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구문속 문법 vice versa 2016 © stydygym


CONTENTS Introduction

4

ABOUT THIS BOOK

4

HOW TO USE THIS BOOK

4

클래스오엠알 등록 방법 클래스유 등록 방법

4 4

Chapter #1 명사 역할을 하는 필수 구문

5

UNIT 01 명사 역할을 하는 TO 부정사

5

UNIT 02 명사 역할을 하는 동명사

9

UNIT 03 명사절을 이끄는 접속사 that

13

UNIT 04 명사절을 이끄는 what

17

UNIT 05 명사절을 이끄는 접속사 if[whether]와 의문사

21

UNIT 06 명사절을 이끄는 복합관계대명사

25

Actual Training I

29

Chapter II 서술어 역할을 하는 필수 구문

31

UNIT 07 목적어 또는 보어가 필요한 동사

31

UNIT 08 목적어와 보어가 모두 필요한 동사

35

UNIT 09 조동사의 주요 표현

39

UNIT 10 수동 의미를 나타내는 표현

43

Actual Training II

47

Chapter III 형용사 역할을 하는 필수 구문

50

UNIT 11 (대)명사와 형용사

50

UNIT 12 형용사 역할을 하는 전치사구

54

UNIT 13 형용사 역할을 하는 to부정사

58

UNIT 14 형용사 역할을 하는 분사

62

UNIT 15 형용사 역할을 하는 관계대명사절

66

UNIT 16 형용사 역할을 하는 관계부사절과 복합관계형용사

70

Actual Training III

74

Chapter IV 부사 역할을 하는 필수 구문

76

UNIT 17 부사(구)의 쓰임

76

UNIT 18 부사 역할을 하는 to부정사

80

UNIT 19 부사 역할을 하는 분사구문

84

UNIT 20 부사 역할을 하는 절I

88

UNIT 21 부사 역할을 하는 절II

92

UNIT 22 부사 역할을 하는 복합관계사절

96


17 ~ 22Actual Training IV

100

Chapter V 의미 파악이 필요한 필수 구문

102

UNIT 23 동격 구문

102

UNIT 24 비교 구문

106

UNIT 25 도치 구문

110

UNIT 26 가정을 나타내는 구문

114

UNIT 27 등위접속사와 비교 표현에 의한 병렬 구문

118

UNIT 28 상관접속사에 의한 병렬 구문

122

구문 Practice Advanced

125

UNIT 29 강조 구문과 부정 구문

126

UNIT 30 생략 구문

130

Actual Training V

134

기출 어법모의고사

137

고1 기출

137

고2 기출

144

고3 기출

149


> 구문속 문법 vice versa

INTRODUCTION ABOUT THIS BOOK ‘구문속 문법 vice-versa’ 평가원 및 수능에서 주요 구문을 발췌해 정리한 구문겸 문법책입니다. 구문은 문법의 연장이 고, 독해의 시작입니다. 구문 없는, (=) 문법 없는, 독해는 무너지기 쉬운 탑과 같습니다.즉 구문과 문법이 기초이기 때 문입니다. 이 책 ‘구문속 문법 vice-versa’는 구문을 통해 문법을, 문법을 통해 구문을 이해하고, 궁극적으로 독해를 즐 길 수 있도록 안내해주는 중급 이상 수준의 영어 교재입니다.


HOW TO USE THIS BOOK 이 책은 클래스오엠알과 클래스유에 최적화된 책입니다. 클래스유로 강의를 듣고, 문제를 클래스오엠알로 풀면서, 틀 린문제는 다시 클래스유의 동영상을 참조하는 교재이기 때문입니다. 강사가 이 책을 만들고, 강의까지 책임지는 교재 입니다. 
 아래는 각 서비스에 이 책을 추가하는 방법입니다. 물론, 학원이 클래스오엠알과 클래스유에 가입되어야 하며, 클래스 유에 가입된 학원은 클래스오에 등록시 자동으로 클래스오엠알에 등록됩니다.

클래스오엠알 등록 방법 로그인 → 학원추가 → ‘학원이름’ 혹은 ‘구문속 문법’을 입력 → 학원이름 선택 → 승인후 사용 or

클래스유 등록 방법 로그인→ my학원 → 학원관리 → ‘학원이름’ 혹은 ‘구문속 문법’ 입력 → 학원이름 선택 → 승인후 사용

구문속 문법

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> 구문속 문법 vice versa

CHAPTER #1 명사 역할을 하는 필수 구문 UNIT 01 명사 역할을 하는 TO 부정사 01 to부정사가 주어 역할을 하는 경우 1. To know is nothing at all; to imagine is everything. 2. To choose the right career requires more than luck. 3. It is difficult to make predictions, especially about the future.

02 to부정사가 목적어 역할을 하는 경우 1. The bank refused to help the company. 2. My sister sometimes pretended not to recognize me at school. 3. I find it difficult to make friends because people judge me before they know me.

03 to부정사가 보어 역할을 하는 경우 1. The only solution for the matter is to change the rules. 2. We advise you to carefully read through each of the information pages linked below.

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구문 Practice Basic A 다음 문장에서 밑줄 친 부분의 역할을 쓰시오.

001 To want to love is the greatest want I’ve ever felt.

002 It is natural for babies to cry when they are hungry.

003 The essential role of hand gestures is to mark the points of emphasis in our speech.

004 We can hardly expect to learn without making many mistakes in the process.

005 Electricity enables us to do many things that make our lives better, more convenient and fun.

B 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

006 We can’t expect everyone [bike / to bike] to work or school.

007 To focus on your goals [is / are] the only way to actually achieve them.

008 [Ignore / To ignore] the fact that they have apparently succeeded would be a mistake.

009 The lack of time for relaxation makes [it / this] more difficult to concentrate on your studies.

010 When I asked the students [help / to help] me move the chairs, some girls volunteered to carry one each for me, but Mark refused to help me.

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C 다음 괄호 안의 말을 문장의 알맞은 곳에 넣으시오.

011 Is to halve your rights and double your duties. (to marry)

012 The first thing you should do is this button. (to push)

013 I think it might be foolish of you the recording now. (to stop)

014 The law allowed them the property of their enemies, but they did not. (to take)

015 I wanted everything up front as a way to release my insecurities and instability. (to know)

016 Though you choose us with personal information, you can still access certain portions of our website.

(not to provide)

D 다음 문장의 의미가 통하도록 괄호 안에 주어진 말을 바르게 배열 하시오.

017 (for, to, something, others, do) makes you feel like maybe this is where you belong.

018 When things are darkest, (up, refuse, successful, to, give, people) because they know they’re almost there.

019 Many parents in Europe feel that the only way for their children to have a good education is (private, them, to, to, send, schools).

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구문 Practice Advanced A 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

020 As it is wholly the company’s responsibility [correct / to correct] the defect, I hope you will not make us pay for the labor component of its repair.

021 At my office, I think [it / that] reasonable to be able to recline my seat a couple of inches, so I wouldn’t feel as if I were folded in half.

022 To wear tight clothes [show / shows] your pretty shape, but it restricts your blood circulation, and as we already know, prevents your internal sewage system from disposing of waste materials.

023 
 However, the best measure is [appears / to appear] calm, detached, thoroughly in control of your feelings, while you are controlling your narrative for your own purposes.

B 다음 문장에서 밑줄 친 부분을 어법상 바르게 고치시오.

024 As today’s advocates of free-writing would probably agree, sometimes, the best way to resolve a dilemma - whether it’s a writing dilemma or a thinking dilemma - is simply started writing. 수능

025 Most foreign workers are being taught by Korean coworkers who have no teaching experience and as a result, this is necessary to establish better educational programs for teaching the Korean language to foreign workers. 수능

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UNIT 02 명사 역할을 하는 동명사 04 동명사가 주어 역할을 하는 경우 1. Saving is the process of putting money aside now. 2. Maintaining records is important to the existence of all corporations. 3. It is not easy learning how to ride a bicycle, but we never forget it.

