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CHOREOGRAPHED

ARCHITECTURE

MASTER’S THESIS PROJECT

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“To create architecture is to put in order. Put what in order? Function and objects.� -Le Corbusier

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PART i. PROJECT INTRODUCTION THESIS CONTENTS

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01 [4-5] PART

02 [6-11] PART

03 [12-57] PART

04 [58-75]

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CHACONNE New York City Ballet 1976


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05 [76-111] PART

06 [112-153] PART

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[154-155]

PART

08 [156-163]

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PART 1 PROJECT INTRODUCTION STATEMENT OF INTENT

This thesis proposes an analysis of human movement as a medium to generate architectural form. Through historical, conceptual, physical, and diagrammatic analysis of movement, the project serves as a stepping stone of theoretical and physical research that binds architecture and dance as equal mediums to inspire a process to develop form.

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CAVE OF THE HEART Martha Graham 1946


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PART 2 PROJECT INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION OF THEMES

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The term “Architecture” refers to a thoroughly planned and executed design of a structure. Architecture is a space-making agent, and consists of fixed-forms designed to create a practical and unique impact on its audience at a variety of scales. While architectural design is non-responsive to its human users, it seeks to evoke an emotional response for the humans who may encounter it, questioning its surroundings and solving adjacent problems through design. Architecture’s relatively arbitrary definition makes it transferable to concepts that don’t necessarily equate to a formal building scenario. Examples can include culinary architecture that is found in the composition of food, or biological architecture that is found in the composition of nature. The transferable definition of architecture proposed in this thesis aims to find the architecture within dance. Dance can be defined as a designed sequence of human movement through space and time. Similarly to architecture, the process of dance-making requires a central concept or motivation, and an immense effort of trial and error in order to generate a sufficient end product. Dance deals with human-to- human relationships, attempting to address and solve problems through a display of thought evoking movements. Perhaps one of the

most unique characteristics of dance lies within the fact that it is always different, no matter how often it is rehearsed and tested. An ephemeral art, dance can really only be experienced at a single moment in time before it disappears. Dance is an art form that instigates participation by having a focal point of people rather than objects. This concept was exploited during the rise of modern dance in the 20th century, when choreographers sought to create dance that could be done by anyone and everyone, eliminating exclusivity and hierarchy and replacing it with universal accessibility. While dance and architecture initially seem like opposing forces of artistic expression, both mediums are able to engineer an emotional response, addressing human scaled factors of design and inviting audience speculation. In theory their end products are seemingly identical, as they both utilize human intuition to challenge the typical and transform discovered concepts into physical art forms. Dance and architecture both change over time, and are subjectively experienced through avenues of participation, exposure, and use. Gravity is addressed in both elements, and is seen as both an obstacle and a tool to challenge the artistic status quo.


LAMENTATION Martha Graham 1930

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PART 2 PROJECT INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION OF THEMES

DANCE: + Responds to space + Always changing/different + Ephemeral + Changes the nature of space + Focal point is on a single subject(s) in space

DANCE + ARCHITECTURE:

+ Engineers an emotion + Made by people, experienced by people + Challenges the typical/the expected + Deals with gravity + Solves problems + Subjectively experienced + Deals with time + Highlights human intuition 8


ARCHITECTURE: + Creates space + Static/fixed + Can alter how people use space + Focal point is infinite

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PART 2 PROJECT INTRODUCTION PHYSICAL & THEORETICAL GEOMETRY IN DANCE Both ballet and modern dance are based on the creation of form. Ballet is based entirely on geometry, in terms of the human body. Arms, legs, gaze, torso, and feet, are all in the same “line,” and if broken, the movement is incorrect. Pointe shoes were invented in order to extend the dancer’s ‘line’ even further, enabling the dancer to stand fully on their toes rather than on the balls of their feet, therefore breaking the line. Martha Graham’s modern dance was developed and perfected with the goal to reject everything that facilitated ballet movement. For Graham, the more body “lines” being broken, the more successful the dance. Modern dance used the strength techniques provided by ballet to create an entirely new genre of dance, one that explored ideas and concepts, and used the human body as a tool to express those ideas. Modern dance was a new avenue for artists, dancers, musicians, etc., as it facilitated a new interdisciplinary theater experience, holistic to all forms of art rather than merely choreography. Modern dance focused on using the floor as a tool to generate new types of movement, radically challenging ballet’s tendency to remain vertical. 10

MODERN HUMAN GEOMETRY

+ + + + +

Uses breath to syncopate movement Rejects formalized lines of ballet Uses the floor Each individual body part is its own “line” Dance deeper concepts (rather than fairy tales and fables)

Contraction (Graham technique)


BALLET HUMAN GEOMETRY

+ + + + +

Completes the “line” throughout entire body Straight knees, elbows, spine, feet, etc. Translate feelings of pain into strength Uses “center” to balance and lift body Movements require extensive practice and rehearsal

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90

First Arabesque 11


PART 3 FINDING TRANSFERABLE CONCEPTS MARTHA GRAHAM & MODERN DANCE Martha Graham, often referred to as the ‘Mother’ of modern dance, spent the early stage of her career experimenting with radically different forms of movement, which later served as a foundation for her technique. Aiming to reject the typical qualities of ballet, Graham’s technique largely involved the use of breath, an increased use of the floor, and conceptual development behind pieces of movement. Graham believed that dance was a conceptual art form that materialized in the form of human movement. Always expressing something, dance was the medium that mapped “interior landscapes” that often involved contractions and releases within movement. At the beginning of Graham’s ca-

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STEPS IN THE STREET Martha Graham 1936

reer, the movement she was developing sought to be entirely opposite from traditional ballet, breaking the status quo of typical dance and reviving it as a modern form of art. Graham often collaborated with artists, musicians, and architects to create art installations to live on stage and serve as a ‘dancer’ in the choreography. Graham’s development of modern technique solidified modern dance as a new genre of movement, enabling other artists to grow under her direction. Graham choreographed 181 dances throughout her life, and preserved them through notation and video recordings. The Matha Graham Dance Company continues to perform her repertoire internationally.


MADONNA HARPER’S BAZAAR COVER 1994 Movement + Music inspired by Graham

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PART 3 FINDING TRANSFERABLE CONCEPTS MARTHA GRAHAM & MODERN DANCE

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EMBATTLED GARDEN Martha Graham Set by Isamu Noguchi 1946


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PART 3 FINDING TRANSFERABLE CONCEPTS MARTHA GRAHAM & MODERN DANCE

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EMBATTLED GARDEN Martha Graham Set by Isamu Noguchi 1946


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PART 3 FINDING TRANSFERABLE CONCEPTS MARTHA GRAHAM & MODERN DANCE

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LETTER TO THE WORLD Choreography: Martha Graham Dancers: Merce Cunningham & Martha Graham 1940


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PART 3 FINDING TRANSFERABLE CONCEPTS ISADORA DUNCAN & HER ELEMENTS OF A DANCE

DORIS HUMPHREY c. 1930 20


Doris Humphrey is known as one of the founders of modern dance whose intellectual interests often merged with her interest in movement. Humphrey’s dance philosophy and overall technique materialized as a result of her interest in gestural meanings. Her ideas relative to dance revolved around the notion that every gesture has an internal meaning that could only be expressed through a mixture of dance and emotional stimuli. Humphrey’s modern dance expressed the human spirit. Humphrey’s choreography often dealt with relationships between man and the surrounding environment, challenging the role of gravity and physical obstacles. When discussing the combination of humans and gravity, Humphrey wrote that the “natural movements of the human body are the visible evidence of man’s ability to survive in a world dominated by gravity. At time his friend, at time his foe, gravitational force imposes itself upon every move he makes. All life fluctuates between resistance and yielding to gravity.” Her choreography eliminated any hierarchies that were typical with traditional ballet companies, by including an equal amount of male and female dancers, and by creating choreography that would highlight each dancer’s individual abilities. The idea to eliminate principle dance roles and have an equal amount of unique dance exposure was a common

trend when modern dance was growing. Humphrey’s approach to generating choreography is largely what fueled her success, as she often allowed her dancers to contribute their own choreography to the composition, eliminating barriers between the dancers, choreographer, and the concept behind the dance. By allowing dancers to contribute their own movement, the communication between the dancers is purified, therefore creating an entirely candid dance, coming straight from the dancers to the audience. The choreographer, in this case, served as the architect of the phrases of

movement, arranging them into forms and orders that made sense visually. Humphrey’s book, “The Art of Making Dances,” is a step-bystep guide on how to make a theoretically perfect dance. 21


PART 3 FINDING TRANSFERABLE CONCEPTS ISADORA DUNCAN & HER ELEMENTS OF A DANCE According to Humphrey, “…there is such an innate sense of structure in most people that they usually know unerringly whether the form is good or not. The ones who must really understand and remember design unerringly, and know why it is good or bad, are the choreographers.” This notion of finding, creating, and executing good or bad design is entirely relatable to architecture, as are many of the steps discussed in her book. Humphrey identifies four vital elements of a successful dance: symmetry (suggesting stability), asymmetry (suggesting excitement), opposition (suggesting force), and succession (suggesting ease), as well as moments of rest, speed. For Humphrey, a phrase of movement must come from a concept or idea. A recipe of symmetry, asymmetry, opposition, succession, rest, and speed turns those ideas into movement through the construction of dance phrases. The terms and ideas professed in “The Art of Making Dances” could easily be transferred to the making of architecture, which also contains a delicate balance of symmetry, asymmetry, opposition, succession, areas of rest, and speed. 22

HUMPHREY’S ELEMENTS: SHAPE

SPACE

Symmetry Asymmetry Organic Angular

Level Direction Floor Pattern Stage Space

TIME

ENERGY

Beat/Tempo Momentum Accent/Meter

Focus Dynamics

THEME + VARIATION

CONTENT

Phrase Cycles Sequencing Overall Form Transitions

Intent


“IN GROUP DESIGN, SIMPLICITY IS A MUST.” WRONG:

RIGHT:

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11.

