Innovative Practice and Research Trends in Identity, Citizenship and Education Sixteenth Annual CiCe Network Conference 12-14 June 2014
Faculty of Humanities University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland
The Conference is organized under the kind patronage of:
The Rector of University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, The President of Olsztyn and Radio Olsztyn
Sixteenth Annual CiCe Network Conference 12-14 June 2014 Faculty of Humanities, University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland
Innovative Practice and Research Trends in Identity, Citizenship and Education
We would like to thank the University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn for hosting this year’s CiCe Conference.
The cohesion of European societies is being fundamentally challenged. Elite definitions of citizenship are narrowing in the face of far right challenges and socio-economic crisis. Formal citizenship education is questioned and under threat in many countries. Nevertheless, young people are responding in new and innovative ways often drawing on new media and technology. How can we as researchers and educators address this context? Do we need to fundamentally change our practices? Are our methodologies still relevant? How do we build citizenship capacity and unleash democratic potential? With these and other challenges in mind, how children and young people negotiate, learn and act within society and how we prepare and involve professionals in their education is the concern of this conference. Conference Organising Committee: Prof. Beata Krzywosz Rynkiewicz, Faculty of Social Science, University of Warmia and Mazury Prof. Elzbieta Wesolowska, Faculty of Social Science, University of Warmia and Mazur, Dr Halszka Lelen, Faculty of Humanities, University of Warmia and Mazury Dr Justyna Michalek, Faculty of Social Science, University of Warmia and Mazury Dr Teresa Zakrzewska, Faculty of Social Science, University of Warmia and Mazury Conference Scientific Committee Peter Cunningham, London Metropolitan University, UK Marta Fulop, Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem, Hungary Chris Gifford, University of Huddersfield, UK Susana Gonçalves, Instituto Politécnico de Coimbra, Portugal Nanny Hartsmar, Lärarutbildningen Malmö Högskola, Sweden Beata Krzywosz-Rynkiewicz, Uniwersytet Warminsko-Mazurski w Olsztynie, Poland Henry Maitles, University of West Scotland, Scotland, UK Julie Spinthourakis, Panepistimio Patron, Greece
Innovative Practice and Research Trends in Identity, Citizenship and Education Sixteenth Annual CiCe Network Conference 12-14 June 2014, Faculty of Humanities, University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland
Keynote Lectures Page 4
Special Sessions Page 7
Useful Information Page 9
Social Programme Page 12
Travel and Accommodation Page 13
Visitor Information Page 16
Abstract Book Page 17
Keynote Lectures Thursday 12th June, Main Hall Kaleidoscopic Identities: young people ten years into the European Union Alistair Ross, IPSE, London Metropolitan University, UK How do young people – between 12 and 19 – construct their sense of identity with different locations? This presentation discusses the complexity of constructions of identities in fifteen countries, that have either joined the European Union since 2004 or are candidate countries. It is based on an empirical study of 975 young people, who participated in 150 focus groups with the speaker. Do these young people feel adherence to their own country or to Europe? To their home town or city or to a region of Europe? This is the first generation to have been born after the fall of communism in many of these states: has this made them politically and socially different from their parents’ and grandparents’ generations? The answers to these questions reveal a multifaceted and kaleidoscopic pattern that helps us understand the changing nature of citizenship of European and of these countries. Alistair Ross is Jean Monnet ad personam Professor of Citizenship Education in Europe and an Emeritus Professor of Education at London Metropolitan University. He established the CiCe Academic network in 1998, and directed it to 2008. He founded the Institute for Policy Studies in Education at London Metropolitan and was its Director to 2009. His research interests focus around social inclusion and equity in education and issues of identity and political-social learning by young people. Alistair’s new book Constructions of Identities by young new Europeans: Kaleidoscopic Selves is published this summer by Routledge.
Thursday 12th June, Main Hall Chris Gifford, University of Huddersfield, UK Cosmopolitans and Eurosceptics: Europe’s new civic divide and its implications for citizenship education Opposition to the European Union is on the increase amongst citizens and anti-Europeanism is now an established feature of far right and populist parties. While European integration in the past proceeded on the basis of the passive acceptance of citizens, it is now openly contested and politicised. My presentation claims that this reflects a new civic divide that stretches across a complex European society and is rooted in different kinds of identities. Cosmopolitans support a Europe of diversity and human rights, while Eurosceptics challenge and resist its implications in the name of communal solidarities and the nation. Here I propose that the value positions on each side of the divide have to be approached critically and relationally. The individualism and elitism of cosmopolitanism is matched by the ethnic exclusivity and popular nationalism of Euroscepticism. In conclusion, I argue that citizenship educators are not immune from this divide and must decide how to respond to it both personally and professionally. Dr Chris Gifford is the Head of Behavioural and Social Sciences at the University of Huddersfield in the UK and is a member of the University’s Academy for British and Irish Studies. Chris is a political sociologist and he is interested in the impact of global and transnational conditions on states, citizens and politics. He studied at the University of Sussex, the European University Institute in Florence and the London School of Economics, where he completed his doctorate on the UK and European integration. He has undertaken research and development work in the area of citizenship education including funded projects on citizenship learning amongst undergraduate students. From 2005 to 2008 he was part of a CiCe project to develop resources on multiculturality, internationalism and diversity in the European higher education curricula. Chris has published in a range of international journals including European Journal of Political Research, British Journal of Politics and International Relations, Journal of Common Market Studies, European Political Science, Citizenship Studies and Citizenship Teaching and Learning. The second edition of his book, The Making of Eurosceptic Britain: Identity and Economy in a Post-Imperial State (Ashgate), will be published in 2014. He has been a member of the CiCe Executive Committee since 2011 and is currently the Treasurer of CiCea.
Friday 13th of June, Main Hall Maria Lewicka, Faculty of Psychology, University of Warsaw, Poland On the significance of place Places are important parts of our life. They are objects of strong attachments and parts of our identities. Processes of segregation and discrimination have physical and not only social and psychological dimensions. Nevertheless, relationships between people and places are rarely a research target in psychology. You will not find an entry of “place identity” in indexes of books on social identity. Neither is this concept present in personality psychology - such concepts as place attachment or place identity do not attract attention of personality researchers. So, place is largely a white spot in psychology and this is true despite the increased interest in place observed in other social sciences such as human geography, architecture or leisure studies. In my talk I am going to present empirical arguments for the significance of place. I am going to talk about place identity as different from other forms of identity, of place attachment and its psychological correlates, and of individual differences in people-place bonds. I will show that interest taken in the history of residence place – concomitant of place attachment - is an important factor that counteracts ethnocentrism and prejudice. I will discuss the complex relationships that exist between place attachment and two different forms of national identity: attachment to the country and glorification of the country. I will also discuss the role of place attachment in facilitating civic engagement among people. I will base my talk on the results of studies carried out in numerous places in Poland and in the neighbouring Ukraine. I will show regional differentiation of place attachment and place identity in the two countries. I will also focus on the special role that emotional bonds with places have in the modern, globalized and mobile, society. I will argue that despite the changes that the world undergoes, places nowadays do not lose their profound emotional meaning. However, the nature of the relationship between people and places changes, from a more traditional, every day and not self-conscious emotional bond to a deliberate and active attachment.
Maria Lewicka, MA in psychology from Poznań University, Poland; PhD in social psychology from University of Warsaw, Poland; habilitation in cognitive psychology from University of Warsaw, Poland; is a professor at the Faculty of Psychology, University of Warsaw. She initiated research and education in environmental psychology at the University of Warsaw and is at present Head of the Environmental Research Unit at this university. Her interests include cognitive issues (categorization behavior, human rationality, cognitive biases and errors as related to pragmatics of behaviour), and social and environmental issues. At present she pursues three lines of research within the broad area of social and environmental psychology: (i) place attachment and place identity, (ii) processes of social engagement (iii) collective memory of places. She published in Journal of Environmental Psychology, Environment and Behaviour, Cities etc. and is an author of a recently published book Psychologia miejsca (Psychology of place).
Saturday 14th of June, Main Hall Professor Kerry Kennedy, Hong Kong Institute of Education, Hong Kong. The “Citizenship Industry” And Student Identities: Is There An Alternative To StateFocussed Citizenship Education? The education of future citizens is an enduring issue that is of concern to governments, society, parents and to young people themselves. The form it takes, the rationale behind it, and the expected outcomes are matters of debate both within and across societies. Yet the underlying assumptions are rarely challenged: all societies require ‘good’ citizens who support the nation state, support its values and contribute to it in different ways. Yet this state- focussed paradigm of citizenship education has been challenged recently when Splitter (2011) referred to the “citizenship industry”. By this he meant that the boundaries around citizenship education seemed to be tightly prescribed by those in the field committed to continuing state-focussed citizenship education. Splitter argued for a quite different conception of the personal and social relationships young people should experience other than relationships they are meant to have with the nation-state. He argued in essence for greater recognition of the multiple identities young people often possess and their importance in developing and understanding future citizens. In this presentation I shall argue that the “citizenship industry” needs to take a long hard look at itself to see how it might accommodate a more inclusive view of what future citizens need. In particular I shall argue for a better understanding of “identities” and the way identity education might be developed as an important part of the education of future citizens
Professor Kerry Kennedy is Research Chair Professor of Curriculum Studies and Director of the Centre for Governance and Citizenship at the Hong Kong Institute of Education. Previously he was Dean of the Faculty of Education and Human Development and Associate Vice-President (Quality Assurance). Prior to joining the Institute he was Pro Vice-Chancellor (Academic) at the University of Canberra. His research interests are in curriculum policy and theory with a special interest in citizenship education. He has won research grants from the Australian Research Council and the Hong Kong Research Grants Council. He is the Series Editor of the Routledge Series on Schools and Schooling in Asia as well as the Asia-Europe Education Dialogue Series. He is Co-Editor of the Springer Series on Governance and Citizenship in Asia and is Editor of Curriculum Perspectives, the journal of the Australian Curriculum Studies Association. He was the Co-Winner of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement’s Richard M. Wolf Memorial Award for 2012. He has recently Co-edited (with Gregory Fairbrother and Zhao Zhenzhou) Chinese Citizenship Education: Preparing Citizens for the "Chinese Century" (Routledge, 2014). The 5th Edition of his co-authored book with Laurie Brady, Curriculum Construction, has been recently published (Pearson Education, 2014).
Special Sessions Thursday 12th June 17.30 to 17.50 Main Hall European Survey presentation The CiCe National Coordinators have been working in the past three years on a survey of citizenship education. The survey and expert report builds on the recently published Eurydice Report 'Citizenship Education in Europe' with a more qualitative survey targeted at a small number of citizenship education experts in the different countries represented by CiCe. The aim is to provide more in-depth expert opinion on the issues raised by the Eurydice Report and to bring the voice of the Network to the state of Citizenship Education in Europe.
Friday 13th June, 11.50 to 12.50, Main Hall Students’ Voices Session Moderator: Halszka Leleń, PhD, English Department, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn This 1-hour Students’ Voices session creates opportunity for the students of Olsztyn to talk to the world specialists working within CiCe Erasmus Academic Network and reverse, to understand students' opinion by academic society. Five HE professors, CiCe experts, and nine students from 3-age groups (lower secondary - 14 y.o., higher secondary - 17 y.o. and university level - 21 y.o.) are invited for the session. The students will express their views on young people’s influence on regional, European and global scene as well as their participation in contemporary media and politics. Mutual exchange of opinion will follow students’ perspectives on citizenship, education and identity. Debate among audience and invited guests (students and experts) is also planned. Session language: English
Friday 13th June, 15.20 to 16.20, Room 1 Film 'Hard to become who you are' In the film 'Hard to become who you are' the history of Europe and the Arab world is visualised through a learning journey of eight young people from World War One till the future. The youngsters travel by train through Europe and the Arab world from the past to the future. For each scene a booklet is designed to use the film in education, including working forms, images and links. The scenes are about World War One and Two, the Cold War and the Crisis, including the future. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u66PBi-rZWQ
Saturday 9.00 to 10.40, Main Hall Stories for democratic citizenship: Citizenship education with Cicea’s educational games Susana Gonçalves, Instituto Politécnico de Coimbra, Portugal This workshop aims to help participants experience various uses of the pedagogical resources produced by CiCeA:
the ‘post’card game “Stories for democratic societies” the game of European Citizenship (a kit of images for group dynamics with youth)
A sequence of practical, fun and stimulating activities, based on images, quotes, debate and creative group work, will help participants to:
Identify possible uses of the games and experience some of the activities that can be development with them; Expand their ideas on how to use image and photography in the classroom; Develop ideas on how to promote active learning about democracy and European citizenship Experience active methods, which connect the cognitive and the emotional sides of learning; Share their own practices and findings about student centred learning.
TRAVELLING: International Photo exhibition 10th -14th June, University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland Travelling can be a deep learning experience. When we travel the world we also travel inside ourselves and change as a result of such experience. The effect of travelling can be dramatic, like rebirth, modifying our identity and worldviews. In the process we become more and more citizens of the world. Photography captures and expresses not only what the traveller sees but also what he or she feels and values. This exhibition is not only a display of images or a documentary of world sites, but, most of all, a display of subjective experiences, moods and fascination. This exhibition includes photographs taken around the world by amateur photographers of various nationalities and celebrates diversity in its numerous forms and shapes. The exhibition is organized by CiCea, the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, the Autonomous University of Madrid (Spain), through the International art project ExpoEnredadas and the Polytechnic of Coimbra, through its teaching centre CINEP.
Useful Information Conference Venue The conference will take place at the Faculty of Humanities, University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland. Faculty of Humanities (Wydział Humanistyczny) Kurta Obitza str. 1 10-725 Olsztyn
Faculty of Humanitities
Hotel HP Park
The Faculty of Humanities is a short walk from the recommended Hotel HP Park in Olsztyn and a short taxi or bus drive away from the centre of Olsztyn. By Taxi: The journey should take no longer than 10 min by taxi and the average price for 5 kms is 10 zł. The following taxi companies take bookings over the phone: Green Taxi: Tel. +48 89 191 92 / Tel. +48 89 533 00 30 Real Taxi: Tel. +48 89 196 66 / Tel. +48 607 49 9666 / Tel. +48 606 81 9666 By Bus: Local buses (no. 3, 9, 15, or 22) operate frequently from the city centre to Kortowo, take the bus in the direction: Stary Dwór, and alight at the stop called: Uniwersytet Centrum Konferencyjne. Bus tickets can be purchased at newspaper kiosks or from the drivers and cost around 5 zł. You need to validate your ticket immediately upon entering a bus by using one of the ticket punching machines inside the bus.
Faculty of Humanitities
Hotel HP Park
750 metres / 10 mins walk
Registration Desk On arrival at the Faculty of Humanities please follow the signs to the registration desk. The registration desk will be open from 13.00 on Thursday; you will not be able to register before this time. Your badge and printed conference programme will be ready for collection there. A message board will be located beside the registration desk, where any changes and cancellations will be advertised. After Thursday you can register as follows: Friday: 11.00 – 12.00 and then 14.00 – 15.00 Saturday: 9.00 – 10.00
Wi-Fi and internet access Delegates to the conference will be able to access the University of Warmia and Mazury Guest Internet. Please connect to the wireless network "Goscie/Guests". Once connected you will have to open your web browser and try to connect to any page; the connection will be then redirected to the web login page. Please login with the following username and password: Username / Nazwa uzytkownika: email@example.com Password / Hasło: cice2014
Presenters Could all presenters ensure that they are at the room in which they are presenting at least five minutes before the session is due to start to upload their presentation. All rooms will have a PC connected with an overhead projector.
Poster session The poster session has been timetabled for 15.20 on Friday 13th June and posters can be placed on the boards from 9.00 to 12.20 on the Friday. Drawing pins will be provided. We are sorry, but the registration desk will be unable to store your poster before or after the session. If you have not taken your poster down on Saturday morning we will assume that you do not wish to retrieve it and we will ask for it to be thrown away.
Printing and Photocopying There are limited printing facilities available on campus and we recommend that you print your poster before traveling and if necessary arrange also for the printing of hand out copies of your paper in advance.
Storage on campus There are no lockers / left luggage facilities at the Faculty of Humanities building. The team at the registration desk will be unable to store personal effects or luggage during the conference, even for short periods.
CiCe Association Annual General Meeting The CiCeA AGM will take place on Friday 13th of June in the Main Hall from 9.00 am, please note that this is only open to CiCeA members. For details on how to join the CiCe Association go to http://www.cicea.eu/. Alternatively you can join the Association at the CiCeA desk by the registration desk on Thursday and Friday.
Social Programme Conference Reception All conference delegates are warmly invited to the conference reception on Thursday 12 June from 19.15. This will be held in the Atrium of the Faculty of Humanities.
Conference Dinner All delegates are invited to the Conference Dinner on Friday, which will take place at the Restauracja Przystań, on the shores of Lake Ukiel. The restaurant is a short drive from the conference venue and Olsztyn town. Dinner will start at 19.30 for 20.00, no dress code. Restauracja Przystań ul. Żeglarska 3, 10-160 Olsztyn http://www.przystanolsztyn.pl/kontakt The cost of the conference dinner is included on your conference fee. You are welcome to bring guests, but you will have to book and pay for their place before the 30th of May 2014. Please email the Conference office at firstname.lastname@example.org for more details.
School Visit (for members of the CiCe Association only) White Eagle elementary school, Thursday the 12th of June am Every year, the CiCe Association organises a visit to a local school for CiCeA members. This year’s visit has been kindly organised by Elżbieta Wesołowska, a CiCeA member and the parent of two children currently attending the school. The“White Eagle” elementary school (grades I-VI), is a state school a short taxi drive from the conference venue. The school, located in a “middle-class” neighbourhood represents a typical Polish standard and size, but due to the efforts of its staff, the school is currently one of the few “digital schools” in the region. The “digital school” project includes 60 laptops used by the pupils, multipurpose projectors and electronic boards in every class room. The school also runs a successful sports programme for children “We have got talents” focused on football. The White Eagle represents a good example of the development of state funded education in Poland in recent years. If you want to take place in the visit, please email the CiCe conference office with your name and affiliation at email@example.com. Meeting time on Thursday 12th June, morning: 9:30 Duration of the visit: 2 hours If you or your university are not yet a member of the CiCe Association you need to join before the Thursday, please contact the office for more details.
Travel Information to Olsztyn and Hotel Details Disclaimer: Although we have taken great care to ensure that the information provided on this page is accurate and upto-date, we recommend that you check these details independently before booking your travel to Olsztyn. We cannot accept any liability or responsibility should you rely on the information provided and ultimately find it to have been incorrect. The services mentioned here are for reference only and the CiCe Network does not endorse or recommend them; you use this information at your own risk entirely.