05 동명사가 목적어 역할을 하는 경우 1. I enjoyed watching the flowers falling down like the rain. 2. Do you mind not wearing perfume when we meet up? 3. We must find a way of achieving a more equitable distribution of resources.

06 동명사가 보어 역할을 하는 경우 1. For those who lack courage, fear becomes believing. 2. John’s summer job is selling food at the baseball stadium at home games.

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구문 Practice Basic A 다음 문장에서 밑줄 친 부분의 역할을 쓰시오.

026 Drinking hot tea is good for your voice.

027 Fear is not knowing where your next meal is coming from.

028 To be afraid of speaking on the phone now seems to be comical.

029 I don’t like her singing on her previous albums but she has improved a lot.

030 We want to stop watching so much TV, but we also want to watch lots of TV.

B 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

031 I know that having many friends [do / does] not make one lucky.

032 After school, Justin enjoys to [play / playing] tennis with his friends.

033 I insist on your [accepting / acception] this small present as a token of my appreciation.

034 I remember [to call / calling] him yesterday to tell him about our win at the competition.

035 [Look / Looking] for patterns in phone numbers, addresses, dates, or any other numbers will help you remember them.

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C 다음 문장에서 어법상 틀린 부분을 찾아 바르게 고치시오.

036 Understand why historic events took place is important.

037 I stopped to pretend and started being honest about my feelings.

038 Please remember taking these pills three times a day, after meals.

039 His dream is went to a college with a prestigious football team.

040 I tried out an old-fashioned plow once and realized that use it was no easy task.

041 Although looking at kitchen tables are not too difficult, choosing the right table requires patience.

D 다음 문장의 의미가 통하도록 괄호 안에 주어진 말을 바르게 배열하시오.

042 As we grew older, Mom made sure we did our part (neat, our, keeping, rooms, by).

043 Packaging does (damaged, being, products, from, protect) during shipping, and it also increases the shelf life of foods.

044 (not, easy, it, learning, second, a, is, language), but with dedication and a passion to learn you will be fluent in English in no time!

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구문 Practice Advanced A 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

045 As an example of creatures helping each other to survive, crocodiles allow certain birds to come and [to eat / eating] food between their teeth, when they feel their gums need cleaning.

046 One way plants attract particular microorganisms into their soil is by [concentrating / concentration] more sugars in their roots and as such roots such as carrots and potatoes are always much sweeter than the rest of the plant.

047 Adapting novels [is / are] one of the most respectable of movie projects, while a book that calls itself the novelization of a film is considered barbarous. 수능

048 One of the common mistakes that employers make [is / being] looking at a team of employees as a homogeneous group that rises and falls together. 모의평가

B 다음 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것을 찾아 바르게 고치시오.

049 Have you ever experienced ① how a good mood, confidence and believing in yourself ② to make you more likely to succeed or do well at tasks you ③ previously thought you couldn’t do?

050 If you are eating burgers and ice-cream to feel comforted, relaxed and happy, trying ① to replace them with broccoli and carrot juice is like ② dealing with a leaky bathroom tap by ③ repaint the kitchen. 모의평가

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UNIT 03 명사절을 이끄는 접속사 THAT 07 that절이 주어 역할을 하는 경우 1. That James said nothing made his teacher angry. 2. It’s surprising that the streets are so clean after the parade. 3. That she was blamed by her boss for not being on time goes without saying.

08 that절이 목적어 역할을 하는 경우 1. Every mother believes that her son is a genius. 2. The man told us that we are the leaders of tomorrow. 3. I take it for granted that film is a visual medium.

09 that절이 보어 역할을 하는 경우 1. The problem is that we need more time to finish our task. 2. One reason why we lose confidence is that we hand our power or our value over to other people.

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구문 Practice Basic A 다음 문장에서 밑줄 친 접속사 That[that]이 이끄는 절의 역할을 쓰시오.

051 That one ought to have a will is obvious to everyone.

052 My father warned me that I should never stop thinking.

053 The result is that the Mediterranean is the most polluted sea in the world.

054 It was found that the more sociable a person was, the less subject he was to contagion.

055 Rooms were clean and comfortable, but we found it odd that there was Wi-Fi only in the lounge.

B 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

056 [It / That] some women do not earn equal pay for equal work is unfair.

057 He judged by her looks [that / what] she was only fourteen or fifteen years old.

058 The reason is [hat / which] we do not need to be creative for most of what we do.

059 That Amy has many friends [make / makes] her earn more money by using her contacts.

060 You may think that [move / moving] a short distance is so easy that you can do it in no time with little effort.

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C 다음 문장에서 어법상 틀린 부분을 찾아 바르게 고치시오.

061 Many people don’t know what there are many ways to say “I love you.”

062 Jessica mentioned what she was looking for volunteers to work in a fair.

063 That he performs his work with a positive attitude make him good at what he does.

064 That you should know is that you were not aware that opportunity was knocking on your door.

065 Successive losing seasons have convinced us of there is something wrong with our way of running a soccer team.

066 The greatest benefit being that we now have concrete information that means we can do things to improve our health.

D 다음 문장의 의미가 통하도록 괄호 안에 주어진 말을 바르게 배열하시오.

067 The problem (that, spent, is, we) time and money on something we were pressured into doing.

068 It is said (that, the consequences, of bad driving, the measures, protect drivers, from).

069 Once upon a time a daughter complained (that, to her father, her life, miserable, was) and that she didn’t know how she was going to make it.

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구문 Practice Advanced A 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

070 [It / That] is thought that the front cover and the nature of the first question on mail surveys influence the response rate and the speed of response.

071 Because there is an important distinction to be made between denial and restraint, to say [that / what] we need to curb anger and our negative thoughts and emotions does not mean that we should deny our feelings. 수능

072 At a restaurant, our poor waiter kept trying to stall for the kitchen and I could see it in his face [which / that] he was frustrated and didn’t want to point fingers at the kitchen but it was obvious many tables were not happy with their long wait.

073 That there are so many companies in this fast rising country driven by its citizen’s significantly increasing smartphone adoption that still have to optimize their operations for smartphones and apps [surprise / surprises] us.

B 다음 밑줄 친 부분이 어법상 맞으면 T, 틀리면 F로 표시하고 바르게 고치시오.

074 When you live in he present moment, one of the nice things that happens to you is that ordinary, everyday life takes on new significance. 수능

075 The word ‘courage’ takes on added meaning if you keep in mind and it is derived from the Latin word ‘cor’ meaning ‘heart,’ and the dictionary defines courage as ‘a quality which enables one to pursue the right course of action.’ 수능

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UNIT 04 명사절을 이끄는 WHAT 10 what절이 주어 역할을 하는 경우 1. What caused the delay remains unknown. 2. It is still very unclear what the author wants here. 3. What is forbidden is forbidden and what is permitted is not necessary.

11 what절이 목적어 역할을 하는 경우 1. I asked them what sort of food they wanted for the party on Saturday. 2. Determining what is learned has been a controversial topic of learning theory for many years. 3. Psychologists are interested in what drives human beings to do what they do.

12 what절이 보어 역할을 하는 경우 1. Price is what you pay and value is what you get. 2. Change occurs when one becomes what he is, not when he tries to become what he is not.

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구문 Practice Basic A 다음 빈칸에 알맞은 말을 <보기>에서 골라 문장을 완성하시오.

<보기> 
 a. what all human beings want

b. what is happening

c.

what female travelers want

d.

what the rule says 


076 Please tell us her.

077 To obey a rule you have only to do .

078 is to live long and healthy lives.

079 The dressing room in this hotel seems .

B 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

080 It is critical for our future [that / what] we manage our fisheries responsibly.

081 What you order at the end of the meals [reveal / reveals] a little more about your character.

082 [That / What] a blanket always does is to protect heat from passing through one side of it to the other.

