Page 1

Global Currents

Volume 1

Issue 2

Spring 2005


Letter from the Senior Director of CIE

Professor Patrice Petro This spring newsletter comes quickly upon the heels of our last issue, but promises to provide exciting opportunities for the UWM community as well as new information about the ongoing work of the Center for International Education (CIE) in the areas of research, public programming, course development, study abroad, and faculty and student achievement. We are most excited to bring to your attention three upcoming conferences on issues ranging from peace and conflict in East Asia to cinema and media in Latin America and the Caribbean to emerging forms of governance in cyberspace. All three conferences will be held at the Hefter Center and are free and open to the public. The first conference will be held on March 12th and devoted to “Identity and Change in East Asian Conflicts.” This conference is organized by Professors Shale Horowitz and Uk Heo, both from the Department of Political Science. The daylong event features prominent scholars from the US and abroad and aims to explore current national identities and regime types and their influence on security policies. The second conference will take place April 8-9 and is co-sponsored with the Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies; it is organized by Professor Gilberto Blasini (English/Film Studies) and scheduled to coincide with the first weekend of UWM’s twenty-seventh annual Latin American Film Series. This conference features established and emergent voices in Latin American film and media studies who will address multiple issues involving national film movements and international film cultures, globalization, exile and diaspora. Our third and final conference will take place on April 29-30. Organized by Professors Sandra Braman (Communication) and Thomas Malaby (Anthropology), it will examine the legal and political implications of the emergence of global governance in cyberspace. Entitled “Command Lines,” this conference brings together world-class scholars to engage in discussion and debate about practices which we take for granted (such as web browsing) or treat as “merely” play (such as electronic games) in order to show how they are transforming the world in which we live. Exploring themes that resonate with this conference, the Institute of World Affairs (IWA), housed in CIE, will present its annual George F. Kennan Forum at the historic Pabst Theater on April 26, 2005; the program will focus on “The Future of the United Nations” and will be broadcast live on Wisconsin Public Radio. Once again, I extend an invitation to these conferences to all faculty and staff, and to all students, both graduate and undergraduate. They are certain to provoke much discussion and generate new knowledge and ideas about regions beyond our borders, images and practices that circulate globally, and emergent practices that have transformed traditional political processes. Beyond providing detailed information about these conferences and events, this newsletter once again features the scholarship of faculty engaged in global studies across the curriculum (with articles from faculty in Business Administration, Economics, and Education). It also details new programs and developments in overseas initiatives, featuring an in-depth account of how nursing education has been expanded and transformed through international partnerships. Finally, the newsletter reports on faculty research and student awards. While it provides merely a glimpse into the broad array of activities and achievements among our faculty, staff, and students, we hope that it gives you a sense of the exciting, multi- and interdisciplinary work that the Center for International Education is committed to promoting and sustaining.



Table of Contents I. II.

Letter from the Senior Director of CIE, Professor Patrice Petro


Global Studies Conferences and Lectures • •

CIE Annual Conference: A History of Interdisciplinary Dialogue


Cinematic Dislocations and Relocations: Contemporary Cinemas of Latin


America, the Caribbean, and their Diasporas




Identity and Change in East Asian Conflicts: China-Taiwan and the Koreas


Other Upcoming Campus Lectures and Conferences


Global Studies Community Outreach •

Model UN Adds Council of the European Union


Kennan Forum: A History of Global Politics in Milwaukee


Global Studies Across Campus and Abroad •

The UWM College of Nursing Goes Global


Overseas Programs and Partnerships: Faculty Experiences Abroad


Spotlight on CIE Staff •



LEAP: CIE Hosts Japanese Intern Yoko Nonaka


Global Studies and Student Achievement •

Freshman wins Freeman Asia Award for Study in Japan


Three Students Awarded Klotsche Scholarship for International Studies


Spotlight on Global Studies Faculty •

Global Activities: Grants & Awards, Travel, Conferences, Lectures and


Publications •

Sustainable Democracy and The Golden Rules


Global Learning and Teaching in General and Special Education


Developing a Research Model to Study Advanced Mobile Phone Services


Behaviors: An Empirical Validation in the U.S. and Turkey

Published by: Center for International Education University of Wisconsin Milwaukee Garland Hall, 138 PO Box 413 Milwaukee, WI 53201




Global Studies Conferences and Lectures

CIE Annual Conference: A History of Interdisciplinary Dialog together over 20 experts from around the world to address such questions as: • What kinds of rules do people create for themselves in order to operate within virtual communities? • How does playing electronic games affect how we participate in traditional political processes? • How do browsers, digital music, and other recent developments affect how we behave and the choices we make?

Since its formation in 1999, the Center for International Education has hosted annual scholarly conferences for faculty from all corners of the US and abroad. The conference serves as a forum for cross-disciplinary dialogue on globalization issues and averages 80 participants from regional, national and international institutions, as well as representatives of various professional fields. Past conferences have included: Aftermaths: Exile, Migration Diaspora (2004); ReThinking Global Security (2003); Transmissions: Technology; Media, Globalization (2002); Global Cities: Culture, Urbanism and Globalization (2001); and Between the Global and the Local: Human Rights in the 21st Century (2000). These conferences have gained national and international prominence as well as an “afterlife” in CIE’s book series, New Directions in International Studies, published by Rutgers University Press.

Speakers include: • Richard Bartle, Game Designer • Genevieve Bell, Intel Corporation • Ian Bogost, Georgia Institute of Technology • Sandra Braman, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee • Edward Castronova, Indiana University • Leopoldina Fortunati, University of Udine • Robert Kitchin, National Institute of Regional and Spatial Analysis (NIRSA), National University of Ireland • Hans Klein, Georgia Institute of Technology • Marwan Kraidy, American University • Greg Lastowka, Yale University • David Levy, University of Washington • Thomas Malaby, University of WisconsinMilwaukee • Helen Nissenbaum, New York University • Christiane Paul, Whitney Museum • Jennifer Preece, University of Maryland • Jonathan Sterne, McGill University • T.L. Taylor, Center for Computer Games Research, IT University of Copenhagen • Ed Valauskas, Editor, First Monday • Deborah Wheeler, University of Washington • Michele White, Wellesley College • Guobin Yang, University of Hawaii at Manoa.

Recently the New Directions series published its third volume entitled Global Currents: Media and Technology Now. The next volume, based on the 2003 “ReThinking Global Security” conference, is currently under review at the Press. The volume based on the 2004 “Aftermaths” conference is also in process and will be submitted to the Press during the coming year. Command Lines: The Emergence of Governance in Global Cyberspace This year’s annual conference focuses on the many ways in which experiences within the global environment of cyberspace affect our political and legal lives. Conference organizers are Sandra Braman (Professor of Communication) and Thomas Malaby (Assistant Professor of Anthropology). The conference will take place April 29-30 at the Hefter Center. The conference, called “Command Lines: The Emergence of Governance in Global Cyberspace,” will bring


With “Command Lines,” CIE will explore the fundamental ways in which practices we take for granted (such as browsing) or treat “merely” as fun (such as playing electronic games) are transforming the political world in which we live. The event is free and open to the public.


