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DESIGN FUTURING

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COMPOSITION/GENERATION

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CONCLUSION

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LEARNING OUTCOMES

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APPENDIX - ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES

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PART A: REFERENCES

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Third year Architecture student that lives in Melbourne’s inner city suburb of Brunswick, and has constantly been exposed to the ever so fast pace of city life. Over the years of growing up in such a diversly multicultural and eclectic suburb, and being surrounded by the prospect of change, I have been able to experience the notion of an ‘evolving city’ and urbanisation within Melbourne. Along with the ideas that come with an evolving city, there has also been a will to want to preserve what remains, and maintain a sense of identity. This is something that we all experience throughout our lifetime in the cities that surround us. From as far back as i could remember, and although it may sound cliché, i have always wanted to persue a career in architecture. In a sense, i feel as if i made this decision based on my upbringing, and the way in which i was constantly exposed to the world of architecture and construction, which can be traced back as far as my ancestors. For me, it was also a will to want to contribute to the world in which i live, and create buildings and spaces that people can experience and not just enter. This idea of evoking feelings within a space or environment, is what makes the architetcural world so intriguing and immersive. Form is what makes a building, and after studying the master Le Corbusier in my previous studio subject, i have grown an appreciation when it comes to the thought of simplistic forms that are fueled by an immersive and intriguing journey. This is where my appreciation for minimalistic, monochromatic and simplistic forms evolved from.It is through the complex and qualitative construction systems that this category of buildings employ, that aids the form to speak for itself, instead of sacrificing the integrity of the building by exposing intrusive elements. I hope that Studio AIR will expose me to the world of parametric design, as well as the notion of sculptural architecture. i feel that this will expose me to a different dimension of form, and enhance my knowledge for the future as an all around designer and architect.

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The site located within the Danish city of Copenhagen, and also known as ‘‘Refshaleøen’, encompasses an array of scenic views which overlook the water and force one to explore the horizon line which lays in the background [5]. The sites rich heritage and past historical placement as a Shipyard, gives the site a sense of rich context, which can further me adapted into potential design proposals, and inform any future decisions for preservation and redevelopment. The mermaid statue which lies in the foreground of the panoramic shot [02], clearly juxtaposes with the former use of the site, yet at the same time creates a canvas at which one can start to draw ideas from.

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SITE PHOTO SITE PHOTO ARIEL VIEW

LMS > Melbourne University > Studio Air LMS > Melbourne University > Studio Air LMS > Melbourne University > Studio Air


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One of the main points to respect whilst designing for this site, is to make sure that you understand the significant history of the site and its geograohy. This will, in some way or another, inform the way in which the design proposal comes about. The design must be pragmatic, to a degree, as well as constructable, and its height must not exceed 125 metres in height [05]. R C

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The site response requires a Three-Dimensional Sculptural Form, that is, in some way or another, able to stimulate and challange the mind. It must capture energy from nature and somehow convert it into electricity. STORE,

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Lastly, it must not create Green house gas emissions, and be sensitive to its surrounding, as o not pollute them. All in all, the design must be innovative, parametric and unlike anything witnessed in design history. I look forward to exploring the way in which technologies and design can simultaneously collaborate.

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ARIEL VIEW LAGI SITE

LMS > Melbourne University > Studio Air http://landartgenerator.org/competition2014.html

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02 “ The main aim of this project, is to promote this idea of ‘Retain and Reuse’, whilst embracing this idea of the bathing culture ” [06].

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SOLAR BATHS PERSPECTIVE SLOPE

http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/LT388DF2/# http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/LT388DF2/# http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/LT388DF2/#

