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BEHAVIOUR CHANGE & INNOVATIVE ADVERTISING CHYNNA DAVIES


C H Y N N A DAV I E S N0439882 FA S H I O N C O M M U N I C A T I O N A N D P R O M O T I O N FA S H 2 0 0 31 - C O M M U N I C A T I O N A N D M E S S A G E SA R A H LEW I NGTON


CONTENTS

I N T RODUCT ION

5

CASE STU DI ES

6

ST ELL A A RTOIS

6

O2 MOR E

8

PROJ ECT PROPOSA L

10

PROJ EC T ET HOS

11

P R O J E C T L AU N C H

12

CONSU M ER PROF I LE

13

B R A N D I N VO LV E M E N T

14

CONCLUSION

15

R EF ER ENCES

17

L I ST OF I L LUST R AT IONS

19

A PPEN DI X

20


F

4 Behaviour Change


I N T RODUCT ION BEHAVIOUR CHANGE & INNOVATIVE ADVERTISING

FIGURE 2-Piccadilly Circus, 2009

Today, individuals in the developed world would have been exposed to over 250,000 different advertisements before their seventeenth birthday (LaVoie in Croft, 2013). The average female receives between four hundred and six hundred commercial messages every day (Croft, 2013). The power and existence of advertising and marketing cannot be ignored. In a society full of branding presence, it is harder than ever to produce promotional material that stands out from the crowd (images 1 and 2 show two globally recognised advertising arenas Times Square, New York City and London’s Piccadilly Circus). After discussing existing efforts to push the boundaries of advertising, I have considered the responsibility of advertisers and the undeniably influential role it has in the lives of young teenagers. I have suggested an innovative method that could allow a brand to help advertising become part of the solution in fixing the distorted vision of body image, which is carried by Generation Z (Schroer, 2004). FIGURE 1-Times Square, 2013

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CA SE ST U DY STELLA ARTOIS BEHAVIOUR CHANGE FIGURE 3-The Dead March, 1930

& INNOVATIVE ADVERTISING

FIGURE 4, C’est Cidre, 2013

The use of outdoor billboards is one of the most recognised and indiscreet methods of print advertisement. It is no secret that brands carefully select the most appropriately located billboards to display their adverts; ideally those in locations that coincide with the existing lifestyles of their target consumer. However, as a result of increased intelligence in technology, this method of advertisement has developed greatly since the first, hand-painted boards seen since the early nineteenth century (as shown in figure 3). Stella Artois is currently the largest alcohol brand in the United

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Kingdom (Bamford, 2013). They have recently demonstrated an innovative use of outdoor advertising. The campaign’s success was a result of maximising control over when and where their adverts were shown on digital billboards. This idea was developed after extensive research suggested a connection between an increase in cider consumption and warmer weather; this correlation was also supported by sales figures. Drinks Analyst, Jonny Forsyth, addressed this link in 2011; explaining how cider is viewed as “a repertoire drink” that lacks “ownership of an occasion for drinking beyond summer days.” With this in mind, Stella Artois worked closely with out-of-home communication agencies; PosterScope and LivePoster, to deliver their summer 2013 campaign using a realtime, weather activated, location specific, advertising method. A selection of digital billboards in the United Kingdom where fitted with a real-time weather data plug-in and thermostat ahead of the “C’est Cidre not Cider” campaign (figure 4). These billboards recorded the local

temperature regularly. When a billboard recorded an increase of two-degrees or more above the national average, Stella Artois’ advertising material would appear on these and only these digital platforms. Consequently, if lower temperatures were recorded, the campaign was not shown. As a result, consumers were only exposed to the Stella Artois’ advertisement in slightly warmer weather- a very good example of cleverly utilising research and observation. The Marketing Manager for Stella Artois, Andy Logan, spoke ahead of the launch confidently promising that “Stella Artois Cidre, the most sophisticated cider brand will deliver the most sophisticated summer of refreshment, right on cue when the temperature rises. The innovative media mechanic is yet another way we are pushing the boundaries through digital technologies to be relevant to our consumers at just the right time” (in Clarke, 2013). “C’est Cidre, not Cider” became one of the most successful product launches in the UK (Clarke, 2013).