Cinematic Dislocations and Relocations: Contemporary Cinemas of Latin America, the Caribbean, and their Diasporas On April 8 & 9, 2005, the Center for International Education (CIE), the Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies (CLACS), and the Film Studies program at UWM will sponsor an interdisciplinary and international working conference entitled “Cinematic Dislocations and Relocations: Contemporary Cinemas of Latin America, the Caribbean, and their Diasporas.” The conference is organized by Gilberto Blasini (Assistant Professor of English and Film Studies). It will bring together a small group of leading thinkers and practitioners to consider in-depth the particular configurations that Latin American and Caribbean film and video practices have undergone during the last 15 years. The conference participants’ collective task will be to provide a provisional map for apprehending the workings of post-1990 Latin American and Caribbean media products under a particular historical context that includes the consolidation of a distinct neo-liberal world order, the fragmentation of media audiences, the disappearance of film theaters, the necessity of finding external funding for the completion of film projects (i.e., the institutionalization of international co-productions as a common practice), the appearance of relatively inexpensive recording and editing technologies as well as the constant circulation of creative talent throughout the Americas and the world.

notions of the “local” and the “global” different from previous filmic representations in specific national contexts? How can concepts such as “exile” and “diaspora” be cinematically articulated within the actual social, cultural and political circumstances of Latin America and the Caribbean? What role do global auteurs such as Fina Torres, Guillermo del Toro, and Alfonso Cuarón play in the transnational context of film production that has Latin Americans moving in and out of their respective national contexts and into different countries (such as France, England and the United States, just to name three)? How are directors such as Robert Rodríguez, Patricia Cardoso, Gregory Nava, and Miguel Arteta, among others, positioned within the traditions of Latin American and Caribbean cinemas? In addition to these questions, conference participants are invited to consider whether it is possible to trace out any clear stylistic continuity in the Latin American and Caribbean filmic projects that have come out during the last 15 years. Are there overt connections between current trends and the aesthetic projects of previous Latin American epochs (Mexican cine de oro) and movements (Brazilian cinema novo)? What recurrent subject matters and avenues of exploration have Latin American and Caribbean films/videos undertaken during the past 15 years? Are there new strategies and tactics for engaging contemporary social, cultural, political and economic issues in these films/videos? How are questions related to history—so central to previous Latin American and Caribbean national and pan-national cinematic projects— addressed in post-1990 films/videos? How are audiences inscribed into the study of cinematic and video practices in post-1990 Latin America and the Caribbean? What types of theorization are necessary to understand the distinct reading practices that exist in present day Latin America and the Caribbean? How are questions related both to affect and to politics incorporated in to the study of Latin American and Caribbean cinemas? How are other cultural manifestations such as music, theater and performance in dialogue with film and video practices in the context of Latin America and the Caribbean?

Among the many questions that the conference seeks to address are: Is it possible to conceptualize contemporary Latin American and Caribbean cinematic practices in a unified and coherent way? Are there theoretical frameworks that might distinctively address the specificity of Latin American and Caribbean cinema during the 1990s and the 2000s—just like those proposed by the filmmakers/theorists who are historically associated with “the New Latin American Cinema”? How necessary is it to revise these previous film theories indigenous to the continent in order to understand the contemporary state of Latin American and Caribbean cinemas? How steady and concrete is the notion of national cinemas in contemporary Latin American and Caribbean film and video practices? Are the contemporary iterations of film co-productions undermining national imaginaries or are these iterations transforming the national into the global? How are




Global Studies Conferences and Lectures – continued

Conference participants include a wide array of international scholars who have fruitfully contributed not only to the study of Latin American and Caribbean film and video, but also to the field of cinema and media studies. Invited speakers who have confirmed their participation are: • Luisela Alvaray, Universidad Central, Venezuela • Mary Beltrán, University of Wisconsin, Madison • Catherine Benamou, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor • Charles Ramírez Berg, University of Texas, Austin • Michael Chanan, University of the West of England, Bristol • Sergio de la Mora, University of California, Davis • Tamara Falicov, University of Kansas • Randal Johnson, UCLA • Ana M. López, Tulane University • Kathleen Newman, University of Iowa • Laura Podalsky, Ohio State University

• • •

Yeidy M. Rivero, Indiana University, Bloomington Robert Stam, NYU Cristina Venegas, University of California, Santa Barbara

“Cinematic Dislocations and Relocations” will take place at UWM’s Hefter Center. It also coincides with the first weekend of UWM’s 27th Latin American Film Series, a yearly festival sponsored by CLACS that offers both UWM and the larger Milwaukee community an insight into Latin American and Caribbean films and videos. The conference provides an excellent opportunity for the UWM community and anyone interested in cinema, Latin America, the Caribbean, and contemporary global cultures,\ to participate in an event that promises exciting and thought-provoking dialogues. For additional information, please contact Professor Blasini, at “Cinematic Dislocations and Relocations” is free and open to the public.

Identity and Change in East Asian Conflicts: China-Taiwan and the Koreas This conference will examine how changing external conditions--particularly shifts in the balance of power and in great power policies--interact with regime types and evolving national identities to influence national security policies. National identities are central to explaining the origins and ongoing character of the China-Taiwan and Korean conflicts. Particularly in democracies and less repressive authoritarian regimes, changing national identities interact with changing external conditions to influence political and leadership outcomes and thereby, national security goals and strategies. Domestic political changes and international relations, in turn, feed back into further evolution of national identities. The focus is on the implications of these external conditions, regime types and national identities for China-Taiwan and inter-Korean relations in the present and future. Conference participants include:

Organized by Shale Horowitz (Associate Professor of Political Science) and Uk Heo (Associate Professor of Political Science), CIE will host a conference on East Asia on March 12, 2005 at the Hefter Conference Center.



• • • • • • • •

Milica Begovic, University of Alabama Cal Clark, Auburn University Karl DeRouen, University of Alabama Peter Moody, Notre Dame University Sung Deuk Hahm, Korea University Uk Heo, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Shale Horowitz, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee In-Taek Hyun, Korea University

• • • • • •

Dennis Patterson, Texas Tech University Hans Steven Redd, University of WisconsinMilwaukee Terry Roehrig, Cardinal Stritch University Hans Stockton, University of St. Thomas Alexander Tan, University of Canterbury Jung Yeop Woo, University of WisconsinMilwaukee

Other Upcoming Campus Lectures and Conferences •

March 14, 2005. Rigoberta Menchú Tum, 11am, UWM Union Ballroom, 2200 E Kenwood Blvd. During Women’s History Month, UW-Milwaukee is pleased to welcome Rigoberta Menchú Tum, Guatemalan human rights activist and 1992 Nobel Peace Prize winner. This free lecture is second in the series, Global Conversations: Bringing the World to Wisconsin. Sponsored by the Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies (CLACS), the Center for International Education, Union Sociocultural Programming, the Women’s Resource Center, the Center for Women’s Studies and Cultures and Communities.

March 31, 2005. “Women Still Lives: Portraits of Defeat and Resistance,” 12-2pm, UWM Union Wisconsin Room Lounge, 2200 E. Kenwood Blvd. This is a Women’s History Month event. Raquel, Alicia and Ruth Partnoy represent three generations of Argentine women–all artists and writers–who survived the military dictatorships in the 1970s and 1980s.This event is sponsored by CLACS, Jewish Studies, Women’s Studies, and the Women’s Resource Center.

Representatives from all of the UW campuses, MATC and a few high schools have been invited to attend. The purpose of the summit is to discuss issues such as the use of the placement test, appropriate placement of students, retroactive and AP credits, language requirements, curriculum and course equivalencies, assessment of majors and programs, and articulation with high school programs. One of the results of this summit will be to produce a document that outlines the programs, policies and requirements related to the study of Spanish at each UW campus. The event is being funded through the support of the UW Institute for Global Studies, the UWM Center for International Education and the Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies, Title VI National Resource Centers. . •

April 8-15, 2005: 27th Annual Latin American Film Series, 7pm, UWM Union Theatre 2200 E. Kenwood Blvd. The film festival features a selection of contemporary films from throughout Latin America and the Caribbean and is sponsored by CLACS, Union Programming, Union Theatre, and the Department of Film.

