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Index Time-budget research on elders (cont.) omitting population that most needs assistance, 112 personality state affect and activities, 119–122 potential related sources of error, 110– 111 psychological well-being versus time use, 117–119 refusal rates for all ages, 11 1 significance of objective event versus significance to individual, 118 state affect and activities, 119-122 study of chronic impairment using proxy data, 114–116 subject-selection biases, 11 1–113 techniques for inclusion of subjective states and linking to accompanying activity, 121–122 time diary, 108–109 time diary or yesterday interview by proxy, 113 yesterday interview, 108–109 Time deepening, 72 Time diaries activity data collection, 19–20 collecting time use data, 178–179 comprehensive data collection, 4–5 form for studying time use, 108–109 methodological properties of, 81–83 microbehavioral technique, 83–84 by proxy, 113 reliability of, 81 study example combining in-depth interviewing and, 203–204 validity and reliability for persons with disabilities, 181 validity of, 81–83 Time-diary data, see also Time use data analysis procedures, 71–77 blending of activities, 72 computer file formats, 73–76 data file editing, 25–26 day and time of day, 72 dependence on attendant background data, 25 environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure, 73 example of time-of-day differences, 72 file creation, 26–27 location of activities, 71

279 Time-diary data (cont.) media usage, 73 multivariate analyses, 76–77 preparation and organization for analysis,25–26 psychological states during activities, 73 secondary activities, 72 social partners during activities, 71–72 technique of multiple classification analyses (MCA), 76–77 variable fixed versus fixed field file formats, 74 Time-diary method, see also Diary data activity coding, 70-71 avoiding pitfaIls of estimate approach, 65 basic types of time, 58 example of, 56-57 features of, 54–59,64–66 limitations of reporting frame, 54–55 measurement logic of Multinational Time Budget Study, 64 measuring long-term societal changes, 55,58 respondents’ own words, 54 sample of completed time diary, 56,57 speculations about nature of human behavior, 58-59 structure and portrait, 49 Time-diary studies in Canada, 69–70 industrialization in late 19 century, 66 Multinational Time Use Study, 66–67 previous studies, 66–69 US. studies, 67–69 in Western countries, 67 Time (duration) data analysis issue, 36–37 primary descriptive measure, 28–29 Time famine, 72 Time measurement alternatives to time estimates and time diaries, 62–64 features of time diary and sample diary, 64–66 problems with time estimates, 60–62 Time-of-day differences in activity, 72 Time-of-year sampling issue for data collection, 21 Time-points file, processing and analysis of diary data, 26–27

Index  

between time-space and travel survey approaches, 13–14 Adoption, becoming parents, 163 Adult education, free time aspect, 53 Age, see also D...

Index  

between time-space and travel survey approaches, 13–14 Adoption, becoming parents, 163 Adult education, free time aspect, 53 Age, see also D...

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