Olsztyn is on the North-East of Poland, 200 km from Warsaw or Gdansk. We recommend that you allow a full day to travel into Olsztyn; in most cases you will have to connect to a coach or train service from Warsaw. The easiest way to travel to Olsztyn is to fly to Warsaw (Frederic Chopin Airport for main carriers or Warsaw Modlin for low cost airlines) and then take a coach. Regular coach services also link Gdansk (Lech Walesa Airport) to Olsztyn. The coach journey will take 3 hours. Alternatively there is a less frequent train service linking Warsaw with Olsztyn (journey time approx. 4 hours.) A wide range of ferry lines also provide a link to Gdansk and Swinoujscie, from where train or coach links are available. From GDAŃSK (Wałęsa Airport) (travelling time about 2,5 hours) Wagner Transport offers a mini bus service from the airport to Olsztyn and are usually able to stop opposite the conference venue (please ask the driver). Reservations are required and can be made at: firstname.lastname@example.org The service from Wałęsa airport to Olsztyn runs every 30 minutes from 10:25 a.m. to 20:50 p.m. The service from Olsztyn runs from 5:20 a.m. to 16:05 p.m. also every 30 mins. For details see: http://www.wagnertransport.pl/ or call (00-48)-510-033-473 From WARSAW Modlin Airport (travelling time about 2,5 hours) Minibus RevolBus offers a mini bus service from the airport to Olsztyn and they will too stop opposite the conference venue (please ask the driver). Bus timetables are adjusted to airplanes departure but reservation is required at: email@example.com or call (00-48) 790-797-773 The company RADEX also offers a direct coach service from Modlin airport to Olsztyn, again, it may be possible to request a stop opposite the conference venue (please ask the driver). Their current timetable is: From Modlin: 13:05; 14:35; 17:15; 19:15; 21:15 From Olsztyn: 5:00; 6:10; 9:00 Contact them for more details: http://www.radex.net.pl / e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Reservation: (0048) 662-091-610 / (0048) 664-379-672 / (0048) 552-421-589 From WARSAW, Chopin Airport (travelling time about 4 hours) There are not direct coach services from Chopin airport to Olsztyn and you will have to travel to central Warsaw for your connection to Olsztyn. From Warsaw Chopin airport you can take a train to Central Railway Station (Warszawa Centralna) (journey time 30 mins), Alternatively, bus 175 will also take you from the airport to Warszawa Centralna. Warszawa Centralna is a short walk to Plac Defilad, (please see map below) where the coaches to Olsztyn depart. Coaches arrive and depart from the open air car park in the south corner of Plac Defilad. There is not dedicated bus stop. If your bus is not yet there, you can check timetables on a panel by the car park security box. Tickets cost 40 PLN one way and can be bought on board (cash only) from the conductor who will usually speak a bit of English. The journey time is 3 hours. It is worth asking the driver to stop at
Park Hotel in Olsztyn. This is an informal stop on the main road to Olsztyn and drivers will usually stop if they are able to do so. The conference venue and one of the recommended hotels is by the bus stop. If the driver is unable to stop there, you will need to take a taxi to the hotel from Olstyn central bus station. From central Warsaw (Warszawa Centralna / Plac Defilad) to Olsztyn by bus The company RADEX runs a regular service from Plac Defilad. Their current timetable has buses to Olsztyn as follows: 8:20; 13:50; 15:40; 16:30; 18:30 The company TRANSWAL also runs buses to Olsztyn from Plac Defilad. Their current timetable is: 6:35; 11:05, 13:35; 17:15; 20:05 For details, contact TRANSWAL on email@example.com or see http://www.transwal.pl/ From central Warsaw (Warszawa Centralna) to Olsztyn by train There are a number of trains to Olsztyn from Warszawa Centralna, at present the only direct services are at 7.00 am and 17.00 with a travelling time of 3 hours. For details please see http://rozklad-pkp.pl/bin/query.exe/en? Return journey from Olsztyn to Chopin Airport: There is a Radex service that connects Olsztyn directly to Chopin airport, (traveling time 4 hours). Buses depart from Olsztyn bus station at 5:00 a.m; 6:10 a.m.; 9:00 a.m. Warszawa Centralna and to Plac Defilad car park
Plac Defilad car park for buses to Olsztyn
Warszawa Centralna Train and Bus station
Local Travel The University of Warmia and Mazury campus is a short taxi or bus ride from the centre of Olsztyn. By bus: From the Olsztyn train station (Olsztyn Główny) or the coach station (Dworzec Autobusowy) across the road, you can take a direct bus to the university campus in Kortowo. Buses number 3 and 22 link the station to the campus. The journey should take 20-30 minutes depending on the traffic. For a timetable of buses in Olsztyn: http://www.zdzit.olsztyn.eu/?l=22&event=aktualne (you will need to select the bus number on the green squares) Bus tickets cost less than 5 zł. and can be bought on kiosks or from the bus driver. Your ticket needs to be validated immediately upon entering a bus by using one of the ticket punching machines inside the bus. A supplement ticket can also be required for a large piece of luggage). By Taxi: The journey should take no longer than 10 min by taxi and the average price for 5 kms is 10 zł. The following taxi companies take bookings over the phone: Green Taxi: Tel. +48 89 191 92 / Tel. +48 89 533 00 30 Real Taxi: Tel. +48 89 196 66 / Tel. +48 607 49 9666 / Tel. +48 606 81 9666
Accommodation: The Hotel Park in Olsztyn is located a short walk from the conference venue and a short bus or taxi ride from central Olsztyn and the old town. Rooms start from 58 EUR/ night. Hotel HP Park Olsztyn Al. Warszawska 119, 10-701 Olsztyn firstname.lastname@example.org / Tel: +48 89 524 06 04, http://olsztyn.hotelepark.pl/en The Hotel Wilenski in Olsztyn is located 1.5 km from conference venue and a short walk to the city and old town. Rooms start from 65 EUR/ night. Hotel Wilenski Ryszarda Knosały 5, 10-015 Olsztyn email@example.com / Tel. 089 535 01 22 http://www.hotelwilenski.pl/ The University Guest rooms offer hostel like inexpensive accommodation. They are located a short walk from the conference venue and a short bus or taxi ride from central Olsztyn and the old town. Rooms start from 20 EUR/ night. Please contact Mrs Barbara Gabrel: firstname.lastname@example.org
Visitor Information: Olsztyn has a beautifully reconstructed 14th century Old Town and the surrounding countryside, a famous lake district, offers a wide range of sport activities, such as swimming, kayaking, biking and hiking. If you have the time it is well worth staying for a few extra days. Details of things to do in Olsztyn can be found on the document: Three Days in Olzstyn.pdf. Other nearby attractions near Olsztyn are: Museum of Warmia & Mazuria A 14th-century castle, now houses an art gallery, restaurant and open-air theatre and an exhibition dedicated to astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus, who lived in the castle. The Bialowieza Forest A World Heritage Site, the forest is the last remains of the primeval forest which once covered most of Europe at the end of the last ice age. It is the only place you will find wolf herds of European Bisons. The Elbląg/Ostróda Canal The Ostórda-Elbląg Canal (built 1848-1876) is one of the most scenic waterways in Europe. The canal is 159 km long, including several side branches (the main way: Ostróda-Elbląg is 80 km). See: http://www.zegluga.com.pl/index.php?p=ofer&aid=9 Zamek w Malborku / Ordensburg Marienburg The Castle of the Teutonic Order in Malbork (zamek w Malborku / Ordensburg Marienburg), built by the Teutonic Knights, a German Roman Catholic religious order of crusaders is the largest brick building in Europe. http://www.zamek.malbork.pl/index.php?p=muzeum&lang=en Święta Lipka The village of Święta Lipka is known for Poland’s oldest Marian sanctuary and a Baroque church. http://en.poland.gov.pl/Swieta,Lipka,,12078.html Wolf’s Lair The ruins of Adolf Hitler’s headquarters during WWII are open to visitors, who can see the remains of nearly 200 buildings, including shelters, barracks, a railway station, two airports and a power station. http://www.intopoland.com/what-to-see/world-war-ii/wolfs-lair.html
Abstract Book Symposia, Workshops and parallel Paper sessions Thursday 12th June
15.50 to 17.10
SYMPOSIUM: Summer School Students Convenor: Antal Örkény, Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary Paper 1: Drama in Citizenship Education: Experimental Study by Means of Forum Theatre in Teachers’ Training. Agata Muszynska, Universidad de Navarra, Spain The study is a cross disciplinary research project in the area of Drama in Education, Citizenship Education with notions of Anthropology. The Experimental study is an Action Research in two cycles. It was carried out during academic degree of Primary and Early Childhood Education as well as Pedagogy on Higher Education level in Spain. The main focus of the study were topics related to citizenship and identity such as the role of family in education, the impact of the economic crisis and unemployment on education, immigration issues and social justice and intercultural issues. The main results of the study included a practical proposal of educational activity, as well as deepened understanding and the need of a theoretical insight into the role of the family in education. Therefore further work should involve, among others, a deeper theoretical insight and adopting a cross disciplinary perspective. Keywords: Drama in Education, Teacher Training, Role of the Family in Education Paper 2: Doing your time: disaffection, schooling and the problem of suitable education. Tara Jones, University of the West of Scotland, Scotland, UK The main premise of this doctoral thesis is that home education is a useful measure of family disaffection from state regulated schooling. The research addresses issues of voice, democratic rights, participation and citizenship. It is concerned, particularly, with how parents and children negotiate, challenge and contest dominant conceptualisations and definitions of ‘suitable education’ from the perspective and experiences of families where children have been withdrawn from state regulated education for home education. The research is underpinned and influenced by a participatory and action-research style methodology. Data is presented in the form of both individual and comparative case study and is interpreted using a combination of grounded theory, critical theory and interpretive phenomenological analysis in order to develop explanatory constructs. Participants were a voluntary sample of families where children have been withdrawn from school education for elective home education in the last five years. Participants were recruited from a sampling frame of home educators involved in home education social networking communities in England and Wales. Case studies were developed from reflective narratives of children and home-educators through a semi-structured conversation approach. Semi-structured conversations were structured loosely around perceptions and experiences of school which included relationships, curriculum, built environment and reasons for withdrawing. In depth analysis of the data is currently in process but preliminary observation of themes within the narratives of parents and children suggests that children are withdrawn from school due to issues and concerns relating to their social, emotional and psychological wellbeing, rooted in their day to day experiences of school. Tentative conclusions with respect to issues of citizenship, based on
preliminary observation of themes, are that some children and parents can experience citizenship in their relationship with schools and the school system as a sense of powerlessness. So much so that attempting to negotiate and / or compromise with schools leads to disaffection and ultimately withdrawal from the school system. Keywords: Disaffection with School, Home Education, Well being Paper 3: Prejudice and the Roma of deep poverty. Zsuzsanna Ébl, Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary Roma population represents an extremely disproportionate share of the poor in Hungary. In the summer of 2013 we have made a research on municipal mayors', social workers' and elementary school leaders' opinions and advices on the alleviation of poverty and prejudice in Hungary. (Social Renewal Operative Program 5.4.1-12. Modernization of Social Services / deep poverty – EU funds.) Our sample contains 100 micro-regions out of 178, chosen by complex poverty thresholds. After making interviews and focus groups we used an electronic survey, samples were representative for social workers and elementary school leaders; in group of municipal mayors we asked every member of population therewith being able to get extremely important information on impact of governmental decisions regardless of the magnitude of settlements. Barriers of excluded social groups and basis of prejudice against them are – in most cases – the same: differences of life-strategies, conflicting roles, tradition of a huge family, early pregnancies, unsupportive environment and family members, passive resistance against birth control, segregating education, and – an unalterable stigma: visible ethnic marks. Results will be handed to members of Hungarian Parliament after elections in April of 2014. Keywords: Roma minority in Hungary, Deprivation, Prejudice, Alleviation of Poverty
Thursday 12th June
15.50 to 17.10
SESSION: Reflective Practice in Teacher Education Paper 1: e-Reflect: A teacher education online course in Reflect Approach Maria Latzaki and Sarantis Chelmis, 1st Primary School of Rafina, Greece Reflect Approach is defined as a structured, collaborative and participative learning process which facilitates people to critically analyze their environment, construct a personal understanding of local and global reality and challenge dominant development paradigms. In the core of this process rests the need for people’s empowerment as well as reflect and action for social change. Our paper presents the design, the development and the formative evaluation of a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) under the title e-Reflect which aims at introducing school educators (a) in the theory and the techniques of the Reflect Approach, and (b) in a rich technological environment for the implementation of the Approach in con-temporary school settings. MOOC’s instructional design process is placed in the context of the Reflect training methodological background and incorporates up to date e-learning principles. MOOC develops around 8 lessons which employ a variety of teaching strategies and involve learners in interactive and collaborative activities through the use of web2.0 tools. Keywords: Reflect Approach, MOOC, e-learning, Teacher Education Paper 2: Representations of Social Justice of Spanish Teachers and Students Liliana Jacott, Antonio Maldonado, Vanesa Sainz, Almudena Juanes, Vanesa Seguro, Tatiana García, Everardo Pérez-Manjarrez, Antonio Fernández and Santiago Agustín. Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain
We present the results of different studies concerning teachers and students o representations of Social Justice in education. We focus our work on secondary and primary teachers and students. As research instruments were used specific questionnaires and also a semi-structured interview. The questionnaires contain a maximum of 39 dilemmas about the main dimensions of Social Justice (Representation, Recognition and Representation) in education and everyday contexts. Each dilemma describes a problem or situation relating to social justice dimensions and includes three possible responses: one that is highly promoting of social justice, other which is against social justice and a third response that is neutral or less promoting of social justice. In our result we found differences between access to these three Social Justice Dimensions in different grades and also between educative experience of the teachers. Keywords: Social Justice, Redistribution, Recognition, Representation Paper 3: Making the mirror look back: Reflecting upon student teachers’ reflections on their teaching Stavroula Philippou and Floria Valanidou, University of Cyprus, Cyprus The fields of curriculum studies and teacher education have long shared a concern over teacher development, an intersection materialised especially in their challenge against the distinction between theory vs practice and through the theorisation (and politicisation) of “the practical” and the teacher-as-researcher/reflective practitioner tradition. Reflection has thus long been mobilised in teacher education programmes in various ways (for example with the use of reflective diaries, essays, journals, logs). The aim of this paper is two-fold: firstly, to explore student teachers’ reflective accounts of their own (micro- and co-) teaching and, secondly, to draw upon this exploration to reflect upon the design and enactment of our teaching a “theory and methodology of teaching” course which these students had followed in the Fall of 2013. To this end, we performed content, thematic and discourse analysis of 79 individual and 33 team reflective essays of secondand third-year student teachers, who were involved in microteaching in groups of 2 or 3 (approx. 15-20’), during which they taught a part of a lesson plan they had previously designed to their fellow students. All lesson plans and microteachings were expected to materialize specific methodological principles and strategies (e.g. inquiry-based learning, differentiation, cooperative learning), as well as general teaching characteristics (e.g. general teaching skills, classroom management, communication skills). Consequently, student teachers’ reflective accounts (with which the cycle of the whole design-teach-reflect project was completed) were expected to focus on these and other issues regarding their teaching. Results indicated that student teachers’ reflective accounts were quite diverse in the nature of reflection, reasoning, argumentation and pedagogical discourse put forth. We interpret these findings by discussing the dialectical interplay and challenging the distinction between theory and practice in the context of the particular course and of teacher education more broadly. Keywords: Curriculum Inquiry, Reflective Practitioner, Pedagogical Discourse, Teacher Education Paper 4: An Innovative Humanistic Approach to Analysing Student Perceptions of the Lesson Sandra Rone and Māra Vidnere, Riga Teacher Training and Educational Management Academy, Latvia Due to democratisation of the society, everyone can creatively shape their life, improve their skills, wisdom and attitudes to benefit themselves and other people. Today brought up new, innovative pedagogical approaches based in human pedagogy and psychology. Topicality of the research is linked to efficiency of teacher performance, which creates a need to find original solutions to the problem of the teacher competence development, i.e., encouragement of ‘’teacher-student’’ cooperation in the lesson. This directly manifests itself in the quality of student perceptions of the content. The objective of the research is to analyse quality of student perceptions of the content in order to detect key opportunities to improve teacher performance. Quantitative methods: a questionnaire ‘’Student – Teacher’’ (My favourite subject). Static analysis methods: data transfer to the sten scale; distribution of sten scores (high, medium, low level). Research sample: research
sample consisted of 307 students from 4 gymnasiums where primary study languages were Latvian and Russian. Results. The analysis of the components of the perception of the school lesson indicated that schools, where primary study languages were Latvian and Russian, reported more behavioural component. Gnostic and emotional component was more pronounced in schools with Russian as the primary study language. The article looked at the differences between gnostic, emotional and behavioural components towards students’ favourite subjects. The questionnaire was completed by 307 students: 148 (48.2%) attend a secondary school or a gymnasium with Latvian as the primary study language, whereas 159 (51.8%) attend a secondary school or a gymnasium with Russian as the primary study language. Using the methodology ‘’StudentTeacher’’, the entire group exhibited all three components: GK – gnostic component, EK – emotional component, UK- behavioural component. A statistically significant result (0.002): emotional component was less pronounced in the whole sample, whereas the role of the gnostic and behavioural components is similar. Keywords: Humanistic Education, Innovative Pedagogical Approaches, Student Perception of The Lesson, Modern Student
Thursday 12th June
15.50 to 17.10
SESSION: Civics Paper 1: Civic and economic education to understand the own world Olga Bombardelli, University of Trento, Italy This paper explores the best approaches to civic education including economic education as one of the main focus of citizenship learning, for youngsters in the 8th and 9th school grade in Europe, in order that they learn to understand the world where they live, and become able to act and assume the own responsibilities in it. The aim is inquiring the best solutions in order to improve the success of teaching, and the motivation for civic and economic learning, helping students to understand the political life and the economic problems of our society, at international level. The ICCS IEA survey notes that youngsters need more information in civic fields and economy is an important part of it. The investigation looks first at good practices of economic education, at teaching methods, and materials, including schoolbooks; it takes case study examples linked to the main theoretical perspectives that inform the proposals (Hedtke, Reinhold, Grammes, Tilman, Lässig, Simone, Retzmann, Thomas, Ulrich, Peter, etc.). The study explores teaching methods and materials, included multimedial tools. The findings reveal significant difficulties in teaching civics successfully and also that teaching economic questions is not common in many countries, like in Italy. Especially there is not enough care for civic education in the initial teacher training although it is expected that teachers give civic education in many subjects. This article argues that citizenship education must promote interest and reflection on daily topics, taking into account the expectations of pupils, giving basic knowledge in civic and economic field, especially on promoting an active approach to learning and to citizenship. Keywords: civics, economic education, teaching material and methods, teacher training Paper 2: Web-based assessment of 1-6 graders’ civic knowledge: Results from a Hungarian pilot study Laszlo Kinyo and Katinka Dancs, University of Szeged, Hungary Democratic societies put an emphasis on the establishment and school-based development of civic competence. Its development is also enlisted among the goals defined by the Hungarian national curriculum, but studies assessing the acquired knowledge and skills are still rare. Nowadays, developmental tendencies of pedagogical assessments point towards computer-based assessment practices, however, the computer-based assessment of civic knowledge and skills is still regarded as innovative not only in Hungary but also globally. During the spring of 2013, within the frameworks of a larger research program, civic knowledge were assessed with the help of the
electronic Diagnostic Assessment System (eDIA) platform among grade 1-6 students (N=953). The aim of our study was (1) the piloting of the tests and (2) the assessment of students’ civic knowledge. Students on the different grade levels completed different tests, but three anchor tasks ensured both the comparison of the results both the assessment of the hypothesized development with age. Tasks of the tests were in line with the contents of the core curriculum, thus the assessment inform us about the level of acquisition of the curriculum contents. Results show that the newly developed online tests are reliable (Cronbach-alpha indices are above .80). Average performances are between 50 and 60 percentage points, gender differences were observed only on grade 3. Correlations between test results and time spent on test completion are moderate in grades 1 and 6. Our results confirm that civic knowledge can be assessed in an online test environment and with the help of this assessment method valuable background information can be gathered about the process of data collection. This research was supported by the European Union and the State of Hungary, co-financed by the European Social Fund in the framework of TÁMOP 3.1.9-11/1-2012-0001 ‘Developing Diagnostic Assessments’. Keywords: Civic Knowledge, Computer-Based Assessment, Elementary School, Quantitative Data Analysis Paper 3: Grading student conduct and behaviour in France: a way to change and evaluate student behavioural skills? Céline Chauvigné, Université - ESPE de Nantes, France For several years European countries have been facing recurring political economic and social challenges. The rise of individualism, the radicalization of certain behaviours, an uncertain future and high unemployment often create a climate of insecurity or violence in human relations. This difficult context is not without influence on the general population and especially on school-going youth. In a society where everyone has to find their place, civic values are often challenged from the first day of a student’s education. Different levels of tension are present especially in junior high schools or in underprivileged areas. With the rise of violence, school is made to play a responsible part in mentoring students and developing the tools for stopping violence at school. During the 1990s, there was a political will to focus students’ work on their engagement in school life (development of student delegations, councils, associations, etc.), but little behavioural change was observed. Given these mixed results, the government searched for other solutions. Thus, the 2005 Framework Act on education in France proposes an educational and pedagogical innovation: grading student conduct and behaviour. This mark evaluates not only students' attitudes and commitment in school, but also their behaviour and appears like others subjects in the school report. Now, have these initiatives led to significant changes within schools? Did the students’ behaviour and social skills change? How is a conduct and behaviour grade gauged? How does it fundamentally contribute to the shaping of future citizens ? This article aims to examine the relationship between French students and grading their conduct and behaviour to see to what extent social and civic competencies can be learned. For this purpose, we will rely on the analysis of institutional requirements, performance reports and ongoing scientific research as well as the testimonies of ninety-six high school students. Based on qualitative research, we should like to place particular emphasis on the contexts of occurrence and the educational goals of grading school behaviour (Gasparini, 2013). Then, we will compare the collected data: on the one hand performance reports and on the other hand student testimonies (Mucchelli, 1991; Bardin, 2007). Firstly, we will see how this new measure is welcomed by adolescents in their school life. Finally, we will see if the challenge of citizenship education by assessing behaviour and commitment provides help for the students to build their identity and a strong consciousness of the future active role they can or will play in society. The first results underline the skepticism concerning the impact of this form of notation. The evaluative dimension - often used as a regulating or controlling mechanism - distorts the meaning (Castoriadis, 1975) and makes it difficult to shape an autonomous and responsible citizen. Keywords: Competences, Assessment, Training, Principle of justice, Strategy, Compliance Paper 4: The Construction of the Civic Identity of the Lithuanian Adolescents