wellbeing to justify or fight against the Id- the “libido (urge)” (p.71). Within context, when a potential consumer sees an advert for Stella Artois Cidre on a cold, wet day; they may consider purchasing, however, based on existing connections between cider and the climate, this is not likely. This is a result of their Ego being unable to rationalise the decision using factors based only on their surrounding environment. In contrast, on a warm day the surrounding environment is very encouraging for the Ego to justify the Id, resulting in the mind concluding that it is a good idea to make the purchase. Other research and theories that support Freud’s explanation of this case study includes the work of Tony Thwaites; who also focuses on the connection between the conscious and unconscious parts of the mind. He explains how

the power of the mind’s Ego is responsible for justifying decisions. Through the combination of the subconscious and conscious mind, everything that once “appeared senseless and without connection, now appeared to fall into place” (Thwaites, 2007. P.16). Despite this, I am inclined to suggest another, simpler theory behind the cause for behaviour change in this example. By repeatedly showing Stella Artois Cidre imagery in warmer temperatures, it is helping to strengthen the consumers’ existing association between the product and the weather. There are many theories that explain the successful use of imagery to improve memory and associations between two objects, words or emotions. There are many cases, which use this technique as a teaching method. Theorists Welding and Valentine believe that imagery is a very “powerful method whereby material that is superficially, relatively meaningless and disconnected can be made more meaningful and connected- and therefore easier to remember” (in Foster, 2008).

FIGURE 5-Weather-Activated Advert, 2013

This could be the result of many factors, including the involvement of an acclaimed film director. However, there are behavioural theories that suggest the weather activated advertisement method could be partially responsible for the 23.8% increase in sales during 2013 (Joseph, 2013). The psychoanalytic theory of Dr Sigmund Freud explains how consumer decisions are largely dependant on motivation, which in most cases is hidden. The consumer is not always consciously aware of the motives behind their consumption (in Apruebo, 2005. p.71). Freud’s complex theory is based on his deconstruction of the human personality into three parts: Id, Ego and Superego. According to Freud, Ego is “the rational control centre that maintains equilibrium”(p.72). It assesses the reality of the surrounding environment and an individual’s

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O2 More BEHAVIOUR CHANGE & INNOVATIVE ADVERTISING

Geofencing is a technology that has the ability to “define a virtual boundary around a real world geographical area” (Janssen, 2013) this area of interest can then trigger an action in a geo-enabled electronic device such as a mobile phone. This is another innovative method of advertising being used and trailed by many brands in the United Kingdom. Geofencing has allowed brands to engage with consumers interactively, using push notifications and retargeting their advertising. The Telefonica owned service provider O2, is the largest supplier of this service in the United Kingdom, through the platform of O2 More. This simple, free, opt-in service is available for all O2 users. The customer is asked a few quick questions regarding their interests to help provide the most accurate and personalised service (this is shown in figure 6). The brands initially involved in the UK were Starbucks and L’Oreal. In 2011, less than a year since the launch, O2 announced that 23% of their UK users were signed up to their mobile marketing service – O2 More (Lunden, 2011). The concept is very simple, when a potential consumer is within a short distance of a store of interest, they are sent a promotional message to their mobile encouraging them to visit the store. This could be anything from

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In 2011, Marks and Spencer’s Online Marketing Manager, Nicky Fouhy, explained that she believed that this method of advertising “is a new and exciting mobile marketing channel that will enable us to offer value to customers and in a targeted and engaging way […] it offers us a great opportunity to demonstrate M&S quality and value” (in Skeldon, 2011). Geofencing is a form of “Connected Retail Technology” which is believed to be the future of online and offline shopping (Curtis, 2013). With an aim to deliver personalised and tailored products and experiences to the consumer, “me-tailing” is estimated to influence 44% of retail sales by 2016 (Forester in Curtis,

FIGURE 6- O2 More, 2014

CA SE ST U DY

a discount coupon to a new product announcement. Figure 7 is a simple visualisation of the method. The success of this advertising method was confirmed in August 2011 with the launch of O2 Moments; a similar service offering news and discounts on a much wider range of products without push notifications. It may be argued that O2 Moments was not launched purely as a result of the developments in Geofencing, but after the success of other online discount platforms such as Groupon. Geofencing seems to have benefits for both the brand and the consumer. Brands are able to target customers quickly through a digital medium with a personalised manner. Whilst customers receive an exclusive service, tailored to their interests and consumption habits.


