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C H Y N N A DAV I E S . N 0 4 3 9 8 8 2 FA SH2 0 0 31.COM MU N I CAT I O N AN D M E S SAG E MODULE LEADER.SARAH LEWINGTON WO RD CO U N T WI T H O U T Q U OT E S AN D RE FE RE N CE S: 2,101
8 OUT OF 10 WOMEN OVER THE AGE OF FIFTY FEEL UNREPRESENTED BY THE FASHION INDUSTRY
INSPIRATION & DEVELOPMENT
36 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
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“IF THIS IS NOT HIS CENTURY MANY OTHERS WILL BE” FIG 1. Blush, 2010
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INTRODUCTION 8 out of 10 women over the age of fifty, feel unrepresented by the fashion industry (isme. com in Shure, 2013). This project focuses on the existing issue of ageism in the fashion industry. We strived to create a set of images to showcase the power of eternal beauty, when society deems an older individual no longer beautiful. We have been misled to believe that beautiful individuals are those without visual signs of aging, despite that external beauty lives on for generations. Balthasar Gracian’s nineteenth century philosophy, The Art of Worldly Wisdom (1892), perfectly defines the symbolism of generations and the essence of timeless beauty we hoped to convey through our visual commentary. XX A MAN OF THE AGE “The rarest individuals depend on their age. Things have their period; even excellences are subject to fashion. The sage has one advantage: he is immortal. If this is not his century many others will be” (1892 p.13-14).
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FIG 2. Zurbano Family, 1999/2011
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INSPIRATION & DEVELOPMENT A poem by David Herbert Lawrence, entitled Beautiful Old Age (Lawrence, 1929, P.93), was an initial inspiration to our work. Having studied English Literature, I have always been aware of the power of the written word. Poetry is a very subtle, well-recognised way to communicate message.
The wrinkled smile of completeness that follows a life lived undaunted and unsoured with accepted lies. If people lived without accepting lies they would ripen like apples, and be scented like pippins in their old age.
Lawrence uses the relationship between a parent and child to illustrate the appreciation between generations. In hindsight, this early inspiration remained prominent throughout our whole concept development and is at the heart of our final images“they would ripen like apples, and be scented like pippins” (Lawrence, 1929, P.94) summarises the essence of our portraiture perfectly.
Soothing, old people should be, like apples when one is tired of love. Fragrant like yellowing leaves, and dim with the soft stillness and satisfaction of autumn.
BEAUTIFUL OLD AGE It ought to be lovely to be old to be full of the peace that comes of experience and wrinkled ripe fulfilment.
And a young man should think: By Jove my father has faced all weathers, but it’s been a life!
And a girl should say: It must be wonderful to live and grow old. Look at my mother, how rich and still she is!
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FIG 3. Bridget, 2013
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Eighty-four years later, the award-winning director Sue Bourne showcased twenty-first century’s “Beautiful Old Age” (Lawrence, 1929. P.93). Her documentary Fabulous Fashionistas (2013) is undeniably inspirational. After watching, we were certain that there is a lack of healthy and positive visual representations of elders in our society. As part of Generation Y, we felt guilty that we were somewhat naïve towards such representations. As model agents told 75-yearold Bridget Sojourner in figure 3, “advertising people want the granny next door, […] that’s your problem” (Fabulous Fashionistas, 2013). From the mouth of the industryageism is an issue. This was followed by Vogue UK announcing that they are an “aspirational magazine, […] people want a dream” (Fabulous Fashionistas,
At times, the most revolutionary movements in any industry can be successful due to their careful planning and timing; consideration must be given to on going, wider aspects of society. Fabulous Fashionistas (2013) was broadcast six weeks previous to this project and continues to receive positive reviews by critics and consumers. This was the first of three industry examples that gave us the confidence to
FIG 4. Iris Apfel ,2012
2013); suggesting that due to visible signs of aging, these women could no longer be part of the dream that Vogue UK aim to convey. According to the theory of Butler and Lewis (in Panda, 2005), death and old age is feared less by elders than younger individuals who also fear the loss of those they love. With an average readership age of 2833 (National Readership Survey, 2013), this theory could be applicable and the reason behind the lack of older models used in escapist media, such as Vogue.
tackle the issue of ageism in fashion and beauty. Secondly, the high profile of style and visual stakeholders were prominent throughout our research. Iris Apfel’s appearance on the cover of Dazed and Confused in November 2012 (see fig. 4) may have been a token credit, however, this extremely flattering feature was enough to momentarily bring the issue of “disgusting” (Apfel in Sciortino, 2012) ageism into the public eye. We believe that smaller niche brands and publications have a certain responsibility to bravely follow up these current industry issues, to expect any later change within larger, richer and more influential authorities.