April 8 -9, 2005. The Spanish Summit is being organized by members of the UW Spanish Placement Test Committee, and will be held in




Global Studies Community Outreach

Model UN Adds Council of the European Union The Institute of World Affairs, located in CIE, is gearing up for another Wisconsin High School Model United Nations conference. This event is a great opportunity for high school students to experience diplomacy and learn about foreign affairs. The Institute has hosted this event for the past 35 years and looks forward to the challenge of once again hosting over 600 high school students.

Council, composed of the five current member nations, will meet in a separate emergency session to address an international crisis. The Historical Security Council, composed of the current five and those nations that were part of the council in 1980, will simulate events of that year. A new simulation, the Council of the European Union, has also been added to the format. In order to help educate students on the growing importance of regional organizations in the contemporary period, this simulation will involve a meeting of representatives from each of the European Union member countries.

The General Assembly Plenary along with the First, Third and Fourth Main Committees of the General Assembly will be simulated at the 2005 Model UN event. The Security

Kennan Forum: A History of Global Politics in Milwaukee Established at the historic Pabst Theater in 1990 to honor distinguished Milwaukee-born diplomat George F. Kennan, this annual Institute of World Affairs forum is an important and respected foreign policy event. The first Kennan Forum focused on U.S.–Soviet détente, featured Ambassador Kennan as its keynote speaker and filled the theater with an audience of 1,400. Ensuing Kennan Forum audiences exceeded 1,000 in 1991 and 1998, and the program has averaged 500 to 600 participants in other years. The forum presents timely analyses with leading world experts sharing their views.

Milwaukee Public Radio and Milwaukee Public Television have recorded the Kennan Forum for later broadcast, and in 2004 Wisconsin Public Radio set a precedent by providing live coverage from the Pabst stage as the Kennan forum speakers debated the question, “Are We Safer?” after the invasion of Iraq. The Kennan Forum’s mission is to provide Wisconsin citizens with a major public discussion of the most important current global issues. This year, the Institute of World Affairs and the Center for International Education will present The Future of the United Nations on April 26, 2005 from 4 – 6 p.m at the Pabst Theater. Ben Merens, Host at Wisconsin Public Radio, will moderate the event, which will be broadcast live on Wisconsin Public Radio. Admission is $10 for the general public, $5 for IWA and WPR members, and complimentary for students.

Kennan Forum topics have ranged from the prospects for peace in the Middle East following the 1991 Gulf War to the global environmental outlook and human rights violations around the world. The forum speakers are notable international experts. Nobel Peace Prize co-laureate David Trimble of Northern Ireland joined a panel of his countrymen at the Pabst just two weeks after the “Good Friday Agreement in 1998. Spanish Magistrate Baltazar Garzon, who led the extradition measures against former Chilean strongman Augusto Pinochet, was the keynote speaker in 2000. Ambassadors from Kuwait, Egypt, Jordan, Japan, the European Union, Poland, and the Czech Republic have all served as Kennan Forum speakers.


This program is held in partnership with Ideas 90.7 Wisconsin Public Radio and includes support from the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, Midwest Airlines, Wisconsin United Nations Association, Wisconsin Governor’s Commission on the United Nations, and the Annette J. Roberts Fund for World Peace, World Law and Peace Education.



Global Studies Across Campus and Abroad

The UWM College of Nursing Goes Global The UWM College of Nursing has been expanding its international activities over the past several years. These activities include study abroad programs for Nursing students, overseas research by faculty, the provision of nursing education for medical personnel in other countries and more.

Ellen Murphy, UWM professor emerita, is coordinating this international partnership. The team agreed that it is critical to develop these plans in close collaboration with Chinese colleagues. A six-member UWM/Marquette nursing assessment team will visit Shanghai in spring 2005 to assess the overall plan and help address a key challenge – how to prepare a cadre of Chinese faculty at the graduate level to lead the new, baccalaureate nursing programs.

Reforming Nursing Education in China. A major initiative currently underway involves providing nursing education in China. Shanghai, a city of 16 million people, is experiencing a revolution in health care. An explosion of international businesses has hastened development of western style medical facilities and demand for the rapid evolution of nursing. Many Chinese nurses have essentially a high school education, and for nurses to assume more professional roles, nursing education in China must change dramatically.

Several faculty exchanges likely will occur during the next few years – the first is already underway. Nurse Bei Wen Wu arrived in Milwaukee in fall 2004 as a visiting professor from SSMU. She studied nursing education and practice models during her several month stay. Other anticipated opportunities include student and faculty exchanges in 2006, all of which will by coordinated by the UWM College of Nursing Center for Cultural Diversity and Global Health.

Several Chinese universities have embarked on aggressive programs of medical and nursing education reform to help transform Shanghai’s health care. The UWM College of Nursing faculty has an exciting opportunity to play a role in developing new models of nursing education and practice, working in partnership with Shanghai Second Medical University (SSMU) International School of Nursing.

Training Medical Personnel in Armenia. The College of Nursing has a training program in place in Armenia as well. While Armenia claimed its independence from the Soviet Union 13 years ago, re-introducing its flag, anthem and emblem, the Soviet-era system of centralized health care, with its heavy emphasis on curative care, remains. Now the Armenian government wants to change that.

With collaborators from Marquette University College of Nursing and the Milwaukee-based Center for International Health (CIH), Dean Sally Lundeen traveled to Shanghai in fall 2003 for an international conference on medical and nursing education. During this fact finding trip, she was appointed to the SSMU International Committee on Nursing Education with representation from China, Finland, United Kingdom, France and the United States. In this role, she had the opportunity to discuss China’s nursing education with physicians and nurses from several countries and to tour several health care facilities.

Today, Armenia is overhauling its health care system, with the goal of putting more skills and authority in the hands of front-line primary care nurses and physicians. To support their goal, the country’s government turned to the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) to provide financial assistance and to reorganize health care delivery. At the center of the overhaul is the introduction of family practitioners into the system, the introduction of a six-month program to upgrade primary care nursing skills (there are currently no licensing procedures), and a 12-month program to upgrade physicians’ skills.

The president of SSMU, Dr. Xien Xiou Ming, invited the college to work with SSMU faculty to develop a baccalaureate program of nursing education in Shanghai. In collaboration with CIH, Marquette College of Nursing Dean Lea Accord and Marquette’s faculty, Lundeen and UWM faculty began to develop a plan to transform nursing education at SSMU.

However, many rural nurses and doctors are unable to take part in the training program. The solution? Train them onsite. In fall 2002, USAID contracted with the Milwaukee




Global Studies Across Campus and Abroad – continued

International Health Training Center (now the Center for International Health) to enhance the primary care skills of physicians and nurses in Armenia’s rural areas. The provider team includes: Eugenie Hildebrandt, associate professor, and International Nursing Program Director, UWM College of Nursing; Michael Mazzone, MD, a family physician and clinical faculty member at the Medical College of Wisconsin, and Peter Sigman, MD, retired head of the Department of Internal Medicine at the Medical College.

on maternal and child health care practices. Students were able to shadow health care practitioners in Sunderland, and participate in lectures/visits by faculty at the Royal College of Midwives in London. The group did take time away from their busy schedule to be tourists. They went to Stonehenge, visited the Florence Nightingale Museum, and watched theatre performances in London. They also had excursions to York, Salisbury Cathedral, and stayed overnight in Edinburgh, Scotland. In January 2005, 19 students and two faculty explored maternal/child health care in the Republic of Ireland as well as the United Kingdom. The College plans to develop additional study abroad opportunities for its students, and is looking at Mexico and Korea for future locations.

