Hallpa Wasi I_ english version

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from Quechua Hallpa: Earth Wasi: House


[ Hallpa Wasi Team 2018] Conception and execution Arq. Lucia Perianes, Arq. Cinthia Cóndor Technical consulting Arq. Marianne Trauten, Arq. Lia Alarcón (ONG Construye Identidad) Arq. Sofia Larrain, Arq. Katherine Polo, Arq. Silvana Loayza (Centro Tierra PUCP) Arq. Marius Ege Substitute Professor Dr.-Ing. Jan Dieterle (ILPÖ - Institute for Ecology and Landscape Planning of the University of Stuttgart) Sponsored by Stuttgarter Change Labs, Härtner Ito Architekten PartGmbB in Stuttgart

ILPÖ

Universität Stuttgart


Thanks to all those who supported me in the organization of this project.


My grandparents Sabina Cordova and Anacleto Condor


Although almost 90% of all housing in Peru are informal constructions, that did not follow technical consulting or safety parameters, many architectural universities in the country teach how to design projects for potential clients, who can afford to hire an architect. The Hallpa Wasi project began with the idea of organizing a constructive workshop in anti-seismic rammed earth of a prototype guesthouse adapted to the climate of the Peruvian Andes, where local workers, Peruvian and foreign students can participate and exchange knowledge and then make public this experience. Cinthia Cรณndor

Introduction- 05


Woman dancing with bread (Tantawawa) at the feast of the Virgin Mary


Guinea pig disguised for the parade of microentrepreneurs


Colombia

Quito

Colombia

Ecuador Guayaquil

Ecuador Guayaquil Cuenca Cuenca

Iquitos

Peru

Iquitos

Peru

Piura Piura Tarapoto Chiclayo

Cajamarca

Brasil

Tarapoto

Chiclayo

Cajamarca

Trujillo

Brasil

Feijรณ

Pucallpa Trujillo

Feijรณ

Pucallpa

Huaraz Huanuco Huaraz

Cerro de Pasco

Huanuco Huachon

Huachon

Cerro de Pasco Lima

Huancayo

Lima

Huancayo Ayacucho Cusco Ayacucho Cusco

Bolivia

Nasca

Bolivia

Nasca Arequipa

Puno Arequipa

La Paz Puno La Paz Paria

Arica

Chile

Paria Arica

Chile


The Hallpa Wasi project (Hallpa: earth, Wasi: house) is the construction on rammed earth of a house - shelter in Huachon, a town in the Peruvian Andean zone. Huachon is located at 3400 masl in the department of Pasco and has approximately 2000 inhabitants. From Huachon there are excursions to the snow-capped Huaguruncho, which is an area of glaciers and lakes 15 km from the village. The imminent climate change is threatening the Peruvian snow-capped mountains and it is necessary to make the people aware to organize a responsible tourism along with the protection of their natural areas. On the other hand, these Andean regions have always required adequate construction techniques for the predominant extreme climate. Knowledge of traditional and environmentally friendly construction is no longer in use. Until a few decades ago, the buildings in this region were mainly in rammed earth or adobe, but concrete and brick masonry are increasingly replacing this method of construction. From both an economic and thermal comfort point of view, these materials are the least suitable for the region.

Introduction- 09


Brick and cement houses


Houses of rammed earth


Huachon valley


The Hallpa Wasi project therefore aimed to be the starting point for various events and processes. The workshop took place from 27 August to 07 September 2018 with students from the University of Stuttgart, European and Peruvians students and local workers in Huachon. The project collaborated with the Institute for Ecology and Landscape Planning of the University of Stuttgart (ILPÖ), the Peruvian NGO „Construye Identidad“, Silvana Loayza, Katherine Polo and Sofia Larrain from the Earth Research Centre of the Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú (PUCP) „Centro Tierra“. In addition, the workshop and the construction of the prototype was organized together with Lucia Perianes, from the collective „Les Batisseus“. The construction was carried out according to the Peruvian regulation e.080 for the planning and anti-seismic earth construction. Through this exchange of knowledge it is hoped that the residents of the town can achieve economic advantages and a better quality of life. In addition to increasing and improving knowledge of local techniques. As well as boosting tourism and the attractiveness of Huachon.