2013). If consumers receive a more personalised experience from brands, it is logical to presume that they would be encouraged to purchase products. However, the use of real-time technology required to provide the Geofencing service could also be responsible for behaviour change. The consumer must receive these push notifications as soon as they enter the Geofence boundary to ensure that messages are seen within close distance to the store. As a result, consumers may buy goods that they hadn’t “planned on doing so in advance, as a result of a sudden whim or impulse” (Stevenson, 2010). According to the Oxford Dictionary of English, this defines an impulse buy. As early as 1940, theorists were interested in impulse purchasing habits. Morris Ketchum of the New York Times, explained how he believed it to be a result of “a frightening hypnotism of the public” (in Hardwick, 2004 p.39). He concluded, “the economic success of any store depends on how well it stimulates impulse buying” (Ketchum, 1940). I believe that this opinion is extremely relevant in today’s materialistic and fast-paced society. Many purchases are made in an irrational manner with little thought and without any justification. In today’s digital age, there is constant fear surrounding the sharing of personal information and invasion of privacy. Unfortunately, Geofencing is solely dependant on retrieving realtime location based information to provide an accurate service. Participation levels do not seem to suggest that this is a problem for users; however, I wonder if there is a future for improved Geofencing services without the need of gathering any further personal data. This could be a negative consequence of this digital advertising method.

FIGURE 7a/b/c- Geofencing Explanation, 2013

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FIGURE 8- Cadeaux, 2013

PROJ ECT PROPOSA L BEHAVIOUR CHANGE & INNOVATIVE ADVERTISING

The power and success of innovative advertising is unarguable. There are hundreds of brands currently exploring exciting methods to gain the attention of new and existing consumers. Both real-time, weather activated advertising and Geofencing are examples that have proved successful, resulting in an increase in sales figures. These techniques have been used to provoke behaviour change within consumers and therefore, I have considered the application of innovative advertising methods to create further behaviour change. Hopefully reducing the negative impact that the fashion industry and media has on teenagers. My research revealed that 79% of the one hundred teenagers asked, feel pressured to always look their best (appendix E), with 24% admitting that they have been late for school after taking too long to get ready (appendix F). It is a global opinion that today’s youth are generally acting and appearing much older than their age, Robertson believes that “our culture caters to premature adulthood” (2007). My research supports this opinion and proves that teenagers between the ages of twelve and sixteen are feeling this pressure. When media and fashion powerhouses such as Vogue Paris, provocatively place 10 Behaviour Change

ten year old Thylane Blondeau draped in leopard print on their pages, there are undoubtedly issues of over sexualisation towards the representation of today’s youth (figure 8). There are existing brands such as Dove, which are well known for tackling issues of self-acceptance through their brand messages. Bob Hurling, a Behavioural Physiatrist at Unilever explained how Dove’s ethos is based on the philosophy of Thich Nhat Haan- “being beautiful is being yourself and accepting yourself” (2013). Dove is currently producing and investing in brand projects rather than campaigns; this advertising method is used to provoke behaviour change. Although subtle, this method can successfully deal with the sensitive issues within society. Alongside their digital and print presence,

Dove prioritises an education scheme run within schools and extra-curricular groups beyond the UK. As a consequence, Dove is no longer a brand related purely to product, but has positive associations within society, which itself creates customer loyalty. If a brand chooses to use a ‘Project not Campaign’ technique, they must appear to shift their focus away from capitalism and towards social change. This is a form of philanthropic marketing. According to Ferrell, this method “has the most potential to build trust and long-term customer loyalty” (p.231). Therefore I have decided to propose the subtle method of a ‘Project not Campaign’ advertising as a suggestion to encourage behaviour change surrounding over-sexualisation within the industry.


PROJ ECT ETHOS BEHAVIOUR CHANGE & INNOVATIVE ADVERTISING

FIGURE 9- Transit Billboard, 2013 FIGURE 10- Kinetica, 2014

A project that tours the United Kingdom, visiting and returning to secondary schools annually. Essentially, this branded vehicle transports trained staff, teaching resources and equipment to provide a fun, physical and educational experience. Students will be informed in advance of the project’s arrival. Every session will begin with an explanation of the project’s aims that shall strive to increase the awareness of the media’s impact on the students. Project ambassadors and positive role models will appear in a series of short films to express the importance of childhood. These will be shown on the side of the vehicle, which acts as a moving billboard when in transit-as shown in figure 9. After, without any make-up or jewellery, students will change into boiler suits and apply military face-paint to take part in an assault-course style afternoon of activities (see figure 10).