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the media sought after. Figure 5 features a wooden, walking stick and sensible, black shoes; two of the most expected semiotics to convey the stereotypical older lady. This cornucopia of beautiful imagery is extremely elegant and respectful; however, shows little more than the generic social expectations of how an older lady should stand, dress and otherwise appear. This has been recognised by the Invisible Woman, writer of The Vintage Years for the Guardian. She explains how she has “picked up rumblings that there are those who are mightily offended by this book and its collection of storybook grandmas” (2013). FIG 5. A is for..., 2013
The final contextual reference was found later, during the development stages of the project. Despite this, we were geared with confidence that influential stakeholders such as Tim Walker were working on projects of the same notion. Tim Walker describes The Granny Alphabet (2013) as a “documentation of the dying breed of little old ladies who live down the lane” (2013). The perfect visual translation of the “granny next door” that Fabulous Fashionistas (2013) taught us
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In contrast, we wanted to create imagery that would challenge these preconceptions and show to power of the young visual aesthetic in our society. To showcase how beauty exists in the older individual, as it would have fifty years earlier - the idea of eternal beauty. We strongly feel that society has been misled to believe that beautiful individuals are those without signs of aging.
FIG 6. Mechi, 1990/2010
Back to the Future (2010) by Argentinian photographer, Irina Werning, heavily inspired the development of our concept. Her images convey ideas of aging and the passing of time. The use of two images alongside one another is a very visually empowering composition- perfectly suited to Werning’s concept. In the 2012 documentary, Caught on Camera for Channel 4’s The Shooting Gallery series (2012),
Werning describes how her fine attention to detail is the secret to her powerful imagery. There is no distraction from the theme of aging. Her images are a sort of visual trickery; some require a second look to find differenceswe hoped to create our images with a similar subtlety. Figure 6 is one of our favourite examples of Irina Werning’s immaculate image appropriations.
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FIG 7. Etro Isol., 1999
FIG 8. Etro Overlay, 1999
We strived to find other stakeholders that use multiple images in an innovative or exciting way. Our favourite was photographer Michael Woolley and his imagery for Etro in Fall 1999. Figure 7 is an example of how a second image is used in isolation, whilst figure 8 overlays its subject. This creates a very different illusion to that of Irina Werning, however, is arguably equally as powerful and draws attention to the
separate images rather than as a collective. We were inspired by this compositional concept, but later had to give very careful consideration to conveying the exact reaction and intended message without distraction.
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“holds uncompromising opinions and has no time for airbrushing” FIG 9. Angela Lansbury, 2012
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MAGAZINE PROPOSAL It was essential that our final images were in perfect keeping with the tone and visual aesthetics of our chosen magazine. After deconstructing many existing publications, there was one magazine we felt could successfully withhold the respect and sensitivity of this diversity issue- The Gentlewoman. There are three key justifications to explain our decision: the ethos of the publication, the readership and the editorial style. As the editor of The Gentlewoman, Penny Martin “holds uncompromising opinions and has no time for airbrushing” (Finnigan, 2013). Martin believes that “there’s a whole media that will slag of any woman” (in Finnigan, 2013) The Gentlewoman strives to be the antidote to this. The publication has a prominent ethos and attitude
at the heart of every issue; in 2011, they claimed to be a new standard in women’s magazines, with “fierce intelligence and fabulous personal style that defines 21st century feminity” (Saletti, 2011). We believe that The Gentlewoman holds the confidence to successfully feature our sensitive images. Figure 9 is the image used for the Autumn/Winter 2012 cover, featuring Angela Lansbury, aged 86- The Gentlewoman have shown no discrimination or preference towards the age of their models. With 61% of The Gentlewoman’s readership currently between the ages of 28 and 46 (Saletti, 2013); we felt that this publication could be correct communication path to start the conversation on ageism in fashion; readers should be considerate and respectful towards our visual
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FIG 10. Martha Stewart, 2013
with a modest, appreciative and positive tone that matches our considerate view towards ageism. Editor Penny Martin has a vision for The Gentlewoman to be the start of media “treating and representing women respectfully” (2013).