Introduction- 13


Lake Anilcocha


Snow-capped Huaguruncho


Before

Earthquake force During

After

Centro Tierra - INTE, CIAC PUCP. Manual del Capacitador para la vivienda alto- andina segura y saludable. PUCP. 2016. (27)


Challenges Peru is characterized by its different cultures, languages and climatic zones. The country presents a strong seismic activity, since it is located on the South American plate. Condition that must be considered for the design of a building. However, more than 90% of all Peruvian homes are self-constructed and do not have a municipal construction approval or the supervision of an architect or engineer. So these homes are not safe and collapse easily. As a prototype of construction, Hallpa Wasi had to use anti-seismic, economic and simple to imitate construction techniques. The research center „Centro Tierra“ of the Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú (PUCP) in Lima has more than 10 years of experience in researching earthquake-resistant earth construction techniques. He is committed to training master builders for housing in remote high Andean areas of the country. He also offers a Seminar at the Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism of this university.

Challenges- 17


First meeting with Marianne Trauten con Lia Elier (Construye Identidad), Cinthia Cรณndor, Katherine Polo con Silvana Loayza (Centro Tierra) and Lucia Perianes


The NGO „Construye Identidad“ (Building Identity) aims to enhance the value of local and traditional building materials and techniques. They are a multidisciplinary team that has experience with workshops between students and the local population in Peru. This NGO contributed to the success of the project through its advice on the organization of the workshop, proposals on the design and recruitment of Peruvian participants. The design, construction and workshop was developed and organized in a team by Lucia Perianes of the collective „Les Bâtisseuses“, as an expert architect in workshop organization and earthen architecture and Cinthia Cóndor as an architect, student of the master‘s program of the University of Stuttgart. The project was financed by the Stuttgarter Change Labs program and was advised by Professor Dr.-Ing. Jan Dieterle of the Institute for Ecology and Landscape Planning of the University of Stuttgart (ILPÖ) to be offered as a Seminar in that University. It was the first experience of organization and work in a remote Andean village, so the support of the Cooperations was an important contribution and was carried out successfully. Challenges- 19


A mixture of moist mud, gravel, sand and clay is placed inside a formwork.

Manual rammer

This mixture begins to ramm on a regular basis over the area.

More soil is placed and dispersed over the entire surface.

Pneumatic rammer

The next layer of soil is rammed down.

Wooden formwork

TERRA Award. Lehm Architektur Heute. Exhibition in the IFA Gallery in Stuttgart. 2018

The formwork is dismantled, when the height filling is reached (generally at 60cm).

Metal formwork


Consistency test of the clay mixture


Horizontal rope Placement

Vertical rope

Vertical rope Placement

Spans mooring

Horizontal rope

Rope tightened

Ropes and pins mooring

Mud plaster

Centro Tierra - INTE, CIAC PUCP. Manual del Capacitador para la vivienda alto- andina segura y saludable. PUCP. 2016. (65)


Muddy straw

Beam installation

Installation of edge strips

Skylight

Wood joist 2“ x 2“

Corrugated sheet metal roofing

Reed plank Edge ribbon

Eaves

Preparation of reed planks

Installation of reed planks Installation of joist Placement of muddy straw

Placement of the roof

Protective plastering

Centro Tierra - INTE, CIAC PUCP. Manual del Capacitador para la vivienda alto- andina segura y saludable. PUCP. 2016. (75)