Irena Zaleskiene and Jurgita Norvaisaite, Lithuanian University of Educational Sciences, Lithuania This paper deals with the theoretical concept of socialisation in the contemporary networking society and focuses on the construction of civic identity of Lithuanian adolescents. The study was planned, organised and carried out by the team consisting of the authors of this paper and some secondary school teachers. The main aim of the study is to reveal the factors supporting the construction of civic identity of adolescents. In order to achieve the aim of the study the survey was conducted during the period of March – June (2012) in different Lithuanian regions. 1134 respondents (473 female and 661 male students) aged 14-17 participated in the survey. The questionnaire consists of three parts of questions reflecting cultural, political and educational factors influencing the construction of civic identity of adolescents. The obtained data suggest that the main factors in supporting development of civic identity according to respondents are: cultural (national language, national symbols) and educational (civic related curriculum, methodology of teaching and learning about active citizenship, analysis of social facts and real civic life situations). Some suggestions on how to establish most suitable conditions for strengthening civic identity of adolescents in the school community life are provided by the authors at the end of the paper. Keywords: Construction, Civic Identity, Adolescence Thursday 12th June
15.50 to 17.10
SESSION: Inclusion and Citizenship Paper 1: Cognitive aspects of pupil´s emotional self-control and self-regulation, or: To what extend is social behaviour determined by the quality of pupil´s cognition? Iveta Kovalcikova, University of Presov, Slovak Republic The paper analyses the concepts of executive function and pupil´s self-regulation. Both constructs are examined as cognitive mechanisms for emotional self-control. Self-regulation functions are involved in everything we perceive, feel, think or do in every waking moment of every day. Selfregulating mechanisms are co-responsible for quality of person´s self-determination and selfrealisation, since they are understood as the basis for civic behaviour and attitudes. Environmental awareness, the degree of social responsibility and trust, as well as the quality of social capital are, in our viewpoint, determined also cognitively. The aim of the research presented in this paper is to look for the possibilities of pupil´s self-regulating mechanisms diagnosis and stimulation. The sample consists of 230 pupils in the age of 9-10 years. The paper is focused on the analysis of the relationship between pupil´s self-regulation, coming under the “pupil´s cognition” domain, and selfregulation, coming under the “pupil´s emotions” domain. The level of the self-regulation of pupil´s cognition is diagnosed using selected subtests of Delis Kaplan Executive Functions Scale battery; the level of self-regulation of pupil´s emotions is measured using behavioural scale of BRIEF instrument. In the conclusion of the paper, the possibilities for pupil´s self-regulating executive processes stimulation within standard school curriculum are outlined. The results of the research bring information concerning cognitive aspects of pupil´s emotional control and social behaviour; moreover, they contribute to answering the question: What is the relationship between the level of higher cognition – executive functioning and the quality of pupil´s emotional control? Within the broader context, we are pondering: to what extend can pupil´s social behaviour be determined by the quality of pupil´s cognition? Keywords: Emotional Control, Self-Regulation, Executive Functioning, Paper 2: Students’ evaluations on their pro-social and violent behaviour in three types of schools Kristi Kõiv, University of Tartu, Estonia
This cross-sectional study addressed to measure two aspects of students’ evaluations across three types of schools: (1) frequency of pro-social and violent behaviour in peer and teacher-student relationships, and (2) attitudes toward pro-social and violent behaviour in peer and teacher-student relationships. Questionnaire data were drawn from study involving overall 506 middle school students from Estonia: students in two juvenile correctional educational institutions (N=80), students with emotional or behavioural disorders in three randomly selected special schools (N=145), and pupils in nine randomly selected mainstream schools (N=281), whereby the age of all subjects was the same – 14-17 year olds. Results indicated that there was an ambivalent attitude among juvenile delinquents (juvenile correctional educational institutions students): more condemnable toward violence versus less accepting towards pro-social behaviour, whereby their violent behaviour was more frequent compared with pupils with special needs in special schools and students in mainstream schools. Also, juvenile delinquents, contrast to other students had less frequent pro-social behaviour in peer and teacher-students relations. The implication of these findings is important for the design of citizenship education in schools. For this reason it is argued that schools should place more emphases on the personal and social curriculum in the area of prosocial behaviour, especially in the quality of education in the juvenile correctional institutions. Keywords: Pro-social behaviour, Violence, Personal and social curriculum Paper 3: Innovative approaches to preparing children on the autistic spectrum to be citizens of the 21st century. Peter Harnett, Somerset County Council, UK Innovative approaches to supporting children on the autistic spectrum to become 21st citizens. The debate remains within England as to how to provide the best possible educational provision for children on the autistic spectrum. Some argue for complete integration of these children in mainstream schooling; others support the development of bases outside mainstream education to support these children with diverse needs. The paper presents a case study from one local authority in England of its strategy for supporting children with autism and some of the challenges which this strategy meets in implementation. It considers the local authority's provision of specially developed small units (8 children) to cater for these children's needs. These bases have been developed over a period of 8 years and the paper will report on some of the challenges in creating these bases. The collected data also include children’s own comments together with those of their parents and educators within the units. Field notes and classroom observations are also analysed alongside these comments. Data suggest that a focused approach in a small unit setting can provide significant increases in the ability of young people to develop more appropriate social skills and emotional resilience and awareness - key attributes for future citizens. The paper concludes with recommendations for future practice which emerge from the data. Keywords: Autism, Inclusive education, Children's voice, Paper 4: Parents’ labour migration: the link between adolescents’ perception of family context and their personal identity in the area of school and occupation Justyna Michałek, University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland and Teresa Rostowska, University of Gdańsk, Poland Labour migration has become typical phenomenon in Poland that generates new types of families and leads to “temporary abandoned” children and other family members. Recent research discovered that transnational families are distinguished by specific patterns of communication or emotional climate and that parent-child separation influence on child’s psychosocial functioning, especially at a young age. Few studies concern the situation of adolescents. The aim of this papers is to examine the relationship between the perception of family context and the personal identity status in the area of school and occupation among adolescents from transnational families. Participants were 152 high school youth – 76 from transnational families (selected from a group of 99 students from such families), who satisfy the conditions: only one parent migrates – the father and come from nuclear family, and 76 from a nuclear families (comparison group). The following
measures were used in the study: Family Relationship Questionnaire (KRR) (Plopa & Połomski, 2010), Parental Attitudes Scale (SPR-2) (Plopa, 2005), Identity Development Scale (U-GIDS) (Polish adaptation - Rostowski, 1997), interview questionnaire to collect information about parent’s migration. The results of the study showed that there are differences in perception of family context (family relantionship, parents attitudes) between adolescents from transnational families and from control families. Migration factor also differentiates: occurrence of personal identity statutes in the area of school and occupation – girls from transnational families more often have reached the status of identity achievement, whereas the adolescents from non-migratory families more often have reached identity diffusion. The results indicated associations between personal identity statuses and perceived family relationships as well as parents attitudes (mother and father separately) – especially for moratorium and identity achievement. Results can be used to promote good individual development and show important role the family has on identity development – especially in context of parents’ migration. Keywords: Personal Identity, Transnational Family, Family Relationship, Adolescents
Thursday 12th June
15.50 to 17.10
SESSION: Social Exclusion Paper 1: Social exclusion and/or/versus citizenship involvement Jelena Petrucijova, University of Ostrava, Czech Republic This paper explores the impact of the economic crisis on social exclusion and community cohesion, focusing on homelessness as a radical form of social exclusion. Homeless persons are an urgent target group of social work initiatives. This paper describes the “Night Out” project, started in 2012 by social work students at the Faculty of Social Studies University of Ostrava (CZ) started in 2012. The project is a fundraising activity to support organizations working with homeless people. It enables to look into the life of homeless people in an experiential way and offers opportunity for communication and interaction of students, academicians, non for profit organizations, homeless persons and urban community. The event is inspired with “sleep outs” but goes further. The project is characterised by community participation through enabling strategies. Methodology is grounded in participatory approach (which currently occupies a prominent position in community development practice) that sees people as the main resource for development rather than as an object of the development efforts. Keywords: Social Exclusion, Social Cohesion, Project Method in Education, Community Involvement Paper 2: Ethnicity, Young People and ‘othering’ ‘Its’ like we don’t exist’; transitions from school to nowhere Nighet Nasim Riaz, University of the West of Scotland, Scotland This paper aims to explore the experiences of young people growing up in urban areas in the West of Scotland via community led youth work projects that aim to reengage young people categorised as NEET (Not in Employment Education or Training). By looking at their varied and complex biographies it will address young people’s experiences and perceptions of their communities and their transitions from education to the workplace. Getting lost in the transition from education to work is one of the key risks of social exclusion for young people which may lead to subsequent involvement in anti-social behaviour and crime (Bynner and Parsons, 2002; Yates and Payne, 2006; Finlay et al., 2010). The study is undertaken in a youth work organisation in an inner city ward in Glasgow. The preliminary study explores conversations with four young people from black and minority ethnic backgrounds who discuss their transitions from school to finding a positive destination. Hayward et al (2008, p18) found that the people from the same ethnic minority groups (Afro Caribbean, Pakistani and Bangladeshi) which are highlighted by Smeaton et al “Parts of our
schools system can match the best anywhere in the world but overall our school system is not world class. It systematically fails certain groups of children: children from poor backgrounds, looked after children, children excluded from school, children from certain ethnic groups” , are identified as failing to go onto positive destinations. This indicates that there is a link that these young people who are disadvantaged at school, do not go onto positive pathways of education, employment or training once they leave school. Keywords: Education, Policy, Young People, Youth Work Paper 3: Vocational training, citizenship and social exclusion: An analysis of student’s perceptions in Greece Despina Karakatsani and Christos Pavlos, University of the Peloponnese, Greece Vocational education is designed to prepare individuals for a vocation or a specialised occupation and so is directly linked with a nation’s productivity and competitiveness. Across European countries, the vocational education is shaped by widely different cultural and social-class values of vocational training status in society. As a result, the role of this education as an organised form of education differs from one country to another. Secondary education in Greece is divided into two cycles: compulsory lower secondary and non-compulsory upper secondary education. Compulsory lower secondary education is provided in Gymnasia while non-compulsory upper secondary education includes two types of schools: General Lyceum and Vocational Lyceum. Exist According to the regulation the objectives of secondary vocational education is to: 1. Develop the pupils’ abilities, initiative, creativity and critical thinking, 2. Transmit the required technical and professional knowledge and development of relevant skills, 3. Offer pupils the knowledge and abilities necessary to continue their studies at the next level of education. Since summer 2013 due to the severe economic crisis the vocational education in Greece has seriously changed. A lot of sections have been abolished and the whole objective of this sector has altered. In this presentation we are going to present the results of our research based on vocational student’s perceptions about their educational and professional perspectives. We are going to analyse students’ opinions in relation with their citizenship construction and identity, the role of vocational training and the risks of social exclusion and unemployment. Keywords: Vocational Education, Students, Social Exclusion, Citizenship Paper 4: The impact of xenophobic bullying on student integration Seamus O' Connor, Dublin City University, Ireland Ireland experienced unprecedented growth of immigration from circa 1993 to 2011 which resulted in greater linguistic and ethnic diversity in Irish schools. This paper, part of a doctoral study, is an investigation into the experiences of first generation children of migrants at second level. The purpose and rationale for the study, the theoretical framework and the research questions pivot around the central issue of the need for immigrant students to experience academic and social integration in the school and the obligation of the state, the school management and teachers to support the academic and social integration of immigrant children. A case study on the lived experiences of first generation migrant students in a large second level urban school was carried out over the three year period from 2009 to 2012. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with in-school and out-of-school educational personnel and focus group discussions were organised with first generation immigrant student groups. The framework used to analyse the findings was influenced by Gramsci’s theory of hegemony and by Bourdieu’s concept of cultural capital. The findings indicated that migrant students were subjected to comments and taunts of a xenophobic and racist nature. This behaviour, perpetuated by a small number of indigenous students was persistent and impacted negatively on migrant student wellbeing, influenced their socialisation patterns and contributed towards clustering of students in own nationality or in mixed immigrant student groupings. The school’s anti- racism and anti-bullying policy depended on self-reporting and proved ineffective as the bullying occurred away from the observation of school personnel and was mostly unreported. The findings demonstrated that in order to address the negative impact of
xenophobic and racist bullying on student integration, broader interventions to foster inclusivity and to secure migrant children’s wellbeing, needed to be incorporated into policy and practice, both at school and at state level. Keywords: Xenophobia, Bullying, Socialisation, Integration Thursday 12th June
15.50 to 17.10
WORKSHOP: Producing Interactive Activities using Inquiry Based Multimodal Tools and Location Based Media Carl H Smith, Learning Technology Research Institute (LTRI), London Metropolitan University, UK The GLOMaker authoring environment (http://www.glomaker.org ) enables teachers, trainers and students to rapidly create pedagogically based interactive websites and mobile learning apps. GLOMaker has a wide international user base with users from 129 different countries. The WYSIWYG authoring tool provides powerful features with an easy-to-use interface. It is open source and free for educational use. We will divide up the workshop into hands on sessions alongside audience discussion and Q+A. All intended participants are asked to download the software on their laptop before the workshop: http://dndigital.net/work/ltri/phase2/GLOMaker-rc2.air
Thursday 12th June
15.50 to 17.10
WORKSHOP: Objects of Memory Workshop facilitators: Andri Savva, University of Cyprus, Cyprus, Hugo Verkest, Teacher Training College, Belgium, Nilüfer Pembecioğlu, Istanbul University, Turkey The workshop suggests how participants could explore their everyday objects and present these through sculpture , photography or by creating an installation These objects could be something that they use every day, for example a toothbrush or a significant object which they feel a strong attachment to, for example an object given to them by a friend, a family member, an object they usually carry with them at all times, an object they have known since they were very young, an object they found and know nothing about it but which find interesting, an object they found and consider to be meaningful as represents a belief or an intuition. First participants will cover their objects using different kind of materials or conceal their objects in small boxes. Then they will complete its identity information (mainly descriptions) without identifying it. Groups of participants will be: a) asked to make connections between their object and someone else without seeing the object; b) take photos of their objects; c) decorate the boxes by drawing or writing words d) place them in a form of installation in or outside small boxes. Finally the presenters will show some examples of similar practices in higher education settings and alternative activities will be proposed. Participants will be able to experience art as an acting form of making a metaphor, interact with people and objects and identify aspects of their identities Intended participants: Anyone with an interest in teaching through arts and media aspects of citizenship and identity may attend the workshop. Participants may consider bringing with them small objects or use small objects that they usually carry with them. Friday 13th June
10.30 to 11.30
SYMPOSIUM: Summer School Students Convenor: Márta Fülöp, Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary. Paper 1: The research of the structure of self-esteem in young adulthood in Latvia.
Elena Ozola, Daugavpils University, Latvia This research aims to explore the following questions: Are explicit and implicit forms of self-esteem independent constructs or represent a hierarchy? Are explicit and implicit forms of self-esteem correlate with each other? How the levels of explicit self-esteem, levels of implicit self-esteem and their interaction influence the personal outcomes? Self-esteem is considered as a personal overall evaluation of his or her own worth. Self-esteem comprises beliefs and emotions and is irreplaceable for people to adapt to society, and may be reflected in personal behaviour. For young adults the environment in which they live, contributes deeply to the development of their selfesteem, which in turn helps them to adapt to society better. The study is being conducted with explicit and implicit measurement seeking to examine and compare features of self-esteem among young people. As explicit measurements, psychological diagnostic instruments for self-esteem measurement: Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (M. Rosenberg, 1965) and State Self-Esteem Scale (Heatherton, T. F. & Polivy, J., 1991) are used. The application of implicit instruments to researches of self-esteem expands the understanding of the nature of this construct and presents the new step in the researches of related constructs, such as self-efficacy, leadership, risk-taking and coming into social contacts. The study design, including both explicit and implicit measurements on the same sample, gives the opportunity to estimate the level of self-reported self-esteem, the level of implicit self-esteem and will shed light on the interacting of these construct in the structure of self-esteem. Keywords: Self-Esteem, Teenagers, Explicit and Implicit Measurements Paper 2: New fathers: A changing role in the family and labour market Júlia Galántai, Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary. In Hungary, recently there are an increasing number of studies dealing with gender roles within the family, and its effects on the labour market. Although the father's role and his participation in childcare tasks is not often mentioned in Hungarian literature. The traditional type of family model is often said to be in connection with the traditional women and men roles within families (DupcsikTóth 2007, Spéder 2011). So could we also say that following the traditional type of norms would be visible in fathers’ child bearing practices as well? According to Blaskó (Blaskó 2005) the division of home work within families in Hungary is very weak and comparing it with European data we are tail-enders in Europe regarding that. Although if we compare data regarding the hours that fathers spend with child bearing Hungary is in the midfield. Can this forecast that the time spent with children is more and more important for both sexes and that there is a changing in the Hungarian family patterns? Child care allowance for fathers is only available since some years ahead, in 2006 there were 9 000 fathers, while in 2012 there were 10 000 fathers who stayed at home and applied for child care allowance. We also say that the number of fathers who took the child care allowance is not increasing at all and they are only 5-6 % of the whole population of those who applied for such an allowance. Child care allowance for fathers is only a rational decision analysing the net income of the family, is it the voluntary escaping of fathers from the labour market, or is it the signs of the change of Hungarian family patterns? Methods: 100 pieces of questionnaires with fathers who stayed at home with their child and applied for child-care allowance. I would ask about their attitude towards child bearing, labour market, and gender roles. With 20 interviewees I would conduct an in-depth interview as well. I would compare the result with international data from the European Social Survey. Keywords: New Fathers, Working parents, Child Care Friday 13th June
10.30 to 11.30
SESSION: Constructions of Citizenship Paper 1: Citizenship education and its antitheses in the light of a discourse of knowledge society
Astrid Męczkowska-Christiansen, Polish Naval Academy, Poland Nowadays, we observe an increasing impact of economical and market policies on education, occurring in the global perspective. This influence can be discerned in both cultural and linguistic terms of re-defining of the very basic concepts which construe common understanding of social reality and its various aspects, such as political, axiological, and educational. The main purpose of the paper is to explore the bases for conceptualizing the idea of education for knowledge society,in the view of documents, reports, and foresights on social and economic policy (EU, UN, UNESCO, WTO, World Bank, Poland 2030, etc). It is argued that a shifting meaning of concepts such as knowledge, learning and its outcomes as well as a change in perceiving a human being as a subject of education, brings meaningful consequences for defining, constructing, and implementing the idea of citizenship education. Both methodological and theoretical approach involved in presented explorations is inspired by critical discourse analysis (CDA). Keywords: Knowledge Society, Citizenship, Learning, Discourse
Paper 2: Childhood, citizenship and anthropocenic futures David Blundell, London Metropolitan University, UK This paper takes up concerns about the meaning of childhood and active citizenship in relation to the challenges of social, economic and cultural diversity and uncertainty due to climate change. It acknowledges the importance of recent contributions made by critical childhood studies and its concern to: establish a social constructionist and culturally-relative account for childhood; assert children’s agency; and, challenge the concatenation of ‘child development’ and children’s growth that is rooted in historical presumptions about a dualistic relationship between humans and the natural world. Supporters of this direction for the study of children and childhood argue that it offers much in reconceptualising established agencies and institutions of childhood in diversifying societies and a globalising world, but also complements other critical developments concerning the construction of the human subject that may broadly be identified as “post-humanist”. Rights-based discourses, such as those found in the UNCRC and having an affinity with citizenship education, proved catalytic for much of the awakened interest in children’s lives and the condition of childhood; however, critics (particularly from the majority world) have expressed concerns about Euro-centrism at their heart and a contingent limitation to global applicability. This paper suggests that the recently proposed “anthropocene era” - where irreversible human impacts on the earth bring historical and geological time into alignment – offers scope to interpret human past and present in relation to multiple possible futures. Multiple futures conjure up possibilities for relationships between human subjects, technological cultures and nature that are more hybridised, dynamic and open; moreover that they exhibit greater congruency with new socio-politicalecological movements, with the post-humanist critique of modern childhood and with young people’s expectations to be able to shape their lives and pursue forms of citizenship that they find meaningful. Keywords: Childhood, Post-Human, Anthropocene, Climate-Futures Paper 3: Subversion of Citizenship and Education in Bertrand Russell’s Alphabet Halszka Leleń, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland Bertrand Russell, the British analytical philosopher and logician, honoured with the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1950, stands out as one of the most influential figures in the area of humanities of the twenty-first century. The paper is devoted to the close reading of his half-forgotten trifle ‘The Good Citizen’s Alphabet”. The tiny book was first published in 1953 by Gaberbochhus Press, a publishing house established by his friends, the Polish avant-garde artists Franciszka and Stefan Themersons. Russell’s exploration of the idea of citizenship apparently emerged from his correspondence with the couple.