083 If you need to buy food, there is probably a shop or a department store close to your home that sells just [which / what] you want.

084 The reason we include sugar in milk is [that / what] it provides essential ‘food’ for the good bacteria, keeping them alive during shelf life.

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C 다음 문장에서 어법상 틀린 부분을 찾아 바르게 고치시오.

085 What I don’t understand is what he refused my offer.

086 Today, the world of innovation is far different from that it was a century ago.

087 Teachers like to experiment with new ideas and know what will the students need on the job.

088 What’s dangerous, and seems to be more prevalent, being the attack on our self-esteem.

089 If you see things through your camera lens that distract from that you are trying to say, get rid of them.

090 The trouble with many critics is that they tell you that should be in situations they never have been in themselves.

D 다음 문장의 의미가 통하도록 괄호 안에 주어진 말을 바르게 배열하시오.

091 He spent (he, had, what, earned, his business, from) holding the charity concert of the previous night.

092 What you get by achieving your goals is not nearly as important as (you, become, by, what, them, achieving).

093 That people live in peace, go to theatres and balls and have a good time is (from, what, them, I, have heard).

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구문 Practice Advanced A 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

094 I think that what I love most is [that / what] I try not to repeat twice an error and most of the times I’m able to do it.

095 Jolie quickly learned [that / what] her teacher had to offer and in time went on to study with Egyptian scholars and eventually she became very active in women’s issues. 모의평가

096 Because individuals can see, or sense, the wave coming toward them, [that / what] appears to us as simultaneous is actually a kind of “follow your neighbor” behavior moving faster than the eye can see. 모 의평가

097 These days, looking at sociable robots and digitized friends, one might assume [that / that] what we want is to be always in touch and never alone, no matter who or what we are in touch with. 수능

B 다음 밑줄 친 부분이 어법상 맞으면 T, 틀리면 F로 표시하고 바르게 고치시오.

098 Filming plays did not encourage the evolution of what truly was distinctive about a movie: the intervention of the camera - its mobility of vision. 수능

099 Many social scientists have believed for some time what birth order directly affects both personality and achievement in adult life and in fact, people have been using birth order to account for personality factors such as aggressive behavior or passive temperament. 수능

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UNIT 05 명사절을 이끄는 접속사 IF[WHETHER]와 의문사 13 whether절과 의문사절이 주어 역할을 하는 경우 1. Whether he was nearby or far away didn’t matter. 2. It is still not defined whether or not we’re following that approach. 3. Where the balloon landed has not been calculated.

14 if[whether]절과 의문사절이 목적어 역할을 하는 경우 1. I wonder if[whether] the teacher knows the answer. 2. I asked Tom if[whether] he had done it all himself or if[whether] someone had helped him. 3. Grown-ups are often surprised at how well they remember what they learned as children.

15 whether절과 의문사절이 보어 역할을 하는 경우 1. The question to ask is whether other boys will try the same thing. 2. The most obvious is how government regulates the appearance of the residential environment.

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구문 Practice Basic A 다음 빈칸에 알맞은 말을 <보기>에서 골라 문장을 완성하시오.

<보기>
 a.

whether it rained or snowed

c.

why the lines all over her face are so deep

b.

where I can buy ink for the printer

d.

whether or not this idea can be put into practice 


100 did not matter.

101 Smiles and laughter are .

102 Can you tell me ?

103 It remains to be seen .

B 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

104 I don’t understand [what / why] the car is not running properly.

105 The scientist predicted how [the chemicals might / might the chemicals] react.

106 It seems how well [is the thing / the thing is] done is less important than who is doing it.

107 I wonder [that / whether] or not your policy can be changed for the convenience of the customers.

108

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[If / Whether] spare parts and materials are provided for free is what the product warranty should explain. C 다음 문장에서 어법상 틀린 부분을 찾아 바르게 고치시오.

109 What the jury should decide is that or not the defendant is guilty. 110 A primary school student told her teacher how nice was it to get into the topic.

111 What we should decide on in this moment are where we should go.

112 She called me to see that she could reschedule the time they were supposed to clean my carpet.

113 The big difference between traditional film cameras and digital cameras is how do they capture the image.

114 On Saturdays during the summer, I asked my father that he would play basketball with me or not.

D 다음 문장의 의미가 통하도록 괄호 안에 주어진 말을 바르게 배열하시오.

115 How and when the job is done is always more important than (be, it, how, quickly, can, done).

116 (something, we, not, or, whether, believe) is no doubt heavily dependent on what we were taught as children.

117 Apparently I can’t decide (I, who, for, should, vote); the top three results are within 5% of each other.

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구문 Practice Advanced A 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

118 After the deliveryman brought it back, I called them again asking [whether / what] I could get the refund on that day or at least the day after because I needed the money to buy the gift somewhere else.

119 If they worked in a well-organized environment for any length of time, they would be surprised at how much more productive [they were / were they]. 수능

120 After going to see the accommodations, he came up to the purser’s desk and inquired [if / that] he could leave his valuables in the ship’s safe. 모의평가

121 They identified one element engaged in the process of nutrition without fully comprehending [how / what] the system as a whole truly functions. 모의평가

B 다음 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것을 찾아 바르게 고치시오.

122 It is crucial ① to emphasize that the question which the physician must pose and answer is ② what ignorance or knowledge will make possible a life ③ that is better for the patient herself.

123 Psychologist Solomon Asch wanted ① to discover ② whether people’s tendency to agree with their peers ③ were stronger than their tendency toward independent thought and rational judgment. 수능

124 Only by testing ourselves ① we can actually determine ② whether or not we really understand and that is one reason why teachers give tests, and ③ why the best tests probe knowledge at a deep level.

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UNIT 06 명사절을 이끄는 복합관계대명사 16 복합관계대명사절이 주어 역할을 하는 경우 1. Whoever performs most gracefully will win this crystal vase as a prize. 2. Whoever gets the job will have much difficulty. 3. Whatever I have is the gift given to me by you. 4. Whichever you need can be found in this book.

17 복합관계대명사절이 목적어 역할을 하는 경우 1. You can have whichever you like. 2. I’ll take whoever wants to go with me. 3. I will listen carefully to whatever you say. 4. I begin a philosophical discussion with whomever I meet and it’s usually about life and death. High

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구문 Practice Basic A 다음 빈칸에 알맞은 말을 <보기>에서 골라 문장을 완성하시오.

<보기>
 a. whatever you need b. whichever is cheaper

c.

whoever finds this stone

d.

whatever becomes a work of art of any kind 


125 I don’t have much money, so I’ll take ___________________ .

126 ___________________ should go straight into the forest at sunrise.

127 ___________________ does so as a result of an act of creation.

128 ___________________ can be delivered to your doorstep.

B 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

129 [Who / Whoever] comes first will get the best seats.

130 I know you will thoroughly enjoy [whose / whichever] you decide to take.

131 The people [who / whoever] called yesterday and inquired about Zeb Moses just left the library.

132 Wireless communication technology allows people to connect to [whom / whomever] they want wherever they are.

133 Parents are willing to provide [whenever / whatever] is necessary to meet the need of their children.

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C 다음 문장에서 어법상 틀린 부분을 찾아 바르게 고치시오.

134 Because I’m starved, however you cook will be fine with me.

135 Who was in charge of that experiment made it easy to understand.

136 The prize is awarded to whom is the most deserving.

137 If you keep trying, you can achieve which you have in mind.

138 Whatever we will go by the old formula or accept the new one is a decision to be taken by high command.

139 We, as politicians, have continuous contacts with all parties concerned.

D 다음 문장의 의미가 통하도록 괄호 안에 주어진 말을 바르게 배열하시오.

140 You go near so that you can hear everything the boss is saying and then (he says, whatever, tell us, to you); then we will pay attention and do it.

141 The techniques we have provided you with will (whatever, achieve, help, you, you wish) throughout your life.

142 (be fined, whoever, one dollar, this law, shall, violates),and if he does it again he shall be fined two dollars, and thus it shall be doubled for every repetition of the offense.

