3m for sustainable drainage controls (SuDS)

The typical 6m street is the dominant street typology in Shayamoya. It is a narrow, low quality street usually with no sidewalk at all.

cyclists, but still allows slow speed vehicular traffic. Vehicles are slowed by the narrowness of the street, and by clear indication through signage and traffic calming measures.

It is recommended that the proposed street upgrading transforms these streets into 6m-wide shared surface mixed use environments which can be used safely by pedestrians, children and FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012


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KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

EXISTING

EXISTING

PROPOSED GREEN STREET

PROPOSED GREEN STREET

Fig 133. ELLIOT STREET

Fig 134. BARKER STREET

ELLIOT STREET Elliot Street is an existing street that runs northsouth up the west side of Kokstad Central. The plan proposes to upgrade Elliot Street into a park street, connecting the proposed ecoindustrial precinct with major sporting facilities along its length, culminating in the golf course. It is recommended that the proposed street upgrading incorporates the following: •

3m wide sidewalks for pedestrians on one side of the street, with 1.5m of unobstructed walking space directly adjacent to the building line

DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

7.5m wide sidewalk for pedestrians on one side of the street, with intense tree planing, and 1.5m of ubostructed walking space directly adjacent to the building line

4m for sustainable drainage controls (SuDS)

2 traffic lanes in either direction, with parallel parking on either side of the street

1.5m wide bicycle lanes in both directions, integrated into the street between the vehicular lanes and the parallel parking (as per recommendations for a Class 3 cycling lane)

Permeable surfaces within the entire road reserve

BARKER STREET

Barker Street is an existing street that runs eastwest through Kokstad Central and the historic town centre.

2 traffic lanes in either direction, with parallel parking on one side of the street

1.5m wide bicycle lanes in both directions, integrated into the street between the vehicular lanes and the parallel parking (as per recommendations for a Class 3 cycling lane)

Permeable surfaces within the entire road reserve

The plan proposes to upgrade Barker Street into a park street, connecting Kokstad Central with Bhongweni. It is recommended that the proposed street upgrading incorporates the following: •

2.5m wide sidewalks for pedestrians on either side of the street, with 1.5m of unobstructed walking space directly adjacent to the building line

1m for sustainable drainage controls (SuDS)


183

EXISTING STREET AND DISUSED RAIL LINE

PROPOSED GREEN STREET AND RAIL TRAIL Fig 135. MNYAIZA /MOYANA STREET

MNYAIZA/MOYANA STREET

RAIL-TRAIL

Mnyaiza/Moyana Street is an existing street that runs on the east side of Bongweni.

The currently disused rail-tracks connect Kokstad to Franklin, 25km away, and run around and through the east and south of Kokstad town.

The plan proposes to upgrade Mnyaiza/Moyana Street into a park street. It is recommended that the proposed street upgrading incorporates the following: •

3m wide sidewalks for pedestrians on either side of the street, with 1.5m of unobstructed walking space directly adjacent to the building line

3m for sustainable drainage controls (SuDS)

2 traffic lanes in either direction, with parallel parking on one side of the street

The upgrading should incorporate intensive landscaping (including SuDS), and furniture, lighting and so on to make the route safe and convenient to use.

The plan proposes to upgrade the existing disused railway station precincts connecting Kokstad and Franklin into heritage-tourism destinations, connected by a non-motorised transport and tourism route - the Rail-Trail. It is recommended that the proposed upgrading of the rail-tracks allows flexibility so that the track can be used by hybrid bikes, mountain bikes and a potential rail-bike, a prototype of which has been built by Durban University. FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012


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KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

EXISTING

PROPOSED ACTIVITY STREET

PROPOSED GREEN STREET

Fig 136. MURRAY STREET

MURRAY STREET

Murray Street is an existing street that runs north-south up the east side of Kokstad Central and then connects across the proposed Green Heart Park into Shayamoya, extending along the southern edge of Shayamoya.