PART 3 FINDING TRANSFERABLE CONCEPTS ISADORA DUNCAN & HER ELEMENTS OF A DANCE

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SYMMETRY

ASYMMETRY

PAUL TAYLOR

MARTHA GRAHAM

LEVEL

DIRECTION

DORIS HUMPHREY

MERCE CUNNINGHAM


ORGANIC

ANGULAR

MARTHA GRAHAM

PAUL TAYLOR

FLOOR PATTERN

STAGE SPACE

MERCE CUNNINGHAM

MERCE CUNNINGHAM 25


PART 3 FINDING TRANSFERABLE CONCEPTS CHARLES-EDOUARD JEANNERET-GRIS AND THE ARCHITECTURAL PROMENADE The architectural theories and projects that came from Charles-Edouard Jeanneret-Gris (Corbu) often dealt with designing architecture in order to evoke specific thoughts

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or questions among its audience. Corbu’s Architectural Promenade addresses a sense of choreographed architecture, referring to the Promenade’s ability to affect the user’s experience of walking through a structure and interacting with architecture in a highly designed manner. The promenade was designed to “resensitize people with their surroundings, ultimately leading them to a realignment with nature.” This “realignment” with nature refers to Corbu’s concept of a “radiant” structure, in which a structure positively influences surrounding elements, therefore using architecture as a binding agent to unite its surrounding environment. Corbu was highly interested in how architecture could affect someone on a subconscious level, therefore separating the mental and physical experience of architecture, and allowing emotions to instigate the action of the experience. According to Corbu, “architecture should be appreciated while on the move, with one’s feet,” turning the experience of architecture into a designed/choreographed piece of movement. Corbu also stated that “…by being moved by a building or form, we are able to get beyond the cruder sensations; certain relationships are thus born which work upon our perceptions and put us


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PART 3 FINDING TRANSFERABLE CONCEPTS CHARLES-EDOUARD JEANNERET-GRIS AND THE ARCHITECTURAL PROMENADE into a state of satisfaction… in which man can employ fully his gifts of memory, of analysis, of reasoning, and of creation.” Corbu’s Villa Savoye is an architectural example of his theories of human movement through architecture. Designed in 1929, Villa Savoye was designed to be approached by a car, with a driveway wrapping around the entire base floor of the structure. The movement of the car through the architecture was essential to the experience of the design, as it heightened the formality of the entrance to the house. With a desire to stimulate curiosity, Corbu placed the entrance along the darkened northern side of the house, which was covered by cantilevering pilotis. The door is also placed on one of the main structural lines of the house, which creates

a sense of authority at the entrance. On the interior, movement is further emphasized through materials and structural arrangement. The stairs are placed off-axis of the entrance to discourage immediate use. Tiles at the landing level are situated at a diagonal, encouraging movement throughout the interior and towards an upward-sloping ramp. The ramp is placed slightly off-axis from the entrance, which, according to Corbu, “transforms walking into a ritual, dignifying the space while also metonymically evoking the machine age by introducing the ramp-road into a domestic interior.” Smooth surfaces compose the handrails, and seek to subconsciously entice the user to touch them, physically interacting with the architecture. 21.

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CORBU’S MODULOR MAN c. 1930


VILLA SAVOYE 1931

VILLA SAVOYE 1931

CORBU’S MODULOR MAN c. 1930

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PART 3 FINDING TRANSFERABLE CONCEPTS THE BAUHAUS SCHOOL OF DANCE OSKAR SCHLEMMER The Bauhaus, founded in 1919, was an interdisciplinary design school that sought to blend the boundaries between art, architecture, dance, design, among other disciplines. Rather than having a specific disciplinary focus, students would collaborate on design projects, developing a variety of skills that pertained to their interests. Directly translated, “The Bauhaus” means “School of Building.” Oskar Schlemmer, a dancer and choreographer, was an instructor at

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the Bauhaus school in Germany, under the direction of architect Walter Gropius. Directed by Schlemmer, the Bauhaus dances were performed as a group of lecture dances between the years 19271929. Largely influenced by the cubic stage space created by Walter Gropius, the dances included simple forms of movement, including: sitting, walking, running, jumping, and other pedestrian, democratic forms of movement. Schlemmer sought to represent the idea of humans


SCHLEMMER’S ANATOMY OF A HUMAN

DIAGRAMS OF COSTUMES FOR TRIADISCHES BALLETT

SCHLEMMER’S SPATIAL DIVISION OF A DANCER ON STAGE

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PART 3 FINDING TRANSFERABLE CONCEPTS THE BAUHAUS SCHOOL OF DANCE OSKAR SCHLEMMER superceding technology. He achieved this goal by attempting to make each dancer look exactly the same, through the design of the costume. His dances rarely reveal the face (or even the full body figure) of the dancer. The dances were aiming to only represent the forms created by the human body, not to be distracted by the uniqueness of the dancer. Schlemmer’s theories of theatrical elements included: man in space, light in motion, and architecture. These three elements were what inspired the theories behind his dances, which were largely focused on shapes in space rather than technical move-

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ment. Through an intense reduction of shapes and movements, humans slowly become a product of mechanization, therefore advancing into the future. His pieces often included literal translations and roles within shapes and colors. Schlemmer often used red circles (representing a medium tempo), blue squares (representing a slow tempo), and yellow triangles (representing a quick tempo). Schlemmer often altered the traditional seating situations of the audience, liberating the dancers from the confines of the stage, and liberating the audience from the confines of the seating area. This united performance and


spectator, making his movements easily accessible mentally and physically. One of Schlemmer’s most notable works is the “Triadisches Ballett,” which was first performed in 1922. The costumes were designed by Carl Schlemmer, Oskar’s brother, and included a series of 18 masks and costumes. The aim of the costume execution was to make the dancers appear as if they were pieces of sculpture inhabited by dancers moving through space. The overarching concept behind the Triadisches Ballett was to display how different shapes could occupy and therefore change the functionings of a space. Schlemmer’s “Formentanz (Form Dance)” was an example of the literal abstraction of shapes into dance. Schlemmer sought to display the impact of geometric proms and forms on the human figure, and investigated how these forms could altar the interior space. Dancers were only allowed to dance, skip, or walk, and everything associated with the piece was in “3’s” (i.e. 3 dancers, 3 colors, 3 shapes, 3 movements, 3 counts etc.) Schlemmer’s “Stick Dance,” often referred to as “A Song of the Joints,” in which the human form serves as the experimentation method by which we look at how our bodies can be extended. The body’s relationship with space is essentially magnified as the dancers limbs are extended and illuminated, blacking-out the dancer and only exposing the ex-

tensions. The technical strengths of the dancer are invisible as we are only able to witness the form of the dancer. Schlemmer went on to collaborate directly with architects including Adolf Rading and Hans Scharoun, in which Schlemmer created a series of paintings and murals for their buildings.

TRIADISCHES BALLETT

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PART 3 FINDING TRANSFERABLE CONCEPTS THE BAUHAUS SCHOOL OF DANCE OSKAR SCHLEMMER

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FORMENTANZ (FORM DANCE)


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PART 3 FINDING TRANSFERABLE CONCEPTS THE BAUHAUS SCHOOL OF DANCE OSKAR SCHLEMMER

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TRIADISCHES BALLETT


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PART 3 FINDING TRANSFERABLE CONCEPTS TRIADISCHES BALLETT

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PART 3 FINDING TRANSFERABLE CONCEPTS TRIADISCHES BALLETT

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PART 3 FINDING TRANSFERABLE CONCEPTS BLACK MOUNTAIN COLLEGE MERCE CUNNINGHAM Merce Cunningham’s ideas pertaining to movement became highly developed at Black Mountain College (BMC), which essentially served as a continuation of the Bauhaus. BMC created an interdisciplinary curriculum valuing the concept of the ‘experiment’ and valuing the combination of creativity, the arts, and intellect. The artists at BMC were more interested in what they didn’t know, rather than what they already knew. “Suite for 5 in Space and Time” was a collaborative performance featuring choreography by Cunningham and an original score by John Cage. Both the movement and the music came from the visual response of the imperfections from a piece of gridded paper. Both Cage and Cunningham chose to use graph paper as an inspirational source because it was ‘typical.’ They sought to take a typical object, and abstract it in order to create something completely new, challenging the ‘typical.’ Cunningham saw the grid paper as the “floor plan” of the dance, and created graphic diagrams notating the dance. The notion of abstracting simple shapes was a common idea within the world of art as well, as seen in many of Jasper Johns‘ paintings, as 42

well as Robert Rauschenberg’s work (both were former students of BMC). Cunningham later went on to utilize architects within his pieces, constructing sets, and later determining how the sets could influence his movements. In 1958 Cunningham was invited to create a dance that was to be performed in the Austrian Pavilion, designed by Karl Schwanzer for the Brussels World’s Fair. This was the first instance where his choreography responded directly to the architecture, which consisted of: a floating glass upper volume with an open courtyard on the ground floor. Surrounded entirely by glazing, the interior of the structure was completely exposed to the exterior elements. The dancers performed choreography that wasn’t specifically created in response to the space, but the act of the performance served as a binding between dance and architecture. When the dance was performed in an interior museum space surrounded by glazing, what normally seemed like a void space suddenly seemed full due to the choreographic openness. The glazing enabled passersby to view the dance, extending the capabilities of audience types. The glazing also altered the way the dance


“Dance is an art in space and time. The object of the dancer is to obliterate that.� -Merce Cunningham

ANTIC MEET Choreographer & Dancer: Merce Cunningham Costume: Robert Rauschenberg 1958

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PART 3 FINDING TRANSFERABLE CONCEPTS BLACK MOUNTAIN COLLEGE MERCE CUNNINGHAM was perceived as the evening progressed. During the day, the glazing exposed the nearby trees and natural elements, which made the interior of the space seem secluded and private. However, when the sun set and the exterior was dark, the glazing reflected lights from cars and the moon, which only seemed to highlight the movements created by the dancers. The glazing, in a sense, made the dance transformative and always-changing.