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구문 Practice Advanced A 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

143 If we offer new services from time to time which require the payment of fees or if we offer goods for sale, the payment terms for those goods or services will be provided to you at the time and it will be up to you [whether / whatever] you accept them or not.

144 Every place wishes to have a reason for local pride, and therefore cherishes [whatever / whenever] is extraordinary in the way of geography, history or tradition.

145 To play ‘time machine’all you have to do is to imagine that [however / whatever] you are dealing with is not happening right now but a year from now. 모의평가

146 [Who / Whomever] Buono picks as her running mate will have fairly large consequences for that individual’s future political career as well as the outcome of the general election.

B 다음 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것을 고르시오.

147 It’s as if we are robots ① programmed to respond on cue to ② whatever demands the least time and attention, and ③ disregarded anything that requires putting in extra time and energy to think. 모의평가 148 In our efforts ① to be the good child, the uncomplaining employee, or the cooperative patient, many of us fall into the trap of ② trying to please people by going along with ③ however they want us to do. 수능

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ACTUAL TRAINING I 1 다음 글에서 필자가 주장하는 바로 가장 적절한 것은? Start stocking your home with furniture that works harder for you. I’m talking about furniture that has multiple uses and provides extra storage that you don’t find with conventional designs. Ali Kaufman, a professional home organizer, is particularly fond of a dining table that comes with benches. The benches can be used not only to hold up people’s bottoms, but they’re high enough to use as mini serving tables when you’re entertaining guests. Other examples of hardworking furniture include a coffee table that comes with extra storage drawers, a recliner that has side pockets for holding magazines and reading glasses, a bed with built-in drawers underneath, and a sofa with a fold-down table built into it. ① 가구를 구입하기 전에 집안 공간을 파악해야 한다. ② 가구 재배치를 통해 집안을 감각적으로 연출해야 한다. ③ 용도가 다양하고 수납 공간이 있는 가구를 선택해야 한다. ④ 인터넷 쇼핑을 통해 여러 스타일의 가구를 비교해야 한다. ⑤ 좁은 집을 넓어 보이게 하려면 장식이 적은 가구를 선택해야 한다.

2 밑줄 친 부분이 가리키는 대상이 나머지 넷과 다른 것은? Monica’s summer vacation had begun. Thursday had been the last day of the school year. On Friday, Monica slept late and then got together with her friends. ① She also remembered, however, that she had promised to help take care of her six-year-old sister Amy this summer. Monica’s mother was taking college courses at night. ② She would often have to study during the day. Soon Monday Monica’s mother awakened her early. As she roused ③ her, she said,“I’ll be at my desk working on a report. Amy’s watching cartoons. You’ll need to give her breakfast.” Monica yawned and shoved her head under her pillow. Three of ④ her friends were coming over today. ⑤ She hadn’t told them about Amy yet. She hoped they wouldn’t mind having Amy hang around.

3 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? It is worth noting that each human being is capable of doing well or poorly with his or her self. Humans are unique in that they have the power to make themselves into something admirable or allow themselves to degenerate into something evil. In other words, humans can choose to act in ways that make themselves either more or less fully human depending on how well they use or don’t use their human capabilities, and whether they develop themselves or let themselves deteriorate. Whereas plants and animals develop into the creatures they were designed to become from birth, humans have the unique capacity and opportunity to shape themselves into the personalities they would like to become. These basic ideas lead to an important insight: We are . ① still evolving ② social animals ③ naturally selfish ④ self-creating creatures ⑤ automatically strategic

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4 다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? Enjoying an iced coffee? The World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) conducted a survey of iced coffees sold by some popular chains including Starbucks, Caffe Nero and Costa Coffee to gauge the calories. The worst offender .a coffee from Starbucks - had 561 calories. Other iced coffees contained more than 450 calories. Health experts advise that the average woman should consume about 2,000 calories a day and a man about 2,500 calories to maintain a healthy weight. “If you are having these coffees regularly, then they will increase the chances of you becoming overweight, which in turn increases your risk of developing cancer.” the WCRF added. ① Obesity and Cancer: What’s the Link? ② Iced Coffees: Real Enemy of Your Health ③ Coffee Taste Test: Is Expensive Coffee Better? ④ Growing Concerns about Urban Food Security ⑤ Some Good Ways to Burn Calories and Fight Fat

5 다음 글의 빈칸 (A), (B)에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? The teenage years are the transition between childhood and adulthood. During this time, one learns how to be an independent adult. (A) ___________________, it is natural that teenagers want to do things on their own. However, they often do not want any supervision. That’s where the problem arises. As a responsible parent, you are obviously concerned about their safety. Some continue to closely supervise all of the activities of their teenagers, while others just give up and let their teenagers do things completely unsupervised. There is a middle path: Give your teenager freedom with distant mild supervision. (B) ___________________, if your teenager is going to a party, check out if there will be adult supervision there as well as if there will be any alcohol at the party. (A) (B) (A) (B) ① In addition …… As a result ② In addition …… For example ③ In contrast …… In short ④ Therefore …… For example ⑤ Therefore …… In short

6 주어진 글 다음에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것은? Everyone has seen young people send text messages on their smart phones while carrying on a conversation, eating, and keeping an eye on their computer to see when an e-mail arrives. (A) So it would be wonderful to have the body of a Hindu god with six arms, and pull off all these various office tasks in comfort. (B) As adults, we celebrate this multitasking at the office. We gulp down some coffee with the telephone cradled between our ear and shoulder while we wait for the person on the other end to pick it up. (C) At the same time, we sign a document and nod our okay to a waiting secretary on some unrelated matter - thus turning an otherwise unproductive wait into an occasion to attend to three matters all at once. ① (A) -(C) -(B) ② (B) -(A) -(C) ③ (B) -(C) -(A) ④ (C) -(A) -(B) ⑤ (C) -(B) -(A) 


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CHAPTER II 서술어 역할을 하는 필수 구문 UNIT 07 목적어 또는 보어가 필요한 동사 18 보어가 필요한 2형식 동사 1. She is of the same opinion as you. 2. When everyone lay asleep, I went for a walk. 3. Food turns bad easily in hot weather like this. 4. My job is to teach English, so it sounds good to live in a foreign country.

19 목적어가 필요한 3,4형식 동사 1. He mentioned the idea to me and suggested I (should) adopt it. 2. The gangsters robbed the bank of a lot of money last weekend. 3. You should not make fun of those who make a mistake. 4. I cautiously asked him what he was doing and why he was doing it. High

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구문 Practice Basic A 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오. 149 It is appealing and its sweetness tastes [wonderful / wonderfully].

150 I lay [frustrated / frustrating] at not being able to help him.

151 His voice was growing [calm / calmly] with each sentence.

152 It took about six hours to [arrive / reach] the summit.

153 A violin gives peace of mind [to / for] each of us.

154 Nelson Mandela [attended / attended at] the World Cup closing ceremony.

B 다음 괄호 안의 말을 문장의 알맞은 곳에 넣으시오. 155 Korea has remained of the deadly disease. (free)

156 He provided the police a vital clue in catching the criminal. (with)

157 Why do so many people fail reach their potential or fully realize it? (to)

158 Technology gives more and more of what we think we want. (us) 159

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When you fail, ask why you have failed to do what you intended. (yourself) C 다음 문장에서 밑줄 친 부분을 어법상 바르게 고치시오.

160 The seeds of many wild plants remain inactively for months until winter is over and rain sets in.

161 When many roles make conflicting demands on you, you may feel quite uncomfortable and at times frustrating.

162 Joan mentioned what she was looking for musicians to perform in a charity concert she was organizing.

163 The person who wrote of a building bringing gladness to the viewer reminds us with the importance of beauty in human life.

164 I asked a clerk where did they have books about architecture.

D 다음 문장에서 어법상 틀린 부분을 찾아 바르게 고치시오.