conversation. As a slightly older readership than Vogue UK, this readership should not hold as much fear towards elders and death as suggested in the theory of Butler and Lewis (in Panda, 2005)- as explained on page 11. Adam Saletti explains how The Gentlewoman reader is self-assured, confident and intelligent; they “demand quality and creativity from their lifestyle and media” (2013). Consequently, choosing The Gentlewoman that promises intellectual writing and fine fashion photography. We believe that there is a level of appreciation and respect that should be felt towards our images and its wider concept; which this publication already offers. There is a sense of belonging between the women featured in this magazine and the women who read this magazine. Articles are wrote
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The final reason behind choosing The Gentlewoman was the overall editorial and artistic style. The muted colour palette and simple, balanced layouts are extremely modern and minimal, whilst leaving no distraction away from the subject. Figure 10 is an example of how colour is used within a chapter. Print is clearly the focus of design. There is a combination of different papers used, varying in weight, colour and texture to create a very tactile and nostalgic appreciation for the content. We believe that The Gentlewoman re-enforces fashion in print. There is a beauty and purity to the design- features we felt could enhance the emotion behind our images. Existing images within the magazine are refined and polished to an equal tone and finish- figures 11, 12, 13 are all typical images of this publication. They all appear very un-touched and never overworked; it was important to take careful consideration during the post-production stages of our own images.
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FIG 11. Beyonce, 2013
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FIG 12. Inez, 2010
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FIG 13. Lea, 2013
FIG 14. Patricia Davie
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IMAGE ANALYSIS Preparation was essential to ensure any success within our images. Selecting four old photographs of our grandparents, (see figure 14) we aimed to recreate our own versions to work alongside the originals, to capture the theme of eternal beauty handed on throughout generations. We all held the responsibility of preparing and modelling for our own image. This added a sentimental quality to each image and helped to translate our concept. The poetry of David Herbert Lawrence (1929), remained a large influence, we wanted to visually translate the theme of generation.
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FIG 15. Pre-shoot, 2013
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Heavily inspired by photographer Michael Woolley and Irina Werning, we had a clear focus for a final outcome pieced together from multiple images. Figure 15 shows a selection of images taken by myself in preparation for my studio time. This trail and error process allowed the attention to detail that was required to achieve the perfect positioning of the body. In the studio, particular importance was always given to assisting the model to match the stance of their grandparent. Special attention was given to small elements such as eye line and upper body angles. Figure 16 shows the efforts made to achieve the outcomes shown in Figure 17.
FIG 17. Final One, 2013
FIG 16. Behind the scenes, 2013
We initially attempted to style our images to match that of our grandparents. For example, I was searching for a black and white pinstriped shirt as worn by my grandmother in her image. However, we were being extremely selective and hoped to find near enough duplicates,
in the style of Irina Werning. Unable to find a strong enough solution for all four images, we settled for bare skin against the detail of our grandparentsâ€™ clothing. Looking back, I feel that this was a positive decision that enhanced the strength of the image instead of becoming a distraction.