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RAINFOREST Choreography: Merce Cunningham Set: Andy Warhol 1968


ANTIC MEET Choreography: Merce Cunningham Costumes: Robert Rauschenberg 1958

MOVEMENT CHART FOR SUITE BY CHANCE Choreography: Merce Cunningham Score: John Cage 1952

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PART 3 FINDING TRANSFERABLE CONCEPTS BLACK MOUNTAIN COLLEGE MERCE CUNNINGHAM

NEARLY NINETY Choreography: Merce Cunningham 2009 46


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PART 3 FINDING TRANSFERABLE CONCEPTS BLACK MOUNTAIN COLLEGE MERCE CUNNINGHAM

AEON Choreography: Merce Cunningham 1961 48


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PART 3 FINDING TRANSFERABLE CONCEPTS BLACK MOUNTAIN COLLEGE BUCKMINSTER FULLER Buckminster Fuller was a professor at Black Mountain College (BMC) from 1948-1949, and taught project-based architecture courses that focused largely on model-making and experimentation with physics and artistic architectural forms. Fuller’s main focus while at BMC was the investigation of the structural properties of Geodesic domes. Fuller often collaborated with renowned contemporary choreographer, Merce Cunningham. The first direct collaboration between the two figures occurred during the production of “The Ruse of Medusa,” which was an interdisciplinary

production featuring original choreography by Cunningham, a set designed by Willem De Kooning, music by John Cage, and an acting appearance by Fuller, who played the part of the Medusa. This was one of the only instances where Cunningham came into direct contact with architecture, as he coached Fuller to become comfortable on stage. Fuller’s work with the geodesic dome collided with notions of dance when he referred to the morphing of a dome as “Jitterbug transformations,” referring to the popular dance move the “jitterbug.” The variations of foldings and compressions of the domes enabled the change of the dome’s shape, which therefore changes the shape of the surrounding and interior space. This tension and compression within the domes is reflected throughout many of Cunningham’s BMC dances, displaying the equal opposites of human movement.

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PART 3 FINDING TRANSFERABLE CONCEPTS BLACK MOUNTAIN COLLEGE BUCKMINSTER FULLER

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RUSE OF MEDUSA Dancer: Buckminster Fuller Choreography: Merce Cunningham Score: John Cage 1948


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PART 3 FINDING TRANSFERABLE CONCEPTS DANCE NOTATION: WASSILY KANDINSKY “DANCE CURVES ON THE DANCES OF PALUCCA” 1926 According to Kandinsky, “Palucca’s principal assets were (1) the simplicity of the whole form and (2) Construction of the large form.”

Kandinsky’s drawings serve as an excellent example of abstraction of human movement into two-dimensional figures. These drawings focus on the core movement of the dancer, rather 54

than the dancer’s skills or uniqueness. While the movements performed by the dancers are advanced, the drawings strip the movement of its hierarchy and just focus on the concrete human form.


PART 3 FINDING TRANSFERABLE CONCEPTS DANCE NOTATION: RUDOLF VON LABAN Rudolf Laban was a former architecture student, who established a revolutionary means of documenting movement called Labanotation. Known as Laban Movement Analysis (LMA), Laban developed this language in order to preserve historical dances so that they wouldn’t be lost in translation. The LMA system is divided into four categories: Body, Effort, Shape, and Space. Each category refers to different forms of energy and movement within a single dancer. The language of LMA is very dense, and very few people are fluent due to the introduction of video recording devices, an easier way to preserve a dance for future learning and teaching. The symbols within Labanotation involve the part of the body doing the movement, the duration of the movement, and the dynamic quality of the movement. Each element is illustrated through symbolism and hatching patterns along a vertical staff, representing the human body. Labanotation isn’t used as widely as it was in the early 20th Century due to its immense complexity. It is used in historical dance companies, including The Jean Erdman Dance Company, and the Martha Graham Dance Company, and serves as a ‘recording’ of their choreography.

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PART 3 FINDING TRANSFERABLE CONCEPTS DANCE NOTATION: RUDOLF VON LABAN

LEFT SIDE OF BODY

Right

Left Backword Diagonal

Right Backword Diagonal

High Middle Low (Straight Up) (At the Center) (Straight Down)

ARM

Right Backword

SUPPORTS: LEG

SUPPORTS: LEG

Left Backword

HEAD

LOWER ARM/HAND

ARM

BODY

Right Forward Diagonal

Left

ARM

LEG

Right Forward

Left Forward Diagonal

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RIGHT SIDE OF BODY

THREE MAIN LEVELS:

EIGHT MAIN DIRECTIONS: Left Forward

SUPPORTS

SUPPORTS

LEG

BODY

ARM

LOWER ARM/HAND

STAFF OF THE HUMAN BODY:


LABANOTATION 57


PART 4 DANCE ANALYSIS DIAGRAMMATIC STUDY OF DIFFERENT DANCE GENRES This portion of analysis starts to explore how dancers’ movements on stage can affect the positive and negative spaces generated. This experiment involves a figure-drawing of the body locations and positions during a 20 seconds of movement. Each diagram is separated into two studies: (1) an individual study of each position made during 20 seconds, and (2) a compiled diagram of each movement. The diagrams seek to display the abstracted human form that is generated by each type of dance. The diversity within the diagrams proves that different types of dance create drastically different types of spatial layout, and they serve as a beginning means of analyzing dance in terms of non-human elements, merely focusing on where and how the bodies can alter a spatial scenario.

TCHAIKOVSKY PAS DE DEUX Choreographer: George Balanchine Choreographed: 1877 Duet: Male & Female Genre: Classical Ballet

NIGHT JOURNEY

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Choreographer: Martha Graham Choreographed: 1947 Duet: Male & Female Genre: Modern


FOUR POINTS IN SPACE Choreographer: Merce Cunningham Choreographed: 1986 Duet: Male & Female Genre: Modern

BERLIN Choreographer: Hofesh Scheckter Choreographed: 2012 Duet: Female & Female Genre: Modern

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PART 4 DANCE ANALYSIS DIAGRAMMATIC STUDY OF DIFFERENT DANCE GENRES 20 seconds of movement diagrammed:

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TCHAIKOVSKY PAS DE DEUX Choreographer: George Balanchine Choreographed: 1877 Duet: Male & Female Genre: Classical Ballet

Figures superimposed:

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PART 4 DANCE ANALYSIS DIAGRAMMATIC STUDY OF DIFFERENT DANCE GENRES 20 seconds of movement diagrammed:

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NIGHT JOURNEY Choreographer: Martha Graham Choreographed: 1947 Duet: Male & Female Genre: Modern

Figures superimposed:

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PART 4 DANCE ANALYSIS DIAGRAMMATIC STUDY OF DIFFERENT DANCE GENRES 20 seconds of movement diagrammed:

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FOUR POINTS IN SPACE Choreographer: Merce Cunningham Choreographed: 1986 Duet: Male & Female Genre: Modern

Figures superimposed:

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PART 4 DANCE ANALYSIS DIAGRAMMATIC STUDY OF DIFFERENT DANCE GENRES 20 seconds of movement diagrammed:

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BERLIN Choreographer: Hofesh Scheckter Choreographed: 2012 Duet: Female & Female Genre: Modern

Figures superimposed:

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PART 4 DANCE ANALYSIS DIAGRAMMATIC STUDY OF DIFFERENT DANCE GENRES 20 seconds of movement diagrammed: TCHAIKOVSKY PAS DE DEUX Choreographer: George Balanchine Choreographed: 1877 Duet: Male & Female Genre: Classical Ballet

NIGHT JOURNEY Choreographer: Martha Graham Choreographed: 1947 Duet: Male & Female Genre: Modern

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This analysis was informative towards the notion that dance has the ability to generate some sort of form. While these forms were two-dimensional, they give value to how the human body moves through space during these pieces of choreography. What is perhaps the most interesting is that the Scheckter dance was the most interesting to watch, while it

generated the least interesting diagram. In contrast, the Cunningham dance was the least interesting to watch, but it generated the most compelling diagram. This process of drawing simple studies of the human body enabled a completely unbiased study of the movements, simply displaying how and where the body moves in relation to the stage. FOUR POINTS IN SPACE Choreographer: Merce Cunningham Choreographed: 1986 Duet: Male & Female Genre: Modern

BERLIN Choreographer: Hofesh Scheckter Choreographed: 2012 Duet: Female & Female Genre: Modern

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PART 4 DANCE ANALYSIS DIAGRAMMATIC STUDY OF DIFFERENT DANCE GENRES “Avaliable Light” Choreographer: Lucinda Childs Set Design: Frank Gehry

This study aims to apply 2-dimentional diagram elements to the movement scenarios of Lucinda Child’s “Available Light.” The diagrams essentially serve as a parti diagram of the dance, creating a floor plan of movement, therefore notating the dance. “Available Light” was chosen for this study due to its clear architectural presence, as seen in Frank Gehry’s set design, an elevated stage above a steel scaffolding-esque structrue. The dance features eleven dancers, 3 of whom perform the dance on top of Gehry’s structure. 70

Visually, what is fascinating about this dance is the fact that is performed entirely on a skewed grid. Each dancer essentially has their own track, which is tilted at a 45-degree angle, and each piece of movement is executed on that unique track. This skewed grid is clearly present in the “walking paths” diagram. This study is excellent proof that a simple diagram of movement can easily be transferred to an architectural plan. The diagrams for Available Light are reminiscent of an architectural parti of a structure, or even an urban plan.


STANDING STILL

UPSTAGE [BACKSTAGE]

DOWNSTAGE [AUDIENCE]

STATIONARY JUMPS

UPSTAGE [BACKSTAGE]

DOWNSTAGE [AUDIENCE]

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PART 4 DANCE ANALYSIS DIAGRAMMATIC STUDY OF DIFFERENT DANCE GENRES 40 seconds of “Available Light” documented in plan view

STATIONARY TURNS

UPSTAGE [BACKSTAGE]

DOWNSTAGE

MOVING TURNS

[AUDIENCE]

UPSTAGE [BACKSTAGE]

DOWNSTAGE [AUDIENCE]

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WALKING PATHS

UPSTAGE [BACKSTAGE]

DOWNSTAGE

PATHWAYS TRAVELED

[AUDIENCE]

UPSTAGE [BACKSTAGE]

DOWNSTAGE [AUDIENCE]

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PART 4 DANCE ANALYSIS DIAGRAMMATIC STUDY OF DIFFERENT DANCE GENRES 40 seconds of “Available Light” documented in plan view

MOVEMENTS COMPILEDUPSTAGE [BACKSTAGE]

DOWNSTAGE [AUDIENCE]

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PART 5 URBAN APPLICATION ANALYSIS OF MANHATTAN AS A SOURCE OF MOVEMENT Movement doesn’t merely exist within the realms of humans and a stage – but rather on a variety of scales, including an urban scale. This portion of the project analyzes Manhattan as a “stage,” where activities within the city formulate a “performance.” Manhattan’s performance includes population demographics, due to the extremely fluctuating island population on a daily and hourly

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basis. By learning how people move through the city, where they go, where they come from, where they live, where they work, we begin to establish a core curriculum of Manhattan’s performance. Bernard Tschumi’s “Manhattan Transcripts” served as an informative introduction to the concept of Manhattan’s performance. The Transcripts stripped the city of it’s uniqueness, and evaluated


it on a neutral and architectural scale, finding the simple forms generated by a complicated city. Rem Koolhaas’ “Delirious New York” served as a theoretical and conceptual manifesto to the city, discussing the city’s architectural relationship with its historical development, as well as analyzing the island’s architecture in terms of an architectural, philosophical, and technological advancements.