George Bernard Shaw was the playwright who famously wrote how “youth is wasted on the young” (see Faber, 2007). This perfectly sums up the ethos behind this project. Participants will be reminded that it is ok to have fun and not need to act or appear as an adult quite yet. The aim is to provide young teenagers with a chance to forget any troubles, worries or pressure they feel as a result of our society. All activities strive to allow teenagers to feel confident and comfortable with themselves and around their peers. They shall be informed about the power of the media and impact it is having. Depending on the success, the project hopes to become part of these teenagers’ adolescent years and growing-up process- returning annually to support and remind them of the project ethos.

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FIGURE 11, United Kingdom 2011

PROJ ECT L AU NC H BEHAVIOUR CHANGE & INNOVATIVE ADVERTISING

As this proposal is a brand project rather than a method of Cause Related Marketing, the initial launch will be heavily embedded within the existing brand. New promotional material will be created, that focuses on the project, not a product. Advertising shall start twelve months before the tour, to increase awareness and allow time for schools to get involved and plan ahead for the next academic year. The school tour will be initially launched digitally via a website, which would allow schools to request a visit from the project. This real-time virtual tracker will follow the project’s journey around the country- aiming to add excitement and anticipation. This website must be extremely easy to

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navigate around. Social networking sites will also be crucial during and beyond the launch of the project. 44% of the teenagers asked claimed that social networking sites and blogs had the biggest influence on the way they looked (appendix I). Sites such as Facebook and Twitter will be updated continuously throughout the tour; emerging sites such as Pinterest will also be used to allow access to all project imagery. Social networking sites will be used to encourage participation and interaction with a larger sphere of teenagers.


CONSU M ER PROF I LE BEHAVIOUR CHANGE & INNOVATIVE ADVERTISING

her body image. She believes that “the girls who get the most attention out of my friends are all skinnier and taller than me” (appendix K, 2014). Despite her intelligence, Romani feels the pressure surrounding body image and appearance, as do her peers.

Romani is a year ten student who has just started to study for her GCSE qualifications. Figure 12 is full consumer profile; she enjoys spending time with her friends and hopes to become a vet. At the age of fourteen, I believe that she is a potential consumer that would be receptive towards my project proposal. An otherwise very confident young lady, she is self-conscious about her body and clearly has a distortion towards

FIGURE 12, Consumer Profile 2014

I have aimed this project towards both girls and boys between the ages of twelve and sixteen. Teenage girls can often be a priority for similar projects, however my research highlighted that over 70% of the boys asked felt pressured to always look their best. One boy explained how he is afraid of being “outcast if I don’t look like everyone else” (appendix G,

2014). I originally aimed this school-based project at the school years of seven to eleven; however, when discussing my plans in an interview, the young respondent reminded me of the exam pressure experienced in year eleven. Therefore, we concluded that a better suggestion would include only years seven to ten- with the aim to have helped many students before reaching year eleven (appendix K).

FIGURES 13-19, Romani 2014

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FIGURE 20, Clearasil 2013

BR A ND I N VO LV E M E N T BEHAVIOUR CHANGE & INNOVATIVE ADVERTISING

Any brand that would be interested in my suggested proposal must be able to comfortably invest in a project that if successful shall aim to continue for years. They must also consider the efforts required to communicate and work along side local education authorities. It is crucial that they carry similar values and strive to create a positive impact on teenagers and society. A brand that may be interested in advertising through this form of innovative project is Clearasil. A top selling skin care brand that was first created in the 1950’s with

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the purpose to help teenagers feel more confident with better skin; their current tagline- “May Cause Confidence.” Despite being an American brand, there is no reason that if successful, the suggested project could expand beyond the UK. If unsuccessful, the UK can be seen as a smaller trial project, in comparison to starting in the America. Organisations such as About-Face are currently very successful in America; dealing with the negative representation of women in the media. Clearasil have already sponsored multiple TV shows, digital games and events; this is an encouraging sign that they may now feel ready to consider launching their own project. It was suggested during an interview that there maybe need for an incentive to encourage young teenagers to get involved. A teenage “survival kit” was an idea (appendix K, 2014), including tester-sized face wipes and other teenage skin care essentials. This is something that could work very well with a skincare brand to encourage future purchases.