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FIG 20. Genetics are Awesome,2011
With the help of the studio photographer, we aimed to recreate the original lighting of each image. Although we were happy with the initial results, we discovered a few inaccuracies during post-production. I learnt to use masking layers and how to adjust lighting curves to fix these issues. Editing our own images to match
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the tonal value and appear as aged as our grandparentsâ€™ photographs was one of the biggest challenges we faced. Adding noise, increasing the grain and reducing the sharpness of our new images were the main adjustments. Not all of the older photographs withheld good enough image quality; this was something we were not able to fully recover. Figure 18 and
FIG 19, Isobel Ludbrook, 2013
FIG 18. Edith Fairy, 1927
19 clearly show how we were unable to match the quality of the two images. Despite this, compositional decisions to use a physical tear to merge the two images does distract from this. The positioning of two images together was crucial in our intentions to convey the idea of generation. Genetics are Awesome (see Figure 20) by Ulric Collette is an extremely powerful collection of portraits; highly dependant on photo manipulation techniques. Although we all appreciated the visual impact of these images, we knew we would struggle to successfully and immaculately combine two images vastly ranging in age, size and quality. In fact, the rip on each image
hides and distracts away from a few inaccuracies on the image join. A repetitive process of re-sizing, printing, tearing and re-scanning was behind our final exhibition images. Consequently, I believe that these images do hold the nostalgic and tactile impression we had hoped to achieve; which is in perfect alignment with the tone and visual aesthetics of The Gentlewoman. Each image has clearly been reworked by hand, adding a sentimental value that is not ignored. Although this collection of final images is not as polished or as consistent as originally hoped, I do feel that they hold a sort of charm that cannot and should not be removed with Photoshop.
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i)Patricia Davies (b.1942) â€“ Grandmother of Chynna Davies (b.1993) ii)Edith Fairey (b.1927)- Grandmother of Isobel Ludbrook (b.1994)
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iii)Margaret Robinson (b.19..)- Grandmother of Victoria Baldwin (b.1992) iv)Iwan Davies (b.19..)- Grandfather of Charlotte Marshall (b.1992)
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“IF THIS IS NOT HIS CENTURY MANY OTHERS WILL BE” FIG 21. What is beauty?, 2013
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I feel that the refining of these images could continue for many more weeks; in hind sight we would make several changes throughout the whole process. Adjusting studio lighting and selecting older photos of a bigger size would be key. However, without having made these small errors, we would have still been oblivious. Despite this, I am proud of the final outcome and feel that we have successfully created a collection of personal and meaningful images, which subtly convey the timeless essence we hoped to achieve in a beautiful manner. As a visual communicator, I have found it difficult to avoid the most literal ideas
in the past. However, I feel that we used a range of wide influences to create a very thought provoking and original concept. These images will not banish all discrimination towards signs of aging in the fashion industry, however, we can hope that it is just another token of respect and appreciation; once again questioning the industry on their interpretation of beauty. These images are for those eight out of ten ladies who feel they are unrepresented. Please refuse to “fade away […] beige is the colour of death” (Fabulous Fashionistas, 2013).
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CAUGHT ON CAMERA, 2012. [TV] The Shooting Gallery: Channel 4, 23rd March 2012. FABULOUS FASHIONISTAS, 2013. [TV] Channel 4, 17th September 2013. FINNIGAN, K., 2013. Getting to know Penny Martin, The Gentlewoman. The Telegraph [online], 17th February 2013. Available at:<fashion.telegraph.co.uk/ columns/kate-finnigan/TMG9869900/Getting-to-know-Penny-Martin-The-Gentlewoman.html> [Accessed on: 21st November 2013]