12,58

3,92

5,08

3,58

1,50

3,58

Service area

Main room

2,62

4,12

N

Prototype of shelter for the high Andean zone


Project goals The objective of the project was to show the Huachon community the ecological and economic advantages of traditional local construction techniques in Tapial. These techniques had to be cheap and easy to follow, in other words, easy for the community to replicate. It was decided to build the prototype in two modules of a single floor. The largest module is 3 m high with a 5.5 m long square floor offering a main bed space and a central work space for guests. The smallest module, which is comparable in height and also has a square floor plan, is 3.5 m long and serves as a service space (kitchen, bathroom, storage area). Each of the two volumes has a door to the inner courtyard which is the connecting space. Both modules have 1.2 m wide square windows. The orientation of the project takes advantage of the greater exposure to the sun to retain heat and generate passive thermal comfort. It was therefore decided that the interior courtyard, as a connecting element, would be covered by a transparent corrugated sheet PVC roofing, unlike the modules where corrugated sheet metal roofing was used. Project Goals - 25


Foundations with river stones


The rammed earth walls have a 45 cm thickness according to the formula of slenderness and are on an overhang of 30 cm high. Because building materials such as steel, wood and cement are expensive, river stones were laid for the foundation, which also acted positively in the event of an earthquake. The stones in the overlay were placed in a exposed way and the hoses through which the ropes pass were placed 40 cm each in a „U“ way (a different way to the one proposed in the manual). The necessary sand and clay were extracted from the nearby quarry and transported by truck. The composition of the different clay types was tested and selected in situ by the master rammer builder and Lucia Perianes. The mud composition was then optimized using a correct ratio of clay types, sand and water. A mobile wooden formwork called „gabera“ of 60 cm x 45 cm x 150cm was build for the assembly of the rammed earth walls. The loose soil was tamped down by hand with wooden tampers. As soon as the filling of the formwork was completed, the formwork was disassembled and reassembled to the side along a continuous horizontal line. During the ramming process, 45 cm of hose were placed in the corners of the walls every 40 cm - 30 cm and 20 cm depending on the height of the wall and according to the formula recommended by the Trainer‘s Manual for safe Project Goals - 27


Placement of the formwork (gabera) on the overgrowth. From the foundation the horizontal ropes were born


Rammed earth construction


Construction of the circular reinforcements beam


and healthy high Andean housing (CT- INTE, CIAC. 2016). In the last layer of clay was placed an circular reinforcements beam of wooden called „viga collar“. Afterwards, the ropes were passed over the beams to be tensioned and tied, according to the indicated knot, in order to avoid the collapse of the walls during an earthquake. Finally, round Eucalyptus beams were placed on top of the collar beam for the roof support. From below, these beams were covered with triplay wood planks (in the absence of a thicker wood plank) and the space between the beams was filled with a mixture of straw - mud that serves as thermal insulation. The largest module was built by local workers under the supervision of Cinthia Condor and Lucia Perianes, before the arrival of the students. For the construction of the small module, the students worked together with the master builders. Lucia Perianes organized the dynamics of the Carazas Test between the students and the local workers, in order to understand the consistency of the mixture of clay and water. In addition, a soft and thick plaster testing workshop with the students. Project Goals - 31


A network of ropes to act against the earthquake


Due to the delay in the delivery of wood for construction the viga collar and roof beams, the workshop with students did not finish with the placement of the roof. So the work had to be finished and the plastering had to be done only with the local workers. The enclosures were built by a carpenter from the nearby town of Quiparacra. The construction of windows and drawer doors filled with sheep‘s wool for thermal insulation was commissioned. In addition, due to lack of budget, the project was left without interior conditioning, except for the piping for the electrical cables. It had even been proposed to test interior design techniques such as clay straw wall infills, interior wall plastering and damp-proof floor construction. Therefore, goals had to be prioritized for each phase and in this phase, the roof had to be built and the plaster placed to protect the outer ropes.