Thus far, the team has taught their Armenian counterparts CPR, community health, suturing skills (using pigs’ feet purchased from the local butcher), how to make plaster splints, and how to prevent and manage hypertension, abdominal pain and infections. “We’re a pilot project,” says Hildebrandt. “If these first modules work, we’ll do more.”

Global Studies Course Development. Several faculty from the UWM College of Nursing have been involved in helping to develop new courses for CIE’s Bachelor of Arts in Global Studies degree program. For example, Associate Dean Laura Anderko and Assistant Professor Quincy Tharps have been working with interdisciplinary teams to develop core courses for the Global Security track of the new degree. Their expertise will help to broaden traditional notions of security to encompass issues such as health and the environment.

The team has worked in a community in northern Armenia, where one has to go to the local post office to make a long distance call. “The rural doctors may be spread so thin that they are often not available to help make decisions,” Hildebrandt says. “While the nurses in each village clinic are the most accessible persons, and carry a tremendous amount of responsibility, they have limited training and competence.”

Center for Cultural Diversity and Global Health. These are just a sampling of the UWM College of Nursing’s international activities. Many College faculty are involved in international research, and additional partnerships with Nursing schools around the globe are being planned. To coordinate the College of Nursing’s global programs, the newly-expanded Center for Cultural Diversity and Global Health was established and a new director was hired, Ms. Anne Banda, in December 2004. The Center for Cultural Diversity and Global Health is in the process of revising its mission statement to reflect the new global focus. The Center plans to become more integrated into the campus community in order to become a resource for scholars from many disciplines. For more information about the College of Nursing’s international activities, please contact the Center for Cultural Diversity and

The Armenian providers are hungry for the skills training and it has been eagerly accepted. “They feel it’s a real boost to their practice,” Hildebrandt says. The program has also spawned teamwork. “One of the nicest outgrowths of the program is that health care professionals in the region are getting to know each other as colleagues. They’re exchanging information and discussing cases and treatments. A doctor and nurse team can do more than a doctor alone or a nurse alone.” “The Armenian people do so much with so little,” Hildebrandt adds. “They do it on traditions, a wing and a prayer.” Study Abroad Programs for Nursing Students. The College of Nursing has also developed several study abroad programs for its students. In January 2004, 12 nursing students and 2 faculty traveled to London and Sunderland, England to take part in an experiential learning program that focused


Global Health at or (414) 229-3995.


Overseas Programs and Partnerships: Faculty Experiences Abroad Various UWM faculty members will be expanding their classrooms to locations all over the world to take advantage of unique learning environments for teaching a range of subjects. Portuguese language in Brazil, Urban Planning in Germany and History in Morocco are just a few of the courses being offered this summer. This year, twenty-four UWM professors, lecturers and graduate assistants, in conjunction with CIE’s Overseas Programs and Partnerships team, will be leading summer study abroad programs to offer students language classes, lectures on various topics as well a taste of another culture. Lecturer Estrella Sotomayor from the Department of Spanish and Portuguese will lead a program with a unique servicelearning component to Oaxaca, Mexico. The program offers students the opportunity to experience globalization in rural Mexico as well as urban Milwaukee. Students can choose from service-learning opportunities in the fields of health, ecological development, civic education and a women’s cooperative. After they complete their studies in Oaxaca, students return to Milwaukee to work with local Latino community organizations on the south side. Students enrolled in the Global Management track of the Global Studies degree can take advantage of one of the two business programs being offered this summer. The Immersion in European Business program in Paris, sponsored by the School of Business Administration, will be lead by Professor Paul Fischer. Students will attend class lectures on various topics in international business and work on group projects at the Académie Commerciale Internationale Business School in Paris. In addition, students will visit local businesses such as Louis Vuitton and Moêt and Chandon as well as visit the cities of Normandy, Versailles and Fountainbleau.

a course co-taught by Professor Cheng and a professor from Giessen focusing on various topics in international business, including comparative accounting, international finance, FDI theory, mergers, acquisitions, cross-cultural management and the current economic issues facing the European Union. Students will interact with German students at the School of Economics and Business Administration, work on group projects and participate in several visits to local businesses and the banking center/stock exchange in Frankfurt.

Business students, particularly seniors and graduate students, may also choose to study in Giessen, Germany on Professor Rita Cheng’s International Business Management program. UWM’s School of Business Administration sponsors this program to Justus Liebig University in Giessen, located forty-five minutes north of Frankfurt. Students will attend




Global Studies Across Campus and Abroad – continued

“Business school graduate students can gain real world experience and will be able to discuss current business issues with academics and practitioners from a European perspective.” Professor Cheng said. “The close ties developed with the business faculty at Justus Liebig University foster both student and faculty partnerships.” Professor of Architecture Gil Snyder will be taking students to France and Italy for an intensive ten-week field study program. Professor Snyder is a fluent French speaker with substantial experience in directing university-led study abroad programs to England, France, Italy and Spain. He will be joined by School of Architecture and Urban Planning Dean Bob Greenstreet who has expertise in the cultural, literary and political contexts of the architecture under study. Ellen Amster designed a course entitled “Making Moroccan History: Islam, Geography and the City” for students interested in the Arabic language and history. Since Morocco is the area of Professor Amster’s fieldwork and she is familiar with the Arabic Language Institute in Fez, this destination was a logical choice for her. By attending an intensive Arabic language course during the weekday mornings, students will earn 3 credits in Arabic language as well as 3 credits in History through a course that traces Moroccan history from the very beginnings of the Islamic state to the contemporary issues of modern cities. Professor Amster believes students will learn enough colloquial Moroccan Arabic to ask Moroccans about politics and gender and to participate in daily life. “Being able to talk to a family, live in a Moroccan home, have dinner and conversations with them and see how they live is much more enriching than viewing monuments as a tourist.” Amster said. “There is something about waking up to the call of prayer, eating couscous close around a table with people and taking a

This summer architecture program is designed for students interested in investigating pre-modern and modern European architecture and contemporary urban design practice. The program is based in Paris with four day trips outside of Paris to Chartres Cathedral, Villa Savoye, Vaux-le-Vicomte, and Versailles; the program also incorporates a two-week trip to Florence, Rome, Venice, La Tourette, and Lyon for focused study of canonical architectural masterworks and their associated urban contexts. Professor Catherine Johnson from the School of Information Studies will be leading UWM’s first study abroad program to Mongolia this June. During the 3-week course focusing on the exploration of the digital divide in this developing country, students will meet with policy makers, entrepreneurs, local and international consultants and staff of nongovernmental organizations to discuss issues related to the digital divide. Since much of the digital divide is manifested in rural and urban settings, several day and overnight trips will be taken into the Mongolian countryside to give students the opportunity to evaluate the differences in access to information between residents of the city and the country.

crowded bus that teaches more than any class could.”