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I was primarily drawn to analyse this particular project from the 2012 LAGI (Land Art Generator Initiative), as i was interested in the notion of incorprating modern technologies, such as Solar, to a site of waste deposition and decomposition [06]. This project stood out to me, as throughout my time as an architecture student, we have constantly been reminded to explore notions and ideas of ‘SUSTAINABILITY’ , and in doing that, adapting it to the built environment. The innovative quality of this project, along with the fact that it has been designed for people to interact and experience by literally ‘immersing’ themself within the Solar Bath, has prompted me reconsider and re-evaluate my stance on the limits of interactiveness that one may have with architetcure as a whole [02]. The way in which this project works, is that the Salt Water Ponds, situated on the southern end of the site, capture and store heat that has radiated directly from the sun and the surrounding landfill area. Each pond is coupled with a tall solar chimeny [01,03] that then extracts the heat from the ponds, and converts it into electricity, thus fueling the temperature control of the Solar Baths [06]. In a project like this, there needs to be a specific focus on ‘Strategic Production’ [05] , as in order for the baths to store water from rainfall, the base of the structure must be slanted and slightly offset from one another, depending on the natural slope of the site [03]. This attention to detail shows us that the enironment and site plays a huge role in the way in which the prospect of this project would perform. This idea is inventive, yet at the same time it is somewhat mocking the lifestyle of their proposed demographic of New Yorkers, as the project invites them to “... stew in the own heat of their trash”. In a sense, it forces the potential visitors of the site to realize their own agency and actively engage in the problems of energy production, which can seem daunting. For me, the prospect of this project takes the idea of Sustainability to a whole new level, by exhausting the mere thought of trash as a way of fueling the electricity of the world in the future.

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COMPONENTS STRATEGIC

http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/LT388DF2/# http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/LT388DF2/#

SOLAR BATHS

http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/LT388DF2/#

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Kinetic energy is the energy which something encompasses, and it is generally created by nearby motion. As all moving things possess a degree of Kinetic Energy, there is a possibility that it can be easily generated, whether it be through the movement of nature, organisms or merely the superficial movements of man made creations. As motion is found in almost anyhting, there is definately a prospect in being able to create energy to power a small project, sculpture or building. Although it is the pace and speed of motion, that will ultimately filter the way in which the potential project will perform.

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There are complicated algorithmic expressions, which are able to explain these notions in a more in depth way... but for us average people and creative tinking architects, all we needto remember is that Motion causes power, which ultimately turns that into energy, which we can then store and use in the future to power our masterpieces.

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In conjunction with the brief, and as a way of incorporating Kinetic energy in the proposal for the 2014 LAGI competition in Copenhagen, a prospect or direction of thought may be to consider the past use of the site as a shipyard, and potentially draw energy from the ripple created in the water, through the motion of a ship... food for thought i suppose!

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An innovative designer known as Gunwook Nam, explored the notion of creating kinetic Energy through the concept of Human Foot traffic to power a system of water pumps. The way it works, is that when people walk in close proximity to the structure, energy will be created and stored, and in the future, water will be pumped to the surface [03].

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WATER RIPPLE HUMAN PUMP HUMAN PUMP

http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/LT388DF2/# http://www.tuvie.com/human-pump-using-kinetic-enerhttp://www.tuvie.com/human-pump-using-kinetic-ener-


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The use of generating energy through architecture is an upcoming obsession, that is taking the architectural world to a whole new level. In a sense, To a degree, there is a high demand for creating sustainable architecture whilst maintaining aesthetical properties, and this building seeks to minimise the negative environmental impact of buildings by enhancing efficiency and moderation though the materials chosen. This particular project combines the ideologies of Kinetic energy, by absoring the motion of the soundwaves [06], and converting it into usable energy.

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EVOLO ENTRY ENERGY ENERGY

http://www.evolo.us/competition/soundscraper-caphttp://www.evolo.us/competition/soundscraper-caphttp://www.evolo.us/competition/soundscraper-cap-

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IT IS POSSIBLE TO CLAIM THAT A DESIGNER’S CREATIVITY IS LIMITED BY THE VERY PORGRAMS THAT ARE SUPPOSED TO FREE THEIR IMAGINATION.”

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Terzidis, Kostas (2009). Algorithms for Visual Design Using the Processing Language (Indianapolis, IN: Wiley), p. xx


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C O M P U T A T I O N D E S I G N N E W W O R L D A R C H I T E C T U R E As computation deisgn is becoming more and more common in the architectural world, it is beginning to expand, and architects are becoming dependant on these software methods to influence their designs. Referring to the image above, which looks at the interior and structural quality of the

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Research Pavilion, there is a clear difference to what is computational design and what is not. There is a clear sense of curvilinear form, compared to the static quality of the rectilinear built form that we are used to. This particular precedent (above), interests me through its geometric and explorative quality, that encompasses an array of dynamic experience for a user.