I want to demonstrate the multi-layered dialogic, double edged principle behind this work. On one hand, it can be treated as an expression of Russell’s philosophy as well half-serious exploration of language that could serve to describe it, to playfully illustrate it. On the other hand, it works on the level of indirect diagnosis and expression of the twenty-first-century crisis of values, which emerged directly from the experience of the Second World War as well as indirectly from the turnof-the-century general mood of nihilism. This dialogic quality is enhanced by the fact that the book is illustrated with Franciszka’s thrifty line art created in the convention of children’s drawings. The presentation will thus also examine the inter-media correspondences between the impact of the text and the implications of the drawings. Russell himself observed that the illustrations perfectly express what he wanted to say. It is also interesting to explore how the genre of quasi-educational alphabet is conducive to create in child and adult readers a distanced, topsy-turvy view of modern society and the idea of citizenship portrayed through grotesque distortion. The stance of questioning the values is the displayed in the non-standard choice of entries and the thought-provoking descriptive predicates used to illustrate the subsequent letters of alphabet. This subversion is done with the use of strategies that are still to be observed in contemporary social discourse to be found in the media, politics and education. It is therefore particularly useful to examine one of the early examples of such modern scepticism about the notions of citizenship and education. Keywords: Bertrand Russell’s Alphabet, Citizenship, Text and Illustrations Friday 13th June
10.30 to 11.30
SESSION: The Self and Citizenship Paper 1: Masculinity, femininity and self-esteem: The benefits of psychological androgyny Monica Liana Secui and Magda Danciu, University of Oradea, Romania This study examines the relationship between masculinity and femininity, defined through agentic and communal personality traits, and self-esteem, in a sample of 404 Romanian adolescents, aged between 14-18 years old. Masculinity and femininity were assessed using Personal Attributes Questionnaire (Spence, Helmreich & Stapp, 1978), and self-esteem was measured by Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965). As predicted, the analysis of variance we conducted revealed main effects of masculinity and femininity on self-esteem, but no interaction effect, the results sustaining the additive model of psychological androgyny. Our findings have documented that masculinity and feminity are positively related to the global feelings of self-worth for both boys and girls, foregrounding some of the limitations associated to traditional gender roles prescriptions, and also the importance of development of psychological androgyny in the case of both genders. The practices used by parents, teachers, and peers within the gender socialization process, and the information presented in the mass media related to gender role constraints are discussed from the point of view of the negative implications for children’s and adolescents’ well-being. Keywords: Masculinity, Femininity, Self-Esteem, Adolescence Paper 2: Teenagers’ Personal Identity as a Problem of the Socialization Process in Modern Society Teenagers’ Personal Identity as a Problem of the Socialization Process in Modern Society Marina Marchenoka, Rezekne Higher Education Institution, Latvia, Zoja Chehlova, University of Latvia and Gerda Vogule, Rezekne Higher Education Institution, Latvia The urgency of the present research paper is stipulated by the discrepant tendencies in the development of the modern society and the complicated social situation in Latvia. The crisis of personality is strengthened by the background of the social and economical crisis. A teenager, who is forced to reappraise his/her values and beliefs, comes into collision with the problem of the crisis of his/her own identity and has to look for the Self in the situation of instability
of new reality in Latvia. In order to solve this urgent problem one should analyse the conditions of forming his/her own personal identity at teenager years that is the most optimal period of formation and the development of his/her identity and personal self-determination. The Aims of the research paper are: to define the status of the teenager’s personal identity in Latvia; to define the scale of self-actualization of teenagers in Latvia. The Methodology of the research paper is: the theoretical analysis of the psychological literature on the approaches to the problem of personal and social identity (W. James), The Theory of Identity and The Conception of Psychosocial Identity (E. Erikson, Ch. Cooley), the Theories of Structure and Development of Personality (Vigotsky, L.), The Conception of Self-Actualized Personality (R.Havighurst, A. Maslow ); The methodological part of the empirical research includes: defining the status of personal identity at teenager years in Latvia (J. Marcia (1966, 1980, 1994)), based on E. Erikson’s (1996) conception of psychosocial identity; Self-actualization test (SAT), theoretically based on A. Maslow’s (1987) conception of the selfrealising personality. The Results of the research are the following: The theoretical analysis of the scientific psychological and sociological literature on the given problem of the research; the status of the teenagers’ personal identity and the scale of self-actualization of teenagers in Latvia were determined and characterized. Keywords: Identity, Teenager, Crisis, Self, Personality, Adaptation, Recognition, Society. Paper 3: Contrast of Multicultural and Intercultural Literacy in Czech Educational Environment Martina Rozsypalová, University of Ostrava, Czech Republic Literacy as one of the core issues of current education is also defined and researched in the field of multicultural/intercultural education. A difference between the meaning of both adjectives is characteristic for two streams grouping various approaches as well. They further predict the difference between multicultural and intercultural literacy - there are different effects in pupils´ results and performances and in the educational process itself. The paper focuses on generalization of the trends that can be seen in various researches, projects and theoretical works describing Czech environment that deal with the issues of multicultural/intercultural education in terms of literacy. To generalize the trends, a content analysis of research reports and theoretical works published in the Czech Republic in the period of 2010-2013 (monographs, articles, conference papers) will be made. After that, implications to the concrete projects run in the same time will be identified though a content analysis of the materials or information provided on the project websites. Also there will be given recommendations for future. Keywords: Intercultural Illiteracy, Intercultural Education, Multicultural / Intercultural Education Friday 13th June
10.30 to 11.30
SESSION: Children’s Voice Paper 1: Children’s as Partners: Towards Democratization of Family Relations in Poland Joanna Ostrouch-Kamińska, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland A. Giddens argues that contemporary family has democratized in a manner corresponding to the processes of democratization in public sphere. The democratization of the family assumes equality of family members, their mutual respect, autonomy of each of them, no violence in their relations, and decision-making through communication, negotiation and dialogue. In such a family, a child becomes a partner in relation with parents; is considered as autonomous value and independent subject. The processes described by Giddens can likely be seen in dual- career families from socalled Polish middle class - professionally active and highly educated couples. The main aim of this paper is to look at the situation of a child in such families in terms of changes in child’s situation/position and ways of his/her upbringing as well as development opportunities that this change may create for him/her. Those changes will be analysed with referance to two contexts: the wider one, which is connected with social and cultural changes in Poland, as well as changes of
educational ideologies in Polish educational discourse, and the narrower one, connected with “hidden knowledge” of the family; knowledge about parent-child relations derrived from my own empirical data - narrative research based on in-depth interviews with dual-career family spouses. The paper shows that the concept of a child has been moving towards a child as a partner, a subject, a person with his/her own dignity and respect; a child who is invited to construct deep relations with others, as well as positive and active attitude towards own life, make autonomous choices, and develop his/her own behaviour on the basis of democratic values: equality, freedom, responsibility, and diversity. The article argues that family relations and a family as educational environment must follow the challenges of contemporary changes in Polish society and culture, and open its boundaries to “upbringing democracy”. Keywords: Education in a family, Democratization of family relations, Democratic upbringing, Subjectivity of a child Paper 2: Cocooning and heart time: An oasis of self–authorship in the light of civic maturity? Jennifer Hauver James, University of Georgia, USA and Hugo Verkest, Teacher Training College Torhout, Belgium The purpose of this paper is to report findings from an ongoing comparative study on cocooning time (BE) and heart time (USA) in primary schools.The idea of cocooning/ heart time captures two central elements of student development theory that can also be found in contemporary conversations of civic education: namely, that maturity involves (1) a shift away from egocentrism toward mutuality, and (2) movement away from blind trust in external authorities toward confidence in one’s own ability to make decisions. Civic maturity involves both awareness and intention (from the Old English translation); and an ability to move beyond the self into greater communion with others (the Buddhist construct of “enlightenment”). Baxter Magolda’s (2001) theory of “selfauthorship,” based on empirical study with young adults, is helpful in capturing the interpersonal, and intrapersonal dimensions of these two foundational shifts (rather than simply the discrete knowledge and skills one acquires over time). By using questionnaires, interviews and observations we investigate how children reflect on this cocooning time in the class and refer to it in daily life. Why do they ask for this kind of time? Is it a real desire or a way to escape? Is self authorship an expression of well-being? What is the role of the teacher and the school in promoting cocooning/heart time? How can we train our teacher trainees to be aware of this intrapersonal dimension in the classroom? We selected several case studies to deal with the obstacles and benefits of this kind of quality time for developing the self –authorship of children at the age of 10. Keywords: Primary Education, Civics, Qualitative, Comparative Paper 3: Deliberative education- a psychological perspective Elżbieta Wesołowska and Andrzej Sołoma, University of Warmia and Mazury, Poland When traditional citizenship becomes questioned, one of the most innovative ideas of how to build democratic citizenship stems from the idea of deliberative democracy. The core concept of this democracy is the deliberative debate, which is a specially designed process of searching for an agreement through group discussion. In this type of debate, individuals participate while free of any external pressures, and follow the principles of equal status and mutual respect. Disputants explain their positions on the discussed controversy and provide justification for their beliefs, which extend beyond narrow self-interest and take into account the public good. In this process, the disputants attempt to understand the essence of the discrepancy between their beliefs and try to compromise on a solution. Advocates of the deliberative debate claim that participation in this process results in multiple positive educational effects, including fostering democratic values, building trust and relationships between divergent social groups, promoting reflection on social identity, acquiring communication and conflict solving skills and encouraging participation in politics. One question remains regarding this process, however: in light of contemporary psychological research, are the above-mentioned positive effects feasible? In this presentation, the psychological mechanisms of
the educational effects of deliberative democracy are discussed by drawing on the developmental theories of Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotski. The conclusion suggests that participation in deliberative debates has positive educational outcomes under two conditions: (1) careful arrangements of discussion and skillful facilitation and (2) repeated, frequent experience. As implications the ideas of deliberative education are presented. Deliberative education is a modern and innovative approach in teaching, which includes a number of educational tools meant to engage students in the subject matter, provide incentive for them to learn and to increase their ability to adopt to the fast changing realities of the modern world. Keywords: Deliberative Democracy, Deliberative Debate, Deliberative Education, Developmental Psychology Friday 13th June
10.30 to 11.30
SESSION: National and European Identities (part 1) Paper 1: International Student Mobility in Times of the European Economic Crisis Thomas Bauer and Alexandra Kreuz, PH Wien, Austria This study focuses on Erasmus-student mobility in times of the European economic crisis. The central question explores what the Erasmus generation, that has experienced Europe’s diversity through personal and peer contact, thinks about the Erasmus programme in a time where one in five young Europeans is unemployed (European Commission, Press Release, 9.11.2012; http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-12-1192_en.htm). Are there already changes in European mobility and what can be done to save the idea of Erasmus as a key factor in the internationalisation and “Europeanisation” (see Jan Figel, 2007, p 1). Based on our last years’ researches, a quantitative questionnaire concerning Erasmus-student mobility has been designed added a third of items with a special focus on the European Crisis. So our main research focus is about the influence of the European Crisis on student mobility. Therefore Erasmus and international students of University Colleges for Teacher Education from all over Austria completed our new questionnaire concerning their perceptions about their Erasmus-period in another country and about their experiences and their problems being an international student in times of crisis. In the pilot study we found out that more than two thirds of the students that feel the effects of the European crisis and are afraid of the crisis are encouraged by their Erasmus semester to seek a job in another country. Positively noticed as a result of the Erasmus programme the current mobile generation thinks positive about being a European citizen and about building up their future in another country. These and other findings are reviewed in comparison of recent European studies (e.g. Teichler, Ferencz & Wächter, 2012; Kehm & Teichler, 2012; Johnson, 2012; Erasmus Student Network, 2013; EACEA P9 Eurydice; 2012) and to render valid inputs for future discussion and further research for the new student mobility era 2020. Keywords: Student Mobility, European Crisis, European Identity, Perceptions and perspectives Paper 2: Moving borders, crossing boundaries: Young peoples’ identities in a time of change. 5: Three countries from former Yugoslavia – Slovenia, Croatia and Macedonia Alistair Ross, London Metropolitan University, UK This is the final paper in a series of presentations based on the development of a project being undertaken under the aegis a Jean Monnet Professorship . Previous papers (Ross 2010, 2011, Ross et al. 2012, Ross 2012) reported on the Baltic states, the Visegrad states, Turkey, Iceland, Cyprus, Bulgaria and Romania This paper focuses on three European states that have been formed out of the former state of Yugoslavia. Slovenia has been a member of the EU since 2004; Croatia joined in 2013; Macedonia/FYROM is a candidate to join. What discourses do young people use to construct their sense of identities, in relation to their potential national identity and potential European identity? Based on 35 focus groups, with 216 young people, I examine their construction of identiies. This analysis uses the theoretical positions of Bruter’s (2005) thesis that
identities can be constructed round institutional or cultural axes; Jamieson and Grundy’s (2007) descriptions of ‘passionate’ and ‘indifferent’ Europeanism, and the emerging descriptions of generational changes in identity, reported variously by Fulbrook (2011) and Miller-Idriss (2009). In these three counties there was an ambivalence expressed about the extent to which the countries could be described as ‘European’, and a sense of being in some way ‘Balkan’ that carried with it overtones of being ‘not European’. A poster on this topic will be presented at the Poster Session on Friday 13th June. Keywords: Identities, Construction, Europe, National Paper 3: Learning the language of the ancestors as the chance to regain the lost identity of the German minority children in Warmia and Mazury, Poland Eliza Gładkowska, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland This paper discusses the distracted identity of the youngest generation of German minority members in Warmia and Mazury which is the result of the repressions of their ancestors and their language in this region of Poland after World War II. The government act from 1991 aiming at supporting and promoting identity, language and culture of national and ethnical minorities in Poland is still not efficiently practiced nor reflected in curriculum in the discussed case. This situation results in the substantial loss of the cultural diversity on the individual and collective level. These reflections refer to the theoretical assumptions of linguistic relativity hypothesis introduced by Sapir and Whorf and advanced nowadays by e.g. John A. Lucy. Another methodological perspective that informs this study is the term “postmemory” coined by Marianne Hirsh. The second section analyses the reasons of this negligence commenting upon the questionnaire completed by 25 primary school teachers from the aforementioned area. The findings reveal that the proper information and identification of minority pupils in the early stages of education could bring reinstatement of the lost national and ethnical elements of culture in the youngest generation of German minority in Warmia and Mazury. Consequently, such a reintroduction of the lost components of identity may function as an essential factor in the process of overcoming the generational trauma in families of German descent. Keywords: Distracted Identity, German Minority Children, Language of The Ancestors, Postmemory Friday 13th June
10.30 to 11.30
SESSION: Developing Teacher’s competences Paper 1: Teachers’ citizenship competences: a comparative research. Helena Pratas, ISEC - Instituto Superior de Educação e Ciências, Portugal and Sandra Chistolini, Università Roma Tre, Italy Education represents an important aspect in the development of the needed skills for a life of democratic citizens in diverse democratic societies. The teacher's role and competences become a crucial element in the development of children and their capacity to exercise citizenship in the most constructive way, preparing them to be democratic citizens, for their future world of work and for the development of their personality (Pestalozzi Programme of the Council of Europe, The Professional Image and Ethos of Teachers, 2014). The Council of Europe's Parliament adopted Resolution 1849 (October 3, 2008) recommended the promotion of a culture of democracy and human rights in schools through teacher education. The necessary teaching competences involved would include aspects as the ability to create learning environments beyond the classroom, allowing community to engage in partnerships and making learning more significant. Moreover, the Recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council (2006/0962/EC) on the eight key competences for Lifelong learning stressed that the social and civic competences should be
acquired by all students through schooling. How are teachers integrating cognitive, ethical and action-related competences in their practice as Citizenship educators? And how are the students experiencing this teaching? These are some of the questions that our research aims to answer. The research will combine quantitative and qualitative research, comparing perceptions of both teachers and students on Citizenship Competences in three European countries: Poland, Italy and Portugal. The sample of this research consists of primary and secondary school teachers and students. The sample consists of 219 Italian and 235 Portuguese teachers and 3572 Italian and 315 Portuguese students. In Poland the research is not yet completed. Statistical analyses of the results aim to show similarities and differences between teachers understanding of their teaching and students experiences in light of important aspects of citizenship education Keywords: Citizenship Education, Teachers' Competences, Paper 2: Gifted students in school, yet teachers left “high and dry” Mojca Juriševič, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia Digital age has affected education in many different ways. Students’ learning needs often stay misunderstood or unfulfilled by their teachers. Teachers report that education of the gifted is an important investment in the future of the country and deserves equal support by means of the concepts of social justice and equal opportunities as the education of the students with special needs. On the other hand, teachers report the lack of knowledge and innovative teaching approaches to face the current educational context. Gifted students – leaders, entrepreneurs, scientists and artists of tomorrow – in school miss challenging and authentic problems and good communication with teachers. This has been confirmed by a study based on a representative sample of teachers and students of Slovenian primary schools. The discussion focuses on viable strategies to unleash gifted students’ potentials in schools towards building a democratic society based on a responsible citizenship. Keywords: Students, Teachers, Gifted students, Professional competences Paper 3: Qualities of teacher social-communicative competence as promoter of professional innovative activity Māra Vidnere and Sandra Rone, Riga Teacher Training and Educational Management Academy, Latvia Topicality of the research is linked to efficiency of teacher performance which creates a need to find original solutions to the problem of identifying and promoting professional competences and to select behavioural models promoting social-communicative competence. The current research presents various structures of the communicative competence. Social-communicative competence is viewed as the basic, key competence of the teacher’s professional activity. The objective of the research is to ascertain the qualities of teacher social-communicative competence, identify the key contradictions in teacher communication and analyse the qualities of teacher social-communicative competence. The quantitative methodology was as follows: a social questionnaire ‘’Social Status of the Teacher’’ and a social-communicative competence questionnaire (Ю.А. Гончарова), identifying six qualities of the social-communicative competence and levels of its formation (adapted by Vidnere M., 2007). Static analysis methods: data transfer to the sten scale; distribution of sten scores (high, medium and low levels). The research sample consisted of 110 teachers (including 8 male teachers) from two gymnasiums and two secondary schools of city X, i.e., 59.2% from schools where primary study language is Latvian and 48.8% from schools where primary study language is Russian. The concept of the social-communicative competence provides that a person is aware of the following personality aspects: -needs and value orientations, work technique; - perception skills, i.e., ability to perceive surroundings without subjective distortions, without exhibiting strong prejudices towards problems, personalities and social groups; readiness to detect new things in the external environment; - ability to understand efforts of other socio-economic groups; - ability to understand and accept norms and values of other cultures; - ability to understand their feelings and mental states due to the effects of the external environmental factors; - ability to identify level of their economic culture which is revealed in
relation to environmental elements in the place of residence (Bakx, Van der Sanden, Sijtsma, Croon, Vermetten, 2006 Keywords: Social-Communicative Competence, Structure of The Teacher Social-Communicative Competence, Communicative Competence, Innovative Approaches Friday 13th June
10.30 to 11.30
WORKSHOP: Discussion, debate, deliberation Workshop facilitator: Margarita Jeliazkova, University of Twente, the Netherlands Discussing, deliberating and debating are a core part of any democratic process. To organise these processes well, a great deal of knowledge and skill is required. It is not simple to find a good balance between a number of elements: appropriate language and terminology; paying attention to solid argumentation and logic; creating a safe atmosphere; addressing controversy while maintaining a constructive climate; paying attention to group processes; using one's voice and personality to moderate a discussion and a debate in different settings. The workshop leader has developed her own way of training discussion moderators, drawing on various sources of expertise: as a trained philosopher, specialised in philosophical inquiry (among other in the tradition of philosophy for children); as a policy scientists with experience in moderating policy debates in various international settings; as a teacher educator of social science teachers; and as a voice and presentation coach. we will engage in a highly interactive process in which we will learn not only to guide a discussion through different techniques of interaction and questioning, but also by addressing basic issues of voice use and presentation skill. The focus will be on group discussions with young citizens, but the instruments offered during the workshop can be applied to any situation where discussion of important ideas is required or desirable. Intended participants: The workshop welcomes delegates willing to engage in group discussions in different formats. The workshop is aimed at teachers in particular, but researchers who want to get their point across in a clear and inviting manner are most welcome. Friday 13th June
14.00 to 15.20
SYMPOSIUM: Summer School Students Convenor: Roger Johansson, Malmo University, Sweden Paper 1: Kindred work” methodology and principal of “equal inequality”. Dymitr Misiejuk, Maria Curie-Skłodowska, University in Lublin, Poland The main goal is this paper is to present educational methodology called “kindred work” founded by Hryhorii Skovoroda the XVIII-th century Ukrainian philosopher. Main assumption of theory is to show that in every human, child or adult, we can find his congenital ability. Supporting them and development will lead to individual success. Following the recommendation of this method, human avoid so-called “rat race”, he accept his imperfections, and seeks to full satisfaction and selfacceptance. The base of this methodology is principle called “equal inequality”. It avoid valuation of function performed by human, and show that this function depends on self-conscious creating it person. These method shows also mistakes which leads to general unhappiness and how to avoid it. Trying to transfer the experience of XVIII-th century philosopher on XXI-st century ground I get to know about today pedagogy theories (for example W. Brezinka’s), and psychological theories (for example C. Rogers), and speak about these subject with academic teachers. All experience I try to compare with philosopher texts. Trying to understand “kindred work” methodology and principle of “equal inequality”, we should accept axiom which tells us that all humans are equal as a man, but not everybody has the same “kindred” abilities. Persons who early discovered their “kindred” abilities, quick achieve in life satisfaction and self-fulfilment. They are doing everything
what they are good at and in consequent they are not harming anybody. Persons who instead discover in themselves their needs, hence they are not developing “kindred” abilities, are manipulated by parents ambitions or society stereotypes, generally fall in revenge, frustration and depression, although they have learned skills, but they haven’t abilities to these subject. It binds with the effect, what Skovoroda notice, that for example judge seems disproportionately harsh results, instead fair one, to feel satisfaction, teacher is more thinking about dropping duties on student, instead teach, because its more comfortable, etc. If there is possibility to instil in young person understanding in “kindred work” methodology at the beginning of education and to show him how to use it, this young man would have bigger chance to grow up as a self-conscious of his worth individual, which will faster achieve individual satisfaction, and that will contribute to social well-being, instead he will achieve only social expectations. I recommend conducting lessons about theory of "kindred work" on parenting classes in schools and psychological observation if students apply to her and with what result. Keywords: Methodology, “Kindred work”, Hryhorii Skovoroda, “Equal Inequality” Paper 2: Characterising the informal reasoning patterns elicited during young people’s engagement with Holocaust education. Hannah James, University of the West of Scotland, Scotland, UK What processes and interactions do young ex-offenders undergo when experiencing a programme aimed at reducing recidivism themed around the Holocaust? Understanding of the underlying processes and interactions that offenders undergo when they engage with a rehabilitation programme remain a mystery. One approach that is gaining recognition because of its proven ability to change attitudes and values are rehabilitation programmes themed around the Holocaust (Cowan & Maitles, 2011). For example, rates of hate crime were reduced in prisons where prisoners engaged in discussions about the Holocaust and hate crime (HMP Exeter, 2012). Building on this the charity, Action for Children, ran a transitional programme themed around the Holocaust and hate-crime, for men aged 16-25 after leaving a young-offenders institution. The transitional programme aimed to reduce recidivism and aid re-integration into society, by challenging negative attitudes, values and beliefs, using education about the Holocaust and involved a visit to Auschwitz-Birkenau. A case study approach using grounded theory analysis will explore seven young ex-offenders engagement with a transitional programme run by the charity Action for Children. A rich picture of the participants engagement and journey with the material will be gained using six interviews per participant, as well as reviewing records of participants past history with the charity, and analysis of film footage of the programme. The understanding gained from this initial study will provide insight into an area which has a dearth of research, and lay the foundation for further research into the causes of reduced recidivism. Keywords: Holocaust Education, Rehabilitation Programmes, Young Offenders, Recidivism National symbols in Hungarian sixth graders’ history textbooks Katinka Dancs, University of Szeged. Hungary The purpose of this study is revealing the most prevailing national symbols transmitted by history textbooks. The research questions were the following. What are the most commonly mentioned national symbols (e. g. historical characters, cities)? What actions and events do the textbooks usually mention in relation to these symbols? Despite the different approaches, history education ensures that children get acquainted with national symbols (e. g. kings, national emblems, important historical events, cities). History textbooks are important socializational agents; they transmit the national history and symbols to children. Hence they are the objects of several analyses. Textbook analysis uses multidisciplinary approach to study the structure, contents and functioning of textbooks. In this research quantitative and qualitative methods were used to analyze some of the chapters of 4 Hungarian history textbooks (approximately 450 pages). The textbooks covered the Hungarian history from the 10th century till the early 18th century. The
textbooks mostly tell about their reign, but their personal characteristics and actions also appear. The analysis in the case of cities showed that the textbooks contains more than 100 city names, but only one city – Buda – can be regarded as a national symbol. These outcomes give us descriptive information about national symbols, but can be used in two ways in the further research. On the one hand, the outcomes can be used to design tests measuring students’ knowledge about these symbols. On the other hand, these outcomes can be the basis of further analysis of textbooks designed for younger students. Keywords: History Textbooks, Hungarian History, Text analysis, Symbol analysis Friday 13th June
14.00 to 15.20
SESSION: Exploring Text Paper 1: The Origins of the Crisis of the Social and National Identity as Presented in Howard’s End by Edward Morgan Forster Eliza Gładkowska, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland The contemporary crisis of the notions such as citizenship and identity is the phenomenon resulting from the processes which have taken place for many decades. This paper discusses the origins of this situation by investigating E. M. Forster’s novel Howard’s End which reflects the change in the social structure and the idea of citizenship in early modernist Britain. The analysis of particular fragments of Forster’s text adopts the standpoint of sociological criticism. The study concludes that the main characters manifested the profound awareness of the consequences of the social transformation although the attitudes towards those changes alter significantly among particular individuals. The modern city at the beginning of 20th century was recognized as both the symbol and the cause for the breakthrough in social relations and the idea of citizenship which gave rise to a “nomadic civilization.” The repercussions of the emergence of communities based on the alternative concepts are also anticipated. Howard’s End proves to be a prophetic text about the Western world on the threshold of the crisis of identity. Keywords: Crisis of Citizenship, Sociological Criticism, Modernistic Literature, Space Paper 2: Citizenship, Relational Ethics, and Voice: An Integrated Writing Curriculum Lisa Fortlouis Wood, University of Puget Sound, USA One of the central roles of a citizen is to actively engage in oral and written discourse that influences, and is in turn shaped by, the values, actions, and decisions of others (Cumming, 2011). As such, writing and rhetoric courses necessarily play a key role in fostering active citizenship roles and identities. This paper describes an innovative college writing curriculum that underscores the centrality of ethical reasoning, decision-making, and practice. The course readings and writing exercises explore ethical issues across varied social contexts with a focus on conflicts of interest, civil rights, and the role of community systems in protecting the wellbeing of citizens. Ethics problems in the course move in a sequential fashion from individual issues of integrity and loyalty, to broader collective concerns of confidentiality, informed consent, and the right to refuse/chose treatment. The dialectical processing of these issues through classroom discussion and debate serves several broad curricular goals. First, the course process highlights and strengthens the voice of each participant, while respectfully engaging differences of experience and opinion. Second, the curriculum emphasizes the parallel processes of writing, discussion, and ethical decision-making, where reflective thinking is emphasized, and issues are examined from multiple perspectives in order to identify conflicting interests and guidelines for decision and action. The paper will include sample writing and discussion exercises, readings, a model for sequencing topics and assignments, as well as a sample of student writing progression across the course.