3m wide sidewalk for pedestrians on one side of the street, with 1.5m of unobstructed walking space directly adjacent to the building line

8m wide sidewalk on one side of the street, for pedestrians and traders where it is an activity street, and for intensive tree planting and street furniture for pedestrians where it is a green street

4m for sustainable drainage controls (SuDS)

2 traffic lanes in either direction, with parallel parking on either side of the street

The plan proposes to upgrade Murray Street into a green street within Kokstad Central and an activity street within Shayamoya. The 28m road reserve therefore needs to accommodate a variety of uses and activities along its length. It is recommended that the proposed street upgrading incorporates the following:

DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM


185

EXISTING

PROPOSED GREEN STREET Fig 137. THE AVENUE

THE AVENUE

The Avenue is the extension of the R56 as it comes into Kokstad, and as a result it has a wide under-utilised road-reserve. This road-reserve has become something of a ‘park’ and is used for festivals, and as such this use should be protected and enhanced.

Intensive tree planting and street furniture for pedestrians throughout the ‘park’

Minimum 4m for sustainable drainage controls (SuDS)

2 traffic lanes in either direction, with parallel parking on the south side of the street

3m wide bicycle lane (1.5m in either direction), through the ‘park’

6m wide shared surface lane on the north side of the street for pedestrian, vehicular and bicycle access to the properties fronting onto the park

The plan proposes to upgrade the Avenue into a composite green / activity street. It is recommended that the proposed street upgrading incorporates the following: •

2.5m wide sidewalk for pedestrians on either side of the street, with 1.5m of unobstructed walking space directly adjacent to the building line

FINAL STRATEGY, DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN REPORT | NOVEMBER 2012


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KOKSTAD & FRANKLIN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

EXISTING

PROPOSED ACTIVITY STREET Fig 138. DOWER / NKQUBELA STREET

DOWER STREET Dower Street is an existing street that connects from the historic centre into Bhongweni, pass the taxi and bus rank. The plan proposes to upgrade Dower Street into an activity street. It is recommended that the proposed street upgrading incorporates the following: •

5m wide sidewalk for pedestrians and traders on one side of the street, with 1.5m of sheltered, unobstructed walking space directly adjacent to the building line

3m wide sidewalk for pedestrians on one side of the street, with 1.5m of sheltered, unobstructed walking space directly adjacent to the building line

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2 traffic lanes in either direction, with parallel parking on one side of the street


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13.6. ANNEXURE F: SETTLEMENT RESPONSE PROGRAMME EXPANDED INTRODUCTION

does not have the required Urban Re-structuring Zone (URZ) however application can be made to have URZ’s designated.

PROGRAMME FOCUS AND AIMS

The programme proposes that the GKM commits to three sub-programmes and projects:

The desired outcome of the Settlement Response Programme is sustainable settlement growth. Residential development in Kokstad and Franklin is an opportunity to restructure the form of the settlements as a whole, through the creation of high quality sustainable living environments that are integrated; provide equitable access to opportunities and amenity; are diverse and locally appropriate; and are compact and efficient, optimizing natural, financial, infrastructure and human resources at all scales. The current need for new residential provision and improved access to a diverse range of accommodation, in terms of form, tenure and affordability, parallel with the imperative of containing the development footprint, gives rise to a response that is essentially about intensification. The key interventions identified for this programme are grouped as 3 sub-programmes that include seven capital investment projects and three support initiatives that are institutional or operational in nature.

POLICY CONTEXT The opportunity for re-structuring the spatial form of post-apartheid SA (including in Kokstad), has so far, largely been missed, however the RDP mechanism has been replaced by the Integrated Residential Development Programme (IRDP) mechanism. This provides for the development of sites within a project for income groups that fall outside of the subsidy affordability bands, as well as non-residential sites. The current KZN strategy indicates a policy shift from delivery of numbers and ownership, to sustainability, with emphasis on rental as a strategy for achieving this. Kokstad does not currently qualify for social housing funding as it DOCUMENT PREPARED BY THE CITY THINK SPACE TEAM

PROGRAMME COMPONENTS

1.