Using her past work experiences abroad and extensive knowledge of Morocco as a foundation, Assistant Professor




Spotlight on CIE Staff

LEAP: CIE Hosts Japanese intern Yoko Nonaka Yoko Nonaka joined CIE’s International Student and Scholar Services (ISSS) team in November 2004 as an Intern through the Long-Term Education Administration Program (LEAP). LEAP was initiated in 1997 with funding from the Fulbright Memorial Fund and the program is administered by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Sports, Science and Technology. Montana State University’s (MSU) Office of International Programs is the host institution for LEAP in cooperation with the American Cultural Exchange. LEAP is a targeted training program to enhance the professional skills of Japan’s young National University administrators. This year there are eight LEAP interns. They spent spring 2004 in intensive English language classes at MSU and they attended the national NAFSA: Association for International Educators conference in Baltimore, MD. During the summer the interns participated in a specially designed course on international education administration provided by MSU’s Office of International Programs before beginning their internship in the fall at international education offices around the country. Yoko has been learning about the various functions of ISSS and has been integral in achieving record numbers of donations for the new student orientation raffle, updating the new student Welcome Guide, contacting applicants to UWM about their application materials and assisting with recruitment projects. Yoko is also observing and assisting other units within CIE in order to learn about the multiple

components of international education. Upon Yoko’s return to Japan in April 2005 she will continue working in the Office of International Affairs at the University of Tokyo.




Global Studies and Student Achievement

Freshman Wins Freeman Asia Award for Study in Japan UWM freshman Tim Wong has never traveled abroad before, but the cost of his first trip will be cut in half thanks to an award he earned through the Freeman-ASIA Award Program. Wong, a film major, was recently awarded a $5,000 scholarship which he will apply towards his overseas program fees at Tokyo International University where he will spend the 2005 spring semester. He first learned about the scholarship from the scholarship list available in CIE’s Overseas Programs and Partnerships office, then found more detailed information on Freeman-ASIA’s website. Receiving the award as well as other forms of financial aid was critical in Wong’s decision to study abroad given Japan’s high cost of living.

studied kendo (Japanese fencing) for 2 and a half years and enjoys films by Japanese directors as well as documentaries on Japanese culture. “These activities have enriched my knowledge of the culture and strengthened by desire to study in Japan even more.” Wong said. During his spring semester at Tokyo International University, Wong plans to enroll in a Japanese language course, a cultural studies class and a Japanese literature course. “My goal is to use the Japanese Studies credits I earn in Japan to achieve a minor in Asian Studies at UWM.” he said. Tim also hopes to continue his involvement in extracurricular activities by joining the table tennis, golf and kendo clubs at the university.

In the past, there have been limited funding opportunities for study abroad in Asia. However, with the support of the Freeman Foundation, the Institute of International Education (IIE) now administers the Freeman-ASIA Award Program in order to give more American undergraduate students the means to study in Asia. The majority of American students who study abroad go to the United Kingdom, Spain, Italy, France or Germany. According to Open Doors, the annual survey of international student mobility conducted by IIE, over 60% of all U.S. students studying abroad go to Europe, while only about 6% study in East and Southeast Asia.

Freeman-ASIA Award Program grantees are expected to share their experiences with their home campus to encourage study abroad in Asia by others, and to spread greater understanding of Asian people and cultures within their home communities. Wong, who is majoring in film at UWM, hopes to achieve this by producing a film about his experience in Japan. He plans to bring his video camera on cultural excursions to temples, rural areas, and central Tokyo to capture snippets of Japanese life. Tim also hopes to film parts of the historical city of Kawagoe, where he will be studying. Upon returning home, he plans to edit his footage into a final piece and show it in UWM’s theatre as well as present it to students enrolled in Asian Studies courses. “Hopefully, this will inform my audience about the opportunities and experiences that await them in Japan and Asia as a whole.” he said.

Wong first became interested in the Japanese culture when he started taking Japanese language classes during his freshman year of high school. He continued to study Japanese throughout high school and hopes to improve his language skills during his time in Japan, especially through his home stay experience. Wong’s interest in Japanese culture goes beyond his desire to learn the language. He has also

Since the program began in 2000, the Freeman-ASIA Award Program has supported over 2,000 U.S. undergraduates with their study abroad plans in East and Southeast Asia.

Three Students Awarded Klotsche Scholarship for International Studies UWM Chancellor in memory of Mrs. Klotsche, who was an advocate for international studies. Scholarship winners must be an International Studies Major; hold a 3.5 GPA or better; and be a senior at UW-Milwaukee. This year, there were a

The Roberta and J. Martin Klotsche Scholarship in International Studies is awarded annually to an International Studies Senior who possesses a superior academic record and shows potential for future study in the field. It was established by the late




Spotlight on Global Studies Faculty

Global Activities: Grants & Awards, Travel, Conferences, Lectures and Publications

number of outstanding applicants. Of these applicants three were selected. Rebecca WillemsSolc graduated from the University of WisconsinGreen Bay in 1996 with a Bachelor’s degree in Psychology. Her travels have taken her to Quebec, Finland, Brazil, and the Czech Republic. These experiences, along with her knowledge of French, Czech, and Portuguese, have made her education more valuable. One former professor stated that Rebecca’s active participation in class, along with her passion for international issues, made her a valuable member of International Studies Courses.

Anthropology Tracey Heatherington received the following grants: • Global Studies Elective Course Development Grant from the Center for International Education, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee in 2004. • SSHRC International Travel Grant from the University of Western Ontario in 2003. In June 2004 she traveled to Sardinia, Italy for research. She also attended the American Anthropological Association (AAA) meeting in Atlanta, Dec. 2004 and the Association of Social Anthropologists of Great Britain and the Commonwealth (ASA) Decennial Meetings on Anthropology and Science in Manchester, UK, July 2003.

Aria Thornton graduated from Grafton High School in 2002. She has excelled at UWM, making the Dean’s List in Spring 2004. Aria is knowledgeable in Japanese and German, having taken several semesters of each language in high school and college. Aria has traveled to New Zealand and Japan and is part of the Japanese Exchange and Teaching (JET) program, which is designed to allow students from other nations that opportunity to teach in Japanese schools.

Her recent publications include: • Heatherington, Tracey. “The Natural Magic of Monte San Giovanni: Authority, Authenticity and Ritual in Sardinia” in Magic, Science and Religion: The Ritual Processes of Museum Magic, Mary Bouquet and Nuno Porto, eds. (Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2004), pp. 141-160, 2004.

Adam Wickersham has had extensive experience in the field of International Studies and is active in community organizations. Adam is a 14-year veteran of the United States Army and has been stationed in Egypt, Kuwait, Qatar, and Iraq. His role in the Army was as an intelligence analyst and linguist, allowing him to use his Master Linguist distinction in Arabic from the Defense Language Institute to help with overseas missions. Adam volunteers with St. Vincent DePaul and the Special Olympics, does work for Milwaukee Public Schools, and is a member of Pi Sigma Alpha.

K.E. Supriya was awarded: • Center for 21st Century Studies Fellowship for 2005-06. Her research topic is "States of Autonomy."


She also presented the following papers: • "Global Desi, Local Swadeshi: Intercontinental Culture and Indian Identity" at the South Asia Institute, University of Texas-Austin in September 2004. • "Asian Women and Multiple Identities" at the Center for Asian American Studies, UT-Austin in November 2004.




Spotlight on Global Studies Faculty – continued

She will present “’Note to Self ’: Always Study/Speak Your Culture” at Americo Parades Center for Cultural Studies, UTAustin.

Economics Rebecca Neumann has recently published: • "Compositional Effects of Capital Controls - Evidence from Latin America," (with Mary Kathryn Campion), The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, 2004, Vol. 15, issue 2, pp. 161-78.



Yehua Dennis Wei received many grants and awards, including: • Outstanding Young Investigators Award (Overseas), Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), in collaboration with Nanjing University for 20052007. This is the most prestigious award from NSFC. He is the only human geographer overseas who has ever received such an award. • Center for International Education course development grant for the Global Security track of the Global Studies degree program.