Paper 3: Learning to read through play – the use of global reading method for preschool-aged children Janina Karoń, University of Warmia and Mazury, Poland The traditional education model with the leading role of the teacher still dominates in Polish education, despite many recommendations of activating pupils. The teacher has the knowledge which he passes on to the students, and they have to use it in carrying out commands. There is a lack of agreement between students and teachers in Polish schools, and education is based on the dominance of a person who has the authority in the form of knowledge. The students can’t ask questions, make their own rules, and discover world by themselves and what is most important disagree with something that the teacher says. Students perceive school as boring and reluctantly attend there. Despite the fact that this situation requires a change neither the system of education nor the teachers can solve this problem. Is more important In formal education to execute of topdown rules and verify their implementation in the form of a test than the actual development of children's thinking and skills which are more difficult to verify . In my presentation I would like to show how we can break this pattern and how we can develop partnership and cooperation with the change in the approach and methods, in this case learning to read. I teach five-year old children to read by Glen Doman’s method in private classes, while public school children learn the alphabet at the age of 7 years. My purpose is to show the ways of working with children using elements of coaching and the achievements of modern cognitive psychology. I would also like to attempt to transfer the American method of learning to read on to the Polish habits of teaching. . On the example of educational practice I would like to show, that knowledge is not always paramount but the way we use it is. I would also like to show how we can develop skills, personality and learn cooperation and partnership in achieving the objectives. Better education will give us better graduates who engage more in their society, life, and generate change for the better instead of criticizing and passively waiting for someone to do it for them. The fact that the Polish education system needs a change is nothing new. The approach which I’d like to present could be an example of the direction to follow in order to improve the quality of development of the Polish children. Keywords: Global reading, Doman’s method, Reading method, Alternative education
Friday 13th June
14.00 to 15.20
SESSION: Citizenship in the Digital Age Paper 1: Specificity of polish internet memes visual language Marek Maruszczak, University of Warmia and Mazury, Poland Rapid development of the Internet, especially the changes that formed its modern forms as Web 2.0 and Web 3.0, has influenced the ways of interpersonal communication. Among the multitude of tools and communication techniques characteristic for this media, Internet memes are the most important. These visual forms of transferring information and their specific character make them dependent on addressee’s cognitive perception. One of the most important factors determining the popularity of a distinct meme is the possibility to use it in the context that is known for addressees. This relationship creates new kinds of memes that are characteristic for different cultural areas. This article aims to regularize Polish kinds of memes and to specify the distinctive features of Polish Internet memes. Keywords: Internet Memes, Visual-Language, Social Communication, Web 2.0
Paper 2: Qualitative evaluation of teachers about the implementation of the project of cyberbullying prevention (TABBY) in their classes Tatiana García Vélez, Juan Calmaestra, and Antonio Maldonado Rico, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain The project "Tabby Trip in EU -Threat Assessment of Bullying Behavior in Youngsters Transferring Internet Preventive procedures in Europe" (DAPHNE program JUST/2011-2012/DAP/AG/3259) coordinated by the Department of Psychology of Second University of Naples focus on the prevention of cyberbullying and other related problems. The project aims to train school teachers in the use of social networking and cyberbullying prevention. Tabby Team has developed four videos that serve as a guide to address the various issues of cyberbullying. The videos use four key issues to address cyberbullying: Internet identity, permanence of online content, the consequences of actions taken on the Internet, and the commission of crimes through social networks. The project seeks that school teachers train their students in these same issues through the material designed for the same. We will present the results of focus groups, which will occur between February and March 2014, with teachers who have implemented the program in their classes. Keywords: Cyberbullying, Social Networks, Teacher training, Focus Group Paper 3: The Role of Internet Discussions in Promoting the Civic Participation of the Youth in Latvian Case studies Inese Jurgena, Riga Teacher Training and Education Management Academy, Latvia and Zigurds Mikainis, Rezekne Higher Education Institution, Latvia Participation is an important aspect of the youth policy both at the national and the EU level. In view of the data concerning the shrinking participation of the youth in political activities, in Latvia particular attention is paid to adapting various kinds and forms of participation. Generally, they play an important part in activating the youth communication and involvement processes. The studies conducted in Latvia as a post-Communist society show that the majority of young people (60%) have never taken part in political activities. 1/3 of the youth are not involved in social and civic activities. At the same time, 76% of the youth admit that they have possibilities and willingness to join various thematic online discussion groups. Participation in various non-formal networks is particularly emphasized. Thus, preference is given to the participation forms which correspond to a particular lifestyle. Various internet discussions concerning citizenship-related situations facilitate the implementation of individualized civic participation and generally promote individuals’ autonomy and increase the diversity of interests and opinions. The purpose of the article is to study and evaluate the theoretical insight in the potential of online communication and analyse the data obtained in particular case studies concerning the role of internet discussions in activating the civic participation of the youth in Latvia. Materials and methods. The analysis of the theoretical literature and documents, the case study method to carry out a detailed content analysis of the discussions in the online discussion list “For Honest Politics”. Results and discussion. In Latvia as a post-Communist state with insufficiently developed civil society, internet discussions considerably facilitate the civic participation of young people. They provide opportunities for expressing one’s opinion as well as the time and space for participation, setting goals and the ways of achieving them. The internet discussions where their participants come together in order to achieve a particular aim really improve the quality of civic participation. Keywords: Internet Discussions, Civic Participation, Diversity Of Interests, Diversity of Opinions Paper 4: Using Experience Design, Hybrid Technology, Geo-Learning and Location Based media to enable young People to build their identities and notions of citizenship. Carl Smith, LTRI, London Metropolitan University, UK
Can experience design, hybrid technology, geo-learning and location based media be used to allow young people to build their identities and notions of citizenship? Can these new digital and hybrid possibilities augment their negotiation, learning and acting within society? How can learning professionals use these opportunities to facilitate young people who are already using new media and social technologies to transform their world views? One of the fundamental problems is that we tend to think of the technological solutions before defining the human need and this often results in the outsourcing of intelligence and identity. Just in time learning has a habit of resulting in surface learning rather than deep mastery. These digital interventions must justify their existence by doing what was not possible before. Keywords: Social technologies, Young people, New Media, Friday 13th June
14.00 to 15.20
SESSION: Media and Citizenship Paper 1: Media and citizenship education in a converged media environment Jan Mašek, The University of West Bohemia / Západočeská univerzita v Plzni, The Czech Republic In the digital and multimedia environments, free access to media resources is becoming a condition for active media pedagogy and citizenship education and essential for successful teaching and providing information by means of a „converged media environment“ as transmitter of non-linear and hybrid content, mostly to be distributed over the integrating and open Internet. In the first part, the paper will discuss current development in the media that surround children and young people, and it seems that they have very intensely impact on citizenship education - from TV and radio broadcasting to the Internet, games and social networks. All these media, however, are more or less interconnected and converging, and it is an interesting question, what options this "converged media environment" can offer for citizenship and media education. The second part will describe results of research in which - by means of methodology of semantic differential - has been analyzed the connotative meaning of all media that students (aged 16-18 years) mostly used to derive their attitudes towards separate media and look into their individual preferences in a converged media environment. Keywords: Media Pedagogy, Citizenship Education, Converged Media Environment, Semantic Research Paper 2: How to sell the childhood memories: smelling the brands Nilüfer Pembecioğlu, Istanbul University, Turkey The media messages mainly target not to the intellectual brain of the audience but the emotional side of their perceptions. Mainly, targeting the women and children, the current media messages try to establish a kind of consumer loyalty starting from the early ages as possible. When analyzed it would be easy to see that the most selling messages would the ones referring to the deep senses of the human being, catching the most innocent and intimate points in individuals, touching them in the hearth. These messages usually are the ones referring to the childhood memories and the reasons mainly stem from the infantalization of the adults creating them a pseudo reality in which they could find entertainments they would enjoy as if they are still little kids. This study mainly concentrates on the messages in the television commercials. How these messages aim to reach the audience through their childhood memories and refreshing them and branding them with the possible concepts and selling them back. Within the search of the self, the individuals come across with the pre-established memories of the past, surprised to see that part of the self again in a new form and go with the stream. The branding and marketing techniques of the new media capture them in their childhood memories and providing them the imitated past image within the new established world, thus achieving the collaboration and participation of the past and present
for the future. The concept of selling the childhood memories is used in Turkey and in abroad in many different forms. The new techniques of the brandwashed commercials aim to create new types of citizens and identities however, if they are not educated enough they would never estimate the impact of the media on their attitudes or believes. The study mainly concerns the context analysis of the television commercials regarding the childhood memories specifically concentrating on the smelling the sweet things and associating it with the old stories of the past. Keywords: Childhood, Branding Childhood, Smell, Chocolate, Branding Childhood, Smell, Chocolate Paper 3: Changing times – changing images the image of the working children in media commercials Uğur Gündüz and Nilüfer Pembecioğlu, Istanbul University, Turkey The children and how they are represented in the media is one of the main concerns not only in Turkey but all over the world. The depicted image of the child in any form of narrative would be interesting to analyze, yet, if this is in the form of television commercials it would yield interesting result regarding the futuristic positioning of the child within the given culture. The children are expected to ‘learn’ the rules of the life even if they continue their education. Sometimes, it’s just the innocent attempt of ‘adaptation’ or sometimes it’s the necessities of the ‘real life’ forcing the children to work in temporary or permanent positions. Whereas the number of the working children reaching to almost six thousand according to the official declaration of Labour and Social Security Ministry as a result of the inspection work in institutions and establishments greater numbers are guessed to be working as seasonal workers within the whole country. Even if Stefan Füle, the EU Member of the Commission responsible for Enlargement stated that Turkey has been successful in the fight against child workers, there is still a long way to go. Nobody asks them if they really would like to work or not. The working children are neither registered nor paid appropriately. While this is the case in real life, the current media -banning the commercials depicting the working children in the past- is now representing the ‘working children’ in a completely different way: They put it as a way of promoting and developing entrepreneurship in the country, depicting the working children as successful and winning parts, the media is creating a pseudo reality against the rules and law of the society. Through the analysis of media images created by the messages of films and commercials, this paper puts the problem in the form of a social dilemma and attempts to clarify the real situation of the working children and image of working children. The outcomes of the study are expected to enrich the new trends in establishing new identities for the emerging cultures with the help of the new media, yet, the implications of citizenship and education wouldn’t be questioned or the socio-economic factors are not concentrated on this new attempt. Keywords: Childhood, Working Children, Economy and Children’s Rights, Tolerance. Friday 13th June
14.00 to 15.20
SESSION: National and European Identities (part 2) Paper 1: Young people, cultural identity and citizenship education in the Polish-German borderland Damian Labiak, University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland The questions of identity - Who I am? Who I will become? What cultural area do I belong to? What does it depend on? - are especially important for young people. This study presents same vectors of cultural identity of young people, who lives in the Polish-German borderland. The purpose of the research was, on the hand, to show the cultural inclusivity of young Poles and Germans (50 secondary school students), on the other hand, to indicate, on the my basis of a diagnosis, variety of factors creating their identity (also in the context of citizenship education). All the tested students completed a specially prepared questionnaire; ten of them were also interviewed. The results indicate, that identity question is the very important problem for the young people. There are
obviously some similarities and differences between young Poles and Germans (perceptions of identidy, economic, historical, social, political context) but important is, that these young people reject most stereotypes and accept common European values. Keywords: Cultural Identity, Citizenship Education, Borderland, Youth Paper 2: Exploring students’ conceptions of nationality and ethnicity through their understandings of historical significance: A pilot study of undergraduates in Belgium, Canada, Spain and the UK Andrew Mycock, University of Huddersfield, UK and Carla Peck, University of Alberta, Canada In this paper we will provide an overview of an on-going, international comparative research project that seeks to identify if and how pluri-national and multi-ethnic dimensions evident within Belgium, Canada, Spain and the UK influence and shape youth’s constructions of history, citizenship and identity. Twenty-four first year undergraduate students in each of the four participating countries participated in this study. Using phenomenographic approaches (Marton, 1981) including small group and individual interviews that invited students to discuss and construct (pluri-) national historical narratives, this study explored how and in what ways historical significance (Seixas, 1994) shapes youth’s perceptions of identity, nationality and ethnicity, and vice versa. The paper will provide analysis of findings emanating from the research project so far, assessing how selected cohorts of higher education students organize their understandings and interpretations of the past into historical narratives that, in turn, potentially inform contemporary national and ethnic identities and sense of belonging (or exclusion) in each of the multinational state case studies. As identity is a complex, fluid and subjective concept (Hall, 1991; Nagel, 1994), the fluid and plural nature of nationality and ethnicity within pluri-national states will be assessed to explore how and in what ways young people ‘layer’ their identities, and how their understanding of history informs this process. Understanding the values, frameworks and knowledge students bring to their understanding of historical significance will help educators better understand how they construct their understandings of the past. This, in turn, has implications for how students locate themselves in their nation’s stories both now and, in the future. Keywords: History, Identity, Citizenship, Youth Paper 3: Examining young Poles’ personal sense of being citizens of Europe Adam Grabowski and Izabela Sebastyanska-Targowska, University of Warmia and Mazury, Poland This study examined whether the almost ten years of Poland’s being a member of the EU have resulted in young Polish people’s personal/subjective conviction of being a citizen of Europe (as compared to the sense of being a citizen of Poland). Participants, 150 first-year university students (85 female) at age 19, answered two questions: “How much do you subjectively/personally feel you are a citizen of the Republic of Poland” and “How much do you subjectively/personally feel you are a citizen of the United Europe”, (1 = not at all, 7 = absolutely). In order to check whether our respondents’ subjective sense of being a citizen (both of Europe and Poland) is firm and stable or could be affected by contextual factors, we randomly alternated the order of the questions for half the participants. Additionally, two thirds of the participants, before completing the questionnaire, were informed that it was either a European Parliament Integration Committee or the Polish Patriotic Association that asked their university to conduct the study (with equal proportions of participants randomly assigned to both conditions). The other participants (control) were asked to fill in the form with no such information. The results demonstrate that young Poles’ subjective sense of being EU citizens appears to be both generally much less intensive than that of being citizens of Poland and malleable. Specifically, in the present study, the interaction of the questions’ order and the information on whose behalf the study was conducted was particularly effective. If the study was “on behalf of the European Committee”, the participants declared significantly lower personal sense of being EU citizens as compared to those from the “Polish Patriotic Association” condition when the questions were in the Poland/Europe order. The results are discussed in the light of the citizenship theory by Kennedy (2006). Keywords: Europe, Citizen, Personal, Sense
Paper 4: Episodic activation and measurement of the ethnic attitudes by the implicit and explicit methods Irina Plotka, Nina Blumenau, Dmitry Igonin and Natalya Tihomirova, Baltic Psychology and Management University College, Riga, Latvia The aim of research was to study the influence of emotional valence of episodic events on the implicit measurements of the ethnic attitude. Ethnic attitudes and ethnic identities are formed in the course of life under the influence of family, cultural traditions and society norms, to be later refracted through the personal experience of each person. The question of how the unconscious experience affects the current state of an individual, his thoughts and behaviour is investigated in the framework of implicit social cognition. Implicit attitude measurements usually are carried out without controlling the influence on their participants of recent episodic events that are connected with the object of the attitude. The correspondence of results of implicit and explicit ethnic attitude measurements reflects different experience of a subject in relation to the object of attitude. The study involved 70 participants, from different backgrounds (ethnic groups “Latvian” - 34, “Russian” - 36), age Me = 29. The implicit methods were: Unconscious Affective / Priming Task; The modified IAT experimental procedure and the Implicit Association Test. More explicit methods were the use of types of ethnic identity by Soldatova, 1998 and a post-test questionnaire included a description of affectively significant inter-ethnic situations with scales of their affective valence, recency, and strength.The recent affectively meaningful autobiographical events associated with the attitude increased the response latency independently of their emotional valence. This suggests that the occurrence of the recent affectively meaningful episodic events creates an obstacle to the activation of the automatic attitude. The modified method of shifts, designed to determine valence and intensity of implicit ethnic attitudes and method for determining the degree of implicit preference of attitudes towards own ethnic group against another ethnic group were developed. Some correspondence of results of implicit and explicit measurement was found. Keywords: Ethnic Identity, Episodic Memory, Unconscious Affective/Priming Task, Implicit Association Test Friday 13th June
14.00 to 15.20
WORKSHOP: Remembrance education and citizenship education: a peaceful relationship? Workshop facilitator: Hugo Verkest, University College Teacher Training College, Belgium 2014 has been announced as a remarkable remembrance year due to some anniversaries: 100 anniversary of the Great War, 70 years of D –day, 25 years of the Fall of the Wall…. historical highlights where key questions were asked, and occasionally answered – about suffering, betrayal, sacrifice, death, isolation, liberation, integration, inclusion, love, loyalty and devotion. How can we, as educators, deal nowadays with this memory boom? Which kind of policy accompanies this remembrance wave? Is there space for critical voices and controversial issues? Based on some ‘new’ insights teachers and learners are digging into the past in an innovated way. How can we move from learning about to learning from in relation to citizenship and remembrance education? What is the role of the family heritage in remembrance education? Which methodologies are characteristic for this kind of ‘cross-curriculum’ subject? Together with the participants we want to explore approved ways to develop citizenship and value education in order to avoid a culture of forgetting. These days remembrance education is a hot issue in Europe and is used as tool to avoid forgetting, intolerance and for promoting respect and democratic values Intended participants: History teachers, social scientist, psychologists, social workers, etc. The workshop will use different media (clips, cartoons, artefacts) for stimulating the critical thinking of the participants
Friday 13th June
14.00 to 15.20
WORKSHOP: Overcoming postcommunism: the hidden lessons of East Europe’s past Workshop facilitators: Margarita Jeliazkova, University of Twente, The Netherlands and Tatjana Zimenkova, Bielefeld University, Germany During the workshop, we will offer some analytical and didactic tools to address the issues of postcommunism and of transition to democracy in the light of the current problems that all European countries are facing. Due to the political transformations and democratization and globalization processes of the last decades, scholars and practitioners in the area of citizenship education are interested in educational approaches, policies and practices in post-socialist and post-authoritarian spaces. Some research results point to the possible relevance of post-socialist and postauthoritarian path dependencies for citizenship education, for curricula, teachers, and teacher educators. We will show that particular path dependencies still can be found in teacher education, which create specific challenges in teaching citizenship in transition countries. Equally important, post-socialist teachers and schools have developed attitudes and approaches to teaching citizenship, which prove to be relevant for “established” democracies as well. We will discuss this in conjunction with teachers’ diverse underlying ideas on citizenship and citizenship education. Based on research, we will present and discuss criteria for the selection and adoption of ‘good practices’, followed by tips to adapt these practices to specific national contexts. We will use the online tool www.socrative.com to initiate a discussion on these issues. Teachers will be invited to log on with their own device (smartphone, tablet, laptop) and to respond to particular statements. The statements are taken from teaching materials in citizenship and civic education, in different post-communist countries and contexts as well as from teachers’ interviews. The responses will be instantly visible online, thereby making a dynamic discussion on the topic possible. Online computer technology will assist us to demonstrate the suitability of the presented instrument for initiating and shaping a conversation on the importance and the relevance of post-socialist dependencies in teaching and learning civic education. The workshop is intended for educators and researchers, both from post-transition countries and from established Western democracies with relevant experience in different national contexts. They are asked to bring in their own teaching material, which will be then discussed and analyzed in a comparative perspective and a Wi-Fi enable device – smartphone, tablet or laptop. Friday 13th June
15.20 to 16.20
POSTER SESSION Relationships between identity status and music preferences of high school students Krzysztof Basiński and Adam Sadowski, University of Gdańsk, Poland Adolescents spend large amounts of their free time listening to music. Preferences for certain genres of music can play an important role in young person’s social life, influencing relationships with peers, forming social groups and subcultures. It is therefore probable that music preferences can be an important part of identity development in adolescence. Identity status paradigm (as understood by Marcia) states that there are four possible states: identity diffusion, identity foreclosure, identity moratorium, and identity achievement. Current research focused on exploring the relationships between these identity states and preferences towards different genres of music in a group of high school adolescents. A group of 170 high-school students from Poland aged between 16 and 20 participated in this study. Identity status and music preferences were evaluated using questionnaire methods. The structure of music preferences was determined using factor analysis, following a methodology developed by Rentfrow and Gosling. Four factors emerged. Regression analysis showed statistically significant relationships between these factors and different states of identity. These results are discussed in context of identity implications on music preference development. Keywords: Identity, Music preferences, Adolescence, Musical development
Citizenship promotion opportunities by Comenius project Anna Liduma, Faculty of Pedagogy, Riga Teacher Training and Educational Management Academy, Latvia. Citizenship promotion guidelines for preschool education by CiCe, documents on preschool pedagogical process by Latvian Ministry of Education and Science have served as the theoretical basis for the research. The contents of the Comenius project “Me and My Europe: Intercultural Challenges of Modern Pre-Primary Education” (implementation period 2012-2014) maintain Citizenship promotion in 9 states (Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Poland, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Island and Turkey). Thanks to the empirical research an analysis will be carried out on the data obtained on forms of work/approaches and methods, on the data about the parent, children and teachers collaboration experience gained during the project plans’ realisation based on discussions with the parents by 20 teachers from the above mentioned countries involved in the project. The global experience in citizenship attitudes gained by observation, participation in versatile team workshops in Latvia, Estonia, Island, Portugal, Turkey, Spain and Italy such as: I and my folksong, how I explore my native land together with parents, an integrated workshop “The Sea”, folk instruments and folk music, drama performances of fairy tales, floral motives, typical dishes, the most popular folk dance etc. will be analysed. The changes in the attitudes of the project participants (5-7 yrs aged children) to themselves, the nature, work, their state and the experience gained in this Comenius project will be established by help of discussions. Conclusions: the project serves as a means to explore their own country, to learn about culture treasures in other countries, to promote transnational collaboration, to enrich experience for teachers, parents and children. Keywords: Attitudes, Collaboration.