New integrated neighbourhoods

Pursue the R56 Integrated Sustainable Settlement Project as a pilot, and include a mix of uses, typologies, tenure, and delivery agents.

Plan new IDRP Project(s) within the existing urban footprint. Use the R56 concept as a reference. Package these parcels as one phased IRDP project even though the parcels are not contiguous. (Areas linking Shayamoya and Bhongweni to Old Town and sites alongside R56 to Franklin) Review current planned/approved projects in order to improve their sustainability as well as the sustainability of the town. Explore the feasibility of PPP arrangement that allows the GKM to apply for IRDP funding. (developer puts in the raw land and gets a portion of serviced land out).

The funding options available for these projects are: Integrated Residential Development Project (IRDP) Programme from Department of Human Settlements (DoHS) Until some time ago, the subsidy instruments available for the development of Greenfields projects were limited as funding was only applicable to projects where all beneficiaries were subsidy qualifiers. The Integrated Residential Development Programme replaced the Project Linked Subsidy Programme. The IRDP programme provides for planning and development of integrated housing projects. Projects can be planned and developed in phases and provides for a holistic development orientation.

PHASE 1: LAND, SERVICES AND TOWNSHIP PROCLAMATION The first phase entails planning, land acquisition, township establishment and the provision of serviced residential and other land use stands to ensure a sustainable integrated community. Currently, the funding available for this Phase is R 23 403 per unit, of which R 3 834 is for professional fees and R 19 569 for internal roads and services.

PHASE 2: HOUSING CONSTRUCTION: INDIVIDUAL OWNERSHIP OPTIONS. The second phase comprises the house construction phase for qualifying housing subsidy beneficiaries and the sale of stands to non-qualifying beneficiaries and to commercial interests etc. Currently the subsidy available for qualifying beneficiaries is R 58 825 and an additional “variation allowance” up to a maximum of 20% for site conditions, location, etc. can be granted making a maximum of R 70 590. The IRDP programme provides a tool to plan and develop integrated settlements that include all the necessary land uses and housing types and price categories to become a truly integrated community. The Programme in particular provides for planning and developing an integrated project, providing for the housing, social and economic needs of different income categories. It does away with the requirement found in other policy programmes to identify subsidised housing recipients up front and provides for both subsidised, as well as finance linked housing, social and rental housing, commercial, institutional and other land uses to be developed. Owing to the holistic planning and development approach, the instrument also provides for substantial economies of scale to be realised. Integration is achieved through the provision of both bonded and subsidised housing in a mix appropriate to the projects location, which in turn lends itself to facilitating inclusionary housing development (which requires a certain number of affordable housing units to be delivered in any residential development).

Projects can be planned and developed in two phases. The first phase encompassing planning, land acquisition, township establishment and providing serviced residential stands in a variety of price categories as well as stands for other land uses to ensure a holistic and sustainable community. In the second phase houses are constructed for qualifying housing beneficiaries and the sale of stands to non-qualifying beneficiaries and to commercial interests etc. is undertaken. In summary, the Integrated Residential Development Programme (IRDP) provides for a phased approach to provide for: A. Land acquisition where required; B. Township planning and municipal engineering services design; C. The provision of municipal engineering services to all the stands where no alternative funds are available; D. Township establishment; E. The sale of the stands not identified for subsidised housing created in the township; and F. The construction of houses by registered contractors for housing subsidy beneficiaries who chose contractor built houses. This can be achieved through a variety of contracting options. Where the need has been identified for the construction of rental housing on the stands created through the IRDP and or where beneficiaries elect to construct their own houses through the People’s Housing Process, the rules applicable to those specific programmes will apply to projects to be undertaken in the township. This programme is ideally suited to large Greenfields projects such as the R56 where it is intended to develop a truly integrated new suburb.