RESEARCH PAVILION http://www.digitalcrafting.dk/?cat=9archi-

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METROPOL PARASOL METROPOL PARASOL METROPOL PARASOL

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http://archidose.blogspot.com.au/2006/02/halfhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metropol_Parasol http://www.yatzer.com/Metropol-Parasol-The-


M E T R O P O L P A R A S O L C O M P U T A T I O N A L D E S I G N The ‘Metropol Parasol’ located in Seville, Spain, resembles the form of giant mushrooms that were initially derived from the vaults of the Cathedral of Seville. The architect Jürgen Mayer-Hermann, has created a structure that is very interactive, to the extent that people are encouraged to walk above the structure and on the roof. This is the main reason why this design interested me, as even though it appears as a structure the focuses on the idea of form and timber as its main material, it is a mode of architecture that forces people to interct with, through its intriguing visual display and juxtaposing qualities. I was particularly eager to research this construction, as it is a clear indication of how computational design can somewhat drive the creativity of the architect, and as mentioned by Branko Kolarevic “The consequences of new digitally driven processes of design, fabrication and construction, are increasingly challanging the historic relationship between architecture and its means of production”, and in a sense, this is what gives a sense of ambiguity and excitement, when it comes to exploring with design. [5] This design, to an extent, relates to oxman’s theologies regarding the limits and benefits which contribute to the computational design process. He states that ‘the growing method of digital architecture design is developing simultaneously with softwares for energy and structral solutions’, and at the same time increasing the depth of capacity that architects are exploring, as computational design is teaching architects to rely on algorithmic and research based experimental design processes’, in order to strenghten and give depth to their design. [6] This particular design and method of construction, demonstrated through the Metropol Parasol, may further inspire the process and the need to respond to the LAGI project, as based on this example, i want to explore the limits which architecture has to offer. Creating and interactive and immerssive experience, is what makes a building so encompassing, whilst giving people a sense of intrigue, and i feel as if the computational design process will in a way, alter the conventional process which one may take when designing, but at the same time will inform stronger concepts and interesting forms.

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METROPOL PARASOL (FORM)http://design-porteur.com/2012/05/14/j-mayKOLAREVIC OXMAN ‘Therories of the digital architecture’

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BIRD’S NEST BIRD’S NEST BIRD’S NEST

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http://www.designbuild-network.com/projects/nationhttp://www.arup.com/projects/chinese_national_stadihttp://www.chinadaily.com.cn/olympics/2008-07/25/


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The Bird’s Nest building was designed for the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympic Games, and its form was derived using the method of computational design. The building comprises of a double skin, with the outer skin being made up of skeletal steel, and the inner ‘skin’ of double-layered plastic, which keeps out wind and rain and filters out UVA light. I chose to explore this particular piece of architecture, it was is a building that everyone has seen, due to the public focus it pulled in 2008. I was world reknowned, especially at that time, due to its different and interesting form, not to mention the structural surface patterning, which was used not only for stability, but also for aesthetical purposes, when coupled with lighting. In the reading by Kalay, he explores the notion that “It is relatively easy to communicate information from computers to humans, who posses the intelligence needed to understand textual, numerical, graphical, and auditory messages. But it is frustratingly difficult to communicate information from humans to computers, who lack the intelligence and the ability to interpret messages, unless they are coded in a completely unambiguous manner.” This point demonstrates the constrants put upon deisgners when they translate their design ideas into computational platforms.[5]

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When designing the Bird’s Nest Stadium, Swiss architects Herzog & de Meuron chosen after a six month long international competition, and their revolutionary design was comissioned to be the new Olympic Stadium. The overall design is said to be based on Chinese Style crazed pottery, and Computational fluid dynamics , has been used to calculate airflow speed at each angle of the structure in order to optimise ventilation within the building. This design and computational process may assist in forming our LAGI entry, as they have clearly used a series of data in order to calculate the location of certain members and adjust the form. This is something we should consider when designing and producing our entry, using computational platforms.

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BIRD’S NEST MODEL KALAY

http://bimtroublemaker.blogspot.com.au/2011/01/ LMS > Melbourne University > Studio Air

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...AS WE KNOW, PARALLEL MOTIVES DO NOT COMPOSE UNLESS SOME OF THEIR ELEMENTS, OR FOREIGN ELEMENTS, SERVE AS A TIE.”