165 The vast majority of Americans remain stubborn monolingual.

166 Bristlecone pines grow very slow and range from 15 to 40 feet in height.

167 You can see and feel exact what this teenage girl is going through.

168 At night she attended to classes in composition and developed her writing skills.

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구문 Practice Advanced A 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

169 In the case of human beings, the general shape and size of our body remains [relative / relatively] constant while the cells within it are continually being replaced. 수능

170 An Eskimo once told visiting Europeans [who / that] a true state of wisdom is to be found far away from civilization, out in the loneliness of the great wilderness, and can be attained only through great suffering.

171 The air feels fresher, the flowers smell sweeter, food tastes more delicious, and the moon shines more [brilliant / brilliantly] in the night sky when we are with those whom we love.

172 Since this is the first semester that I have had you in my class, I do not feel that I have known you long enough to provide an accurate recommendation [on / with] your leadership skills.

B 다음 문장에서 밑줄 친 부분을 어법상 바르게 고치시오.

173 Nations of the world must come together if we are to act as responsible adults and give our children with the safe and healthy world that we had promised them.

174 If you can define the purpose of your career or feel passionate about the mission of your company, you can handle much easier the occasional server maintenance that disrupts your in-box. 모의평가

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UNIT 08 목적어와 보어가 모두 필요한 동사

20 미래 의미를 가지는 동사 1. Doctor advised him to eat meals on a regular basis. 2. He warned his sister not to drive too fast. 3. The groups which encourage their individual members to think creatively will prosper in the end.

21 사역 의미를 가지는 동사 1. Saying “thank you” with a big smile makes others and yourself feel happy. 2. He had his only son killed in the war. 3. How about helping me (to) find my keys?

22 지각 의미를 가지는 동사 1. I have never heard him break his word. 2. I felt my handbag touched by a man in the subway. 3. Approaching the tree, he thought he saw something white floating above the tree.

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구문 Practice Basic A 다음 문장의 의미가 통하도록 괄호 안에 주어진 말을 바르게 배열하시오. 175 The contests (the, allowed, to, students, have) fun while studying math.

176 A campaign (suspended, the, be, to, forced, project).

177 (yourself, respect, let) your feelings, good or bad.

178 Shortly after my arrow began to fly, I (the, heard, cheering, crowd).

179 He has the power to (to, people, get, do) as he wishes.

B 다음 빈칸에 알맞은 말을 <보기>의 말을 활용하여 쓰시오. <보기> detach turn apologize recognize drop 180 Gravity is the force that causes objects _________ to the ground.

181 The judge made him _________ for his wrongdoings.

182 School uniforms allow students _________ that it is time for school.

183 I saw crops ripening in the fields and trees _________ red and yellow.

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184 Looking through the camera lens had him _________ from the scene. C 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

185 They advise hikers [to wear / wearing] bright, colorful clothing when climbing the mountain.

186 Make them understand that you trust them and [help / let] them to take action.

187 This made him [feel / felt] more self-confident and lessened his resentment toward his colleagues.

188 He saw the male giraffes [battling / battled] for mates by swinging their powerful necks.

189 Electric bulbs transmit light but keep out oxygen, which would [make / cause] their hot filaments to burn up.

D 다음 문장에서 어법상 틀린 부분을 찾아 바르게 고치시오.

190 He ordered the non-swimmer share a piece of board with him.

191 I saw a famous soprano from Eastern Europe sings Tosca twice within ten months.

192 I felt a cold, light northern wind plays upon my face.

193 You can make a contribution help others who are suffering from a similar disease.

194 If you heard someone called your name, even if you were being pushed around in a big noisy crowd, you would pay attention and listen.

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구문 Practice Advanced A 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

195 Interestingly, these super-low notes can also vibrate through the ground, allowing the infrasonic signals [traveling / to travel] even further.

196 The invention of the computer has [made / enabled] half the people on earth to lead lives having unprecedented degrees of privacy heretofore unknown in the history of mankind.

197 When subjects either could predict when the bursts of noise would occur or [caused / had] the ability to terminate the noise with a “panic button,” the negative effects disappeared. 수능

B 다음 문장에서 밑줄 친 부분을 어법상 바르게 고치시오.

198 This gave the portrait an immediacy, prompting the contemporary Italian art historian Vasari attribute to her the development of the conversational portrait, as opposed to the formal frontal or profile portrait. 모의평가

199 These new technologies have another benefit for biologists by allowing them gain access to the unknown world of communication between animals. 수능

200 When the town was opened in 2007, a surprising number of people all over the country made reservations buy a house in the beautiful, luxurious town.

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UNIT 09 조동사의 주요 표현

23 조동사+have+과거분사 1. I think he may have attended the class. 2. The month of March must have been a very special time for Sandra. 3. He can’t have missed the train. He left home quite early. 4. If the country had wanted to host the Olympics, that accident should have been prevented.

24 조동사의 관용적 표현 1. We cannot be too careful when we choose our friends. 2. I cannot but protest against injustice. 3. His son became a scientist. He may well be proud of his son. 4. You may〔might〕as well read a book as sit there doing nothing. 5. I would rather cook than wash the dishes.

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구문 Practice Basic A 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 단어를 <보기>에서 찾아 쓰시오.

<보기> must shouldn’t may should can’t

201 According to one hypothesis, an asteroid collision _________ have led to the dinosaurs’ extinction 65 million years ago.

202 He is an honest man. He _________ have lied to you.

203 He gave up surfing that day. He _________ have been terrified at the sight of the rough waves.

204 I _________ have eaten enough food before starting to go up this mountain.

205 He _________ have shouted at me like that just because I used his phone.

B 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 알맞은 말을 쓰시오.

206 As I know how hard he has worked, I _________ but recommend him for that position.

207 She may _________ get offended by your rude attitude.

208 We might _________ well set out early in the morning.

209 I may as well stay at home _________ go to the movies with him.

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210 I would _________ be in the background than be the one in the front.

C 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

211 According to American scientists, the moon [may / should] have once been part of the Earth.

212 You [must / should] have stayed in Seattle instead of moving here.

213 You may as well call a cat a little tiger [as / so] call a tiger a big cat.

214 We would rather solve this problem now [as / than] deal with a bigger problem later.

215 I can’t [have / but] wait because I am curious, but it makes me really nervous.

D 다음 문장에서 어법상 틀린 부분을 찾아 바르게 고치시오.

216 “Hey, you guys! I can’t help interrupt your conversation,” Ms. Kim said.

217 The woolly beast should have been killed by an ice-age human or another mammoth.

218 The reporter shouldn’t have checked the reliability of the source before he published it.

219 The reality for children is that they would rather are online than sit at a desk to read a book.

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구문 Practice Advanced A 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

221 A new study from Harvard University suggests that the Rust Belt’s thick particulate fog may [help / have helped] slow down the effects of climate change, particularly when it was thickest. 모의평가

222 Last year [must / can’t] have been an unforgettable one for one athlete; on January 12, FC Barcelona forward Lionel Messi was honored with the inaugural FIFA Ballon d’Or award at a ceremony in Zurich, Switzerland.

223 Nuclear weapons are so destructive and ballistic missiles are so swift that any substantially increased possibility of their use or any sudden change in their deployment may [well / as well] be regarded as a definite threat to peace.

B 다음 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 틀린 것을 찾아 바르게 고치시오.

224 Although it is obvious to some that reading helps them in school and makes them ① smarter, many others would rather ② choose their flashy cell phones ③ from anything with words written on it.

225 While ① satisfying my thirst, I thought about the many travelers ② who must ③ come to the same well and drunk from the same gourd. 수능

226 I would like to ① express my warm congratulations to the faculty members and the ② graduating students of Bucknell but even as I do so, I cannot but ③ to be aware of a sense of irony.

