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270 Analytical approaches data collection, 93–103 direct measurement of subjective aspects, 98–100 discovery and development of new, 266 episode analysis, 96–98 sampling with analytic intent, 93–96 triangulation, 101–103 Anthropology, interest in time use research, 8 Aotearoa (New Zealand), see also Maori society age of enlightenment in industrial England, 215-216 asserting first time in declaration of independence, 218 colonial experience, 215–219 definition in Maori society, 212 development of unique New Zealand identity, 227–228 early contact between British and Maori, 217–218 influence of Maori and Pakeha cultures, 228 Ka Awatea, the dawning, 227-229 likening process of civilization to Te Po, night journey, 219 median total income by occupation, 221, 223 modem time/space distancing, 217 occupations of Maori and non-Maori men and women, 220–221,222 perception of time in Enlightenment age, 216 proportion of Maori within New Zealand population, 220–221 qualitative time in sociology realm, 226– 227 quality and sense of time closer to Maori condition, 228 quantitative nature of studies, 226 time and social order, English colonists, 216–217 and time use in contemporary New Zealand, 220–227 promised and lost, treaty of Waitangi, 218–219 time use methodology in " Testing Time" pilot, 226 pilot survey (1990), 223–226

Index Aotearoa (New Zealand) (cont.) traditional proverb, 228–229 traditional time, 212–215 unemployment rates, 221,223 Bacon, Francis, age of enlightenment, 215 Basic, level of abstraction for time-budget analyses, 116 Beepers collecting time use or activity data, 4 technique for validity of time diaries, 82 Biological and sociocultural perspectives biological needs impetus for time use, 190–191 comparison of Luckmann's and Fraser's temporal models, 193 concept of time beyond biological, 192 conversational model for interview, 202– 203 critical research paradigm, 195,197–198 data collection methods, 200–208 in-depth interviewing for data collection, 201–203 ethology approach, 194 examples of, 190 field observation for data collection, 201 gene-environmental action model, 194 history of ideas for data collection, 205– 208 influence of sociocultural forces and values, 192–194 integration of nature and nurture, 191 of research approaches, 198-200 qualitative research paradigm, 195,197 quantitative research paradigms, 195– 197 recognition of biological and sociocultural temporal integration, 192 research paradigms, 194-198 study example combining time use diary and in-depth interview, 203–204 temporary nature of, 190–194 time use providing data on, 189–190 useful information for social, political, and health planners, 198–200 Biological factors in activity participation model, 77/78 Birth statistics, Canadian crude birthrate (CBR),159–161


between time-space and travel survey approaches, 13–14 Adoption, becoming parents, 163 Adult education, free time aspect, 53 Age, see also D...