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Van Pelt, John Vrendenburgh (1902) A Discussion of Composition, especially as applied to architecture (New York: Macmillan)


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COMPOSITION & GENERATION S O L A R P I X E L S Focusing on the process of composition and generation, I have explored the computational approach that was taken to produce the notion of these ‘solar pixels’. The purpose of the project is to pixelate the 100 acre site at Freshkills Park, with these dome shaped structures. The enclosures will be fitted with photovoltaic panels that will ansorb energy by day, and emit a certain colour as night time approaches.

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In regards to computational generation, the project was based on the use of certain typography co-ordinates, that have been programmed using algorithmic expressions, and in turn, this imformation has been adapted in a way that is reflective of the specific location. Using site specific information, creates a stronger connection and sense of relevence, when it comes to generating architectural designs, and the composition of the solar pixels somewhat reflect the aim to connect to the site, through their organic yet varying forms.

http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/as03aj90/ http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/as03aj90/

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GEHRY PARTNERS’ FONDATION LOUIS VUITTON GEHRY PARTNERS’ FONDATION LOUIS VUITTON GEHRY PARTNERS’ FONDATION LOUIS VUITTON

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L O U I S V U I T T O N P R O J E C T C O M P U T A T I O N A L D E S I G N Designed by a team of world reknowned architects lead and inspired by the one and only, Frank Gehry, This project aims to explore the limits that computational design can reach, whilst enabeling both “intricate collaboration and unprecedented engineering” [06]. In order to compose and generate the design for the new art museum in Paris, new technologies and modelling platforms were created, which would ultimately create a ‘cloud’ database, from which the design could be edited and controlled via. The abstract and curvilinear nature of this warped creation consists of a collaboration of both ‘mass-customised’ folded glass and curved concrete panels, and these have been parametrically optimised to cater to the building’s encompassed geometric quality. The contours to generate the design and composition, were infact generated in a freeform way, that required the embedding of fabrication and geometry rules t simulate the curves.

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Figure [05] explores the nature of the virtual model of all glass cylinders used to create the facade, and this followed a specific algorithmic process which involved: the extraction of reference surfaces, penetrating and seperating the surface, constructing an algorithmic pattern, creating panels and then fusing them into optimised panels. This specific process, of creating parametric algorithims, allowed the architects to continuously adjust the scale cloud provided a natural way to scale-up computation methods for design optimisation. The enabled movement of the model to the cloud platform generated for this particular project, combined a number of digital programs, that all contributed to the generation of the proposed composition. Some of which included Digital Project, XSteel, SketchUp, Rhino, and many other platforms. “In many circumstances, the result of many algorithms working simultaneously” [06], results in a new scale of design computation and optimisation, which ultimately was necessary to address some of the complex geometric issues of the project.

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GEHRY GEHRY GEHRY

GEHRY PARTNERS’ FONDATION LOUIS VUITTON GEHRY PARTNERS’ FONDATION LOUIS VUITTON GEHRY PARTNERS’ FONDATION LOUIS VUITTON

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COMPUTATION DESIGN AT HERZOG & DE MEURON COMPUTATION DESIGN AT HERZOG & DE MEURON COMPUTATION DESIGN AT HERZOG & DE MEURON

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M E S S E B A S E L - N E W H A L L H E R Z O G & D E M E U R O N World class architects Herzog and De Meuron, have been infatuated by the prospect of incorporating computation in the design process. In their design of the Messe Basel - New Hall, they have introduced a new platform of digital scrpting and algorithmic expressions that reflect the way in which Herzog & De Meuron operate. They claim that “Normally what [they] do is write one tool, one piece of software for one project...” [06]. Basically, the generation of the facade was informed by a computer program developed in-house by the Digital Technology Group. Randomisation was used to generate the initial pattern, though later on in the process the design became fixed. Computational design techniques were used to control the data structure right up to the end. P F

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At Herzog & De Meuron, the architects and designers believe that the physical model is vital to understanding architecture, to anticipating the construction of a building or component. This is exampled and explored through the way in which they approached the design process of this particular building. A fabrication prototype, which consisted of a double-layer cladding system with a rainscreen of wavy elements over a facade was composed and tested in-situ. This experimentation allowed the architects to gain an understanding of how the building would operate in a real life situation. This pattern, reffering to image 04, could have been created using the process of patterning lists, as a way of mass producing a pattern on a surface.