Anne Hansen traveled to Phnom Penh, Cambodia and Bangkok, Thailand in summer 2004 for research. She participated in the Social Science History Association meeting in November 2004 and will attend the Association for Asian Studies meeting in March 2005. Kristin Ruggiero (Director, Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies) received the following award: • Fund for the Improvement of Post Secondary Education (FIPSE) grant, "US-Brazil Consortia for Future Leadership" with Mary K. Madsen, the UWM principal investigator, and Terry Miller, Overseas Programs and Partnerships, Center for International Education.

His recent publications include: • Wei, Y.H.D. “Trajectories of Ownership Transformation in China: Implications for Uneven Regional Development.” Eurasian Geography and Economics, 2004, 45(2): 90-113. • Wei, Y.H.D and X.Y. Ye. “Regional Inequality in Provincial China: A Case Study of Zhejiang.” Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie (Journal of Economic and Social Geography), 2004, 95(1): 44-60. • 2004. Luo, J. and Y.H.D. Wei. “Geospatial Modeling of Land Values in Milwaukee.” Geographical Information Sciences, 2004, 10(1): 49-57.

In February 2005 she will travel to San Luis Potosi with Terry Miller for a site visit connected with a previous FIPSE grant. She will also be attending the US Department of Education's Title VI National Resource Center meeting in Washington, DC. Her recent publications include: • Ruggiero, Kris. Modernity in the Flesh: Medicine, Law and Society in Turn-of-the-Century Argentina (Stanford UP, 2004). • Ruggiero, Kris (ed.) The Jewish Diaspora in Latin America and the Caribbean: Fragments of Memory (Sussex Academic Press, February 2005).

Some of his selected recent presentations include: • “Economic Globalization and Regional Economic


Development in China” at the Conference on China’s Regional Economic Development and Cross-Strait Economic and Trade Relations in Taipei, National Chengchi University, November 5-8, 2004. “Market Transition, the Wenzhou Model, and Regional Development in Zhejiang Province, China” at the Workshop on Strategies of Regional Development in China, Luxemburg, International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), and Vienna, University of Vienna, Austria, October 610, 2004.


Policy Consequences of World War I." European Journal of International Relations, March 2004, 10, 1, 33-59.

She presented the paper: • "Motherhood, Science, and the State in Turn-ofthe-Century Argentina," at the Latin American Studies Association Congress in Las Vegas in October 2004.

Uk Heo recently published: • Heo, Uk and Karl DeRouen, Jr. “U.S. Aid and Foreign Policy Similarity: A Causal Analysis.” Defence and Peace Economics, 2004, 15 (5): 453470. • He also gave the following lectures: • “South Korea’s Experience with Structural Reform: Lessons for Japan.” Annual Asian Symposium, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX, April 22-3, 2004. • “North Korean Nuclear Crisis in the Context of Global Nuclear Proliferation.” The Frank Church Symposium on International Affairs, Idaho State University, Pocatello, Idaho, March 3-5, 2004.

She will present conference papers at Rutgers University in April 2005 and at the Women's World 2005 Conference in June 2005.

Nursing Eugenie Hildebrandt traveled to Armenia in May and September to teach primary care skills to physicians and nurses in the rural areas of that country.

Political Science Shale Horowitz recently published the following: • Horowitz, Shale and Albrecht Schnabel. (eds.) Human Rights and Societies in Transition: Causes, Consequences, Responses. (New York: United Nations University Press, 2004). • Horowitz, Shale. "Structural Sources of PostCommunist Market Reform: Economic Structure, Political Culture, and War." International Studies Quarterly, December 2004, 48, 4, 755-78. • Horowitz, Shale. "Human Rights in the PostCommunist World: The Roles of National Identity, Economic Development, and Ethnic Conflict." International Journal of Human Rights, Autumn 2004, 8, 3, 325-43. • Horowitz, Shale and Sunwoong Kim. "Electoral Response to International Financial Crisis: The Role of Dispersed Interest Groups in South Korea's 1997 Presidential Election." International Interactions, April – June 2004, 30, 2, 165-89. • Horowitz, Shale. "Restarting Globalization after World War II: Structure, Coalitions, and the Cold War." Comparative Political Studies, March 2004, 37, 2, 127-51. • Horowitz, Shale. "Reversing Globalization: Trade



VII. Spotlight on Global Studies Faculty – continued Sustainable Democracy and The Golden Rules by Markos Mamalakis, Economics collective need for political freedom, regrettable suspended in 1973, was restored. Furthermore, never before has the recognition and satisfaction of the collective need for external and internal security, safety and protection of moral life and private property been so comprehensive. Satisfaction of the collective need for equal treatment by government of all society members is, also, among the best in Latin America. Low satisfaction of the moral collective need for social harmony critically contributed to the chaos of the Allende era and to the Pinochet dictatorship. It remains the Achilles’ heel, a major missing piece of the puzzle, of civil society throughout Latin America. Satisfaction of the collective need for social harmony has accelerated since 1990, gaining a welcome priority under President Ricardo Lagos. The collective market has, however, greatly underperformed in recognizing and satisfying the equally vital collective need for environmental protection.

In English The spectacular progress of Chile in achieving sustainable democracy and growth reflects a recognition and adherence to two golden rules of collective markets. According to the first golden rule, which recognizes the essential complementarity between electoral democracy and civil society, sustainable democracy and growth can exist only when collective markets produce both electoral democracy and civil society. However, what is the essence of, and how do we recognize the existence of, electoral democracy and civil society? The second golden rule, which provides the answer, emphasizes the important of, and vital complementarity between, the moral collective needs for safety, security and protection of life and private property, freedom, equal treatment by government, social harmony and environmental sanctity. The necessary condition for the existence of electoral democracy is, according to this rule, recognition and satisfaction of the collective need for political freedom. Furthermore, the necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of civil society is recognition and satisfaction of all moral collective needs, including that for political freedom. Collective markets are, thus, consequentially and allocatively, efficient only when they satisfy all moral collective needs. In Chile in 2004, the degree of recognition and satisfaction of the moral collective needs for freedom, security of life and private property, equal treatment by government and collective need for economic freedom, initiated in 1973, is a global landmark. It restored individual sovereignty as the centerpiece of economic democracy and civil society. It also facilitated the restoration of individual political sovereignty and electoral democracy in 1990 when the satisfaction of the


The current positive momentum can be maintained as long as the two golden rules are followed with trust, faith, hope, love and commitment of all for all. As the Chilean collective market improves the degree of satisfaction of all moral collective needs, and electoral democracy and civil society grow stronger and closer together, the Chilean star of sustainable democracy and growth will shine ever more brightly from the Cordillera de los Andes to the Mar, from the pampas salitreras to the estancias of Patagonia, revealing a Chile Lindo, Chile Felice.

In Spanish (reprinted from publication in Diario Financiero, 16th Edition, Chile en los ojos del undo”) El sustancial éxito de Chile para alcanzar una democracia sustentable y crecimiento refleja el reconocimiento y adherencia de dos reglas doradas de los mercados colectivos. De acuerdo a la primera regla, lo que caracteriza a la complementariedad esencial entre la democracia electoral y la sociedad civil, la democracia sustentable y el crecimiento pueden existir sólo cuando los mercados colectivos producen tanto una democracia electoral como una sociedad civil.