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UNIT 10 수동 의미를 나타내는 표현

25 3,4형식 문장의 수동태 1. It is said that Sam is honest. (= Sam is said to be honest.) 2. A charming story was told to us by the guest speaker. (= We were told a charming story by the guest speaker.) 3. A pair of gloves was bought for me by Dad.

26 5형식 문장의 수동태 1. I was allowed to go to the movies tonight by Mom. 2. You can be made to feel tired by stress. 3. Despite an economic recession, our economy is seen to move in a favorable direction.

27 <by+행위자> 생략 및 by 이외의 전치사를 쓰는 수동태 1. Electricity is used to run a heater. 2. I wasn’t satisfied with the results. 3. All students in the classroom were surprised at the news that all of them had passed the exam.

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구문 Practice Basic A 다음 빈칸에 알맞은 말을 <보기>에서 골라 문장을 완성하시오.

<보기>
 a. as

d.

in

b. at

e.

of


c.

with

227 No one is fully satisfied _________ what is present.

228 J. K. Rowling is known _________ the writer of the world-famous Harry Potter series.

229 In fact, she was very surprised _________ her IQ score.

230 I can’t believe that your classmates are interested _________ me.

231 From floor to roof, everything is made _________ chewing gum.

B 다음 괄호 안의 말을 이용하여 빈칸을 채우시오. 232 MSF __________________ a small group of French doctors including B. Kouchner back in 1971. (begin)

233 He __________________ stay up long enough to finish the book last night. (allow)

234 He __________________ cross the overpass with his parents on Christmas Day. (see)

235

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Golf became popular, and kings found it so enjoyable that it __________________ “the royal game.” (know)

236 It __________________ that we should delay this decision for a few weeks. (have suggested)

C 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

237 He was covered [by / with] seaweed and holding on to his broken boat, but he was alive.

238 When the little boy was [finished / finishing], his father sat speechless.

239 He was allowed [finish / to finish] work earlier than usual.

240 In martial arts, this sense of looking freshly at something is known [as / to] ‘beginner’s mind.’

241 His daughters were [given / giving] a full classical education, including painting.

D 다음 밑줄 친 단어를 어법상 바르게 고쳐 쓰시오.

242 The movie was chosen by the best film of the year, and it earned $57 million at the box office.

243 The man told the police officer that the two people who gave permission to stay in his home took his car.

244 Growing up in Holland, he was told clear his plate; leaving some food was forbidden.

245 It is said to political figures should speak candidly about important national matters.

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246 Participants were asked negotiate with a seller over the purchase price of a piece of art.

구문 Practice Advanced A 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

247 If you are known [as / to] someone who is easily offended, you will never know what others think of you because they will lie to you out of fear of insulting you.

248 At the end of the round of introductions, the students were asked to [write / be written] down the names of as many other students as they could remember. 수능

249 Policymaking is seen [be / to be] more objective when experts play a large role in the creation and implementation of the policy, and when utilitarian rationality is the dominant value that guides policy. 수 능

B 다음 문장에서 어법상 틀린 부분을 찾아 바르게 고치시오.

250 
 After the fall of Napoleon, it was Larrey’s medical reputation which saved him, and he appointed as a member of the Academy of Medicine when it was founded in 1820. 수능

251 If you are taught admitting that your first draft is never your best writing and use some additional thought and input, you can be on the road to being a successful writer.

252 The researchers scanned the brains of volunteers who gave injections of glucose, while they were shown pictures of high and low calorie foods, as well as other objects.

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ACTUAL TRAINING II

1 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 문맥상 낱말의 쓰임이 적절하지 않은 것은? According to a study, the overpowering glare of street lights in cities could contribute to a decline in bird populations. Researchers say the effects of light pollution have been studied only recently, since its ① presence only becomes apparent after dark. The findings came from a study on the impact of ② artificial lights on five species of woodland songbirds in cities. While cities would rather make our streets safer at night by ③ installing more street lights than invite crime by removing them, the study suggests the problem that the street lights are ④ disrupting the sleep patterns of songbirds and forcing them to start the dawn chorus too early in the morning. They say blue tits, robins and blackbirds are so exhausted from their early starts in cities that they are ⑤ less likely to be hunted by predators.

2 다음 글의 주제로 가장 적절한 것은? Teenage girls are one of the groups in the population that stand out as having a poor diet worldwide. A ‘size zero’ obsession could lead young girls to swing between starvation diets and junk food binges. The fashion industry’s obsession with catwalk thinness leaves models at high risk of eating disorders, yet millions of teenage girls feel inspired to try to copy them. As a result, controlling their weight and body shape is a moral imperative for many young girls. Often, they would rather skip a meal than risk gaining a few pounds. The problem is the brain is undergoing a great phase of development from the ages of 12 to 21, meaning if you impair that critical phase, you might get less flexible in your thinking. Thus, teenage girls need a proper balance of nutrients. ① 마른 몸매에 대한 남녀의 시각 차이 ② 뇌의 발달을 촉진하는 영양소의 종류 ③ 십대 소녀들이 모델이 되려고 하는 이유 ④ 모델이 십대에게 미치는 부정적인 영향 ⑤ 십대의 음식 섭취 불균형이 야기하는 문제

3 다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? Women were prohibited from participating in or watching ancient Olympic Games, but they held their own games, which were called “Heraea” in honor of the goddess Hera. Passionate women were not satisfied with this situation. They even dared to participate in the Olympics, dressing themselves like men. If they were caught, they were thrown off a cliff. It was necessary for heroines in William Shakespeare’s works to dress themselves like men. In Twelfth Night, Viola was forced to be left alone when her ship was wrecked. To work as a servant, she had no choice but to disguise herself as a man. In As You Like It, Rosalind began a journey, disguising herself as a man when she earned the wrath of her uncle and was driven out of the house. In The Merchant of Venice, too, part of the plot involves women disguised as men. ① Women Living in a Men’s Clothing ② Increasing Number of Career Women

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③ The Role of Women in Shakespeare’s Plays ④ The Sorrows of Women Hidden in Clothing ⑤ The History of Women’s Participation in Sports

4 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? Today’s “fast fashion” trend is ___________________. Fast-fashion clothing is designed and manufactured quickly and cheaply to allow mainstream consumers to purchase the very latest looks from the runways at affordable prices. Because the clothing is sold at prices that make the purchase tempting, purchasers tend to throw the clothing away, without hesitation, when they become tired of it. This fastfashion culture leaves a pollution footprint, with each step of the clothing life cycle generating potential environmental hazards. One of the problems is that thousands of toxic chemicals, including pesticides, are used primarily by fast-fashion manufacturers when they should have looked for greener alternatives. ① the best way to look good ② no friend to the environment ③ a road to success for young designers ④ helping consumers make better choices ⑤ providing low-priced clothing to your town

5 주어진 글 다음에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것은? The gift of longer life has usually been accompanied by the loss of memories, but we’ll be luckier than our grandparents. (A) Today, however, we have records of our lives to pass on to our descendants, to comfort us as we age and to remind us of our blessings. (B) For example, we’ve got digital photos and videos and e-mails to recall our best personal moments and the Web to instantly help us remember who sang that song or which year the blizzard hit. (C) In the past, only nobles must have hired scribes to write their histories and artists to depict their deeds.

① (A) - (C) - (B) ② (B) - (A) - (C) ③ (B) - (C) - (A) ④ (C) - (A) - (B) ⑤ (C) - (B) - (A)

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6 다음 글의 내용을 한 문장으로 요약하고자 한다. 빈칸 (A)와 (B)에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? We assume that we see things as they really are. But according to a new report in Psychological Science, if we really want something, that urge may influence how we view our surroundings. Psychological scientists conducted a test to see how our craving affects perception. In the experiment, the scientists had participants estimate how far a water bottle was from where they were sitting. Half of the volunteers were allowed to drink water before the experiment, while the others ate salty pretzels, thus becoming very thirsty. The result showed that the thirsty volunteers estimated the water as being closer to them than volunteers who drank water earlier. It also suggested that when we see a goal as being close to us, it motivates us to keep on going to successfully attain it. → According to a study, when we (A) something, we actually view it as being physically (B) to us.