Project Goals - 33


Transparent corrugated sheet PVC roofing installation


Clay plastering


Master builder communicating with foreign participant during the workshop


Knowledge sharing The construction of the house and the workshop were organized with Peruvian, European and students from the University of Stuttgart. Participants were sought through posters at the university and publications in the social media. Construye Identidad also recruited Peruvian participants. They arrived in Lima, Peru on August 1, 2018 to get in direct contact with the cooperations and to be advised on the subject. In the city they acquired materials and tools that would not be available in the town of Huachon. Four days later the organizers traveled to Huachon where one of the difficulties was finding accommodation, both for the organizers and for the students. But in the end a comfortable one was found. During the first three weeks the conception and design of the project was rethought to make it more effective for the pedagogy and adapted to the respective construction norms. The facilities of a cybercafe located near the construction site were used as work space.

Knowledge sharing - 37


Carazas test


During this period, there was enough time to clean the property, get the material and apply for the respective municipal building permits. In addition the foundation and overcimentation of the two modules were build. One of the main challenges was the transmission of kwnowledge between the local workers and us, the architects. A meeting was therefore convened to explain to them the central idea of the project and to achieve group cooperation and commitment on their part. As an architect, it is learned a lot in the construction site, especially from the people with on works. Many workers were not accustomed to reading plans or using alternative construction techniques. It was even exceptional for them to see women running a project with great confidence and this, in turn, generated very positive interest on the part of the community. Local workers were very open to teaching students the way they built, with simple tools and at their own pace. They were also invited to participate in activities that took place in the village.

Knowledge sharing - 39


Centro Tierra - INTE, CIAC PUCP. Manual del Capacitador para la vivienda alto- andina segura y saludable. PUCP. 2016. (85)

Laminated door construction with sheep wool for thermal insulation


Although the participants in this activity spoke Spanish, German, French, Italian and Quechua, English was the official language for the workshop. The language may have been a barrier to communication between the foreign participants and the people of the community, however it was not a big problem as there was always someone to help with the translation. Sometimes they were simply understood through gestures. The Trainer‘s Manual for safe and healthy high Andean housing was very well explained graphically and in a very simple way. With this material it was able to explain the construction parameters to both: workers and learners. Despite the workshop was a success, It must be admited that in retrospect some mistakes were made. As a stranger it is always difficult to negotiate reasonable prices for any service or construction materials, and the budget needed for construction, the time needed, the difficult logistics and the work that everyone has to do was underestimated. However, it was a very instructive experience and one does not regret having taken the risk.

Knowledge sharing - 41


Plastering test


Strow - clay


Traditional ceremony with coca leaves (la mesada)


Student workshop In the Andean culture it is believed that there is a lot of good energy in nature. The „Pachamama“ (Mother Earth) is the mother of all deities and the „Apus“ (mountain gods) protect the community of the people. At the beginning of each construction a ceremony is held to ask for protection against accidents and for the climate to be productive for work. This ritual consists of chewing coca leaves, drinking cane and smoking cigarettes. Locals believe that construction sites without the protection of „el Abuelo“ (the grandfather) tend to have accidents and delays. During the ceremony of the first day of the construction workshop in Huachon, the students had the opportunity to say what they expected from the workshop. In addition to learning the traditional methods of construction, regional cooking and touching the llamas were also mentioned. In the end, the students got to know an authentic Andean village, learned basic Spanish, colloquial construction language and learned a simple life in the Andes.

Student Workshop- 45


Rammed earth construction


Participants of Hallpa Wasi


Huaguruncho Lakes Zone


Ascent to Huaguruncho snow-covered mountain


Way to Huachon


Contact: Arq. Cinthia Cรณndor: c.condorp@gmail.com Arq. Lucia Perianes: luciaperianes@msn.com ONG Construye Identidad: construyeidentidad@gmail.com Centro Tierra PUCP: centrotierra@pucp.pe Arq. Marius Ege: marius.ege@gmail.com Dr.-Ing. Jan Dieterle: jan.dieterle@ilpoe.uni-stuttgart.de Literature : Centro Tierra - INTE, CIAC PUCP. Manual del Capacitador para la vivienda alto- andina segura y saludable. PUCP. 2016. Disponible en https://issuu.com/centrotierra/docs/1._ manual_del_promotor_t__cnico

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