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REFERENCES GRACIAN, B., 1892. The Art of Worldly Wisdom. Joseph Jacobs translation ed. (s.l.):(s.n.). P.13-14. INVISIBLE WOMAN., 2013. There is no A-Z of how to dress as you get older. The Guardian [online], 13th November 2013. Available at:<www.theguardian. com/fashion /fashion-blog/2013/nov/13/no-a-z-dress-get-older> [Accessed on: 20th November 2013] LAWRENCE, D.H., 1929. Pansies Poems. London: Martin Secker. P.93-94. MARTIN, P., 2013. Design Talks: Penny Martin [online]. halloffemmes.com:Hall of Femmes. Available at:<URL:halloffemmes.com/design-talks-2013/speakers/ penny-martin/> [Accessed on:24th November 2013] NATIONAL READERSHIP SURVEY, 2013. Vogue Media Pack 2014 [online]. (s.l.):(s.n.). Available at:< URL:www.condenastinternational.com/media-kitsrate-cards/> [Accessed on:17th August 2013] PANDA, A.K., 2005. Elderly Women in Megapolis: Status and Adjustment. 1st ed. New Delhi: Concept Publishing. SALETTI, A., 2011. The Gentlewoman: Media Kit 2011. London: The Gentlewoman. P.2. SALETTI, A., 2013. The Gentlewoman: Media Kit 2013. London: The Gentlewoman. P.3-4. SCIORTINO, K., 2012. Dazed & Confused. The Age of Iris [online], November 2012. Available at:<URL:www.dazeddigital.com/fashion/article/15009/1/coverstory-the-age-of-iris> [Accessed on: 2nd November 2013] SHURE, J., 2013. Enough of the Fashion Ageism. The Huffington Post [online], 7th July 2013. Available at:<www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/jan-shure/fashion-ageism_b_3546312.html> [Accessed on:10th November 2013] WALKER, T., 2013. Stella. The gran canon [print], 27th October 2013. P.31. WHAT IS BEAUTY
AM I NORMAL, 2008. [TV] Documentary, BBC2, 14th April 2008 CAUGHT ON CAMERA, 2012. [TV] The Shooting Gallery: Channel 4, 23rd March 2012. FABULOUS FASHIONISTAS, 2013. [TV] Documentary, Channel 4, 17th September 2013. FINNIGAN,K., 2013. The Fashion Dictator. Stella. 1st September 2013. P.58-64 FINNIGAN, K., 2013. Getting to know Penny Martin, The Gentlewoman. The Telegraph [online], 17th February 2013. Available at:<fashion.telegraph.co.uk/ columns/kate-finnigan/TMG9869900/Getting-to-know-Penny-Martin-The-Gentlewoman.html> [Accessed on: 21st November 2013] GRACIAN, B., 1892. The Art of Worldly Wisdom. Joseph Jacobs translation ed. (s.l.):(s.n.). P.13-14. INVISIBLE WOMAN., 2013. There is no A-Z of how to dress as you get older. The Guardian [online], 13th November 2013. Available at:<www.theguardian. com/fashion /fashion-blog/2013/nov/13/no-a-z-dress-get-older> [Accessed on: 20th November 2013]
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BIBLIOGRAPHY THOMAS, V., 2013. Ageism and the Millenials, Changing Ageism [online], 23rd October 2013. Available at:<changingaging.org/blog/tag/ageism/> [Accessed on:17th November 2013] LAWRENCE, D.H., 1929. Pansies Poems. London: Martin Secker. P.93-94. LEITH, W., 2013. Women in the Public Eye. Stella. 15th September 2013. P. 39-42 MARTIN, P., 2013. Design Talks: Penny Martin [online]. halloffemmes.com:Hall of Femmes. Available at:<URL:halloffemmes.com/design-talks-2013/speakers/ penny-martin/> [Accessed on:24th November 2013] NATIONAL READERSHIP SURVEY, 2013. Vogue Media Pack 2014 [online]. (s.l.):(s.n.). Available at:< URL:www.condenastinternational.com/media-kitsrate-cards/> [Accessed on:17th August 2013] PANDA, A.K., 2005. Elderly Women in Megapolis: Status and Adjustment. 1st ed. New Delhi: Concept Publishing. SALETTI, A., 2011. The Gentlewoman: Media Kit 2011. London: The Gentlewoman. P.2. SALETTI, A., 2013. The Gentlewoman: Media Kit 2013. London: The Gentlewoman. P.3-4. SCIORTINO, K., 2012. Dazed & Confused. The Age of Iris [online], November 2012. Available at:<URL:www.dazeddigital.com/fashion/article/15009/1/coverstory-the-age-of-iris> [Accessed on: 2nd November 2013] SHURE, J., 2013. Enough of the Fashion Ageism. The Huffington Post [online], 7th July 2013. Available at:<www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/jan-shure/fashion-ageism_b_3546312.html> [Accessed on:10th November 2013] WALKER, T., 2013. Stella. The gran canon [print], 27th October 2013. P.31.