CONCLUSION BEHAVIOUR CHANGE & INNOVATIVE ADVERTISING

“Advertising will never disappear, in fact it is only going to become more subtle and persuasive� (Flood, 2011). However, how we utilise the influence of advertising may prove extremely powerful. Innovative methods of advertisement are continuing to develop and encourage behaviour change. Hopefully, more brands will give careful consideration to the impact of advertising and set out to create solutions for issues such as over-sexualisation. I hope

that the fashion industry and media have the courage to create behaviour change and create a more positive representation of young teenagers. This will require the efforts of multiple brands taking responsibility of existing issues. It is a frightening thought that over two thirds of teenagers between twelve and sixteen are desperate to act and appear older (appendix D).

COVER IMAGE- Manhattan 2008

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R EF ER ENCES BEHAVIOUR CHANGE & INNOVATIVE ADVERTISING

APRUEBO, R. A., 2005. Applied Consumer Psychology. 1st ed. Manila: Rex Book Store Ltd. (p.71,72) BAMFORD, V., 2013. How Britain’s 100 Biggest Alcohol Brands are Branching Out. [online]. thegrocer.co.uk: The Grocer. Available at:<URL: thegrocer.co.uk/ topics/britains-100-biggest-alcohol-brands/> [Accessed on:8th January 2013] CLARKE. G., 2013. Stella Artois Launches Weather-Activated Ad Campaign. [online]. 13th June 2013. Ipsos: ABInBev. Available at:<URL:ab-inbev.co.uk/ 2013/06/stella-artois-cidre-launches-weather-activated-adcampaign/> [Accessed on:6th January 2014] CROFT, H., 2013. How Does Today’s Advertising Impact on Body Image? [online]. Healthy Place: Body Image and Advertising. Available at: <URL:healthyplace. com/eating-disorders/articles/eating-disorders-bodyimage-and-advertising/> [Accessed on:3rd January 2014] CURTIS, R., 2013. The Future of the High Street lies in ‘Connected Retail. The Guardian. (18th July 2013), Media Network. FABER, B.A., 2007. What Psychology Astute Lyrics Teach AboutLife and Love. 1st ed. Westport:Greenwood Publishing Group Inc. p.107 FERRELL, O. C., 2012. Marketing Strategy, Text and Cases. 6th ed. s.l:Cengage Learning. p.231 FLOOD, K., 2011. Never See a Real Ad in Times Square Again. The Creators Project Vice. [online] 26th July 2011. Available at:<thecreatorsproject.vice.com/ blog/never-see-a-real-ad-in-time-square-again> [Accessed on:12th January 2014] FORSYTH, J., 2011. Sweet Success in a Dry Market as Cider Sees The Fruits of Innovation [online]. Market Research World: Mintel. Available at: <URL: marke tresearchworld.net/content/view/3790/77/> [Accessed on: 4th January 2014] FOSTER, J.K., 2008. Memory: A Very Short Introduction. 1st ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. HARDWICK, M., J., 2004. Mall Maker: Victor Gruen, Architect of an American Dream. Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press. ) p.39-42 HURLING, B., 2013. Self Esteem and Self-Acceptance with Dove. Tuesday 5th November 2013. Nottingham Trent University. JANSSEN, C., 2012. Geofencing. [online] Techopedia Online: (s.n.) Available at:<URL:techopedia.com/ definition/14937/geofencing> [Accessed on 7th January 2014] JOSEPH, S., 2013. Stella Artois Cider Set to Usurp Magners. The Marketing Week [online]. 23rd July 2013. Available at:< URL: marketingweek.co.uk/news/stella-artois-cidre-set-to-usurp-magners/4007423.article> [Accessed on 6th January 2013] KETCHUM. M., 1940. Special Packages and Design in Relation to Impulse Buying Urged. New York Times. (1st March 1940), p.4. LUNDEN, I., 2011. Telefonica Stakes A Claim on the Mobile Ad Space. [online]. GIGAOM: paidcontent.org.