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The practice lives by the notion that “Ornament as decoration is not what we try to achieve”, and instead, one needs to understand that the generation of geometry and material configurations, is what gives the building character and a sense of dpeth beyond its facade. As mentioned by Peter Brady in ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, that “We are moving from an era where architects use software to one where they create software” [06], is something that Herzog & De Meuron epitomise. Their approach to the Messe Basel - New Hall, was revolutionary, in the sense that trial and error and continuous prototyping further enhanced the quality of the overall design.

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COMPUTATION DESIGN AT HERZOG & DE MEURON COMPUTATION DESIGN AT HERZOG & DE MEURON COMPUTATION DESIGN AT HERZOG & DE MEURON

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HEYDAR ALIYEV http://www.archdaily.com/448774/heydar-aliHEYDAR ALIYEV http://www.archdaily.com/448774/heydar-aliHEYDAR ALIYEV http://www.archdaily.com/448774/heydar-ali-

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H E Y D A R A L I Y E V C E N T E R Z A H A H A D I D In her design of ‘Heydar Aliyev Center’, Zaha Hadid aspired to create and express the ambitions of the Azeri Culture and nation, as they look to the future of modern design and architecture in their cities, and try to over-ride the past. The building reflects a continous and flui relationship, that is unlike anything else seen within this particular area of Baku in Azerbaijan. This central location of the masterpiece, posiitons it as a nucleus for the nation to look upon... U

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The generation and overall composition of this piece is aimed to reflect that of musical rhythm, and this was most evidently the design intent. The computational process entailed the need to generate a series of panels that would be used as a clad for the surface, and as a way of clinging to the direction of the lofted curves and overall curvilinear form of the building. The interior approach somewhat echoes the exterior, although there is a focus on the use of offsetting to create a degradation of scale and sense of repetition. The organic and fluid quality of the building, positions it as being ultra modern and almost futuristic, and this epitomises the direction in which Azerbaijan is heading in the future, and in particularly through architecture.

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HEYDAR ALIYEV http://www.archdaily.com/448774/heydar-ali-

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R E F L E C T I O N P A R T C O N C L U S I V E R E F L E C T I O N After exploring and exposing myself to the world of Parametric design and computational processes, I believe that there is a lot to be learnt, and this will only come from delving into the unknown beauty of experimentation. Part A introduced me to an array or computational processes and challanged me through the algorithmic approach, that I was encouraged to embark upon. Along with learning these skills, there was also an opportunity for us to further explore the possibilities of ‘computation’ processes, in the form of precedents. Looking back and exploring the work of others, opened my mind up to a whole other world... a world where any form is possible! Trial and error is the main driver for using computation design in my eyes, as the possibilities are endless, and you are often encouraged to explore the limits of such programs (Rhino and Grasshopper... and many more I still don’t know). I N T E N D E D F U T U R

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In part B, and as I embark on the next journey of STUDIO AIR, I have decided to approach my intended design with an alternative mode than usual. In past years, i have taken a somewhat stark approach, where i gather influence from a site attribute, and adapt it into a design and take it through the design process. I will still maintain the essence of my approach, but in doing so, i am looking to introduce myself to the world of ‘trial and error’ and testing parametres of a potential design. Referring to images 01 and 02, this is an example of how i adapted a potential situation to the LAGI site, as i modelled a surface based on the wind rose chart of copenhagen (where the LAGI site is situated)... i feel like this experimentation gave me a grasp of what is to come. I feel as if computation design is another world of its own, and using tools such as grasshopper, to drive something such as rhino, you are able to explore ENDLESS possibilities

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by the click of a button and insertion of an algorithmic component... something that in the past, would have been foreign to me! This approach is innovative, as not only will i gain the oportunity to push my limits, but to also be exposed to the unknown world (and sometimes frustrating world) of NURB based programs, driven my algorithms. In a sense, it is significant to design like this sometimes (... considering that you are not in a strict time constraint), as you often come accross tools and skills, that were in the past foreign and non existant. Although this approach may be risky for some (...and certainly sounds risky to me), if feel as if it is the only way that my designs will improve... EXPECT THE UNEXPECTED... that’s my approach for Studio AIR. I will certainly benefit from this... although my sleep pattern may not... Ergo...