MIG FUNDING MIG funding is essential on large Greenfields projects, such as the R56. Depending on the


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budgets available to Sisonke District Municipality (water and sanitation) and GKM (roads and stormwater), it could be possible to provided bulk and internal roads and services to the R56 project using MIG and IRDP funding, as this is being achieved elsewhere in KZN. The design of the township is critical in achieving the correct densities and allocating costs to the MIG elements.

NER FUNDING NER funding is critical on all projects but more so on new Greenfields projects as this will cover the provision of reticulation throughout the township. Funding is made available in phases and will only be released once the house construction process is started on any phase.

OTHER GOVERNMENT FUNDING Again this funding is critical on IRDP projects to ensure that a truly integrated township is provided with the appropriate social and other amenities.

PRIVATE SECTOR Private Sector funding will be required on IRDP and Social Housing projects, and will be required for FLISP. On IRDP projects, private sector funding will be required to enable the “Gap” housing market to be reached. At present, this is proving difficult on projects driven by the private sector on privately owned land. However, on IRDP projects where the Municipality is the Developer, the land is often acquired by means of government funding and transferred to the Municipality. In these instances, the land cost has been fully subsidised and there are no “holding costs” and, if the IRDP funding and MIG funding is sufficient to provide roads and services to an appropriate level, it should be possible to make sites available to non-qualifying beneficiaries or private developers at cost which would be considerably lower that would be the case if the private developer had bought the land and serviced it.

RENTAL HOUSING

Facilitate new Private Rental development within IRPD projects, including the R56 project. Make parcels of land available on condition the housing remains rental for a reasonable period.

Apply for urban re-structuring zones to enable Social Housing and engage with potential SHI’s to co-develop feasibility studies

Re-develop existing Community Residential Units sites in Bhongweni, Shayamoya and perhaps a new site in Franklin

The funding options available for these projects are:

COMMUNITY RESIDENTIAL UNITS (CRU) PROGRAMME The Community Residential Units programme aims to facilitate the provision of secure, stable rental tenure for lower income persons. The programme provides a coherent framework for dealing with the many different forms of existing public sector residential accommodation. The previous allocation methodology for hostels only considered a “per-bed” approach which was not always favourable. Public stock was also not dealt with decisively and comprehensively. The CRU programme targets low income persons and households earning below R3500 per month who are not able to be accommodated in the formal private rental and social housing market. The programme seeks to bridge the divide between social housing and lower markets which posed a significant problem. The target market is households earning less than R 3 500 per month. The stock is owned by government, either Provincial or Local Government. In most cases Municipalities are the developers and owners of this stock. The subsidy available is on a rate per square meter basis depending on the intervention required. The amount available is sufficient to provide adequate rental family accommodation of a robust and decent quality. There is an existing CRU site in Bhongweni and this has been included in the “pipeline of

proposed projects” in the KZN Rental Strategy which was commissioned by SHRA on behalf of the KZN DoHS. The location of this site and site conditions appear suitable for a CRU project.

the subsidies, usually by way of a loan from a financial institution.

CRU subsidy amount: The last update on the amounts was done in 2009, and the maximum amount available is about R 8 000 per sq.m. for 3-storey walk-ups.

Social Housing projects can only be undertaken within Urban Restructuring Zones (URZ). Thus Social Housing projects should be developed in areas that promote restructuring. Restructuring via social housing seeks to achieve three main dimensions of restructuring:

SOCIAL HOUSING PROGRAMME

Projects are implemented and owned by Social Housing Institutions which must be accredited by the Social Housing Regulatory Authority (SHRA).