(A) (B)

(A) (B)

① miss …… unrelated

② desire …… far

③ desire …… close

④ wonder …… far

⑤ wonder …… close

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CHAPTER III 형용사 역할을 하는 필수 구문 UNIT 11 (대)명사와 형용사

28 (대)명사를 보충 설명하는 형용사 1. Your plan looks perfect. 2. The exam seems difficult for many students. 3. The identical twins are alike in every respect. 4. The blanket that a flight attendant gave you will keep your body warm while in flight.

29 (대)명사를 수식하는 형용사 1. John is regarded as a diligent student in the class. 2. I always get in a bus full of people when I go to school. 3. Unemployment, poor housing and air pollution are the main problems in the city. 4. Just tell me anything necessary for your study. 5. They should have tried every means imaginable. 6. He is the present president. 7. The president was present at the meeting.

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구문 Practice Basic A 다음 괄호 안의 말을 문장의 알맞은 곳에 넣으시오. 253 After reading the material, I found his claim. (true)

254 Unfortunately, something happened to the village. (horrible)

255 Luckily, she seemed with the idea we came up with. (content)

256 Many teachers agree that John and I look in appearance. (similar)

257 You will realize that Jane and her sister are in every way. (alike)

258 The most way to achieve your goals is to write them down. (effective)

259 The next speaker was John, and he was of making a speech in front of people. (afraid) B 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오. 260 At first sight, she looked very [honest / honestly].

261 To make you [happy / happily], I’ll do everything I can do.

262 Despite the heavy storm, all the sailors at the wrecked ship were [live / alive].

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263 We should test our children’s aptitudes in [various / variously] areas for their future. C 다음 문장에서 어법상 틀린 부분을 찾아 바르게 고치시오.

264 I think this is the best conceivable method to solve the current traffic problem.

265 The vet came and tried giving the dog some red full meat of medicine.

266 Patrick became very angrily because everyone at the office didn’t accept his suggestion.

267 Although Kate had important something to do on that particular Sunday, she decided to cancel her plans and help Joan.

D 다음 문장의 의미가 통하도록 괄호 안에 주어진 말을 바르게 배열하시오.

268 (my friend, made, the car accident, disabled), and I learned a costly lesson.

269 (rich, the cultivated soil, minerals and nutrients, in) provided substantial production yields.

270 (they, although, had, beautiful, looked) separately, the entire assembly shocked him.

271 The researchers say that children should do (for, a certain amount of, necessary, exercise) their physical development.

272 All the soccer fans in the country strongly insisted that the coach (the national soccer team, keep, active).

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구문 Practice Advanced A 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

273 Some scenes in the second performance appeared much more [impressive / impressively], and her response to the death of her lover was undeniably charming.

274 Most people have a container or two in a cupboard, which can be turned into vases for a flower arrangement, so before rushing out to buy [special something / something special], look around your own home.

275 Seeing ahead of him a long shadow, he felt its silhouette blocking out [the close stars / the stars close] to the horizon and stretching from one end of the compass to the other.

B 다음 문장에서 어법상 틀린 부분을 찾아 바르게 고치시오.

276 What made him famously was his book Lives of the Most Eminent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects, which earned Vasari the praise of his peers. 수능

277 Apelles was unable to restrain himself, for he thought that the criticism was unjust and the man knew meaningful nothing about anatomy. 수능

278 Raising the prices of its existing products might be designed to make the new product look cheaper and thus more attractively by comparison. 수능

279 Your resolve to secure a sufficiency of food will induce you to spend weary days in tilling the ground and tending livestock; but if Nature provided food necessarily for survival, you would thank Nature. 수능

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UNIT 12 형용사 역할을 하는 전치사구

30 (대)명사를 보충 설명하는 전치사구 1. He was in complete silence. 2. An able journalist should keep his or her sentences to the point. 3. This big cat looks like a tiger, doesn’t it? 4. The visitors just regarded the ritual as a k ind of superstition. High5. These books were of great help to me.

31 (대)명사를 수식하는 전치사구 1. The boys with black hair are my younger brothers. 2. Everyone but the politician was criticized by the media. 3. The news of his return surprised all the people in the village. 4. A road under construction is full of dangers to drivers. 5. There are a lot of old proverbs of use today.

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구문 Practice Basic A 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

280 Jennifer [looks / looks] like a totally new person in the new dress.

281 The teacher didn’t deny that John’s idea had come [a surprise / as a surprise].

282 Some of the participants at the conference [was / were] disappointed to hear the news.

283 All living creatures depend for their existence on the chemical elements [of / off] oxygen and hydrogen.

B 다음 괄호 안의 말을 문장의 알맞은 곳에 넣으시오.

284 Nobody can think of the movie Avatar its special effects. (without)

285 The executive thought that new employees were the current workers. (below)

286 Yesterday, the air conditioner in the living room must have been order. (out of)

287 The topic we have to discuss now is great importance for some countries in Asia. (of)

288 The plan to build a new public library is consideration by the city council. (under)

289

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No one but Mother was confusion even though they heard they had to move to a new village. (in)

C 다음 문장의 의미가 통하도록 괄호 안에 주어진 말을 바르게 배열하시오.

290 The students were scolded by the teacher because they (the classroom, had put, in disorder) and never cleaned it.

291 The arrival of canals (great value, of, was) to many industries, which automatically increased national wealth.

292 Critics (in, general agreement, were) that Benjamin Franklin possessed a uniquely intuitive and keen mind.

293 Among some people, cats have (of, rather silly animals, a reputation, being) that are always getting themselves stuck in trees.

D 다음 문장에서 어법상 틀린 전치사를 찾아 바르게 고치시오.

294 People who even suffered from disease were not allowed to move freely because the whole country was about martial law.

295 Since political leaders in developed countries will discuss the problem of global poverty, the conference is with importance for poor countries in Africa.

296 Scholars majoring in psychology have a tendency to regard dream for prophetic communications which, when decoded in a proper way, would enable us to foretell the future.

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구문 Practice Advanced A 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

297 At first, this [seems / seems] like a strange idea because Darwin’s theories of evolution presume that individuals should act to preserve their own interests, not those of the species as a whole. 모의평가

298 Malinowski, the classic anthropological fieldworker, describes the early stages of fieldwork [as / for] ‘a strange, sometimes unpleasant, sometimes intensely interesting adventure which adopts a natural course.’ 모의평가

299 Agreeing on international taxes on emissions [was / were] notoriously hard, as we already knew that the European Union had experienced terrible difficulties in trying to regulate its members’ sales taxes. 수능

300 The particular account of these findings is not currently useful to us any more, when Ezra published it for the first time, it was [from / of] great use to church affairs directly.

B 다음 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것을 고르시오.

301 “Folk” understandings, such as Aristotle’s explanation ① about move objects, often sound sensible ② to many modern people, even though they have been proved ③ to be incorrect by scientific research. 수능

302 According to one of the drivers who managed to be rescued, the explosion resulted ① in an unidentified box on the bus, and now the exact reason ② for the explosion is ③ under investigation by the local police department in Cairo.

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UNIT 13 형용사 역할을 하는 TO부정사

32 (대)명사를 보충 설명하는 to부정사 1. My hobby is to play online games. 2. Every driver is to obey traffic signals. 3. The teacher advised all the students to read various books. 4. I had my son clean his room by himself last Sunday. 5. The man in the living room heard someone enter the house. 6. The child was seen to brush his teeth after every meal. High

33 (대)명사를 수식하는 to부정사 1. Please tell me the way to keep the vegetable fresh. 2. Can I borrow a pencil to write with? 3. Above all, the homeless need a house to live in. 4. There is a tendency for young people to wear sunglasses.