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In learning about architectural computing, i have developed a stronger understanding , compared to the beginning of the semester (where i was completely against the thought of having to use Rhino again... Thanks Virtual Environments), as now i understand the possibilities that it can provide to potential designs. I’ve never been a fan of creating parametric inspired designs (although i was envious of those who could), simply because of the need to use programs such as Rhino... although now i am a transformed student. In the past, my designs have been purely rectilinear inspred and somewhat lacked the intriguing quality of curvilinear features. Regretfully, i will admit that sometimes, i contrained my creative mind and simplified my designs so that they’d be able to be created using 3D modelling programs, or hand draw them in a pragmatic and simple way. I have now learnt that i shouldn’t let technology drive my design... instead use it to imrpove and explore the lengths of it!

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In order to introduce myself to the wonderful world of algorthimic 3D modelling, i took it upon myself to attempt the weekly rhino tasks, which were coupled with the platform Grasshopper. In conjunction (... and most importantly with the help of the accompanying videos), i was able to successfully produce various models,,, and sometimes i even suprised myself. Most of my outcomes were admittingly achieved through the process of trial and error, and when i was still unclear of the process, i further researched and refferred to additonal videos which i sought throughout various internet platforms... youtube was my go to mode!

01 P A T T E R N I N G L I S T S A L G O R I T H M I C S K E T C H I N G Figure 01 and 02, are exmaples of using a gridshell generation process. This included the use of the geodesic component as one of its main drivers, although there were also a range of generic grasshopper tools that were coupled along with it. This particular process could be related to a potential LAGI response, as it could be used to create a undulating structure that is riddled with a patterned surface... a lattice like response.

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P A T T E R N I N G L I S T S A L G O R I T H M I C S K E T C H I N G Figure 03 demonstrates an attempt to create a patterning list parametric model, using a series of tools, but most importantly implementing the ‘voronoi’ component, i was able to create a varying grid patterns, reminiscent of a honeycomb! Of course there are many more possibilities when it comes to creating models like this. In order to give the pattern a little more dimension and depth, i implemented the component ‘offset’, as a way of creating multiple linework within the pattern. I started off using a surface, therefore a tool like this would be useful to a potential LAGI project, as any pattern could be generated onto a simplistic rectilinear or even curvilinear surface.

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L A G I S I T E (PG 04 - 05) Copenhagen ‘LAGI’ site, 2014, LAGI http://landartgenerator.org/competition2014.html (accessed on the 10th march, 2014) [06] S O L A R B A T H S (PG 06 - 07) ‘Solar Baths’, 2012, Ian Mackay, Steve Muza http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/LT388DF2/ (accessed on the 10th march, 2014)

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[03] H U M A N P U M P (PG 08) ‘Human Pump’, 2014, unknown author http://www.tuvie.com/human-pump-using-kinetic-energy-to-power-the-water-pumps-system/ accessed on the 10th March, 2014)

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[06] E V O L O S K Y S C R A P E R S (PG 09) ‘The Soundscraper’, 2013, Julien Bourgeois, Olivier Colliez, Savinien de Pizzol, Cédric Dounval, Romain Grouselle http://www.evolo.us/competition/soundscraper-captures-sound-kinetic-energy-whilereducing-noise-pollution/ (accessed on the 10th march, 2014)

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R E S E A R C H P A V I L I O N (PG 11) Referred to the Studio Air - LECTURE 3 ‘Design Computation’

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M E T R O P O L P A R A S O L (PG 12 - 13) ‘Metropol Parasol’, 2012, J. Mayer H. Architects http://design-porteur.com/2012/05/14/j-mayer-h-architects-metropol-parasol-now-complete/ (accessed on the 16th march, 2014) Kolarevic, Branko, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003) Suggested start with pp. 3-62 Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 T H E

N E S T (PG 14 - 15) ‘The Birds Nest’, 2014 http://www.designbuild-network.com/projects/national_stadium/ (accessed on the 16th March, 2014)

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Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 5-25 S O L A R P I X E L S (PG 17) ‘Solar Pixels’, 2012, Ana Saiyed http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/as03aj90/ (accessed on the 22nd March, 2014)