Spatial restructuring by bringing lower income (and often disadvantaged) people into areas where there are major economic opportunities (both with respect to jobs and consumption) and from which they would otherwise be excluded because of the dynamics of the land market on the one hand and the effects of land use planning instruments such as large-lot zoning (minimum erf sizes). This it should be stressed is the primary meaning of spatial restructuring as it used in social housing policy. Indirectly social housing as understood here contributes to spatial restructuring by increasing densities and compacting growth thereby ensuring that the poor are not pushed out to marginal locations at the edge of the city.

Social restructuring by promoting a mix of race and classes.

Subsidies available are:

Economic restructuring by promoting spatial access to economic opportunity and promoting job creation via the multiplier effect associated with building medium density housing stock.

The Social Housing Programme seeks to provide a rental or co-operative housing options for low income persons at a level of scale and built form which requires institutional management and which is to be provided by accredited social housing institutions and in designated restructuring zones. The target market is households earning between R 1 500 and say R 12 000 per month, i.e. people who wish to rent and those who need to rent as they do not qualify for a subsidy to purchase a house and cannot obtain loan finance for this purpose.

Capital restructuring Grant (National): R 125 615 if the income split is 30% under R 3 500 and 70% over. For every % above 30% there is an additional R 749 per unit up to a maximum of 70% of subsidies for incomes under R 3 500 – the accepted best mix is 50/50. Provincial Top-Up: The latest amounts apply for topstructure, i.e. R 58 825 plus variation allowance up to a maximum of 20%. In some provinces the subsidy of R 23 403 for planning and services applies. Total subsidy is around R 220 000 per unit. The estimated cost for a mix of units ranging from 30 sq.m. to 45sqm is around R 300 000 per unit. Therefore there will be a shortfall in funding provided by DoHS and the SHI’s must provide any additional funding required over and above

The primary dimension of the meaning of restructuring is economic opportunity/access. It should be used to open up areas which have major economic opportunities and from which poor people have been excluded or to protect poor people from being displaced from areas with economic opportunity (e.g. inner cities experiencing a revival of property values and where rents are escalating). A restructuring zone should be motivated on the basis that it contributes to all three types of restructuring. Promotion of economic access on its own is however not sufficient motivation. So too is race and class mix (where social

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housing brings predominantly lower income people into higher income areas). Restructuring zones cannot be justified on the basis of spatial morphology alone (i.e. it cannot be solely motivated on the grounds that it contributes to changing the form of urban areas from low density areas with low-rise single unit dwellings to higher density areas with medium-rise buildings). It is important to distinguish between “regeneration/urban renewal zones” and “restructuring zones”. Many local authorities have identified “regeneration/urban renewal” areas and as a general rule these are poor areas in need of upliftment and investment. They may be areas with significant latent economic potential but often they are not areas from which poor people have been excluded by virtue of the operation of the land market. In a South African context restructuring zones will often coincide with nodes and corridors of economic opportunity. Townships will not be restructuring areas although almost all will be regeneration areas. Of course there may be economic nodes and corridors within or abutting townships which could qualify as restructuring areas. URZ’s have to be initiated by Municipality’s, approved by the Provincial DoHS and designated by National Government. At present, there are no approved URZ’s in Kokstad but they have identified parcels of land which have been included in the “pipeline of proposed projects” in the KZN Rental Strategy which was commissioned by SHRA on behalf of the KZN DoHS.

URBAN DENSIFICATION AND INTENSIFICATION •

Do detailed planning for densification of existing town, including changes to the Town Planning Zoning Scheme to enable private sector densification development.

The Finance Linked Individual Subsidy Programme (FLISP) provides a subsidy to qualifying beneficiaries who have secured mortgage finance to acquire an existing house or a vacant residential serviced stand linked to a house construction contract. The objective of the Programme is to reduce the initial mortgage loan amount to render the monthly loan repayment installments affordable over the loan repayment term and/or to make good any shortfall between the qualifying loan amount and the total product price subject to the conditions of the Programme. This group of people must satisfy the qualification criteria for the subsidy and the type of assistance may vary depending on a beneficiary’s circumstances. This Programme intends to give effect to the Government’s objective to provide housing assistance to the gap market, assisting them to enter the mortgagee housing market by providing a once off down payment scheme to individual households who are able to access mortgage finance to acquire residential properties for the first time. In addition, persons who have acquired vacant serviced stands without state assistance and who need assistance to access mortgage finances to fund the construction of their houses may also apply for FLISP subsidies.