Who am I? The national identity of primary school children in Poland. Wojciech Boryszewski and Agnieszka Michniewicz, University of Warmia and Mazury/ High School number 7, Poland The researchers present a poster which is a patchwork of the drawings and paintings made by a group of primary school pupils aged 7 to 9. Using their drawing and painting skills, the children try to express their national identity. The analysis of their works shows common elements which might reflect the way Polish kids see themselves, whether they perceive themselves more as Poles or as Europeans. The study also tries to find why they see themselves in that particular way. Keywords: National identity, Citizenship, Children, Primary education
The Butterfly Touch Wim Kratsborn, To Gather, the Netherlands In the film 'Hard to become who you are' the history of Europe and the Arab world is visualised through a learning journey of eight young people from World War One till the future. The youngsters travel by train through Europe and the Arab world from the past to the future. For each scene a booklet is designed to use the film in education, including working forms, images and links. The scenes are about World War One and Two, the Cold War and the Crisis, including the future. In the booklet the learner may choose his own learning style such as active, digital, passion driven, real life, natural, network or cooperative learning. Through 'synchronisation didactics' the learning journey of the actors in the film is the same as the learning journey of the viewer. The viewer follows a learning path, consisting of seven steps or stops, like stations for the train. Brain research shows that emotional knowledge as well as an organizer is essential for learning process. That's why I've designed 'The Butterfly Touch' as a sense opener or a way of reflection during the learning journey. On the left wing are the turning points situated such as the new economy, the new technology, climate change, globalisation and human rights. On the right wing are the learning
styles. It's up to the learner to use a specific learning style or a mix of learning styles to know more about a turning point. He may write on post-its what he has learned and to put them on the wings. This may be done at several steps as a sense opener or a way of reflection. In the imagination the wings will close when the turning points are known well by learning styles. The slogan is : 'Each learner his own learning style' During the poster-presentation the visitors may link a specific learning and turning point. Beforehand each visitor gets a card with information from a specific scene. Furthermore he has to link a learning style and a turning point, fill out the post-it and place it on the butterfly. At the end of the presentation the butterfly will be very colorful through all the postits and through 'multiple learning'. Keywords: Sense opener, Identity, Turning point, Learning point The related film, 'Hard to become who you are' will be played on Friday 13th of June in Room 1 from 15.20 to 16.20 Moving borders, crossing boundaries: Young peoples’ identities in a time of change. 5: Three countries from former Yugoslavia – Slovenia, Croatia and Macedonia. Alistair Ross, London Metropolitan University, UK It is the final poster in a series based on the development of a project being undertaken under the aegis a Jean Monnet Professorship . Previous papers (Ross 2010, 2011, Ross et al. 2012, Ross 2012) reported on the Baltic states, the Visegrad states, Turkey, Iceland, Cyprus, Bulgaria and Romania This paper focuses on three European states that have been formed out of the former state of Yugoslavia. Slovenia has been a member of the EU since 2004; Croatia joined in 2013; Macedonia/FYROM is a candidate to join. What discourses do young people use to construct their sense of identities, in relation to their potential national identity and potential European identity? Based on 35 focus groups, with 216 young people, I find in these three counties there was an ambivalence expressed about the extent to which the countries could be described as ‘European’, and a sense of being in some way ‘Balkan’ that carried with it overtones of being ‘not European’ The author will present a paper on this topic on Friday 13th June, in the National and European Identities (part 1) session. Keywords: Identities, Constuctionism, Europe, Nation Fatherhood identity and the family life from the perspective of cultural transformations Nina Dymkowska, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland Contemporary cultural transformation associated to the process of change in the functioning of the family, a blurring of traditional gender dichotomy, leads to the revising traditional model of fatherhood identity. In the proposed poster the role of the father in terms of four areas of knowledge will be presented: historical perspective (showing the evolution of fatherhood from the Middle Ages to the mid-nineteenth century), psychological perspective (emphasizing to the father’s role in emotional and personal development), sociological approach (showing changes in a father’s role from the perspective of gender dichotomy) and educational science approach (presenting the changing the father’s role in the different conceptions of education) .At the conclusion the traditional concept of the father’s role in relation to the family cultural changes (nuclear vs patchwork, reconstructed, etc.) will be discussed as well as key-question for future researcher of the fatherhood concept will be presented. Keywords: Fatherhood, Identity, Family Life.
Educational Achievement of Ethnic Minorities Panagiota Sotiropoulou, University of Patras, Greece The educational achievement of ethnic minorities has been a matter of great concern for a long time. Several studies show that students from certain ethnic minority groups underachieve when compared to the majority student population. The cultural misalignment between school and home culture faced by some ethnic minority students is cited, amongst others, as a reason for their underachievement. While cultural elements have not been sufficient to fully explain the underachievement of ethnic minorities, this poster will attempt to show that they play a major role in this phenomenon. A presentation of both theoretical claims and empirical examples will serve to offer and expound upon the suggestion that ethnic minority students tend to perform poorly, when their culture is not reflected in the schooling process. Noteworthy mention is also made of the fact that not all ethnic minorities whose culture is not reflected in their educational system are influenced in the same manner, or to the same extent. Accordingly, examples of ethnic minorities found to be highly achieving, despite their culture not being reflected in the educational system of their adopted home, are also be given and, to the extent possible, justified. In conclusion, the claim is made that no simplistic answer can be given in the question of whether ethnic minority students are bound to achieve poorly in an educational system that does not reflect their culture. Explanations for this reality stem from a lack of ethnic minority homogeneity, either individually, nor as a whole. However, what can be stated more or less unequivocally is that the absence of representation of ethnic minority cultures in an educational system plays a negative role in these minorities’ achievement. Keywords: Educational Achievement, Ethnic Minorities, Cultural Misalignment. Ethnomathematics, Language and Immigrant Children Michael Katsillis, University of Patras, Greece Changing demographics bring together diverse people with different experiences and skill sets. These differences often test teachers and certain school subjects are seen as being more challenging for the immigrant children. This poster provides a brief introspection on the phenomenon of fear of mathematics and the puritan ethic permeating the Modern Greek educational paradigm’s multicultural classroom. It also contains general elements of instruction in Mathematics as well as the inextricably bound Greek language, to students of Greek as a second or foreign language, as well as to repatriates and immigrants. Based on an excerpt from the book “Teaching Language and Mathematics with Literature. A creative encounter.” (E. Tressou, S. Mitakidou, 2005), it presents the deficiencies and some of the techniques applied in both Greek and international approaches to the subject. Furthermore, it notes the positive and negative aspects of the use of the literature for teaching in multilingual and multicultural classrooms. Finally, it analyzes the puritanical nature of education systems in regards to the classroom’s cultural nature and teaching materials both generally, and in the specific context of this experiment, discussed in the pages of the book. Keywords: Ethnomathematics, Immigrants, Minorities, Mathematics, Language Teaching
Friday 13th June
15.20 to 16.20
SYMPOSIUM: Summer School Students
Convenor: Christine Roland-Levy Paper 1: Conceptions of corporal punishment. Phenomenographic study of retrospectives experience of adults. Emilia Wasilewska, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn Poland. The aim of my research project is an attempt to analyze the variation of conceptions of functioning of childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s corporal punishment in the social consciousness as a form of educational influence. In terms of educational theory, the point of departure are humanistic and behavioural sources defining education and their methodological implications. Phenomenography came into being in catalogue of qualitative research method as it can give recognition of a man and his experience as a value in itself. Process of child rearing, as a phenomenon functioning in a specific context, moulding the pedagogical awareness of a man, determines the area of study, in which phenoemnographic research is applied, giving recognition for the humanistic vision of a man. Participants of the study, adults who declared to experience corporal punishment during childhood, will be interviewed. Phenomenographic interview will be conducted. It is a research technique by the means of which researcher generate data. The presentation of the problem aims to increase social educational awareness and stimulate reflection and discussion in the field of education, at the same time emphasizing the importance of the goals of activities undertaken in a family environment by professionals aiming at pedagogisation. Keywords: Phenomenography, Corporal Punishment, The Relationship between motivation learning and cultural identity. Arzu Altugan, London Metropolitan University, UK This study was carried out in North Cyprus to discuss the dialect differences of three cities in North Cyprus as a basis of a further study which the explore the effect of cultural identity and learning. Some geographical features of these cities were taken into consideration as well. This study was conducted with qualitative techniques. This study included a sample of a total 50 settlers of Turkish Cypriots from Nicosia, Famagusta and Omorphou whose ages ranged from 15 to 72. The study provided significant findings on the awareness of dialect, which has a big effect on cultural identity. According to the data, Cypriot Turks, after a lot of immigration, have different dialects in each city. It can be said each region has a variety of its own. The most effective factor on this is age. The old, the middle-aged and the youth of Cyprus have distinct dialects from each other. The dialect of the middle-aged people is closest to the standard but if they are educated. Consequently we can say education is another factor, but the youth tries to use the deepest Cypriot Turkish because they find it more sincere. Also they prefer to get into communication by using their own dialect. Keywords: Cypriot Turkish, dialect, and cultural identity Keywords: Cypriot dialects, Cultural Identity, Learning, Multilingualism
Saturday 14th June
9.00 to 10.20
SESSION: History Education Paper 1: Are changing practices of Holocaust teaching good for citizenship education? Keywords: Holocaust, Holocaust education, global citizenship, Paula Cowan and Henry Maitles, University of the West of Scotland, UK More than ten years ago the researchers conducted research into the practice of teaching the Holocaust in primary schools (Cowan and Maitles, 2002). This research highlighted best practice in a small authority in Scotland that had demonstrated a commitment to teaching the Holocaust in their schools. The current research, which analyses empirical data that was collected in 2013, aims to investigate the current practices of Holocaust teaching, highlight contrasts with the earlier study and reflect on the extent to which current trends in teaching the Holocaust are beneficial to citizenship education. This research updates and extends previous studies on teaching the Holocaust in primary schools (Cowan and Maitles, 2005); and research on the contribution of Holocaust education and Holocaust Memorial Day to citizenship education (Brown and Davies, 1998; Short, 2000; Burtonwood, 2002; Cowan and Maitles, 2010). It also provides information on how Holocaust education is being integrated into Scotland’s ‘new’ curriculum, Curriculum for Excellence, in which responsible citizenship is a key component. An online questionnaire was sent to every primary school in Glasgow City Council in 2013, to ascertain the resources and teaching approaches that are currently being used to teach the Holocaust, and the extent to which Holocaust education is providing a context for developing skills, attributes and knowledge that will create active global citizens. Like the authority in the earlier study, this authority had demonstrated a commitment to Holocaust education by hosting the national Holocaust Remembrance event that year. In addition to being of relevance to the Scottish teaching context, this research is of particular interest to educators in countries, such as France and the Netherlands, where the Holocaust is mandatory in the primary curriculum and to policy makers and practitioners committed to developing global citizenship programmes. Keywords: Holocaust, Primary Schools, Global citizenship Paper 2: A History of the CiCe Academic Network – Part 3: The Network Consolidates Alistair Ross, London Metropolitan University, UK Children’s Identity and Citizenship in Europe – commonly abbreviated to CiCe – is one of the longest established Academic Networks in European higher education supported by the European Commission’s Education and Culture Directorate. This paper traces the second phase of CiCe, from 2002 to 2005, covering the conferences in Braga, Krakow and Ljubljana and the development of the CiCe MA project - and much more. The paper uses unique archival evidence to trace this stage of the Network. (Additional information: two previous papers in 2012 and 2013 have covered the period from 1998 to 2002. The present author will also propose a paper in 2015 on the 2005-2008 period, when the baton will be passed on to an as yet unidentified author to prepare papers on 2008-2011 (in 2016) , 2011-14 (in 2017) and 2014-2017 (in 2018: the twentieth anniversary conference) Keywords: CiCe Network, History, European Academic Networks,
Paper 3: History Teaching and Citizenship in time of crisis: History teachers' attitudes on teaching controversial and traumatic topics in secondary education schools in Greece Despina Karakatsani, University of the Peloponnese, Greece and Vassiliki Sakka, Historian and History Educator, Greece This paper presents the results of a larger scale survey among history teachers in Greece, as conducted in the region of Messina and Corinthia The survey examines the attitudes of teachers towards teaching (presenting, researching and discussing) in class sensitive and controversial issues in the context of current financial, political and social crisis in Greece, while neo-Nazi ultraright wing party (Golden Dawn) is gaining floor and votes and intervenes in educational affairs introducing ‘alternative’ interpretations to historical topics such as the civil war, holocaust, junta of 1968-1973, Islam etc. Teachers express their opinions, attitudes and fears on the subject, in Messinia -an area where both left and right wing politicians (MPs) are elected, and which is bearing one of the most controversial incidents of the Greek Civil War, and in Korinthia, where Golden Dawn -the neo-nazis political party- acquired a very high percentage in the last elections. This presentation is based on the analysis of questionnaires attributed to 120 teachers of history in these two regions of the Peloponnese and on the analysis of the results about teacher’s perceptions concerning history teaching and the connection with citizenship in Greece today. Keywords: History Teaching And Citizenship, Controversial Issues, Teachers’ Attitudes, Crises Saturday 14th June
9.00 to 10.20
SESSION: Enabling Practices / Optimism and Volunteering Paper 1: Action research as an innovative strategy in citizenship education and research Elżbieta Wołodźko, University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland Reflective turn (Bourdieu, 2001; Hammersley & Atkinson, 2001; Krzychała 2004) and a turn to reflective action (Reason & Bradbury 2005) brought a new quality into social sciences. An exemplification of this change is action research as a research strategy which has reflective character (Colombo, 2003), requires active participation, is associated with a spiral research process carried out in many repeated action-reflection cycles: observe-reflect-act-evaluate-modifymove in a new direction (McNiff, Whitehead, 2006). Research participants are legitimate reflective subjects of a research process and experiencing a desocialisation of learned paths of participation in social life. Action research creates a reflective space of experience for personal, social and civic responsibility and autonomy, promotes social equality, justice, social integration, “polyphony of voices”, “plural democracy and human fulfilment” (Fals Borda, 2005). This research strategy integrates the cognitive process with the process of transformation of the participating subjects (critical subjectivity) and investigated educational reality (Vieira, 2002). The participants liberate themselves from their developmental constraints thanks to their engagement in the process of personal and social transformation. Such understanding of action research makes it possible to treat it as a useful tool in citizenship education and research, especially because of its participatory and emancipative “potential” (Czerepaniak-Walczak, 2006). Keywords: Action Research, Citizenship Education, Innovative Process, Educational And Social Participation Paper 2: Reaching the finishing line: Some outcomes and results following online enabling education Robyn Muldoon and Ingrid Wijeyewardene, University of New England, Australia Tertiary enabling education aims to make the benefits of higher education accessible to people from disadvantaged groups, especially those from low socio-economic status backgrounds. The
University of New England (UNE)â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s fully online Pathways Enabling Program (PEP) was designed for those who do not otherwise have the necessary skills and credentials to enter university education (Muldoon, 2011). This paper builds on previous research by reporting study patterns, results, achievements and views of 531 students who have completed the PEP and subsequently enrolled in degrees at UNE since 2009. The attrition rate of these students is exactly half the attrition rate of PEP students and pass rates are very high. Furthermore, grade point averages are impressive. However, it appears that the vast majority of enrolled PEP students are deliberately progressing at the minimum possible rate, i.e. taking the maximum allowable time to complete their degrees. Additionally, they are largely continuing to study online rather than on-campus. Understanding lifestyle factors experienced by PEP students and making adjustments to the program to accommodate them has been critical to the success of the PEP (Muldoon & Wijeyewardene, 2013). It would seem that, similarly, lifestyle factors play a crucial role in subsequent mode of study choices and progression rates. It appears that traditional university experiences are not compatible with the lives of those who have in the past been marginalised socially, educationally and economically. Nevertheless, when previous barriers to education are removed and students are enabled to proceed in a manner and pace that does not conflict with the many other demands on their time and limited resources, the finishing line is clearly attainable, very often with flying colours. Keywords: Enabling Education, Disadvantage, Student Lifestyle
Paper 3: Optimism and readiness to citizenship activity in the future among young people according to the age Beata Krzywosz-Rynkiewicz, University of Warmia and Mazury, Poland and Anna Zalewska, Warsaw School of Social Science and Humanities, Poland The aim of the study is to examine the character of young people optimism and its relation towards citizenship activity. According to CzapiĹ&#x201E;ski (2005) and Stach (2006) we differentiate two kind of optimism: (1) essential (passive) optimism and (2) expansive (active) optimism. We assume that young people perception of the local future is related to the expansive optimism and global future to essential optimism. Then we expect that the higher optimism towards the local future the higher readiness for social (participation in campaigns) and political (voting in election, belong to political party, be elected) action. Research questions are: (1) Is there difference between young people optimism towards local and global future, (2) Do optimism towards local and global future depend on age (3) Is readiness to political and social action related to optimism towards local and global future. Method: 1780 young people in three age groups (11, 14, 18) from 4 European countries (Poland, UK, Spain and Turkey) were examined by the questionnaire What do you think about future (by Holden). Two question about optimism were reported on 5-point scale and 4 question about citizenship action were reported on 4 point scale. Results: Results show that (1) Optimism towards local future is higher then global one (t=3,51, p<0.001); (2) Optimism towards both local (F (2/1776) =11,67; p<0,001)and global (F(2/1777)=27,89, p<0,001) future depend on age - youngest children (10 years old) are most optimistic; (3) there is no correlation between optimism and readiness for acting in social campaigns; more optimistic (in both local [r=0,049, p<0,05] and global [r=0,048, p<0,05] future) students want to belong to political party although global optimism positively correlate with willingness to be elected (r=0,087, p<0,001) and negatively with readiness to vote in election. Keywords: Citizenship Activity, Optimism, Age,
Paper 4: Pleasant, engaged or meaningful life? Approaches to happiness as predictors of volunteersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; motives and subjective well-being Dubravka Miljkovic, Majda Rijavec and Lana Jurcec, University of Zagreb, Croatia Volunteerism is a powerful means of engaging citizens in local development, and therefore plays an important role in the fostering of civil society and democracy. Individuals volunteer for various reasons which, among other things, probably reflect their views about life and ways of achieving happiness and satisfaction. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between approaches to happiness, motives and outcomes of volunteering and subjective well-being of volunteers. Four questionnaires: Approaches to happiness, Volunteerism questionnaire, The Satisfaction With Life Scale and The Short Depression-Happiness Scale were administered to 136 volunteers (44 males and 90 females, aged from 16 to 56 years). Volunteerism questionnaire measures six motives for volunteering, fulfilment of these motives and satisfaction with volunteering work. Approaches to happiness questionnaire measures orientation towards pleasant life, engaged life and meaningful life. Factor analysis of motives for volunteering revealed two general factors: intrinsic motives (values, understanding and learning, self-enhancement) and extrinsic motives (career development and social interaction). Intrinsic motives were rated higher than extrinsic ones and were satisfied to a higher degree. Regression analyses revealed that both types of motives as well as their fulfilment can be best predicted with orientation to meaningful life. The only significant predictor of life satisfaction was satisfaction with volunteering work, while the only significant predictor of happiness were intrinsic motives for volunteering. Keywords: Volunteering, Approaches To Happiness, Motives For Volunteering, Subjective WellBeing, Saturday 14th June
9.30 to 10.30