¿Qué es, en esencia, y cómo reconocemos la existencia de una democracia electoral y una sociedad civil? La segunda regla dorada, que entrega la respuesta, enfatiza la importancia de, y la vital complementariedad entre, las necesidades colectivas para la seguridad, salvaguarda y protección de la vida y la propiedad privada, libertad, tratamiento igualitario por el gobierno, armonía social y sanidad ambiental. La condición necesaria para la existencia de democracia electoral es, de acuerdo a esta regla, el reconocimiento y satisfacción

En Chile Anno Domini 2004, el grado de reconocimiento y satisfacción de las necesidades morales colectivas por la libertad, seguridad de la vida, propiedad privada, tratamiento igualitario del gobierno y la armonía social, aunque incompleta y dispareja, no tiene paralelos históricamente, al igual que en el resto de Latinoamérica. El reconocimiento comprensivo y la satisfacción de la necesidad moral colectiva por libertad económica, iniciada en 1973, es una marca global. Se restauró la soberanía como pieza central de la democracia económica y la sociedad civil. También facilitó la restauración de la soberanía política y la democracia electoral en 1990 cuando se reinstaló la satisfacción de la necesidad colectiva por la libertad política, interrumpida lamentablemente en 1973. Más aún, nunca antes el reconocimiento y satisfacción de la necesidad colectiva para la seguridad interna y externa, la salvaguarda y la protección de la vida moral y la propiedad privada habían sido tan extensas. La satisfacción de las necesidades colectivas para el tratamiento igualitario de todos los miembros de la sociedad es, también, entre los mejores de Latinoamérica. La baja satisfacción de las necesidades morales colectivas para la armonía social contribuyeron críticamente al caos de la era Allende y la dictadura de Pinochet. Y aún continúa siendo el talón de Aquiles, una importante pieza perdida del puzzle, de la sociedad civil en toda América Latina. La satisfacción de las necesidades colectivas para la armonía civil se ha acelerado desde 1990, ganando una bienvenida prioridad bajo el gobierno del presidente Ricardo Lagos. El mercado colectivo ha, sin embargo, desempeñado bajo su nivel al reconocer y satisfacer la necesidad igualmente vital necesidad colectiva por la protección mientras las dos leyes doradas se sigan con verdad, fe, esperanza, amor, y compromiso de todos para todos. A medida que el mercado colectivo chileno mejore el grado de satisfacción de todas las necesidades morales colectivas, y la democracia electoral y la sociedad civil crezcan fuertes y juntos, la estrella chilena de democracia sustentable y crecimiento brillará más fuerte desde la Cordillera de Los Andes al mar, desde las pampas salitreras hasta las estancias de

de la necesidad colectiva de libertad política. Más aún, la condición suficiente y necesaria para la existencia de la sociedad civil es el reconocimiento de todas las necesidades morales colectivas, incluyendo aquella de libertad política. Los mercados colectivos son, entonces, consecuentemente y adjudicativamente efi cientes, sólo cuando satisfacen todas las necesidades morales colectivas.

Patagonia, revelando un Chile lindo, Chile feliz.



VII. Spotlight on Global Studies Faculty – continued Global Learning and Teaching in General and Special Education By Festus E. Obiakor, Ph.D. We live, like it or not, in an era of global interdependence. Nations rely on one another for new materials, food stuffs, consumer items, energy sources, technology, and the know-how to produce and use all of these—the tangible goods and services, in other words, that add up to international commerce. But we are equally, though perhaps less tangibly, dependent on one another for knowledge, for power, for protection, and for appreciation of the diversity of peoples and customs that are all part of our world. (Collins & Zakariya, 1982, p.2)

now have worldwide memberships. At CEC international conferences, it is no more uncommon to see members from Nigeria and South Africa; Bermuda and Jamaica; Canada and Mexico; China and South Korea; Turkey and Israel; Egypt and Kuwait; England and Spain; Romania and Russia; Germany and Austria; to mention a few. While there continues to be international visibilities of foreign entities at these conventions, there also continues to be some apparent lack of knowledge in the United States about happenings in other parts of the world. Clearly, there is nothing wrong with national pride and minor doses of ethnocentrism. For example, in Olympic Games, Special Olympics, Goodwill Games, or World Cup Soccer competitions, people demonstrate some healthy pride for their nations. However, pride comes with prejudice; and prejudice comes with illusory generalizations and unwarranted emotional assumptions that lead to unhealthy tribalizations and other forms of discriminatory divisions and practices.

This statement of more than two decades ago remains relevant today. We are witnessing a tremendous worldwide expansion, which to a large measure, makes our world smaller and smaller in its interactions. For instance, my family members in Nigeria and Jamaica are very aware of happenings in the United States and the world over because of television and Internet sources. While people might disagree on how to combat the global war on terror, positive global interactions are becoming a reality. The great international spirits that led to the creation of the United Nations Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the United Nations Children’s Educational Fund (UNICEF) are still alive and well. As a result, concerns about global illiteracy, poverty, disease, hunger, war, terrorism, and opportunities for disenfranchised persons continue to resonate among peoples of the world. Even with today’s human crises and stressors, people are still willing to light the candles for the progress of the global village instead of cursing it’s darkness.

The internationalization of organizations such as the CEC is an excellent idea, but they cannot be international organizations if international voices are invisible in progressive activities of these organizations. As a teacher educator, my one frequent question to my students is, “Have you ever seen positive television news from the African continent?” The response has always been “No.” Consider the case of a school principal who visited Guatemala for a brief vacation. On returning, she expressed frustration that the Guatemalans she met did not speak English and wondered why Americans should go to that country to spend their money. In her capacity as a principal, I have often imagined how (a) proactive she can be in recruiting and retaining good teachers of different national origins, (b) sensitive she can be in working with school district colleagues of different national origins, (c) open-minded she can be in valuing cultural and linguistic differences in her school, (d) caring she can be in empowering parents of different cultural, racial, and linguistic backgrounds, and (e) accommodating she can be in making her school environment conducive for students who look, learn, talk, and behave differently.

In the last decade, many educational organizations began to reach out to their culturally diverse or international memberships by initiating professional divisions that appeal to them. For instance, in 1990, the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) created the Division of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Exceptional Learners (DDEL) and the Division of International Special Education and Services (DISES) to spread its wings globally with regard to issues pertinent to special education. Many of these organizations



As it appears, global information/education offers significant opportunities for general and special educators. First, it helps us to learn about advancements among nations in many domains, including educational practices that we can use. Second, it helps us to form a better understanding of multiple ethnicities right here in the United States (i.e., the histories, languages, symbols, beliefs, values, events that shape the lives of racially and culturally diverse students who are in the United States public schools). Third, it helps the majority (in this case, White Americans) in the United States to get into the minds’ eyes of minorities, especially when they have the actual fascinating experience of working in other countries where the cultures are different. And fourth, it helps us to be effective when working with immigrant children and families in the United States or refugees fleeing from violence or persecution to reside in the United States.

terrorism, and preservation of the world’s resources. • Concepts of justice, human rights, peace, and human relations on a global scale. • Uses of technologies for two-way communication among children and youth in many countries and for using the world-wide resources of the Internet. • Appropriate films produced abroad that reflect cultures, beliefs, conditions, and contexts of people in other countries. • Enrichment of students’ lives through interactions with people from various countries who are part of the local community. Generally, there are many opportunities for accomplishing the aforementioned goals. These opportunities are available in communities across the United States, particularly in human contacts and meaningful dialogues across cultures and national origins. In addition, opportunities for linking with educators, professional and advocacy organizations, and many information sources are available on the CEC/DISES world pages at the CEC website: linkages.