This winter I traveled to New York to study the city for 10 days in order to conduct studies of human & city movement. The imagery developed in Part 3 of this project are a result of my findings during the trip. My challenge was to find flow in places outside of dancers – in architecture, materials, program, figures, and general human movement through public architecture.

77


PART 5 URBAN APPLICATION ANALYSIS OF MANHATTAN AS A SOURCE OF MOVEMENT “Only in New York has architecture become the design of costumes that do not reveal the true nature of repetitive interiors but slip smoothly into the subconscious to perform their roles as symbols. The costume ball is the one formal convention in which the desire for individuality and extreme originality doesn’t endanger collective performance but is actually a condition for it.” -Rem Koolhaas Delirious New York, p.130

78


79


PART 5 URBAN APPLICATION ANALYSIS OF MANHATTAN AS A SOURCE OF MOVEMENT Neighborhood Layout

NORTH MANHATTAN

HARLEM

UPPER WEST SIDE UPPER EAST SIDE

MIDTOWN

DOWNTOWN

80


INWOOD

WASHINGTON HEIGHTS

SUGAR HILL

HAMILTON HEIGHTS

MANHATTANVILLE

POLO GROUNDS

CENTRAL HARLEM NORTH

MORNINGSIDE HEIGHTS CENTRAL HARLEM SOUTH MANHATTAN VALLEY

EAST HARLEM

CARNEGIE HILL UPPER WEST SIDE

UPPER EAST SIDE LINCOLN SQUARE

MIDTOWN WEST MANHATTAN

MIDTOWN MANHATTAN

SUTTON PLACE MIDTOWN EAST MANHATTAN

GARMENT DISTRICT KOREATOWN

MURRAY HILL

CHELSEA

KIPS BAY

FLATIRON DISTRICT

GRAMERCY PARK

WEST VILLAGE

HUDSON SQUARE

STUYVESANT TOWN NOHO

SOHO

EAST VILLAGE

NOLITA TRIBECA BATTERY PARK

LITTLE ITALY CHINATOWN

CIVIC CENTER

LOWER EAST SIDE

FINANCIAL DISTRICT

81 Source:


PART 5 URBAN APPLICATION ANALYSIS OF MANHATTAN AS A SOURCE OF MOVEMENT Residential & Employment Density

-LEGENDINWOOD

0-25,000 RESIDENTS 25,000-50,000 RESIDENTS

WASHINGTON HEIGHTS

50,000-75,000 RESIDENTS 75,000-100,000 RESIDENTS 100,000-125,000 RESIDENTS

HAMILTON HEIGHTS

MANHATTANVILLE

SUGAR HILL POLO GROUNDS

125,000-150,000 RESIDENTS 150,000-175,000 RESIDENTS

CENTRAL HARLEM NORTH

MORNINGSIDE HEIGHTS CENTRAL HARLEM SOUTH MANHATTAN VALLEY VALLEY

EAST HARLEM

175,000-200,000 RESIDENTS 200,000+ RESIDENTS

CARNEGIE CARNEGIE HILL HILL

UPPER WEST SIDE WEST SIDE

UPPER UPPER EAST SIDE EAST SIDE

LINCOLN SQUARE SQUARE

MIDTOWN WEST WEST MANHATTAN MANHATTAN

MIDTOWN MANHATTAN MANHATTAN

SUTTON PLACE PLACE MIDTOWN EAST EAST MANHATTAN MANHATTAN KOREATOWN MURRAY KOREATOWN HILL HILL

GARMENT DISTRICT DISTRICT CHELSEA CHELSEA

KIPS

WEST VILLAGE VILLAGE HUDSON SQUARE SQUARE

BAY FLATIRON DISTRICT DISTRICT GRAMERCY GRAMERCY PARK PARK STUYVESANT STUYVESANT TOWN TOWN

NOHO SOHO

EAST VILLAGE VILLAGE

NOLITA TRIBECA TRIBECA BATTERY BATTERY PARK PARK

LITTLE ITALY ITALY CHINATOWN CHINATOWN

CIVIC CENTER CENTER

LOWER LOWER EAST SIDE EAST SIDE

FINANCIAL DISTRICT DISTRICT

82 Source:


-LEGENDINWOOD

0-20,000 EMPLOYEES 20,000-40,000 EMPLOYEES

WASHINGTON HEIGHTS

40,000-60,000 EMPLOYEES 60,000-80,000 EMPLOYEES 80,000-100,000 EMPLOYEES

HAMILTON HEIGHTS

MANHATTANVILLE

SUGAR HILL POLO GROUNDS

100,000-120,000 EMPLOYEES 120,000 + EMPLOYEES

CENTRAL HARLEM NORTH

MORNINGSIDE HEIGHTS CENTRAL HARLEM SOUTH MANHATTAN VALLEY VALLEY

EAST HARLEM

CARNEGIE CARNEGIE HILL HILL

UPPER WEST SIDE WEST SIDE

UPPER UPPER EAST SIDE EAST SIDE

LINCOLN SQUARE SQUARE

MIDTOWN WEST WEST MANHATTAN MANHATTAN

MIDTOWN MANHATTAN MANHATTAN

SUTTON PLACE PLACE MIDTOWN EAST EAST MANHATTAN MANHATTAN KOREATOWN MURRAY KOREATOWN HILL HILL

GARMENT DISTRICT DISTRICT CHELSEA CHELSEA

WEST VILLAGE VILLAGE HUDSON SQUARE SQUARE

KIPS BAY FLATIRON BAY DISTRICT DISTRICT GRAMERCY GRAMERCY PARK PARK STUYVESANT STUYVESANT TOWN TOWN NOHO

SOHO

EAST VILLAGE VILLAGE

NOLITA TRIBECA TRIBECA BATTERY BATTERY PARK PARK

LITTLE ITALY ITALY CHINATOWN

CIVIC CENTER CENTER

LOWER LOWER EAST SIDE EAST SIDE

FINANCIAL DISTRICT DISTRICT

83


PART 5 URBAN APPLICATION ANALYSIS OF MANHATTAN AS A SOURCE OF MOVEMENT Hourly Population 5 : 0 0 a m - 5 : 2 9 a m