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Available at:< paidcontent.org/2011/09/13/419-telefonica-stakes-a-claim-on-the-mobile-ad-space-six-milliono2-more-us/> [Accessed on: 7th January 2014] ROBERTSON, P., 2007. Old Before Their Time. [online]. s.l: Center for Parent/Youth Understanding. Available at:<cpyu.org/Page.aspx?id=76697> [Accessed on: 12th January 2014] SCHROER, W.J., 2004. Generations X, Y and Z and Others. The Social Librarian, April Issue. SKELDON, P., 2011. Mâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Retailing [online]. internetretailing.net: SJP Business Media. Available at:<internetretailing.net/2011/02/ms-and-house-of-fraser-extend-mobile-reach-with-o2-more-poweredgeolocation-marketing-service/> [Accessed on: 12th January 2014] STEVENSON, A., 2010. Oxford Dictionary of English. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press THWAITES, T., 2007. Reading Freud: Psychoanalysis as Cultural Theory. 1st ed. London: Sage Publications Ltd. (p.16)

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LIST OF I L LUST R AT IONS BEHAVIOUR CHANGE & INNOVATIVE ADVERTISING

Cover Image: Own Edit, Anon, 2008-Manhattan [photograph] Construction Manhattan: Online. Available at:<URL: newconstructionmanhattan.com/neighborhoods/times-square> Figure 1- Own Image, 2013- Times Square [photograph] Figure 2- Stephen Hull, 2009- Piccadilly Circus [photograph] Huffington Post: Online. Available at:<URL: huffingtonpost.co.uk/2013/10/22/piccadilly-circus-in-pictures_n_4141935.html> Figure 3- Faythe Levine, 1930- The Dead March [photograph] Collectors Weekly: Online: Available at:<URL:collectorsweekly.com/articles/artisanal-advertising/> Figure 4-Stella Artois Imagery, 2013- Câ&#x20AC;&#x2122;est Cidre, Not Cider [promotional imagery] Brand Fruitition: Online. Available at:<URL:brandfruition.com/evidence-innovation-the-route-to-fewer-bigger-better-innovations/ Figure 5- Ryan Lum, 2013- Weather- Activated Advert [photograph] Creative Guerrilla Marketing: Online. Available at: <URL: creativeguerrillamarketing.com/guerrilla-marketing/stella-artois-cidre-poster-adactivated-by-warm-weather/> Figure 6-Own Image, 2014- O2 More, personalised service survey [digital screen-shot] Figure 7- Corporate Choices, 2013-Geofencing Explanation [digital diagram] Corporate Choices: Online. Available at:<URL:corporatechoices.com/category/marketing/> Figure 8-Sharif Hamza, 2013- Cadeaux [photograph] Vogue Paris: Print Figure 9- Imaj Jiwa, 2013- Transit Billboard [video still] Youtube: Online. Available at:<youtube.com/ watch?v=eqRNewQNrz8> Figure 10- Anon, 2014-Kinetica [photograph] Secret Arts: Online. Available at:<URL:secretarts.co.uk/artists/ circus-kinetica/> Figure 11- Mandy Littlefield, 2011- United Kingdom [diagram] Royal Education Society:Online. Available at:<URL:royaleducation.wordpress.com/2011/09/18/know-thy-kingdom/> Figure 12- Own figure, 2014- Consumer Profile Figure 13- Consumer Provided, 2014- Jewellery [photograph] Figure 14- Consumer Provided, 2014- Frames [photograph] Figure 15- Consumer Provided, 2014- Dressing Table [photograph] Figure 16- Consumer Provided, 2014- Radio [photograph] Figure 17- Consumer Provided, 2014- Lamp [photograph] Figure 18- Consumer Provided, 2014- Money Box [photograph] Figure 19- Consumer Provided, 2014- Romani [photograph] Figure 20-Azeem Azeez, 2013-Clearasil [photograph edit] Healthy Site: Online. Available at:<URL: congnghe24h.info/clearasil/>

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A PPEN DI X BEHAVIOUR CHANGE & INNOVATIVE ADVERTISING

A PPEN DI X A

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A P P E N D I X B-ETHICAL PROPOSAL

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A P P E N D I X C- METHODOLOGY

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A P P E N D I X D- ONLINE SURVEY

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A P P E N D I X E-I - SURVEY R ESULTS