SESSION: Analysing the Curriculum Paper 1: Citizenship Awareness between Japanese and British student in Junior High School Noboru Tanaka, Osaka Ohtani University, Japan The purpose of this research is to compare the nature of citizenship in Japan and UK. Citizenship education is constructed based on National Curriculum framework. But educational practice that teacher performed is influenced by typical cultural perspective and consciousness of citizenship. Citizenship education is not universal. Each country have own educational practice. I try to show the differences about nature of citizenship on Junior High School students in Japan and UK. Methodology is as follows. First is showing the perspective of Cultural Psychology as theoretical base to analyze nature of citizenship. Second is showing the tendency of consciousness of citizenship in Japan and UK based on investigation of the same questionnaires about nature of citizenship. This research shows the two conclusions. First is to show the nature of citizenship in Japan and UK based on quantitative date. 62.7% students select the morality of Confucianism for important matter of citizenship in five choices: local participation, community awareness, morality of Confucianism, global perspective and contribution to society in Japanese school. But 4.5% students select the moral issues in 5 choices in UK school. In this school 50% students select the community awareness. Second conclusion is based on the qualitative date on questionnaire. It shows the tendency of decision making between Japan and UK. Keywords: Citizenship, identity, Japan, Awareness
Paper 2: Towards active citizenship with the help of school textbooks Leena Lestinen, University of Jyväskylä, Finland Active citizenship is a goal of compulsory education in Finland as well as in many other European countries. However, evaluative civics research shows that even though the Finnish youth are knowledgeable about the structure and operation of society, they lack interest in political and societal participation. The development of citizenship education, especially for civics education as part of it, has therefore been a major challenge in formal basic education. The aim of the project presented in the paper is to examine how the pedagogical task related to active participation and the citizens’ opportunities to influence is construed through the textbooks used in the instruction of Social Studies as a school subject. Research materials include all the current textbooks used in grades 7-9 in basic education. The textbooks are analysed using the methods of content analysis. Theoretically, the project draws on the socio-constructivist and sociocultural conceptions of learning. The results are discussed in the context of the current developments of educational policy and policy guidelines. Keywords: Citizenship Education, Civics, School Subject, Text Book
Paper 3: 50: Citizenship education in the Polish educational system in theory and practice Wojciech Boryszewski and Agnieszka Michniewicz, University of Warmia and Mazury / High School number 7, Poland The study explores the ways in which the new national curriculum shapes formal citizenship education in Poland. Apart from comparing the new curriculum with the old one, the authors of the paper examine what citizenship education looks like at different stages of education and in different school subjects (e.g. Polish, foreign languages) and try to answer the question whether the new curriculum makes students identify themselves more as Poles or Europeans. The conclusions additionally take into account the opinions of several teachers interviewed during the research. The second section looks into the way the students perceive themselves. The analysis is based on the questionnaires completed by the teenagers (age group 16-19) and the pictures painted by the children (age group 7-9). Such a huge age difference between the two control groups allows the investigators to see whether (and how) the perception of one's own national identity changes with age. The authors also try to see what factors influence the way young people in Poland feel about their identity. Keywords: Citizenship Education, National Identity, Educational System, National Curriculum Paper 4: How shift in political power influenced new national curriculum - from technicalities toward virtues. Kristín Dýrfjörð, University of Akureyri, Iceland Over the last two decades the educational system for the youngest citizens in Iceland has gone through immense changes. Some mirror the neo-liberal changes elsewhere, were attentions is mostly given to deregulation, accountability, individualism, school choices and so forth. After the financial meltdown of the country in 2008 both the working conditions as well as the pedagogical environment of the preschools have gotten worse. Just before the financial crisis, a working group had been formed at the Ministry of Education to write new national curriculum for all school levels, the idea was to streamline the curriculum and to write in and strengthening the neo-liberal changes that were part of law that passed through the parliament early in 2008, were concepts such as efficacy, reflexivity, accountability and deregulations are underlying concepts. Were attention were on concepts such as knowledge, skill and competences. A change in regiment took place in January 2009, with a clear political shift. The new minister of education stopped the work on the curriculum in making. People from different school levels and organisations were gathered to discuss democratically a foundation for a new curriculum. New curriculum committees were
organised and given the task to write a curriculum based on pillars founded on creativity, human rights, equality, sustainability, well-being and literacy. This paper looks at the policy frameworks and discusses the new landscape that it has formed and the effects it has on the preschools and their curriculum. Especial attention is given to the pillar based on equality and how it is promoted with in the preschools. The question asked is; does a top down model in reality make fast changes at the ground level, on teacher’s pedagogical approaches with children? Keywords: Policy, Curriculum, Equality, Early childhood Saturday 14th June
9.30 to 10.30
SESSION: Citizenship across the Curriculum Paper 1: Citizenship education in the mathematics content Rudite Andersone, University of Latvia, Latvia and Ineta Helmane, Riga Teacher Training and Educational Management Academy, Latvia, Citizenship education is a significant constituent part of the education content. This paper explores experience in Latvia for including citizenship education in mathematics content and textbook. The article describes and analyzes theoretical materials, textbooks about the aspects of the thematic choice in the acquisition of mathematics content within the citizenship education. Teaching mathematics thematically emphasises the use of applications of mathematics around a citizenship education as central theme whereas teaching in topics predominantly emphasises mathematical content. In the thematic approach mathematics content involving facts and information, topics, themes about identity, citizenship and education. In mathematics topicality should be linked with citizenship education. Mathematics textbooks should provide pupils with the basic skills and knowledge that will help them to make a worthwhile contribution to society and its positive development. The paper reflects the Grade 4 and the Grade 6 mathematics textbooks theoretical analysis and survey of mathematics teacher opinion carried out by using the following criteria: citizenship knowledge, citizenship skills, citizenship values and attitudes. Selected criteria are characterized by the use of a math book in citizenship education. The paper reflects teacher and prospective teacher survey carried out by using criteria: integration of citizenship education content in the separate topics of mathematics. Thematic approach is one of the existing opportunities in order to create pupils understanding about the nature and practices of participation in democracy, the duties, responsibilities and right of individuals as citizens; and the value to individuals and society of community activity. Teachers of mathematics and prospective teachers should be able to prepare students for citizenship involves developing relevant knowledge and understanding as well as encouraging the formation of positive attitudes toward being a citizen. Keywords: Citizenship education, Mathematics, Thematic approach, Textbook
Paper 2: Practices and strategies for democratic curriculum spaces in art education Andri Savva, University of Cyprus, Cyprus The presentation explores art “as a form of being in relation to self and others” and illustrates ways of working with images through authentic artistic processes for the purpose of constructively reimagining new possibilities of democratic curriculum spaces. Various art practices taking place in formal and informal settings are demonstrated. Learning processes encompassing play, interaction and positioning encourage students, teachers and artists to collaborate and challenge their values. Four different ways of working with images are exemplified through art practices and learning processes, providing opportunities for critical reflection. Attention is given to philosophical notions (e.g. Friedrich Schiller, John Dewey) that consider art as a mode of thinking, and support the shift of art practices to issues “of being in relationship”. The presentation encourages educators to rethink educational approaches in art education and explore those philosophies that a) provide a
more thoughtful approach to arts and mediaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s role in relation to everyday life, b) reconsider the role of art in education and society and itsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; ability to form imaginative, empathetic and critical viewerscreators. Keywords: Art Practices, Educational Approaches, Democracy, Paper 3: Innovation management in higher education: Nano sciences and technologies for scientific citizenship Tamara Lobanova-Shunina, Information Systems Management Institute, University of Latvia, Latvia, Yuri Shunin, Information Systems Management Institute-Solid State Physics Institute, University of Latvia, Latvia This paper explores significant trends in contemporary higher citizenship education, innovation management, including a specific focus on the role of market forces, mobility, new technologies, new emerging identities, and quality assurance in higher education that has started to move towards assessing educational and labour market outcomes instead of inputs. Taking into account specific economic, social and cultural contexts, an essential challenge for higher education systems is to combine the encouragement of efficiency and excellence with the promotion of equity and access in the context of increasing competition when carrying out their core missions of teaching and research, when developing and implementing innovative citizenship education programs, and when providing additional privileges and services to individual citizens and the society, the amount and range of which is now vast. In this paper we address these issues both from a quantitative and qualitative standpoint. The key issues under research include the Systemic approach to innovation management as a synergy of technosciences and humanosciences in citizenship education at Information Systems Management University (Riga, Latvia), to comparing the criteria and indices of its study programmes and their compatibility. Sociometric matrix method applied to institutional complex ratings is the factor that integrates all the elements. The research results have demonstrated that the developed Rating Assessment Model of Institutional Performance offers the methodology for citizenship education in Higher Education Institutions that helps to direct efforts to get recognition for maintaining and improving the academic quality by evaluating and demonstrating that high standards are being met and academic activities are also in accordance with the national policies striving to further enhance the standards according to international practices and development and international compatibility. Implementation of the obtained research results can contribute to the development of scientifically grounded concept for innovation management in citizenship higher education, to stimulate compatibility self-assessment, eliminate weaknesses and build upon strengths. Keywords: Contemporary Higher Citizenship Education, Synergy Of Technosciences And Humanosciences, New Emerging Identities, Innovation Management And New Technologies Saturday 14th June
9.30 to 10.30
SESSION: Intercultural Education (part 1) Paper 1: Competency for intercultural communications in the light of self - evaluation in context of multiculturality of the region and migration processes. Dorota Misiejuk, University of Bialystok, Poland The article draws upon a larger study about competencies for intercultural communication, examining the factor of self-evaluation processes about oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s competency for intercultural communication. Self- evaluation in the study is one of the factor which influences for variability for those competences understood as a now- how of the individual. Three main perspectives were established when discussing changeability of self-evaluation on intercultural communication competency of the individual. First it is social standard of multiculturalism. That perspective shows an openness of individuals toward cultural plurality in the public life. Second is a will of one, constructing community in the perspective of cultural plurality, and third is sphere of skills needed
for effective communication between individuals and groups when cultural difference is engaged. The data for this research was gathered by auditorial questionnaire from over 800 students of Higher Education Institutions and Secondary Schools in the region of Podlachia. Realizing the social factors of multiculturality of the region, we choose the students from the cities where ethnic and confession diversity is an effect of historical processes and cities where we observe homogeneity in this regard. Second factor was a tradition of emigration. In the end of the process of selection was so: locality with people pluralistic ethnically and confessional with tradition of emigration, locality with people pluralistic ethnically and confessionally without tradition of emigration; locality with people ethnically and confessional homogenous with tradition of emigration, locality with people ethnically and confessional homogenous without tradition of emigration. Diagnosis of competency for intercultural communication will be correlated with rang of factors, which can influence on changeability of the competence. Toward most important of them can be socio-cultural identity of the individual, detected by the identification profile, level of homogeneity of the locality, factors related with the family, detected by level of ethnic and religious homogeneity of the family, experience of emigration members of family. Additionally one’s competence for intercultural communication is observed through the self – consciousness detected by self- evaluation and declaration of one’s outlook of life according otherness and multiculturality. Research was done by prepared in the Department of Intercultural Education, University in Bialystok, questionnaire, and data were analyzed using the software SPSS, statistic correlation and logistic regression. At the end we hope to build a model embodied elements deciding about levels of competency for intercultural communication Keywords: Intercultural communication, Diversity, Region, Migration Paper 2: Constructing a Citizenship community : Identity, Inclusion or Exclusion Mei-Lan Huang, Chang-Gung University of Science and Technology, Taiwan This study is an analysis of the issues of the language education and identity in Taiwan. The purpose in this study is to analyze the relationship between the ideology of identity and its language education among the histories of interethnic relation in Taiwan. Qualitative data were collected from (1) the first-hand accounts of seven key informants’ in-depth interviews and (2) documentary data from primary and secondary sources. Ethical issues related to issues such as informed consent, participant anonymity and the safe storage of data were duly considered. Finally, the findings demonstrate that the politics of the language education ideology has deep roots in the institutional homogeneous structure of the society, which results in the dilemma of language problems in Taiwan. In spite of this, in some context of the evolution of Taiwanese linguistic identity, what the theorist’s paradigm case of (nation-state model) one language per country and one linguistic identity is challenged. So, the case of Taiwan shows both for and against the nation-state theory. In general, the study ends by outlining some conclusions, and some implications. That is, the historical case of postcolonial Taiwan can serve as a good heuristic model for examining the histories of interethnic relation in nation identity formation (construction), and language education. Additionally, some suggestions and reflections for possible future research are presented. That is, the study’s focus on the community of intercultural citizenship or multilingualism will be worth being explored in order to yield more insight into the interactive connection between language education and national identity. Keywords: Language Education, Identity, Intercultural Citizenship, Multilingualism
Paper 3: Innovative practices of Global Education in a changing world Helena Pratas, ISEC - Instituto Superior de Educação e Ciências, Portugal This paper considers the North-South Centre (NSC) of the stakeholders’ efforts and Strategy to promote global education Declaration in 2002, which established a European strategy increasing global education in Europe to the year 2015. The
Council of Europe and other since the Maastricht Congress framework for improving and Maastricht definition of Global
Education (2002) says that Global Education is: “Education that opens people’s eyes and minds to the realities of the world, and awakens them to bring about a world of greater justice, equity and human rights for all”. Global Education in Europe is understood to encompass “Development Education, Human Rights Education, Education for Sustainability, Education for Peace and Conflict Prevention and Intercultural Education; being the global dimensions of Education for Citizenship”. Over the past twelve years, several achievements were made which regards global education. Among them, the first European legal standard on global education. This Recommendation CM/Rec(2011)4 of the Council of Europe Committee of Ministers to Member States on Education for Global Interdependence and Solidarity, complemented the Council of Europe Recommendation CM/Rec(2010)7 on Education for Democratic Citizenship and Human Rights Education. This paper also describes an experience of an on-line training course about the intercultural dimension of Global Education provided by the North-South Centre and the Network University (Amsterdam), from 15th November to 20th December 2011. The 55 participants, from very different nationalities, ages and cultures all over the world, worked together. Through the networking, the course material and the case studies, we gained a deeper understanding of the complexity of developing and practising global education with an intercultural dimension and it inspired us to develop meaningful educational activities leading to social and political action. In brief, we had the opportunity to learn about each other and about different views on global education and to explore its intercultural dimension. Keywords: Global Education, Intercultural Education, Training course, North-South Centre Saturday 14th June
9.30 to 10.30
WORKSHOP: Turning points and learning points' Workshop facilitator s: Wim Kratsborn, To-gather, The Netherlands Participants will experience 8 learning styles for young people to know what's going on and to find an own way in the future. Each learner should find an own learning style to cope with the present turning points as the new economy, the new technology, globalisation, climate change and human rights (empathy). The source of inspiration is the film 'Hard to become who you are' and three fragments will visualize the past, the present and the future. There is also a booklet designed with working forms, images and links to the internet. The workshop is an innovative way, including new media and technology, brainbased learning, passion driven learning and digital learning, It's a confrontation with the the youth of today, the past and the present, the self and the other. The sources of inspiration are Mind Brain and Education (Mary Helen Immordino), the Future of Learning (Harvard and Howard Gardner), Post-Digital Design (Carl Smith) and the Empathic Civilisation (Jeremy Rifkin).The key is ‘multiple learning’, a mix of blended, active, passionate driven, real life, natural, network and spiritual learning. The eight actors as well as the viewers may look through the eyes of the other. This film is not only an experience but also a confrontation with the self and the other, Europe and the Arab world. They should look beforehand at the trailer and the pamphlet of the film at YouTube: Hard To Become Who You Are - trailer - YouTube www.youtube.com/watch?v...feature=youtube... Intended participants: All disciplines are appropriate but especially history, sociology, psychology, economy, culture, media and art (music). It's about interactive and creative citizenship and that's essential for all disciplines, areas and practices. The workshop is also useful for the students in the conference. The related film, 'Hard to become who you are' will be played on Friday 13th of June in Room 1 from 15.20 to 16.20
Saturday 14th June
10.30 to 11.30
SYMPOSIUM: Images of citizens in England, Spain and Sweden. A symposium on how the notion of citizenship emerges in textbooks from the perspectives of Citizenship, Identity, and Diversity (Otherness). Convenor: Liliana Jacott, Autonomous University of Madrid, Spain Given the significance of issues relating to democracy and citizenship throughout Europe, this symposium will concentrate on potentially contrasting images bound by national. This is a threenation comparative study which seeks to identify the presented self-image of citizens in England, Spain and Sweden through detailed scrutiny of school text books which relate explicitly to the teaching and learning of citizenship education [which vary by nation]. In each national case, the overarching themes of identity, diversity and other have been interpreted freely so that a distinctive flavour of each country emerges rather than constraining research to preconceptions or one dominant model. Also in each case particular images of the nature of the citizen were identified which are scrutinised both for what the project and what they conceal. Inconsistencies are identified between didactic and imagined approaches, between stated policies and actual presentations, and with regard to concepts and realities relating to ethnicity, gender and social class. The emphases given to these – and to other forms of otherness – inevitably vary as the textbooks and their ‘desired’ effects also vary. The papers combine not only in detailed scrutiny of their national contexts but in identifying and discussing the significant insight which is provided by social justice approaches in preference to more staid and conventional platforms. As three democracies with differing histories and – perhaps – differing trajectories – it is hoped that insights derived from Sweden, Spain and England will stimulate discussion and insight relating to other democracies in Europe, identifying not only the images often presented, but the truths which might otherwise be obscured. Keywords: Identity, Otherness, National self-image. The missing Paper 1: ‘O wad some Pow’r the giftie gie us . . .’: England’s self-image as portrayed in GCSE Citizenship textbooks. Ralph Leighton, Canterbury Christ Church University, UK Within a briefly outlined context of England’s imperial history and democratic development, this paper is based on an analysis of the images in five textbooks aimed at young people (14-16 year olds) taking public examination courses in Citizenship Education in England. While the subject is a statutory part of England’s National Curriculum (Department for Education 2013a), examination is not compulsory and it is often the case that schools do not observe the minimum statutory requirements (Ofsted 2010). With reference to Fang (1996) and others showing the role of images in motivating pupils and scaffolding their learning, as well as Freire’s (2006) notion of the thick wrappers of multiple ‘whys’ which attach to any educational entity, it is considered that images are at least as important as text. The focus is primarily on the images which relate to gender, class and ethnicity – what those images indicate regarding the ‘official’ perception and presentation of these socially constructed and defined categories, and the extent to which that perception can be said to be verified or sustained through other data. A fourth category, the ‘English citizenship’ perception of the foreign – the European Union and the world beyond Europe – is also considered. While the images presented in the textbooks are analysed to demonstrate the ‘English persona’ which they imply, that persona is also shown to be emphasised by what is absent from the images. The presence of specific images represents choices made, so that the absence of others can be considered similarly to represent choices. These choices are shown to speak volumes about the gap between England’s state directed self-image and the reality of citizenship in England.