Clearly, all educational programs must begin to infuse global education as a graduation requirement. Students and teachers must view themselves as important parts of the global village. As a consequence, teacher educators must be world-minded and go beyond myopic perspectives in their thinking. In fact, we must all see ourselves as citizens of the world as we provide instructions that include: • Discussions on the interconnectedness of the world’s peoples, common issues, and common solutions. • Information on global collaboration in solving problems of disease, illiteracy, poverty, ethnic strife,

References Collins, H.T., & Zakariya, S. B. (1982). Getting started in global education: A primer for principals and teachers. Arlington, VA: National Association of Elementary School Principals. Note: Special thanks to Dr. Judy Smith-Davis (former President of DISES) for her initial editorial suggestions.

Developing a Research Model to Study Advanced Mobile Phone Service Behaviors: An Empirical Validation in the U.S. and Turkey By En Mao and Mark Srite, School of Business Administration financial instrument trading, and shopping. Globally, mobile phone services have led to diverse social phenomena. This richer communication medium makes for a more complex phenomenon to be studied.

Mobile communication technologies have penetrated consumer markets throughout the world. Initially, mobile services primarily facilitated voice communication. Recently, new forms of mobile services have made possible text messaging, web surfing, digital imaging, payments, banking,



VII. Spotlight on Global Studies Faculty – continued The global disparity in mobile phone use and related services adoption suggests two interesting research questions. First, what factors affect the adoption of mobile phone services? The second question is about the generalizability of these factors across cultures. Do the factors influencing mobile phone service adoption differ in various cultures? Our study intends to examine how the adoption of advanced mobile phone services differs in various cultures. This understanding will help firms develop marketing strategies that appeal to consumers in different countries.

For the U.S. sample, four hypotheses were supported. The key TAM relationships (H1 and H3) were significant. Perceived usefulness significantly influenced behavioral intention (H1) and perceived ease of use had a significant impact on usefulness (H3). Two antecedents of ease of use emerged. The effect of mobile phone efficacy on ease of use was marginally significant (H7) while personal innovativeness was found to be a significant predictor of ease of use (H9). We failed to support H2 (ease of use did not lead to intention to use), H4 (higher price did not lead to lower intention to use), H5 (accessibility did not affect intention to use), H6 (efficacy in mobile phone did not impact perceived usefulness), H8 (personal innovativeness did not impact perceived usefulness), and H10 (personal innovativeness did not lead to efficacy in mobile phone). Adequate amounts of variance were explained for perceived usefulness (44%), perceived ease of use (23%), mobile phone efficacy (14%), and intention to use (47%).

In selecting the cultures, we examined two distinct environments, the U.S. and Turkey. These two countries are distinct culturally and economically, thus allowing us to examine the differences in the adoption of advanced mobile phone services. In addition, advanced mobile phone services are projected to have significant impacts on businesses and individuals in both these two countries. Although rooted in the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) our research incorporates a number of other constructs. Price, accessibility, efficacy, and personal innovativeness are added to the basic TAM. These relationships, which are tested later in the paper as hypotheses, are Table 1 below.

For the Turkish sample, all hypotheses of the research model were supported with the exception of H5 (greater accessibility did not lead to greater intention to use) and H6 (greater levels of mobile phone efficacy did not lead to greater perceptions of usefulness). The TAM model (H1, H2, and H3) was supported which suggests that this model holds for the Turkish culture, consistent with, and extending, the findings of Rose and Straub (1998). Mobile phone efficacy was a marginally significant predictor of perceived ease of use (H7). Personal innovativeness was found to predict perceived usefulness (H8), perceived ease of use (H9), and mobile phone efficacy (H10). Finally, price (H4) was found to be a significant predictor of use. Overall, these results suggest that individual differences influence important predictors of use in the Turkish culture. Additionally, reasonable amounts of variance were explained for perceived usefulness (26%), perceived ease of use (18%), mobile phone efficacy (14%), and intention to use (20%). Table 1 summarizes the results of hypothesis testing for both samples.

Although TAM has received extensive support in the United States, comparatively little research has examined its validity across cultures (Straub, et al. 1997). Exceptions are Straub et al. (1997) which examined technology acceptance in the United States, Japan, and Switzerland and Rose and Straub (1998) which examined TAM in the Arab cultures of Jordan, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon, and the Sudan. These studies suggest that TAM generalizes to the Swiss and Arab cultures (but not to the Japanese culture). We felt that our extended-TAM would provide a reasonable level of explanation for mobile phone service usage in Turkey because Turkish national identity has deep roots in Western Europe and the Middle East. Individuals from two cultures, Turkey and the U.S. were the subjects of this study. Students enrolled in coursework across disciplines at a large Turkish university participated in our study. Although this was essentially a convenience sample the gender ratio and ages approximate that of mobile phone users in Turkey.



Table 1. Comparison of Results – U.S. versus Turkey U.S.



Perceived Usefulness positively influences use of advanced mobile phone services (AMPS).



H2: H3: H4: H5:

Perceived ease of use positively influences the use of AMPS. Perceived ease of use positively influences the perceived usefulness of AMPS. Price influences use such that higher prices result in lower usage of AMPS. Accessibility influences use such that higher accessibility results in higher usage of AMPS.



H6: H7: H8: H9: H10

Efficacy positively influences the perceived usefulness of AMPS. Efficacy positively influences the perceived ease of use of AMPS. Personal innovativeness positively influences the perceived usefulness of AMPS. Personal innovativeness positively influences the perceived ease of use of AMPS. Personal innovativeness positively influences mobile phone efficacy.



Notes: S = Supported; NS = Not Supported; * significant at .10. (44%) in perceived usefulness. It is interesting that we did not find self-efficacy and personal innovativeness to directly influence usefulness. This contradicts the finding that selfefficacy significantly influences usefulness by Agarwal and Karahanna (2000). The lack of support for the effects of price and accessibility on intentions requires further investigation due to the newness of the instrument.

We found that in the U.S., our research model was able to explain 47% of the variance in behavioral intention to use advanced mobile phone services. The amount of variance explained in intention to use is comparable to prior findings (Venkatesh, et al. 2003). Although we did not find full support for the technology acceptance model (TAM), the effect perceived usefulness was highlighted in our model as the sole direct influencing factor of intention to use advanced mobile phone services. Similar to some prior literature, there was a lack of support to the effect of ease of use on intention to use (e.g., Adams, et al. 1992, Agarwal and Prasad 1997, Hu, et al. 1999). Nevertheless, a relationship between ease of use and usefulness was evidenced in our study allowing a significant path through the model from perceived ease of use to behavioral intention to use with perceived usefulness as the mediating variable. Therefore, the importance of ease of use nevertheless should not be overlooked in the acceptance of advanced mobile phone services. Additionally, our study established efficacy and personal innovativeness as two important antecedents of perceived ease of use and these two constructs were able to explain 23% of the variance in ease of use. Ease of use and its two antecedents, self-efficacy and personal innovativeness, were also able to account for a substantial amount of variance

Our findings in the Turkish sample explained 20% of the variance in intention to use advanced mobile phone services and provided support for most the research relationships outlined in the research model. Price, self-efficacy, and innovativeness, in addition to the more frequently researched beliefs of usefulness and ease of use, were shown to be important predictors of intentions to use advanced mobile phone services. In addition to providing full support to TAM, we found a significant effect of personal innovativeness on self-efficacy which corroborates with prior findings (Thatcher and Perrewe 2002). Personal innovativeness was also a significant influencing factor of perceived usefulness, consistent with Agarwal and Karahanna’s finding (2000). The effect accessibility had on behavioral intention was, however, not significant.



Center for International Education University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee P.O. Box 413 Milwaukee, WI 53201

Global Currents Spring 2005  

Global Currents Spring 2005

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