A PPEN DI X E

A PPEN DI X H

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A PPEN DI X F

A PPEN DI X G

A PPEN DI X I


A P P E N D I X J- INTERVIEW & PHOTOGR APHY CONSENT

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A P P E N D I X K-INTERVIEW TR ANSCR IPT C: thank you for letting me call R: that’s ok, I don’t mind C: brills, ok (pause) so… can you remember everything I explain to you before? About why I’m doing my research and what it’s about? R: yeah… I think so (laughs) C: (laughs) ok, well I will remind you. First of all thank you to you and your mum for signing the forms and sending them back to me. That’s a big help, thank you R: that’s ok, yeah I remember C: good, well before we start, I have to just explain a couple of things and remind you of my university project that you’re helping me out with, is that alright? R: yeah yeah C: ok, well (pause) you know that I am Chynna Davies! But as part of my university course, I am into existing and innovative methods of advertising, and how this can relate to behaviour change. To enable me to answer my research questions I am going to talk to you about your general lifestyle, (pause) what you like to do in your free time, your friends, your school, your hobbies, what you like to read and wear. Then I will ask you about your opinions on body image and advertising. R: (interrupts) right ok, that’s fine C: cool (pause) this call will be very informal and feel free to stop me if you have any questions at all. We should be all done in about 20 minutes. Our call will be recorded and transcribed, and if you would like a copy of the transcript then I can send one to you. The information you give me will be used to support my work and will be written up in my project. Anything you say will be treated with the strictest confidence and your answers will all remain anonymous. I will just be using them to back up what I am already saying. The recordings will be kept securely and the transcripts on a password protected computer. Everything will be destroyed once I graduate. That ok? Have you got any questions? R: yeah yeah, that’s fine, I just answer your questions yeah? C: yeah that’s right, not even questions really, we will just have a bit of a chat, yeah? R: yeah, that’s cool C: perfect, ok so how is school going now you’re back from Christmas? R: (sighs) its alright (laughs) I just need to work really hard ready for all my exams next year C: ahh I bet, and when you’re at school are you good at putting all your work first? R: I’m better than some of my friends! I do try but it is hard when all your friends are there C: (interrupted) yeah I always found that R: but yeah I’m alright at it! C: Good, what’s your favourite subject? R: I like English, definitely not maths! (laughs) but I do really like resistant materials too, my teacher is really nice C: Ahh that’s good then, do you have to wear all the goggles and apron for that though (laughs) I used too! R: yeah we do (laughs), when we are in the workshop. C: (pause) oh gosh, do some girls hate it? Are some girls really worried about what they look like in school even? R: yeah they do, they don’t get stuck in either! C: How worried are you about the way you look when you are in school? Do you do your hair and makeup? R: Hummm (pause) a little bit I guess (pause). I do always try to look a bit nice, I like to do my hair for school. I never wear too much make-up because I am afraid I will get in trouble, but I do wear some. Especially if I have some spots and I get bags under my eyes. C: Are your teachers strict on it? Do some girls really dress up? R: Some of them are (pause) Hummm, like the head of houses are really strict. Some girls wear so much; they have false nails and wear extensions too! C: Ahhh, why do you think they dress like that for school? R: I am not sure. I think because they want to impress their friends and lots of them may go to meet other friends after school in town. C: Ahh, ok, right, speaking of clothes (pause). How often do you buy new clothes? Where do you and your friends like to shop? R:yeah I love it! I go into town shopping with my friends quite often. 26 Behaviour Change

Most of my friends shop in Topshop, River Island, New Look. I like those but I do find it hard to find bits I like that are a bit different- oh and Primark most of my friends buy lots from there too. C: Do you feel that you have to dress a certain way at all? To fit in? or … R: (interrupts) yeah in a way… oh sorry…. C:no carry on! R:I do feel that sometimes. Like I cant always find things I love but because my friend is shopping there too, I might just buy something. And then there is magazine and celebrities that me and all my friends follow which I suppose helps me decide what clothes I like. C: So would you feel that there is a pressure on young people to look or dress a certain way (pause) because of what the celebs might be wearing, or what’s in magazines ? R: Yeah everyone just copies. My friends put like new outfits onto instagram and facebook and people just copy. I think sometimes its easy to feel like if you are buying all the new clothes that are in all the magazines then you are better than others (pause) if that makes any sense. C: yeah totally R: I would like to dress a bit more individual but its hard. Especially in Plymouth with the shops and sometimes it is just easier to dress like all your friends (pause) I suppose it makes you feel more comfortable. C: ahh ok, good point. I am sure you are aware and might have even heard it said, but sometimes people might think that teenagers, especially, girls may dress and act a bit too old for their age? What do you think? R:yeah I know, my mum says it sometimes, but I don’t know. Like … (pause) I’m not sure. Even I feel like if I don’t know what I would wear if I were to dress my age, because that is how we all dress if that makes sense (laughs). I quite like getting dressed up and making an effort. Makes me feel more confident. If I do not like what I am wearing or if I am having a bad hair day, I find it tricky sometimes to not worry about if I get judged, or what people will say. C: Ok R: lots of my friends already have false nails, get spray tans and dye their hair. I don’t think I would like that though. C: No? Why do they get all of that done? R: I am not sure (pause) to impress boys for a start and to appear older I suppose. C: That’s ok, cool. How important is the way you look? Your body image? R: it is important but its hard because sometimes I can dress nicely and feel good and confident. But I don’t really like my body (laughs) I am a bit tubby. C: Is that how you feel? It doesn’t affect you though does it? R: hummmm sometimes, I do feel like the girls who get the most attention out of my friends are all skinnier and taller than me, and when, well I do dancing and I do hate having to wear my unitard for that. C: Would you enjoy dancing more if you didn’t have to wear it? R: I suppose so, but I know I have to. It does make me a little conscious. Takes away a bit of enjoyment. I am always comparing myself to other girls around me. C:Why do you think that could be? There is nothing wrong with your body? R: I know (laughs) (pause) but, I don’t know. Like I said, I do always compare my self and even I think that it could be better if I was taller and skinnier. C: why do you think it is better to be tall and slim? R: (laughs) I’m not sure. Because that is the representation of beautiful we see? All the amazing film stars and models all are, that is seen as beautiful. C: You are too, don’t worry. R: (laughs) C: Ok so, just to finish I wondered if I could just share with you an idea I have for a new way for brand to advertise and for there to be a positive impact on young teenagers that feel at all pressured to dress or look a particular way because of what they see in the media? R:yeah ok C:brills so, I am thinking of a campaign that runs in the UK to start with. That allows young teenagers like yourself a day to be reminded that they are still young and should have worries about body image.