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G E H R Y P A R T N E R S ‘ - L O U IS V U I T T O N (PG 18 - 19) ‘Gehry Partners’ Fondation Louis vuitton’ photographs and computer generated images http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/ journal/10.1002/%28ISSN%291554-2769/issues (accessed on the 22nd March, 2014)

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N C E S P R E C E D E N T S I M A G E R E F E R E N C E S L A G I S I T E (PG 04 - 05) IMAGES 01, 02, 03 AND 04 ‘LAGI’ site, 2014, photographs http://landartgenerator. org/competition2014.html (accessed on the 10th march, 2014) S O L A R B A T H S (PG 06 - 07) IMAGES 01, 02, 03, 04 AND 05 ‘Solar Baths’, 2012, computer generated image http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/LT388DF2/ (accessed on the 10th march, 2014) K I N E T I C E N E R G Y (PG 08) IMAGE 01 ‘Water Ripple’, date unknown, photograph 2012/LT388DF2/# (accessed on the 12th March, 2014)

http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-

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H U M A N P U M P (PG 08) IMAGE 02 ‘Human Pump’, 2014, computer generated image http://www.tuvie.com/human-pump-using-kinetic-energy-to-power-the-water-pumps-system/ accessed on the 10th March, 2014)

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E V O L O S K Y S C R A P E R S (PG 09) IMAGES 03 AND 04 ‘The Soundscraper’, 2013, computer generated image http://www.evolo.us/competition/soundscraper-captures-sound-kinetic-energy-whilereducing-noise-pollution/ (accessed on the 10th march, 2014)

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R E S E A R C H P A V I L I O N (PG 11) IMAGE 01 ‘Research Pavilion, date unknown, photograph, http://www.digitalcrafting. dk/?cat=9architects-metropol-parasol-now-complete/ (accessed on the 16th March, 2014)

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M E T R O P O L P A R A S O L (PG 12 - 13) IMAGES 01, 02, 03 AND 04 ‘Metropol Parasol’, 2006, computer generated image http://archidose.blogspot.com.au/2006/02/half-dose-23-metropol-parasol.html (accessed on the 16th March, 2014) T H E B I R D ‘ S N E S T (PG 14 - 15) IMAGES 01, 02, 03 AND 04 ‘The Birds Nest’, 2014, photograph http://www.designbuild-network.com/projects/national_stadium/ (accessed on the 16th March, 2014)

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S O L A R P I X E L S (PG 17) IMAGES 01 AND 02 ‘Solar Pixels’, 2012, Ana Saiyed, computer generated image http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/as03aj90/ (accessed on the 22nd March, 2014)

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G E H R Y P A R T N E R S ‘ - L O U IS V U I T T O N (PG 18 - 19) IMAHES 01, 02, 03, 04 AND 05 ‘Gehry Partners’ Fondation Louis vuitton’ photographs and computer generated images http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/ journal/10.1002/%28ISSN%291554-2769/issues (accessed on the 22nd March, 2014) M E S S E B A S E L - N E W H A L L (PG 20 - 21) IMAGES 01, 02, 03, 04 AND 05 ‘Realising the Architectural Idea’, 2012, photographs and computer generated images http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/ journal/10.1002/%28ISSN%291554-2769/issues (accessed on the 22nd March, 2014)

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Z A H A H A D I D - H E Y D A R A L I Y E V (PG 22 - 23) IMAGES 01, 02, 03 AND 04 Heydar Aliyev Center, 2013, photographs and computation diagram http://www.archdaily.com/448774/heydar-aliyev-center-zaha-hadid-architects/

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[06] M E S S E B A S E L - N E W H A L L (PG 20 - 21) ‘Realising the Architectural Idea’, 2012, Herzog & De Meuron http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/ journal/10.1002/%28ISSN%291554-2769/issues (accessed on the 22nd March, 2014)

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Z A H A

H A D I D - H E Y D A R A L I Y E V (PG 22 - 23) ‘Heydar Aliyev Center’, 2013, Zaha Hadid Archutects http://www.archdaily.com/448774/heydar-aliyev-center-zaha-hadid-architects/ (accessed on the 24th March, 2014)


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Part a submission ciara d'alberto 583411