29,031

Total Commuters

1.81% of Total Commuters

8%

5.6%

1,799

1,259 COMMUTERS

COMMUTERS

19.7% WALK

TAKE A CAR, TRUCK, OR VAN

COMMUTERS

4,430 COMMUTERS

TAKE A CAR, TRUCK, OR VAN

8%

5.6%

855

12,144

2,056

1,439 COMMUTERS

COMMUTERS

1.1%

2.8%

5.4%

19.7%

BICYCLE

TAKE A TAXI

WORK FROM HOME

WALK

630

1,214

5,063

247

COMMUTERS

COMMUTERS

COMMUTERS

6 : 3 0 a m - 6 : 5 9 a m

72,288

Total Commuters

4.52% of Total Commuters

8%

5.6%

3.8% CARPOOL

PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION

5,783

4,048

2,747

19.7%

1.1%

WALK

BICYCLE

14,241

759

TAKE A CAR, TRUCK, OR VAN

COMMUTERS

COMMUTERS

1.61% of Total Commuters

PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION

COMMUTERS

54%

25,702

Total Commuters

CARPOOL

DRIVE ALONE

3.8%

5 : 3 0 a m - 5 : 5 9 a m

DRIVE ALONE

COMMUTERS

COMMUTERS

COMMUTERS

TAKE A CAR, TRUCK, OR VAN

8%

5.6%

3.8% CARPOOL

PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION

977

13,879

4,755

3,328

2,259

32,096

1.1%

2.8%

5.4%

19.7%

1.1%

2.8%

5.4%

BICYCLE

TAKE A TAXI

WORK FROM HOME

WALK

BICYCLE

TAKE A TAXI

WORK FROM HOME

720

1,388

11,709

654

1664

3,210

283

COMMUTERS

COMMUTERS

146,182

9.14% of Total Commuters

3.8%

39,036

11,965 COMMUTERS

8,186

5,555

COMMUTERS

2.8%

5.4%

19.7%

1.1%

TAKE A TAXI

WORK FROM HOME

WALK

BICYCLE

2,024

3,904

28,798

1,608

4,093

COMMUTERS

COMMUTERS

Total Commuters

5.6%

COMMUTERS

COMMUTERS

7 : 0 0 a m - 7 : 2 9 a m

TAKE A CAR, TRUCK, OR VAN

COMMUTERS

DRIVE ALONE

COMMUTERS

COMMUTERS

8%

5.6%

25,959

18,172

19.7% WALK

63,925

COMMUTERS

COMMUTERS

DRIVE ALONE

COMMUTERS

3.8% CARPOOL

54%

PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION

12,331 175,226

7 : 3 0 a m - 7 : 5 9 a m

184,736

PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION

COMMUTERS

14,779

10,345

7,020

99,757

2.8%

5.4%

19.7%

1.1%

2.8%

5.4%

TAKE A TAXI

WORK FROM HOME

WALK

BICYCLE

TAKE A TAXI

WORK FROM HOME

36,393

2,032

5,173

9,976

COMMUTERS

78,938

7,894 COMMUTERS

Total Commuters

COMMUTERS

506,016

CARPOOL

PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION

TAKE A CAR, TRUCK, OR VAN

8%

5.6%

18,891

13,224

8,973

127,516

40,481

28,337

COMMUTERS

1.1%

2.8%

5.4%

19.7%

1.1%

2.8%

5.4%

19.7%

BICYCLE

TAKE A TAXI

WORK FROM HOME

WALK

BICYCLE

TAKE A TAXI

WORK FROM HOME

WALK

3,569

9,086

17,523

46,520

2,598

6,612

12,752

99,685

COMMUTERS

COMMUTERS

COMMUTERS

COMMUTERS

COMMUTERS

COMMUTERS

COMMUTERS

COMMUTERS

COMMUTERS

COMMUTERS

COMMUTERS

COMMUTERS

54%

COMMUTERS

COMMUTERS

9 : 0 0 a m - 11 : 5 9 p m

COMMUTERS

COMMUTERS

COMMUTERS

3.8%

COMMUTERS

54%

COMMUTERS

5.6% DRIVE ALONE

Total Commuters

11.55% of Total Commuters

CARPOOL

DRIVE ALONE

8%

TAKE A CAR, TRUCK, OR VAN

COMMUTERS

3.8%

14.76% of Total Commuters

TAKE A CAR, TRUCK, OR VAN

COMMUTERS

COMMUTERS

5.6%

20.28% of Total Commuters

236,141

COMMUTERS

COMMUTERS

8%

8 : 3 0 a m - 8 : 5 9 a m

324,493

COMMUTERS

COMMUTERS

54%

TAKE A CAR, TRUCK, OR VAN

COMMUTERS

54%

COMMUTERS

DRIVE ALONE

PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION

CARPOOL

8 : 0 0 a m - 8 : 2 9 a m Total Commuters

Total Commuters

3.71% of Total Commuters

PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION

8%

COMMUTERS

54%

COMMUTERS

54%

59,437

CARPOOL

DRIVE ALONE

3.8%

6 : 0 0 a m - 6 : 2 9 a m

COMMUTERS

COMMUTERS

DRIVE ALONE

COMMUTERS

Total Commuters

31.63% of Total Commuters

3.8% CARPOOL

54%

PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION

19,229 237,249 COMMUTERS

COMMUTERS

1.1%

2.8%

5.4%

BICYCLE

TAKE A TAXI

WORK FROM HOME

5,566

14,168

27,325

COMMUTERS

COMMUTERS

COMMUTERS

84 Source:


9:00a - 11:59p

8:30a - 8:59a

8:00a - 8:29a

7:30a - 7:59a

7:00a - 7:29a

6:30a - 6:59a 6:00a - 6:29a 5:30a - 5:59a 5:00a - 5:29a 12:00a - 4:59a

85 Source:


PART 5 URBAN APPLICATION ANALYSIS OF MANHATTAN AS A SOURCE OF MOVEMENT Subway Plan & Most popular forms of entry

215 st.

1

2

3

4

5

6

A

C

E

B

D

F

J

Z

207 st. 207 st. Dychman st. Dychman st.

190 st. 191 st.

7

181 st. 181 st.

175 st.

168 st.

L

157 st.

155 st.

155 st.

S

145 st. 145 st.

148 st.

137 st. 145 st.

135 st.

125 st. 135 st.

125 st.

116 st.

125 st.

116 st.

110 st.

125 st.

116 st. Cathedral Pkwy. 103 st.

110 St. Central Pk. North

116 st.

103 st. 110 st.

96 st.

96 st. 103 st.

86 st.

86 st.

96 st.

79 st.

81 st.

72ND72ST. st. 1

2

86 st.

3

3.36 Million 72 st. Riders per Entrance

77 st.

66 st. Lincoln Center

59 st. Columbus Circle

57 st. 50 st.

68 st.

59 st. 57 st.

7 av.

Lexington ave.

50 st.

Lexington ave. 5 av.

49 st. 47-50 st. Rockefeller Ctr.

42 st. TIMES SQUARE

1

2

3

2 42 st. 3

A1

7

CTimes Square E

S

N

51 st.

Q

51 st.

R

42 st. 2.76 Million 5 ave. CENTRAL STN. 34 st. Riders per GRAND Entrance Grand Central

4

34 st. Penn Station

23 st.

5

33 st.

28 st. 23 st. 28 st.

23 st. 23 st.

18 st.

14 st.

23 st.

14 st. 14 st. 14 st.

N

14 st. UNION SQUARE Union Sq. 14 st.

Q

Christopher St. Sheridan Sq.

L

Union4Sq.

5

6

3 ave.

2.29 Million 2 ave. Riders per Entrance 8 st. ASTOR AstorPL. pl. NYU

4 st. Washington Sq.

6

Houston st.

Spring st.

2.88 Million Bleecker st. Bleecker per st. Riders Entrance Prince st.

Canal st. Canal st.

Franklin st.

Spring st.

Canal st.

Bowrey Delancey st.

Canal st. Chambers st. Chambers st.Canal st.

Essex St. Grand st.

City Hall Chambers st. Chambers st. World Trade Center Fulton st. Courtland st. Fulton st. Wall st. Wall st. Rector st. Rector st. Broad st.

Bowling Green South Ferry

86

Whitehall St. South Ferry

642 st. 7

S

2.80 Million Riders per Entrance

34 st. 28 st.

East Broadway

N

Q

R


George Washington Bridge 290,000 commuters/day

Lincoln Tunnel

115,000 commuters/day

Queensbro Bridge 180,000 commuters/day

Brooklyn Bridge

125,000 commuters/day

87


PART 5 URBAN APPLICATION ANALYSIS OF MANHATTAN AS A SOURCE OF MOVEMENT Pathways walked during visit 37 miles total

88


PART 5 URBAN APPLICATION ANALYSIS OF MANHATTAN AS A SOURCE OF MOVEMENT Street sections analyzed

70TH ST. 97TH ST. 53RD ST.

HOUSTON ST.

89


PART 5 URBAN APPLICATION ANALYSIS OF MANHATTAN AS A SOURCE OF MOVEMENT Program + Figure Ground + Program Section

HOUSTON ST. - D I A G R A M L E G E N D PROGRAM SECTION: RETAIL OFFICE RESIDENTIAL FIGURE GROUND: CITY BLOCK BUILDING FOOTPRINT MATERIALITY INVENTORY: PUBLIC GREEN SPACE STONE BRICK GLAZING PRIVATE GREEN SPACE METAL

90

STUCCO PARKING RECREATION


91


PART 5 URBAN APPLICATION ANALYSIS OF MANHATTAN AS A SOURCE OF MOVEMENT Program + Figure Ground + Program Section

53RD ST. - D I A G R A M L E G E N D PROGRAM SECTION: RETAIL OFFICE RESIDENTIAL FIGURE GROUND: CITY BLOCK BUILDING FOOTPRINT MATERIALITY INVENTORY: PUBLIC GREEN SPACE STONE BRICK GLAZING PRIVATE GREEN SPACE METAL

92

STUCCO PARKING RECREATION


93


PART 5 URBAN APPLICATION ANALYSIS OF MANHATTAN AS A SOURCE OF MOVEMENT Program + Figure Ground + Program Section

70TH ST. - D I A G R A M L E G E N D PROGRAM SECTION: RETAIL OFFICE RESIDENTIAL FIGURE GROUND: CITY BLOCK BUILDING FOOTPRINT MATERIALITY INVENTORY: PUBLIC GREEN SPACE STONE BRICK GLAZING PRIVATE GREEN SPACE METAL

94

STUCCO PARKING RECREATION


95


PART 5 URBAN APPLICATION ANALYSIS OF MANHATTAN AS A SOURCE OF MOVEMENT Program + Figure Ground + Program Section

97TH ST. - D I A G R A M L E G E N D PROGRAM SECTION: RETAIL OFFICE RESIDENTIAL FIGURE GROUND: CITY BLOCK BUILDING FOOTPRINT MATERIALITY INVENTORY: PUBLIC GREEN SPACE STONE BRICK GLAZING PRIVATE GREEN SPACE METAL

96

STUCCO PARKING RECREATION


97


PART 5 URBAN APPLICATION ANALYSIS OF MANHATTAN AS A SOURCE OF MOVEMENT Program + Figure Ground + Program Section

HOUSTON ST.

53RD ST. - D I A G R A M L E G E N D PROGRAM SECTION: RETAIL OFFICE RESIDENTIAL FIGURE GROUND: CITY BLOCK BUILDING FOOTPRINT MATERIALITY INVENTORY: PUBLIC GREEN SPACE STONE BRICK GLAZING PRIVATE GREEN SPACE METAL

98

STUCCO PARKING RECREATION


70TH ST.

97TH ST.

99


PART 5 URBAN APPLICATION ANALYSIS OF MANHATTAN AS A SOURCE OF MOVEMENT Grand Central Station Movement

100


101


PART 5 URBAN APPLICATION ANALYSIS OF MANHATTAN AS A SOURCE OF MOVEMENT Grand Central Station Human Movement 2.13.15 8:30-9:30am

HUMAN MOVEMENT

MAIN FLOWS

PLAN ANALYSIS:

ARCHITECTURAL BARRIER POINTS OF STILLNESS

LEVEL CHANGE STANDING STILL

102


LABANOTATION:

WALKING IN A FORWARD MOTION

STANDING STILL

STANDING STILL SHIFTING WEIGHT

WALKING FORWARD AND STOPPING

WALKING BACK & FORTH AIMLESSLY

103


PART 5 URBAN APPLICATION ANALYSIS OF MANHATTAN AS A SOURCE OF MOVEMENT Lincoln Center Movement

104


105


PART 5 URBAN APPLICATION ANALYSIS OF MANHATTAN AS A SOURCE OF MOVEMENT Lincoln Center Time Lapse 2.14.15 3:15-3:30pm

FOOT TRAFFIC:

106


FOOT TRAFFIC:

MAIN FLOWS:

HIGHLY TRAVELED:

COMPILATION:

LABANOTATION:

LEVEL CHANGE STANDING STILL

WALKING IN A FORWARD MOTION

STANDING STILL

STANDING STILL SHIFTING WEIGHT

WALKING FORWARD AND STOPPING

WALKING BACK & FORTH AIMLESSLY

107


PART 5 URBAN APPLICATION ANALYSIS OF MANHATTAN AS A SOURCE OF MOVEMENT “The Skyline of New York”

In 1916, architects performed a Ballet of their buildings, in costumes that resembled their buildings at the Beaux Arts Ball in Manhattan. From left: A. Stewart Walker as the Fuller Building, Leonard Schultze as the new Waldorf-Astoria, Ely Jacques Kahn as the Squibb Building, Ralph Walker as One Wall Street, D.E. Ward as the Metropolitan Tower and Joeseph H. Freelander as the Museum of the City of New York. 108


109


PART 5 URBAN APPLICATION ANALYSIS OF MANHATTAN AS A SOURCE OF MOVEMENT Conclusion The Manhattan analysis proved that movement can exist in an element other than formal choreography. Manhattan is a prime example of a city that performs, through its architectural patterns, program layouts (both horizontal and vertical), and its heavy volume of population density and human movement. The inadvertent, constant interaction between people with the architecture of the city forces a performative effect within the island as a whole. People perform in Manhattan, whether they are aware of it or not. The simple act of walking to and from a place is a “dance.” The act of interacting with a city entirely by foot is what distinguishes Manhattan as a performing city - a constant stage where humans enter, exit, travel beneath and above the ground level, live, work, and thrive. Manhattan’s grid is perhaps the most fascinating facilitator of movement, providing corridors and formal directions for people to circulate throughout the city. The grid enables a sense of order to Manhattan’s unintentional choreography. The grid also enables a unique sunset scenario during certain times of the year, known as “Manhattanhenge,” in which the sunset lines up in a perpendicular manner with the gridded street, illuminating the entire grid. While Manhattan is a mecca for artists, entrepreneurs, designers, etc., Manhattan - itself - is its own formal performance. In a constant state of movement, Manhattan’s structural elements are mere obstacles and props for this performance. The architecture of Manhattan enables and forces this ability to move, creating hierarchies of neighborhoods, connections, and ways for people to effectively perform in an urban scenario.