Paper 2: The image of the Swedish citizen A study of how the notion of citizen emerges in textbooks on the basis of ethnicity, gender and class Laila Nielsen, Jönköping University , Sweden This paper explores how the image of the citizen emerges in current used textbooks of social sciences for Swedish students in upper secondary school. From the schools’ governing documents, it appears that the Swedish school system has the responsibility to prepare students for democratic citizenship. Policy documents presents a picture of "the abstract learner" who through the “right” knowledge and skills shall be prepared for a future democratic citizenship as adults. Hereby, citizenship appears as a state to be achieved in which the student is abstracted from their contexts of ethnicity, gender and social class. In the light of recent years' socio-economic and political changes in Sweden, earlier research has shown that such social ties do have a significant impact on the extent to which students succeed in school. Given this inconsistency between directives of the school's governing documents and the increasing importance of students' social context, it is interesting to examine how the image of citizen from the perspective of ethnicity, gender and class emerges in the school textbooks of social studies. Despite the growing importance of new technologies and alternative teaching methods, the textbook retains a central role for the content of teaching in Swedish schools. The issues of democracy and citizenship are today also prominent in a European context. To draw attention to the relationship between national and European notions of citizenship is an additional objective of the study to present a contribution to compare the image of the Swedish citizen with the image of the English citizen and of the Spanish citizen. Paper 3: The citizen inside the books. Citizenship discourses taught in Spanish schools Everardo Pérez-Manjarrez, Autonomous University of Madrid, Spain and Liliana Jacott Autonomous University of Madrid, Spain The present study analyzes the dimensions of the concept of citizenship, within the contents taught in Spanish secondary schools. For that purpose, ten citizenship education textbooks were analyzed, based on three main constructs: identity, diversity and Otherness. Specific ways to orient and articulate citizenship education were found, different didactical approaches, as well as theoretical and methodological differences, among discourses and concepts of citizenry embedded in textbooks contents. These differences are presented as a tension between conventional approach and social justice-oriented approach to citizenship and education. Finally, definitions around the Spanish citizen are discussed from the results, and the institutional intentions and objectives within the educational materials analyzed. Saturday 14th June
10.30 to 11.30
SESSION: Reflections on Research Paper 1: Phenomenography in pedagogical research Emilia Wasilewska, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland The question about contemporary social sciences researches is how we define human being and how to find adequate perspective of solving educational research problems. It is therefore vital for educational researchers to notice individual experience of human in the context of assumptions of citizenship education. I would like to present phenomenography as a method of solving educational research problems in biography perspective. Phenomenography came into being in catalogue of qualitative research method as it can give recognition of a human being and his experience as a value in itself. Process of child rearing, as a phenomenon functioning in a specific context, moulding the pedagogical awareness of a human being, determines the area of study, in which phenoemnographic research is applied, giving recognition for the humanistic vision of a human being. The subject of phenomenographic research affects the scope of problems that theoretically should not represent a problem in the western societies, for instance children rights violation at
school or in a family. The presentation of the problem aims to increase social educational awareness and stimulate reflection and discussion in the field of education, at the same time emphasizing the importance of the goals of activities undertaken in a family environment by professionals based of key concepts of citizenship education. Keywords: Phenomenography, Methodology, Pedagogy Paper 2: Innovative Practices for transformative citizenship education: Proposals from an action research program Konstantinos Vasileiadis and Konstantinos Tsioumis, Aristotle University, Greece The aim of this paper is to present new practices and approaches in the education of a critical citizen and the transformation of the education itself. These practices were applied in a Year 5 class (20 students) of a primary school in Thessaloniki Greece. In this presentation the main focus lies on the analysis and evaluation of the practices which took place at the teaching area discipline called ‘Flexible Zone’, although there were several other activities in similar context that were applied also in other subjects of the curriculum. The connection of the main subjects of the curriculum with the basic aims of education for a critical and transformative citizen were the central focus of our attempt. The students were involved in thinking and rethinking activities that started from the person and broaden out to their social environment. The whole approach followed the methodology of action research and the analysis were focused in four thematic categories: the democratic values, the critical awareness, the social empathy and the transformative action. Evidence of our research shows that these practices that configured with the citizenship education can extend the political consciousness of the children and the development of a critical intercultural education that is based on the principles of democracy, social empathy and human rights. Keywords: Critical Multicultural Education, Social Empathy, Citizenship Education, Innovative Practices Saturday 14th June
10.30 to 11.30
SESSION: Engagements with School Paper 1: Special schools students` attitudes towards factors and ways of prevention of dropping out of school Helen Toming and Kristi Kõiv, University of Tartu, Estonia The aim of the study was to investigate special school students' interpretations of dropping out of school and ways of avoiding dropping out. The study was carried out in Estonia in 2011. A qualitative content analysis was applied in analyzing the 21 semi-structured individual interviews. All interviewed students were girls who had experienced dropping out of school. The study was based on the ecological systems theory and thus, in addition to the risk factors that are related with students themselves, three more categories of risk factors – school, home and peers – were analyzed. The results indicate that in relation to school, students assessed mainly interactions in the system – their negative relationships with classmates and teachers – as factors that influenced dropping out. In relation to home, both interactions in the system and parental influence on the student influenced dropping out. In relation to peers, one-way influence from them on dropping out of school appeared and it was related with antisocial behavior. In relation to themselves, students did not admit their own part in the relationships within the systems. This study showed that according to the students' there are many interactional opportunities for dropout preventions. From the school's point-of-view, both direct interventions, as well as general preventative methods, were seen as ways to help avoid dropping out of school. In relation to home, mainly parents' ways of helping the student to avoid dropping out appeared. Students' own activities in avoiding dropping out were divided into two categories – school-related and (antisocially behaving) peer-related activities. Keywords: System/Context, Students` Interpretations, Dropping Out Of School,
Paper 2: Social antecedents of the personal citizenship: examining factors influencing contemporary Polish 16-year-olds’ educational aspirations Andrzej Lis-Kujawski and Adam Grabowski, University of Warmia and Mazury, Poland Even though Poland has been a democratic country for over 20 years now Polish young people do not generally seem to be very involved or indeed interested in any aspects of civic participation. Previous research (mainly American and British) has identified education as an important vehicle for shaping personal sense of citizenship (e.g.: Barber, 2003; Gutmann, Thompson, 2004; Hoskins, 2019; Homber, Campbell, 2008; Putnam, 2000). Therefore, in our study, we focused on educational aspirations characterising those young Poles who are at the end of their compulsory education period and about to make one of their first crucial life decisions: What to do next?; continue the education or finish it now. Since education is fundamental for forming a personal sense of citizenship, we were particularly interested in what social factors in Poland may affect the level of the 16-year-olds’s educational aspirations. Previous foreign research demonstrates that the most significant factors are: One’s parents’ educational level, family socio-economic status, and gender. Previous Polish studies, however, suggest that the relations between one’s parents’ education as well as family socio-economic status and educational aspirations might be negative. The present study was thus exploratory and aimed to verify how exactly the three factors affect Polish teenagers’ educational aspirations. The participants completed a questionnaire indicating: The level of their educational aspirations and what either parent’s education was. Their socioeconomic status was operationalised as their residence place (a city vs. a village in the northeastern part of Poland, as in that region these two places differ fundamentally where their inhabitants’ affluence level is concerned). The results, somewhat surprisingly, are in line with the American and British rather than the Polish previous data. The results are discussed in the light of Kennedy’s conceptualisation of citizenship (2006) as well as theories and research on family process models (Conger et al., 2002; McLoyd, 1989). Keywords: Education Aspirations, 16-Year-Olds, Parents Paper 3: Start successfully Secondary Education: a goal to educate better citizens Antonio Fernández González and Tatiana García Vélez, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain This article presents an empirical study with various factors that determinate the success or failure of students in the first year of compulsory secondary education. From a sample of 373 participants who completed a questionnaire that asked about their problems and difficulties in their transition from primary to secondary education. The transition between stages involve changes, housing and impacts on family, social and school adjustment of student’s life. This article provided a basis for understanding an important role in the history of the academic school time and for any educational guidance of students. We obtained significant results in relation to age, sex, country of birth, school to attend, the main reason for the repetition and the number of these. For the analysis we used frequency analysis, contingency tables and statistics Pearson χ ². Keywords: School failure, Repetition, Improving education, Education system,
Saturday 14th June
10.40 to 12.00
SESSION: Cooperation, Tolerance and Space Paper 1: Alpha and omega of living together: Humanism and higher education modernisation Sandra Chistolini, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Italy This paper discusses the historic reasons and good practices of teaching and learning citizenship as replies to the challenges faced by today’s society, split between the opposing trends of the meeting of cultures and sharing knowledge. The fundamental concepts of change, such as peace,
interculture, and active citizenship are examined and possibilities for the modernisation of teaching in higher education are presented. The distinctive features of transforming educational action are studied. A crucial role is pedagogic research at university as a time of active participation and selfeducation of teachers. After the second world conflict, world governments laid down the target of educating to peace as a cultural condition for preventing war and forming open insights to encounters among persons. New commitments were aimed at overcoming discrimination, prejudice and racism, considered the causes of conflict. The slow path towards democracy continues to require actions in schools that can raise the levels of education, fight against dropouts and early school leavers, support the cultural growth of all citizens and think up strategies of attraction towards studying so that each person finds the right place in society and contributes to mutual development with competence and creativity. The article considers the validity of Humanism (alpha point) as a pedagogical theory from which innovation (omega point) originates. The core of the educational mission remains that of learning to live together; hence, good practices are proposed for improving the quality of higher education. To be pointed out is the path put into effect in the transition from theory to practice, conducted by the symbolic interactionism approach. The paper also refers about the results of the qualitative research carried out in Italian primary schools on the impact of the preparation of teachers for teaching in multi-faith classes, particularly in contexts of social emergency, such as in Lampedusa. Keywords: Humanism, Modernisation, Interculture, Qualitative Research Paper 2: Nursery space in shaping the identity of a child – a comparative ethnographic study. Marzenna Nowicka and Marta Sliwa, University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland The physical space of a nursery is a very important element in shaping the child's identity. The social functioning of children is being shaped directly by the type and origin of the elements present in kindergarten space, their arrangement, diversity and availability. Pedagogical research on this topic remains scant, especially when it comes to pre-school stage. Background of the research presented in the text refers to the theoretical perspective of the pedagogy of space, which emphasizes the role of the dialectical relationship between man and space in the formation of individual identity and the development of social relations. The analyses also refer to Foucauldian theory of power discourse regarding the arrangement of the interior of the educational institutions. The method of visual ethnography and photographic documentation techniques supported by interviews with teachers of kindergarten were used in the study. The study included 9 kindergartens from Poland, Lithuania and the UK. The basic conclusion that emerges from the analysis of the accumulated body of research indicates that the spatial arrangement of kindergartens in post-communist countries induces/ predisposes to the development of mirror identity ( J. Marcia)operating efficiently under authoritarian rule . This kind of the interior arrangement reflects the conservative tendency to subordinate children and tendency to persistently correct their imperfections. Such a situation equals cultural look back, not forward – toward preparing children for a conscious and creative participation in society. Space of English nursery promotes children's autonomy and self-determination. It seems beneficial to adopt selected solutions from the kindergartens in the West by Polish and Lithuanian ones. Keywords: Identity of a Child, Physical Space of Nursery, Pedagogy of Space, Visual Ethnography Paper 3: Development of a tolerant personality as an objective need of the modern civil society Marina Marchenoka, Rezekne Higher Education Institution, Latvia, Zoja Chehlova, University of Latvia and Gerda Vogule, Rezekne Higher Education Institution, Latvia The aim of the research is to consider the problem of tolerance as an integral quality of teenager’s personality and to examine the level of tolerance of teenagers in Latvia. The paper will examine how to discover existence of tolerant/ intolerant aims in teenagers; to reveal specificity of teenagers’ sphere of values and motivation and to define factors influencing development of tolerance in teenagers. The theoretical base of the research includes: concepts of the civil society (Kant, I., Habermas, J., MacIntyre, A.), concepts of interrelation of personality’s value orientation
and his/her actions, ethics problems and norms, leading to realisation of personality (Fromm, E., Leontyev, D., Dorfman,V., Kaliteyevskaya, Y.), humanistic paradigm (Chehlova, Z.), psychological analysis, affecting various aspects of tolerance as a complicated socially psychological phenomenon (Leontyev, A., Rubinshtein, S., Reardon, B., Soldatova, G.). The empirical research includes: standard and adapted tests: diagnostics of communicative tolerance (Boiko, V.); behaviour in conflict (Thomas, K.); diagnostics of attitude to life values (Rokich, M.); method “Evaluation of psychological atmosphere and interpersonal relations in a group” (Fiedler, F.); a questionnaire for measuring tolerance (Magun, V., Zhamgochyan, M., Magura, M.); a questionnaire for discovering self-control expression in emotional sphere (Nikiforov, G., Vasilyev, V., Firsova, S.); methods of qualitative and qualitative analysis of empirical data; mathematical and statistical methods of data processing. After a theoretical analysis on the problem of the research of philosophical, psychological and sociological literature, the review was used to contextualize the empirical research in the hope of defining the level of Latvian teenagers’ tolerance as well as factors influencing tolerance development. Keywords: Modern civil society, Tolerance, Personality, Values Saturday 14th June
10.40 to 12.00
SESSION: Conflict and Controversy Paper 1: Tolerance as a humanitarian means for solving the pedagogical conflict Zoja Chehlova, Mihail Chehlov and Ingrida Kevisha, University of Latvia, Latvia
The topicality of the present research is based on the fact that Latvia is a multi-ethnic state, a member of the European Union, and the development of tolerance is an important issue for the Latvian society. Education plays a key role in the consolidation of tolerance as the moral foundation for individual’s behaviour. It is necessary to develop readiness for understanding and cooperation with “other human beings, naturally diverse in their appearance, situation, speech, behaviour and values”. This is emphasized in the Declaration of Principles on Tolerance (UNESCO, 1995). Besides, the topicality of the research is underpinned by the fact it is necessary to create a tolerant environment in the field of education. The aim of the research is: the development of tolerance among young people: the development of the need and readiness for constructive interaction with individuals and groups irrespective of their national and social affiliation, opinions, world-views and the styles of thinking. The research problems: the development of knowledge concerning tolerant behaviour and the skills of senior secondary school students to interact positively with teachers, students and other people; the development of motivation and the ability of the participants in the pedagogical process to engage in tolerant communication; the organization of a tolerant environment by means of the humanization and democratization of the pedagogical process; The development of a model for the positive resolution of pedagogical conflicts. The theoretical basis of the research includes: The theory developed by K. Rogers concerning the humanization of inter-personal relationships; The theory of Charles Likson on positive conflict resolution; the humanitarian paradigm of education concerning the self-value of the personality of each learner (Chehlov, M., 2008) The empirical research methodology includes: the survey questionnaire: “The causes of conflicts during the lesson”; testing “How do you understand tolerance?” the analysis of the behaviour of a student and a teacher in a conflict situation. The results of the research are the following: there was observed a high level of knowledge concerning tolerance among senior secondary school students in Latvia: 76% in Pushkin Lyceum in the city of Riga and 64 % in Valmiera Secondary School in the city of Valmiera; there was identified insufficient level of tolerant behaviour among senior form students in these schools, particularly in conflict situations; this contradiction between the knowledge and skills implies that the education of tolerance has to be transferred from the sphere of knowledge to the sphere of action. Keywords: Tolerance, Pedagogical Conflict, Tolerant Environment.
Paper 2: Exploring the readiness of schools to address contentious political issues in a conflict affected society: the views of young people, teachers and schools leaders in Northern Ireland Lesley Emerson and Karen Orr, Queen's University Belfast, N. Ireland This paper draws on findings from the evaluation of an educational program designed to engage young people with contentious issues surrounding political identity. The innovative program, ‘From Prison to Peace’, invites young people to learn about the complexity of conflict, its legacy and the processes of transition from conflict to peace through an exploration of the narratives of former combatants in the Northern Irish conflict. As part of the program, young people are provided with opportunities to engage directly with former combatants in question and answer sessions in their school context. One aspect of the evaluation was a series of in depth qualitative case studies in five of the schools implementing the program. These involved interviews with teachers and school leaders, focus groups with participating young people and classroom observations. Drawing on the literature surrounding the theory and practice of pedagogical approaches to controversial issues, the paper delineates a range of factors which the authors contend contribute to the schools’ ‘readiness for controversy’. These include factors surrounding young people’s expressed need to understand the politically complex contours of the society in which they live, their recognition that this can contribute to the next generation not ‘repeating history’ and their trust in teachers to present balanced and nuanced views. Further it explores the motivations of adults to take risks in addressing controversy in the classroom which include ensuring young people are given the space and opportunity to develop their own political identities in a deeply divided society emerging from conflict and moreover that their capacity for ‘political generosity’ (Emerson, 2012) is built. Emerson, L. (2012). Conflict, transition and education for ‘political generosity’: Learning from the experience of ex-combatants in Northern Ireland. Journal of Peace Education, 9(3), 277–295 Keywords: Controversial Issues, Political Identity, Citizenship Education, Conflict
Saturday 14th June
10.30 to 11.30
SESSION: Intercultural Education (part two) Paper 1: Intercultural and non-formal learning processes of children in primary school exchange programs in France and Germany Bernd Wagner, Universität Siegen, Germany Intercultural education in Germany is a mainstream issue that is not adequately addressed by schools’ curricula. Therefore it is often ignored in every day school life. Our study, founded by the French-German youth organisation, focuses on intercultural education in student exchange programs in primary schools. As primary schools reflect social heterogeneity, we assume that primary school children also face intercultural questions (Montandon2008). Because of the cultural and lingual heterogeneity of the pupils, intercultural meanings are negotiated in class, fostered by students’ own exchange experiences. Primary school children can benefit from these programs in terms of social learning and openness towards other languages. The student exchanges offer important formative experiences that support a later educational career. Furthermore, the contacts children build abroad through such exchanges are often fostered for a long time. In this study, participating groups of children have the opportunity to perform learning and play activities that involve attributes unknown or strange. The related video-ethnographic research takes a close look at learning processes through such play in intercultural encounters. The classes are accompanied for one year’s time. The researchers document the contact, the group structures and individual approaches to intercultural questions through the use of thorough field descriptions. During the exchange program, contact situations are filmed with a focus on children acting in groups and playful performances (forexample sportive games children use to get to know each other). Performative approaches of children, for example spontaneous contacts, leisure time activities and games, in intercultural encounters are identified, examined and analysed. The material may be used for teacher training courses and curricular innovation. The activities of children in student
exchange programs may give teachers the opportunity to adapt their lessons (in Germany in the so-called Sachunterricht, basic primary lessons in socialscience) to incorporate the implicit intercultural experiences children have already formed. Keywords: Student Exchange Programs, Intercultural Education, Primary School, Non-Formal Learning Paper 2: Constructing the Multicultural Citizen: Education of children from a migrant background in Europe Tözün Issa, London Metropolitan University, UK Emerging theoretical conceptualizations on citizenship education appear to be telling us that it is no longer possible to represent the changes in the new world order through focusing on the civic values and the psychological attributes (knowledge, skills and behavior) of individuals alone and that learners’ social and cultural experiences embedded in their individual histories need to be incorporated into the learning processes (Haste, 2004; Biesta, 2011). In this ‘new’ emergent form of citizenship education the learners are perceived as collaborators actively constructing and coconstructing their learner identities in a multicultural and a multilingual world. Drawing on the Banks’ (2008) concept of transformative citizenship education I analyze the recent findings of SIRIUS, European Commission funded survey on the education of the children form migrant background in Europe. Despite being a ‘snapshot’ of the current provision in 12 member countries the findings of the survey showed no single unified framework in approach and that practices in each country appeared to be ranging from ‘assimilationist’, ‘integrationist’ to ‘inclusive’ approaches with evidence of good practice at local and central government levels. The findings resonate with that of Eurydice (2012) report on the principle approaches to citizenship education in European countries. The paper draws upon both survey findings to conclude that although there is a need for more in depth research into the current provision; Europe still has some ground to cover in implementing the principles of Banks’ transformative education across all its member states. Keywords: Identities, Transformative Education, Multicultural, Citizenship Paper 3: Integration Policies of students with Portuguese as non-maternal language Ana Patrícia Almeida, Instituto Superior de Educação e CIências, Portugal and Rui Miguel Barata, Escola Básica Màrioa Cunha Brito, Portugal The changes in Portuguese society in recent decades, posed constant challenges to schools. In an additional effort, these institutions seek to make cultural diversity a factor of cohesion and integration. Increasingly Students with Portugues as Non-Maternal Language is part of everyday life for some schools of our country and as such, the integration factor reveals itself not only as an agent of inclusion, as well as an agent of great influence on the educational success of students in which Portuguese is not their mother language. This research project seeks to meet an educational need, felt by the teaching staff of a school group, in what concerns the processes and mechanisms of integration of foreign students in elementary school. This project was conceived based on the analysis of questionnaires from teachers in school group X, as regards the integration of students, training and teaching practices with Students with Portugues as Non-Maternal Language . This assignment, seeks to suggest proposals for activities not only having in mind the integration of these students, but also to meet the education needs of teachers and teaching practices or other individual problems, identified from the diagnosis. It was decided, therefore, a methodology for design work of a qualitative nature, divided into two phases: the first stage of diagnosis, which consisted of a questionnaire to all teachers in the group and document analysis, the second phase, resulting from analysis of data collected through the diagnosis, made by creating a intervention project that would allow to address the problems identified in the previous phase. After analyzing the results, it became crucial to design a project that would meet the initial question: What educational policies and activities should school group X take, in order to integrate students who have Portuguese as non-maternal language? Keywords: Educational policies, Non maternal language, Integration policies, Inclusion
Saturday 14th June
10.30 to 11.30
WORKSHOP: Civic engagement: Challenging meanings through art as text Workshop facilitator s: Andri Savva, University of Cyprus, Cyprus, Hugo Verkest, Training College, Belgium, NilĂźfer PembecioÄ&#x;lu, Istanbul University, Turkey
Our students are more and more screenagers. They live more than ever in a world with visual stimulation. They are common with touch screens and interactive boards. In the public space they are dressed with clothes, shoes and hats with words and quotes. For nearly a century artists have been experimenting with the idea of to create texts as images. In some cases text is used to simply expose an idea, question an assumption and challenge values by critically reflect on discourses and images used through media. Is this a new way to express citizenship in 21st century? How can we as educators deal with new visual wave? In other cases artists used words to create stories and to decorate buildings or making light sculpture. This workshop aims to involve participants in an artistic process where various strategies will be used to: Overturn the traditional form of the text and promote alternative meanings Encourage a critical reflection on the meaning of the words and exposition of ideas. Participants will be provided with the opportunity to familiarize their selves with strategies and media practices used for the purposes of transmitting an idea or questioning an assumption. Positioning, documentation and the technique of collage will be used and an exhibition will follow. Digital photos will be used during and after the workshop. Participants will be provided with the opportunity to familiarize their selves with strategies and media practices used for the purposes of transmitting an idea or questioning an assumption as a form of action significant in civic engagement Intended participants: Anyone with an interest in teaching through arts and media aspects of citizenship may attend the workshop. Participants may consider bringing with them any type of text (e.g. newspaper cuttings, magazines)
The CiCe Network is supported by the Life Long Learning Programme of the European Union