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COVER IMAGE: Michael Woolley, 1999, Etro Isolation, [photograph], Etro Fall/Winter Campaign. (own edit). Available at:< http-//styleregistry.livejournal.com/236747> FIGURE 1: Willy Vanderperre, 2010, Blush, [photograph], The Gentlewoman: Print edition. Available at:< http://www.fluxuryb.com/2010/09/blush-abbey-lee-kershaw-x-the-gentlewoman-editorial/> FIGURE 2: Irina Werning, 1999/ 2011, Zurbano Family, [photograph], Back to the Future: Online. Available at:< http://irinawerning.com/index.php?/back-to-the-fut/back-tothe-future/> FIGURE 3: Christopher Kennedy, 2013, Bridget, [photograph], Online. Available at:< http//www.radiotimes.com/uploads/images/Original/37480> FIGURE4: Jeff Bark, 2012, Age of Iris, [photograph],Dazed and Confused: Print edition. Available at:< http://trendland.com/dazed-confused-nov-2012-the-age-of-iris-ft-irisapfel/> FIGURE 5: Tim Walker, 2013, A is forâ€Ś, [photograph], The Granny Alphabet: Print edition. Available at:< http-//asset0.itsnicethat.com/system/files/112013/5277527f5c3e3c36e6000584/img_col_main/TW_GRAN_R19_F19a.jpg?1383551685> FIGURE 6: Irina Werning, 1990/2010, Mechi, [photograph], Back to the Future: Online. Available at:< http://irinawerning.com/index.php?/back-to-the-fut/back-to-the-future/> FIGURE 7: Michael Woolley, 1999, Etro Isolation, [photograph], Etro Fall/Winter Campaign. Available at:< http-//styleregistry.livejournal.com/236747> FIGURE 8: Michael Woolley, 1999, Etro Overlay, [photograph], Etro Fall/Winter Campaign. Available at:< http-//styleregistry.livejournal.com/236747.2> FIGURE 9: Terry Richardson, 2012, Angela Lansbury, [photograph], The Gentlewoman: Print edition. Available at:< http-//ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/61MxJPU%2BgqL._SL1021_>
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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS FIGURE 10: Andreas Larsson, 2013, Martha Stewart Layout, [photograph], The Gentlewoman: Print edition. Available at:< http-//www.buyolympia.com/q/sid= 008012740/ Item=the-gentlewoman-no8> FIGURE 11: Alasdair McLellan, 2013, Beyoncė, [photograph], The Gentlewoman:Print edition. Available at:< http://thegentlewoman.co.uk/#/library/beyonce> FIGURE 12: Inez van Lamsweerde, 2010, Inez, [photograph], The Gentlewoman: Print edition. Available at:< http://thegentlewoman.co.uk/#/library/inez-van-lamsweerde> FIGURE 13: Zoë Ghertner, 2013, Léa, [photograph], The Gentlewoman: Print edition. Available at:< http://thegentlewoman.co.uk> FIGURE 14:Photographer Unknown, 1958, Patricia Davies, [photograph], unpublished FIGURE 15:Own Images, 2013, Pre-shoot, [photograph compilation], unpublished FIGURE 16: Own Image, 2013, Behind the Scenes, [photograph], unpublished FIGURE 17:Adrian Ashmore, 2013, Chynna Davies, [photograph], unpublished FIGURE 18: Photographer unknown,1927, Edith Fairy, [photograph], unpublished FIGURE 19: Adrian Ashmore, 2013, Isobel Ludbrook, [photograph], unpublished FIGURE 20: Ulric Collette, 2011, Genetics are Awesome, [photograph], Online. Available at:< http://fullym.com/genetics-are-awesome-photographer-explores-resemblance-in-family-members/> FIGURE 21: Own image, 2013, Chynna and Patricia Davies, [photograph], unpublished FIGURE 22: Own image, 2013, Isobel Ludbrook and Edith Fairy, [photograph], unpublished FIGURE 23: Own image, 2013, Victoria Baldwin and Margaret Robinson, [photograph], unpublished FIGURE 24: Own image, 2013, Charlotte Marshal and Iwan Davies, [photograph], unpublished
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C H Y N N A DAV I E S . N 0 4 3 9 8 8 2 FA SH2 0 0 31.COM MU N I CAT I O N AN D M E S SAG E MODULE LEADER.SARAH LEWINGTON