110


111


PART 6 MOVEMENT ANALYSIS 2D & 3D STUDIES OF DANCE The final portion of this project aims to use an analysis of choreographed movement as a way to generate physical form, which can then serve as a precursor to architectural design. The dances analyzed in this section include the Petipa’s “Kitri Variation” (from the ballet Don Quixote), a section from Pite’s “Kidd Pivot,” and Graham’s “Lamentation.” These dances were chosen due to their movement diversity, as well as their background concepts.

112


113


PART 6 MOVEMENT ANALYSIS 2D & 3D STUDIES OF DANCE BALLET VS. MODERN This study takes a look at the positive and negatives spaces generated during Petipa’s Kitri Variation, in the ballet “Don Quixote,” choreographed in 1871. The two-dimentional model highlights the variation’s verticality. The dancer rarely bends her legs, and is almost always on on pointe. In this particular piece, the phrases of movement are very repetitive - this particular variation contained roughly four different 24-count phrases, repeated

114

2-3 times throughout the variation. Rather than looking at this model as an entirely compiled element (to the right), this study looks at variation as individual movements in the form of a section. By cutting half of the figure and seeing the interior curvature of the danced form, we greater understand the dispersion of positive and negative space in terms of ballet and modern dance.


KITRI VARIATION (DON QUIXOTE) Choreographer: Marius Petipa Choreographed: 1871 Solo: Female Dance Genre: Classical Ballet

115


PART 6 MOVEMENT ANALYSIS 2D & 3D STUDIES OF DANCE BALLET VS. MODERN Division of Positive & Negative space

116


KITRI VARIATION (DON QUIXOTE) Choreographer: Marius Petipa Choreographed: 1871 Solo: Female Dance Genre: Classical Ballet

117


PART 6 MOVEMENT ANALYSIS 2D & 3D STUDIES OF DANCE BALLET VS. MODERN

118


KITRI VARIATION (DON QUIXOTE) Choreographer: Marius Petipa Choreographed: 1871 Solo: Female Dance Genre: Classical Ballet

119


PART 6 MOVEMENT ANALYSIS 2D & 3D STUDIES OF DANCE BALLET VS. MODERN

120


KITRI VARIATION (DON QUIXOTE) Choreographer: Marius Petipa Choreographed: 1871 Solo: Female Dance Genre: Classical Ballet

121


PART 6 MOVEMENT ANALYSIS 2D & 3D STUDIES OF DANCE BALLET VS. MODERN

122


KITRI VARIATION (DON QUIXOTE) Choreographer: Marius Petipa Choreographed: 1871 Solo: Female Dance Genre: Classical Ballet

123


PART 6 MOVEMENT ANALYSIS 2D & 3D STUDIES OF DANCE BALLET VS. MODERN This study takes a look at the positive and negatives spaces generated during a section of Crystal Pite’s “Kidd Pivot,” choreographed in 2012. The two-dimentional model highlights the variation’s horizontality. This dancer is always in contact with the floor, and never stands in a fully upright posture. In this particular phrase, none of the movements are repeated, and all of them are organic in nature - meaning that they

124

are theoretically easily executed by anyone - not just professional dancers. Rather than looking at this model as an entirely compiled element (to the right), this study looks at variation as individual movements in the form of a section. By cutting half of the figure and seeing the interior curvature of the danced form, we greater understand the dispersion of positive and negative space in terms of ballet and modern dance.


KIDD PIVOT Choreographer: Crystal Pite Choreographed: 2012 Solo: Male Dance Genre: Modern

125


PART 6 MOVEMENT ANALYSIS 2D & 3D STUDIES OF DANCE BALLET VS. MODERN Division of Positive & Negative space

126


KIDD PIVOT Choreographer: Crystal Pite Choreographed: 2012 Solo: Male Dance Genre: Modern

127


PART 6 MOVEMENT ANALYSIS 2D & 3D STUDIES OF DANCE BALLET VS. MODERN

128


KIDD PIVOT Choreographer: Crystal Pite Choreographed: 2012 Solo: Male Dance Genre: Modern

129


PART 6 MOVEMENT ANALYSIS 2D & 3D STUDIES OF DANCE BALLET VS. MODERN

130


KIDD PIVOT Choreographer: Crystal Pite Choreographed: 2012 Solo: Male Dance Genre: Modern

131


PART 6 MOVEMENT ANALYSIS 2D & 3D STUDIES OF DANCE BALLET VS. MODERN

132


KIDD PIVOT Choreographer: Crystal Pite Choreographed: 2012 Solo: Male Dance Genre: Modern

133


PART 6 MOVEMENT ANALYSIS 2D & 3D STUDIES OF DANCE FINDING FORM IN DANCE

134


“When Miss Graham in her Lamentation depicts the dumb agony of grief she does not droop like a flower or attitudinize like Patience on a monument, she is grief from the first stricken bewildered gropings of her head and torso to the last moment when she averts her covered head with a finality that is pitiful and terrible.�

LAMENTATION Choreographer: Martha Graham Choreographed: 1930 Solo: Female Dance Genre: Modern

-Philadelphia Record, November 20, 1932

135


PART 6 MOVEMENT ANALYSIS 2D & 3D STUDIES OF DANCE FINDING FORM IN DANCE

136


LAMENTATION Choreographer: Martha Graham Choreographed: 1930 Solo: Female Dance Genre: Modern This model explores the 56 poses made in Martha Graham’s “Lamentation.” By stacking each shape linearly and chronologically, a clear representation of positive and negative space is rendered 3-dimentionally.

137


PART 6 MOVEMENT ANALYSIS 2D & 3D STUDIES OF DANCE FINDING FORM IN DANCE

138


LAMENTATION Choreographer: Martha Graham Choreographed: 1930 Solo: Female Dance Genre: Modern

139


PART 6 MOVEMENT ANALYSIS 2D & 3D STUDIES OF DANCE FINDING FORM IN DANCE

Related to the plexiglass models, this model serves as a way to analyze how Graham’s forms are connected to one another, depending on the the anatomy of the dancer. In this model, hands, feet, waistlines, heads, shoulders, etc. are connected linearly, creating a solid yet arbitrary shape. When dipped in soap we see tensile formations being naturally developed in the form, displaying a hierarchy of open and closed spaces. 140


LAMENTATION Choreographer: Martha Graham Choreographed: 1930 Solo: Female Dance Genre: Modern

141


PART 6 MOVEMENT ANALYSIS 2D & 3D STUDIES OF DANCE FINDING FORM IN DANCE

142


LAMENTATION Choreographer: Martha Graham Choreographed: 1930 Solo: Female Dance Genre: Modern

143


PART 6 MOVEMENT ANALYSIS 2D & 3D STUDIES OF DANCE FINDING FORM IN DANCE

144


LAMENTATION Choreographer: Martha Graham Choreographed: 1930 Solo: Female Dance Genre: Modern

145


PART 6 MOVEMENT ANALYSIS 2D & 3D STUDIES OF DANCE FINDING FORM IN DANCE

Exceeding Oskar Schlemmer’s 2-dimensional grid, these models illustrate the forms created in Graham’s “Lamentation” by applying it to a 3-Dimentional gridded plane.

146


LAMENTATION Choreographer: Martha Graham Choreographed: 1930 Solo: Female Dance Genre: Modern

147


PART 6 MOVEMENT ANALYSIS 2D & 3D STUDIES OF DANCE FINDING FORM IN DANCE

148


LAMENTATION Choreographer: Martha Graham Choreographed: 1930 Solo: Female Dance Genre: Modern

149


PART 6 MOVEMENT ANALYSIS 2D & 3D STUDIES OF DANCE FINDING FORM IN DANCE

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part of the design process. Whether or not these diagrams are intentionally integrated into the structure design is subjective to the designer.


LAMENTATION Choreographer: Martha Graham Choreographed: 1930 Solo: Female Dance Genre: Modern

20. https://42ndblackwatch1881.files.wordpress.com/2009/04/c-5.jpeg 21. http://miguelmartindesign.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/figure13.jpg 22. https://www.tumblr.com/search/villa+savoye

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PART 6 MOVEMENT ANALYSIS 2D & 3D STUDIES OF DANCE FINDING FORM IN DANCE

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LAMENTATION Choreographer: Martha Graham Choreographed: 1930 Solo: Female Dance Genre: Modern

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PART 7 CONCLUSIONS CONCLUDING THOUGHTS This project has enriched me with insights regarding architecture, dance, and the numerous art forms that serve as stepping stones between the two artistic elements. By comparing architecture and dance as both equal and opposite forms of artistic creation, I’ve learned to reconsider how architectural space is generated, and how humans interact physically with elements of design. The studies and analysis conducted throughout this project have proven that human movement is not only a subconscious form of art, but it is also constant, candid, and it has the ability to inspire an architectural design. This project is the ‘halfway point’ between schematic design and formal architecture, using dance as the medium to begin to generate spatial divisions. As the physical studies show, these spatial divisions can be concieved by analyzing positive and negative spaces generated by the human body, as well as forms greated by a dancer on stage, or even through historical analysis. Being able to understand human movement (whether it’s choreographed or natural) as it relates to adjacent spaces (whether they’re formally architectural or arbitrary) is essential for developing a holistic design that 154

addresses the user at a human scale. As an architect and a dancer, my goal with this project is to spark an interest in both architecture and dance within designers of all disciplines. Dance is an art form that is so often overlooked, yet it is rich in history, theory, and architectural design. Similarly, architecture is an element & concept that is present in nearly everything that we encounter - and it is an element that deserves to be exploited and perfected as a large-scale art form. This project is merely the beginning of a life-long research topic for me – a topic that I look forward to gaining a higher level of expertise in the years to come.