R: right ok C: it will be a travelling campaign that visits secondary school. I am perhaps thinking a large lorry or bus style vehicle that transports a large sort of play zone for teenagers. Assault courses, team building activities R: (interrupts) ahh cool yeah C: It will be messy, no make-up, war paint, everyone will be in like boiler suits and then there will be an element of educating and reminding you guys of what really matters. That it is ok to have fun, be silly and get messy. R: sounds really good C: what’s your opinion? Do you have any suggestions? R:yeah its good. I think that the no make up and none of our own clothes is good. Maybe not ideal if people have exams just around the corner? C: yeah I thought of that, I am thinking between the years of seven and ten, just before the important final exam year? If successful it could be running year on year and returning to schools, therefore when reaching year eleven, students could have gained a lot from it. What do you think? R: yeah good, like the life education van? (laughs) C: yeah just like that (laughs) but no puppet! R: (laughs) yeah I like it, how would the brand be involved though? Sorry don’t get that bit. C:No don’t be! They would primarily sponsor the event, the staff, the equipment. Essentially it would have their name all over it. I am planning on finding other ways of making the brand slightly more connected (pause) do you have any ideas? R: Not sure. I get that now though. If you do like the whole army style thing then perhaps at the end if people really get involved then they get like a survival kit kind of thing. I think that some of my friends might not want to get involved at first. C: That’s a good Idea… so perhaps like if it was a skincare brand there could be a little bag of testers? Or a drinks brand could be a healthy prize at the end, sort of thing! I like it. Thank you! (laughs) I thought about people not wanting to join in, however, I did think that if it was a whole compulsory day in the style of PHSE or Social Studies it could be embedded into a syllabus? R: yeah ok, make sure like everyone knows in advance though, then there is time to get excited. C: Good idea, you have helped me loads that you so much! But do you think it could help to remind teenagers like you that it is still ok to be carefree and enjoy life whilst you are young? The motto and purpose will really be embedded in the education part, the staff and all promotional bits. R: yeah I really like it, it sounds new and exciting. It would be better than just a day at school. I think it would be good to see everyone to really get stuck in and make me closer with some of my friends. Sometimes it is like I need an excuse to really be myself in front of all of my friends. C: Fab, glad you like it! Thank you so much for all your help. R: No worries, it was fine. C: Do you have any questions? R: ummm (pause) no, no all goof I think C: ok, no worries, if you do think of any questions you have my email so just get in touch? R: ok I will do, what is your email again. C: its on the forms I sent, but have it again just in case. Do you have pen and paper? R: (pause) yeah

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C H Y N N A DAV I E S N0439882 FA S H I O N C O M M U N I C A T I O N A N D P R O M O T I O N FA S H 2 0 0 31 - C O M M U N I C A T I O N A N D M E S S A G E SA R A H LEW I NGTON


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