Areas between the “townships” and town would be suitable for URZ’s. The R56 project proposal includes both Social Housing and CRU elements and the position of the R56 appears suitable for Social Housing.

The Programme provides individual subsidies linked to the household income of the applicant and is subject to the approval of a mortgage loan. All applicants must satisfy the qualification criteria to enable them access to the benefits of the Programme. Households will only be able to access one Finance Linked Individual Subsidy.

On Social Housing projects the private sector funding is required to supplement the government funding which is normally not sufficient to provide rental housing stock at the required standard.

The FLISP subsidy will be a once-off subsidy, to qualifying beneficiaries who will not qualify for any further or other state-assisted housing assistance and is only available to a first time home owner.

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The 2012 income category for the FLISP is R3 501 to R15 000 per month. The quantum of the FLISP subsidy varies from R 87 000 for beneficiaries earning between R 3 501 and R 3 600 per month to R 10 050 for beneficiaries earning between R 14 901 and R 15 000 per month. It may be utilised to meet any deposit requirements that may be imposed by the relevant financial institution and if the amount is enough for the deposit, the lender will not pay any further deposit. The value of the property may not exceed the maximum property value set for the Programme as announced from time to time. The current property value is set at R300 000, 00. This programme will work well in conjunction with IRDP projects, such as the R56, or for densification of existing areas for GAP Housing. Alignment and integration with other programmes This programme is closely aligned with all of the infrastructure programmes, and the Green Building Programme. New settlement projects must take cognizance of these. It is also aligned with the Public Space, Street and Facility Investment Programme, as well as the Localised Economy Programme, which aim to improve the long term sustainability of the whole town. The GKM’s Kokstad Integrated Sustainable Settlements (KISS) Programme and the R56 project are aligned with the intentions of this ISDP.


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14. APPENDICES The appendices listed below are available on the attached CD or upon request (admin@ citythinkspace.com): 1.

Kokstad ISDP - Kokstad-Franklin Ecosystem Services Supply and Demand Analysis, FutureWorks (2012)

2.

Kokstad ISDP - Results of a Municipal Services Financial Model for Greater Kokstad Local Municipality - Report, PDG (2012)

3.

Kokstad ISDP - Results of a Municipal Services Financial Model for Greater Kokstad Local Municipality - Presentation, PDG (2012)

4.

Kokstad ISDP - LED Analysis and Proposals, Lees & Associates (2012)

5.

Kokstad ISDP - Proposed and Priority Project Sheets, CTS Team and Subcontractors (2012)

6.

Kokstad ISDP – Green Ambassador Report, Meshfield (2012)

7.

Kokstad ISDP - Stakeholder Engagement Records (DPA) 2012

8.

Kokstad ISDP Status Quo - Human Settlement Desktop Evaluation, Lees & Associates (2012)

9.

Kokstad ISDP Status Quo - Human Settlement Field Work Report, Lees & Associates (2012)

10. Kokstad ISDP Status Quo - Land Report Annexure, SSI (2012) 11. Kokstad ISDP Status Quo - Land Report, SSI (2012) 12. Kokstad ISDP Status Quo - Social Capital Report, Lees & Associates (2012) 13. Kokstad ISDP Status Quo – Infrastructure Desktop Analysis, SSI (2012) 14. Kokstad ISDP Status Quo: Economic Analysis, Focus Project Management (2012)

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Kokstad Integrated Sustainable Development Plan - Final Report  

The Final Report of the KISDP

Kokstad Integrated Sustainable Development Plan - Final Report  

The Final Report of the KISDP

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