DORIS HUMPHREY c. 1930

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PART 8 SOURCES CITED ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Black Mountain Research/ Gabrielle Brandstetter "Still Moving" Perf. Gabrielle Brandstetter. Black Mountain Research, 2014. Archived Youtube Channel. Brandstetter's lecture discusses the prominent interdisciplinary elements within the Black Mountain College, specifically dance, architecture and music. With a heavy emphasis on process and the act of experimenting, sometimes failing, and finding solutions to dance, art and architecture elements, the Black Mountain College led to a generation of highly skilled and thoughtful designers. Brandstetter discusses specific projects that utilized the three main concepts of: squares, silence & stillness, and synergy & jitterbug variations as a means to move forward in the world of interdisciplinary design. Bonnemaison, Sarah, and Ronit Eisenbach. Installations by Architects: Experiments in Building and Design. New York: Princeton Architectural, 2009. Print. Bonnemaison and Eisenbach discuss architectural and artistic installations, their background concepts, and their value. Each project is categorized according to their themes regarding tectonics, body, nature, memory, and public space. Copeland, Roger. "Postmodern Dance Postmodern Architecture Postmodernism." Performing Arts Journal, Inc. 7.1 (1983): 27-43. Web. 6 Nov. 2014. Copeland sees the two arts of architecture and dance as equal forces among the conception of postmodernism. Through a separate comparison of the two subjects, Copeland determines that both architecture and dance are elements that utilize one another. The human body moves throughout a space as the architect had intended, pointing toward a pattern of architectural choreography. Postmodern dance utilized pedestrian elements, such as walking casually, in order to unite the common audience member with the choreography, which broke the formal barrier between the audience and the performer. Main choreographers that practiced these types of movement included Cunningham and Graham. Architecture does the same through its democratization and an opposition to the typical purity and unity of modern architecture. By rejecting the typical means to approach each art form, dance and architecture challenged the status quo and broke barriers between the user/audience member and the dance/architecture. Devabhaktuni, Sony. "Merceinspace." AA Files 62 (n.d.): 3-13. Web. 6 Nov. 2014. Devabhaktuni analyses the the modern dancer/choreographer Merce Cunningham, and his collaborative efforts with architects and other choreographers in the mid 20th century. By comparing dance and architecture as partners in the efforts of the creation of modern art, Cunningham utilized the two elements to challenge the expectations of modern dance. The paper compares the theories of dance approach shared and diversified by Martha Graham, as well as architectural practitioners such as Buckmister Fuller and Robert Venturi, and their collaborative roles in various dance works. Dodds, George, Robert Tavernor, and Joseph Rykwert. Body and Building: Essays on the Changing Relation of Body and Architecture. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2002. Print. Body and Building: Essays on the Changing Relation of Body and Architecture, is composed of a collection of essays discussing theoretical and physical concepts that bind the two elements. The book compares architecture and the body a variety of scales, ranging from urban qualities to detailed elements of the human body. Ersoy, Zehra. "Building and Dancing: Dance Within the Context of Architectural Design Pedagogy." IJADE 30.1 (2011): 123-33. Wiley-Blackwell. Web. 10 Nov. 2014. Ersoy discusses the need for architectural designers to 156


approach structural design with kinesthetic and psychological space in mind. By neglecting to take into account the needs of the user as they move throughout the space, architects miss a crucial link in the design process: creating an embodied space that unites body and mind. Ersoy describes a workshop conducted with architecture students, in which they created small dances and eventually a piece of formal choreography expressive of architectural ideas. Fiedler, Jeannine, and Peter Feierabend. Bauhaus. N.p.: H.F. Ullman, 2006. Print. Bauhaus dives into nearly every aspect of educational thought that occurred at the Bauhaus during its life between 1919-1933. Analyzing and discussing the effectiveness of craftsmanship within its students, the Bauhaus had a dance & theater school, an architecture school, and involved art and photography- often collaborating between every discipline. Frampton, Kenneth. "Introduction: Reflections on the Scope of the Tectonic." Studies in Tectonic Culture: The Poetics of

Construction in Nineteenth Century Architecture. N.p.: MIT, 1995. N. pag. Print. Frampton discusses the expressive qualities and potential of architecture, and its ability to transcend elements of form through thorough execution. Frampton considers the term 'tectonic' to refer to the specific craft of architecture, fueling avant garde architecture in the future. Frampton, Kenneth. "The Status of Man and the Status of His Objects: A Reading of the Human Condition." Hannah Arendt: The Recovery of the Public World. N.p.: St. Martin's, 1979. 1-32. Print. Frampton analyzes the comparison of labor versus work, and how they differ in use, theory, and performance. He discusses the products and effect of both labor and work, and applies them to human-scaled social elements. Guest, Ann H. Labanotation: The System of Analyzing and Recording Movement. 4th ed. Abingdon: Routledge, 2005. Print. Labanotation is an academic textbook that provides an introduction to the practice of Labanotation. The book features introductory theories, history, illustrations, and practice questions. Heynen, Hilda. "Architecture Facing Modernity." Architecture and Modernity: A Critique. N.p.: n.p., 1999. 6-25. Print. Heynen describes and compares the concepts of modernism, the modern, modernization, and modernity. Each opposing element equally needs another in order to function. Modernism refers to the orientation towards the future, while modernization refers to the process of modernizing. The modern is what is currently occurring, while modernity is the current act of participating in the modern. Holl, Steven. Parallax. Basel: Birkh채user-Publishers for Architecture, 2000. Print. Parallax serves as a design tool, consisting of physical and diagrammatical examples of conceptual architecture generated by Holl. Comparing program elements such as physical forms, architectural plans, urban analysis, and human interaction, Parallax discusses theories that link these concepts through the development of physical forms. Holl, Steven. "Phenomena and Idea." Idea and Phenomena, GA Architect. Vol. 11. N.p.: Lars Muller, 1993. 1-6. Print. Holl discusses the current state of architecture as a dimensionless and essentially useless form. Architecture is an element that has been abstracted from geometry, and effectively is the production of human thought. Humphrey, Doris. The Art of Making Dances. Hightstown: Princeton Book, 1959. Print. Humphrey discusses the elements that are essential to make successful dances. Aspects of symmetry, geometry, spatial dispersion, and conceptual generation are a few of the concepts discussed in great detail. 157


PART 9 SOURCES CITED ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Hutchinson Guest, Ann. "Introduction to Labanotation." Labanotation: The System of Analyzing and Recording Movement. 4th ed. New York: Routledge, 2005. 5-9. Print. Hutchinson Guest introduces the central concepts and history pertaining to Labanotation. The introduction features a breakdown of the overall elements within Labanotation, and provides a few practice questions for greater knowledge. Kassing, Gayle. History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2007. Print. History of Dance is composed of a brief introduction of each important dance movement, discussing their key dancers and choreographers as well as their equally vital dancers. Kassing's book features trivia, imagery, and adequate discussions of historical milestones and their value. Kassing, Gayle. History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach. N.p.: Kassing, 2007. Print. Kassing discusses the influences and originations of dance since it's very early years. The book discusses how and why dance has morphed throughout the years as a response to social tendencies. Katz, Vincent. Black Mountain College:. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2013. Print. Katz goes into great detail the influences prior to (and post) Black Mountain College, an interdisciplinary arts school in the eastern United States. Black Mountain College featured professors such as Merce Cunnigham and Buckminster Fuller, as well as John Cage, and produced students including: Jasper Johns, Willem De Kooning, and Robert Rauchenberg, among others. Koolhaas, Rem. Delirious New York: A Retroactive Manifesto for Manhattan. New York: Monacelli, 1994. Print. Koolhaas' manifesto for Manhattan considers the architectural history and development of the city, as well as societal, economic, psychological, and theoretical analysis of its unique and challenging qualities. Koolhaas, Rem. "Life in the Metropolis." Architectural Design 47.5 (2000): 321-31. Web. Koolhaas finds a link between commercialism and architectural development as it progresses throughout time. Architecture, a form of human expression, often is a reflection of society and therefore has been habitually reflecting elements of commercialism and development in recent years. Kwinter, Sanford. "The Complex and the Singular." Architectures of Time: Toward a Theory of the Event in Modernist

Culture. N.p.: n.p., n.d. 1-15. Print. Kwinter discusses the realms of time and its unattainable and expressive influence that it has within our world. The novelties of time are the products that form out of human invention. Marsilio. "Fundamentals." Fundamentals: 14th International Architecture Exhibition. N.p.: n.p., 2014. 233-312. Print. The Venice Biennale 2014 was themed "Fundamentals," designed by Rem Koolhaas. Its central aim was to thoroughly research and illustrate what Koolhaas considered to be the Fundamentals of architecture: floor, wall, ceiling, roof, door, window, facade, balcony, corridor, fireplace, toilet, stair, escalator, elevator, ramp. Martin, Leslie. "Black Mountain College and Merce Cunningham in the Fifties: New Perspectives." Congress on Research in Dance 26.1 (1994): 46-48. Web. 19 Nov. 2014. Martin discusses the presentations and conclusions drawn from a symposium held in 1994, reflecting upon the activities and influences generated from the teachers and students at Black Mountain College during the mid 20th century. The paper goes into detail regarding certain artists and their subsequent works, as well as where generations of students and teachers have gone since Black Mountain College ceased in operation. 158


Merriman, Peter. "Architecture/dance: Choreographing and Inhabiting Spaces with Anna and Lawrence Halprin." Sage:

Cultural Geographies 17.4 (2010): 427-49. Web. 11 Nov. 2014. Merriman discusses the unique theoretical and literal parallels between dance and architecture through the work of Anne Halprin, a dancer, and Lawrence Halprin, a landscape architect. Each professional used one another's skill sets in dance and architecture as a means to create spatial and artistic environments that served both artistic worlds. Influenced heavily by the Avant Garde art movement, Anne and Lawrence sought to challenge the 'typical' by looking at how space could define movement, and how movement could define space. Perusinovic, Dragana. Choreography and Architecture: Composing a Framework for Individual Participation. Ottawa: Library and Archives Canada, 2009. Print. Perusinovic's thesis analyzes the linkages between choreography and architecture, structures and movement, and architects and choreographers. This is done through an analysis of precedent studies both in architecture and dance. She discusses the programs of banks and churches and determines their architectural choreography through the building's program and its way of moving the user through space. Doris Humphrey's theories on modern dance are applied to theories of creating architecture. Rajchman, John. "Dancing and Building." Anyone Corporation: Architecture New York 5 (1994): 36-37. Web. 6 Nov. 2014. Rajchman discusses the parallels between the two art forms of dance and architecture, seeing them as proportionally influential modern artistic movements. Both elements contain a form of notation, as well as an opposition to the 'modern' as defined by the mid-50th-century. Through a comparison of Graham, Wigman, and Cunningham (among others), Rajchman defines architecture and dance as allies among the modern art sphere. Samuel, Flora. Le Corbusier and the Architectural Promenade. Basel: Birkh채user, 2010. Print. Samuel's Le Corbusier and the Architectural Promenade discusses Corbu's theories of human interaction with architecture through a discussion of his conceptual approach to architecture, and how those concepts are present within a selection of his architectural designs. Teyssot, Georges. "Windows and Screens." A Typology of Everyday Constellations. N.p.: MIT, n.d. N. pag. Print. Teyssot discusses the diverse means of perception that can occur when viewing an element from different levels, locations and mental areas. The subjectivity of viewing and experiencing architecture enables an infinite amount of discoveries and personal views pertaining to the subject. Tschumi, Bernard. The Manhattan Transcripts. London: Academy Editions, 1994. Print. Tschumi's Manhattan Transcripts are a theoretical and diagrammatical analysis of Manhattan, analyzing the city on a human, block, and urban scale through diagrams and artistic development. Umemoto, Nanako. "Matter." Atlas Novel of Tectonics. By Jesse Reiser. N.p.: n.p., 2006. N. pag. Print. Reiser and Umemoto discuss the concept of abstraction as a means to generate architectural form. Geometry is essentially the vehicle in which ideas form into architectural elements. The reading discusses the relationship between the before, after, and in-between within the process of abstraction. Vidler, Anthony. "Diagrams of Diagrams: Architectural Abstraction and Modern Representation." Representations 72 (2000): 1-20. Web. Vidler's paper discusses the prominence of diagrams within modern architecture, as well as the influence that different types of diagrams have on architecture. Some form of diagramming is always a 159


PART 9 SOURCES CITED ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY part of the design process. Whether or not these diagrams are intentionally integrated into the structure design is subjective to the designer.

IMAGE SOURCES Cover Image. http://www.teatrodimessina.it/htmver/multimediabase/Martha%20Graham%2033.jpg 1. http://www.icurvy.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/Photo3_NYCB-Company_Credit-Paul-Kolnik.jpg 2. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/diglib/media/loc.natlib.ihas.200153824/0001.tif/4120 3. https://www.tumblr.com/search/martha+graham 4. http://www.teatrodimessina.it/htmver/multimediabase/Prelude_493.jpg 5. https://www.tumblr.com/search/martha+graham 6. https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/originals/b1/72/68/b172680a78ad5813545b18a546736c74.jpg 7. http://images.huffingtonpost.com/2015-02-14-004_MG_5541.jpg 8. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/diglib/media/loc.natlib.ihas.200153711/0001.tif/3918 Cover Image. http://www.teatrodimessina.it/htmver/multimediabase/Martha%20Graham%2033.jpg 9. https://www.tumblr.com/search/doris+humphrey 1. 10.http://www.icurvy.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/Photo3_NYCB-Company_Credit-Paul-Kolnik.jpg http://www.newschool.edu/parsons/bfa-photography/ 2. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/diglib/media/loc.natlib.ihas.200153824/0001.tif/4120 11. http://downtownmagazinenyc.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/taylor2web.jpg 3. 12.https://www.tumblr.com/search/martha+graham https://img.washingtonpost.com/rw/20104. http://www.teatrodimessina.it/htmver/multimediabase/Prelude_493.jpg 2019/WashingtonPost/2014/10/28/Style/Images/Martha%20Graham%20Dance%20Company%205. https://www.tumblr.com/search/martha+graham %20Appalachian%20Spring%201.%20Photo%20Credit%20-Hibbard%20Nash%20Photography.jpg 6. 13.https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/originals/b1/72/68/b172680a78ad5813545b18a546736c74.jpg http://artsmeme.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/Steps_244.jpg 7. 14.http://images.huffingtonpost.com/2015-02-14-004_MG_5541.jpg http://triangleartsandentertainment.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/IMG_3258.jpg 8. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/diglib/media/loc.natlib.ihas.200153711/0001.tif/3918 15. https://dhcfellow2012dnb.files.wordpress.com/2012/07/2012-07-10-16-25-56.jpg 9. 16.https://www.tumblr.com/search/doris+humphrey http://www.artsalive.ca/upload/dan/mercecunningham_changeling_full.jpg 10. 17. http://www.newschool.edu/parsons/bfa-photography/ http://www.designboom.com/cms/images/-Z91/mc1.jpg 11. 18. http://downtownmagazinenyc.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/taylor2web.jpg http://www.domusweb.it/content/dam/domusweb/en/design/2012/02/02/merce-cunningham-the-legacy12. https://img.washingtonpost.com/rw/2010plan/big_371641_7473_web_4491_2_AMERCE_DSC7538.jpg 2019/WashingtonPost/2014/10/28/Style/Images/Martha%20Graham%20Dance%20Company%2019. https://www.tumblr.com/search/le+corbusier %20Appalachian%20Spring%201.%20Photo%20Credit%20-Hibbard%20Nash%20Photography.jpg 20. https://42ndblackwatch1881.files.wordpress.com/2009/04/c-5.jpeg 13. 21. http://artsmeme.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/Steps_244.jpg http://miguelmartindesign.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/figure13.jpg 14. 22. http://triangleartsandentertainment.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/IMG_3258.jpg https://www.tumblr.com/search/villa+savoye 15. 23. https://dhcfellow2012dnb.files.wordpress.com/2012/07/2012-07-10-16-25-56.jpg https://www.tumblr.com/search/villa+savoye 16. 24. http://www.artsalive.ca/upload/dan/mercecunningham_changeling_full.jpg https://www.tumblr.com/search/le+corbusier 17. http://www.designboom.com/cms/images/-Z91/mc1.jpg 25. https://www.tumblr.com/search/oskar+schlemmer 18. 26. http://www.domusweb.it/content/dam/domusweb/en/design/2012/02/02/merce-cunningham-the-legacyhttps://www.tumblr.com/search/oskar+schlemmer plan/big_371641_7473_web_4491_2_AMERCE_DSC7538.jpg 27. https://www.tumblr.com/search/oskar+schlemmer 28. https://www.tumblr.com/search/le+corbusier https://www.tumblr.com/search/oskar+schlemmer 16019. 29. https://thebirthofstars.files.wordpress.com/2013/06/girls-trio.jpg


23. https://www.tumblr.com/search/villa+savoye 24. https://www.tumblr.com/search/le+corbusier 25. https://www.tumblr.com/search/oskar+schlemmer 26. https://www.tumblr.com/search/oskar+schlemmer 27. https://www.tumblr.com/search/oskar+schlemmer 28. https://www.tumblr.com/search/oskar+schlemmer 29. https://thebirthofstars.files.wordpress.com/2013/06/girls-trio.jpg 30. https://www.staatsoper.de/media/content/Bilder/Inszenierungen/Ballett/_processed_/csm_FG_Das_ Triadische_Ballett_03_Scetinina_Losada_c_Wilfried_Hoesl_a606dc2f8e.jpg 31. https://www.tumblr.com/search/oskar+schlemmer 32. https://www.tumblr.com/search/oskar+schlemmer 33. https://www.tumblr.com/search/labanotation 34. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=87jErmplUpA 35. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=87jErmplUpA 36. http://www.ballet.co.uk/albums/jr_merce_cunningham_antic_barbican_1011/jr_merce_madoff_jump_023_1000.jpg 37. http://rickyday.net/blog/dancers_hirez.jpg 38. https://www.tumblr.com/search/merce+cunningham 39. https://www.tumblr.com/search/merce+cunningham 40. http://www.moma.org/collection_images/resized/385/w500h420/CRI_112385.jpg 41. https://dancingperfectlyfree.files.wordpress.com/2009/04/merces-nearly-ninety-photo-by-stephanie-berger.jpg 42. https://www.tumblr.com/search/oskar+schlemmer 43. https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/originals/e8/0c/78/e80c78874c05dfddd1060f086b028950.jpg 44. https://www.tumblr.com/search/buckminster+fuller 45. http://www.60pages.com/main/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/Fuller-cunninghamThe-Ruse-of-Medusa-performance-atBlack-Mountain-College-1948-Buckminster-Fuller-with-Merce-Cunningham-Photo-Clemens-Kalischer.-Courtesy-of-theartist.jpg 46. https://www.tumblr.com/search/buckminster+fuller 47. http://mkk-jentakumeni.aspone.cz/krivky_tance_gret_palucca_2.JPG 48. https://www.tumblr.com/search/labanotation 49. https://www.tumblr.com/search/labanotation 50. https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/originals/95/42/0e/95420e9187bc2db0eb6a7a59a3263c2b.jpg 51. http://openwalls.com/image/11160/tchaikovsky_pas_de_deux_4368x2912.jpg 52. http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/61caFiNZUdL._SL1024_.jpg 53. http://alabamadancecouncil.org/portals/0/images/XOVER%205%20JulieDanielLowRes.jpg 54. http://hofesh-media.s3.amazonaws.com/cms/2015/04/degeneration-new-1024x682.jpg 55. http://www.architecturaldigest.com/blogs/daily/2015/03/lucinda-childs-frank-gehrydance/_jcr_content/par/cn_contentwell/par-main/cn_blogpost/cn_image_1.size.lucinda-childs-frank-gehry-dance-01.jpg 56. https://www.pcah.us/media/files/8a1cc60d2c8bf1966388150f307c7e55.jpg?w=2644h=1486 57. https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/736x/a9/b1/6a/a9b16ada35a48aba8ed2aedab524144a.jpg 58. http://wendyperron.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/PeijuLamentationHibbardNash.jpg 59. http://dancamoderna.com.br/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/doris-humphrey-to-the-dance-1930s.jpg

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ARCHITECTURE

MASTER’S THESIS PROJECT

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Choreographed Architecture - Master's Thesis  

This thesis analyses human movement as a way to generate physical form.

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