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구문 Practice Basic A 다음 밑줄 친 부분을 우리말로 바르게 해석하시오.

303 My dream is to travel around the world.

304 Students are to obey the school regulations.

305 All you need to do is to click the button, “Delete.”

306 He is to arrive here at about 7 o’clock since he left home two hours ago.

307 My son Snapshot, whose dream is to be the best photographer, takes me to beautiful places.

B 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

308 The king made his people [build / built] a new church.

309 The teacher heard someone [cry / to cry] in the distance.

310 She had her daughter [clean / to clean] the living room.

311 A strange man was seen [ride / to ride] a bike around the school.

312

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If you don’t have a chair to [sit / sit on], just tell me.

313 I tried to persuade John [attend / to attend] the conference.

314 I asked her to bring me some paper to [write / write on].

C 다음 문장에서 어법상 틀린 부분을 찾아 바르게 고치시오.

315 Liz saw a dark figure to creep into the open and draw near to the trees.

316 What vitamin C does for your body is that prevent you from getting a cold, so take it regularly.

317 Unfortunately, he had nobody to talk even though he had returned home from work.

318 It is nice to have what you want when you want it, but the ability delay satisfaction is important.

D 다음 문장의 의미가 통하도록 괄호 안에 주어진 말을 바르게 배열하시오.

319 Okay, from now on I’m going to tell you about (beautiful musical thoughts, to, the most effective way, remember).

320 The teacher thought that he gave enough time to all the students (had learned, to, what, review, they) for the quiz.

321 It is said that children who learn to fear thunder by (to, it, react, watching, their parents) have undergone similar conditioning.

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322 In order to prevent such diseases, doctors (have, advise, everyone over the age of twenty-five, to) a regular physical examination.

323 He thought that Joan should have (to, asked, her mother, prepare) a special treat for her birthday: the honey cake that Joan had always loved.

구문 Practice Advanced A 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

324 The contacts were followed by an unexplained aerial phenomenon, called “The Miracle of the Sun,” in which the Sun was seen [dance / to dance] in the night sky with thousands of twinkling stars.

325 Although the revised edition overshadowed Vasari’s own achievements as a painter and architect, it made him [stand / to stand] out among other artists in the Italian art world. 수능

326 When the clock said ten minutes to five, she began to listen, and a few moments later, punctually as always, she heard the car [approach / to approach] and stop outside. 수능

B 다음 문장에서 어법상 틀린 부분을 찾아 바르게 고치시오.

327 This hole helps the kite fly fast regardless of the wind speed by concentrating the wind on days when the wind is light, and letting it to pass through when the wind is blowing hard. 수능

328 However, there are no grounds for believing that technology will not cause new and unanticipated problems happen while solving the problems that it previously produced. 수능

329 When I was young, the only love I experienced was the immature, selfish love of “I love her because she makes me to feel good,” but now I think about the woman I love in terms of what she wants. 수능

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UNIT 14 형용사 역할을 하는 분사

34 (대)명사를 보충 설명하는 분사 1. Stella came running toward her father. 2. Sam felt recognized and valued by his parents. 3. I’m really sorry to keep you waiting. 4. She had the car cleaned yesterday. 5. Many people saw the house destroyed by fire. 6. Brian’s explanations are so interesting, so I am interested in his English class.

35 (대)명사를 수식하는 분사 1. It’s impossible to count the number of sleeping people in this room. 2. GMO stands for genetically modified food. 3. The man donating a lot of money to us is also planning to found a hospital. 4. The city destroyed by the war should be rebuilt as soon as possible.

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구문 Practice Basic A 다음 문장에서 밑줄 친 부분을 어법상 바르게 고치시오.

330 Patrick stood lean against the big tree.

331 He felt his shoulder touch by someone.

332 Don’t keep your computer run all the time.

333 My mother was a little bit disappoint with my report card.

334 Yesterday I spent almost two hours fixing a break fence.

335 After the age of 55, the number of meals eat at home rises suddenly.

B 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

336 A gray suit shows that the person [wearing / worn] it is serious.

337 One day I got so badly [injuring / injured] that I couldn’t swim and go out for air.

338 Buses partly [supporting / supported] by the city transport many people throughout the area.

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339 These days, the number of children [teaching / taught] by their parents at home is steadily increasing.

340 The game between the LA Dodgers and the New York Yankees that I saw last night was really [excited / exciting].

C 다음 문장에서 어법상 틀린 부분을 찾아 바르게 고치시오.

341 I wrote a letter to my young friends explained my Christmas experiences as a child.

342 The Eskimos lived in the Arctic resemble a group of Asian people known as Mongolians.

343 To keep the same weight, we must balance calories finding in food and those used by the body.

344 The most satisfied and expressive drawing is done with the active engagement of the entire body.

345 People were surprising at the unexpected result of the soccer game between France and Germany in the

D 다음 문장의 의미가 통하도록 괄호 안에 주어진 말을 바르게 배열하시오.

346 In contrast, those who have low self-monitoring are not very sensitive to (indicating, socially acceptable behavior, signals).

347 The sense of sight is so highly developed in humans that (from other senses, messages, received) are often ignored if they conflict with what is seen.

348 The fact that the ground is wet and there are (mud puddles, the landscape, dotting) means that it’s not appropriate for a picnic spot.

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349 Another important use is in the space exploration program, which could not exist without (the energy, by photovoltaic cells, produced).

구문 Practice Advanced A 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오. 350 If you plan to lose or gain weight by watching the amount of food [eaten / eating] without changing activities, the rate of loss or gain will depend on the number of calories you subtract from or add to your diet each day.

351 A suitable insurance policy should include coverage for medical expenses [arose / arising] from illness or accident prior to or during their vacation, loss of vacation money, and cancellation of the holiday. 수능

352 The specific combinations of foods in a cuisine and the ways they are prepared constitute a huge reservoir of our ancestors’ [accumulated / accumulating] wisdom about diet and health. 수능

B 다음 괄호 안의 단어를 어법상 바르게 고치시오.

353 In Latin America, for example, corn is traditionally (consume) with beans; each plant is deficient in an essential amino acid that happens to be abundant in the other, so together corn and beans form a balanced diet in the absence of meat.

354 Thus, while climate change may not impact these resources, oil and gas reserves and (know) or potential resources could be affected by new climate conditions, since climate change may affect access to these resources.

355 At the age of twenty-seven, while teaching art in South Carolina, O’Keeffe began a series of simple, abstract charcoal drawings (express) her own ideas and feelings about the place where she lived. 모의평 가

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UNIT 15 형용사 역할을 하는 관계대명사절

36 선행사를 수식하는 관계대명사절 1. Ask the woman in the office who〔that〕wears a blue uniform. 2. John found a strange old box in which there were some letters. 3. I saw a man and his two dogs that looked for food on the street. 4. Do you know the girl (who is) standing next to the window? 5. Almost every book (that) J.K. Rolling wrote was loved by people regardless of age.

37 선행사를 보충 설명하는 관계대명사절 1. She bought apples and oranges, which were imported from Brazil. 2. He wanted to come to the party, which was impossible. 3. My friend lent me a book, that I found very boring. (x) 4. Bill Smith, who died in 1944, was a great modern artist.

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구문 Practice Basic A 다음 문장에서 어법상 생략할 수 있는 부분에 밑줄을 치시오. (없으면 ×표)

356 Can you tell me the book which you read?

357 I always wear the pearl necklace that my grandmother gave me when I take a test.

358 The vase was engraved with mysterious symbols that would protect its holder from all harm.

359 The population will grow faster than the resources which are needed to support all the people.

360 The electronics company on which we’ve invested money since last February will be prosperous before long.

B 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

361 I’ve always dreamed of a society [which / in which] everyone can live together happily.

362 Infrasound is a low-pitched sound [which / whose] frequency is far below the range of human ears.

363 The most urgent matter [which / that] you have to deal with now is to find the reason why the car broke.

364

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Peter Thompson [whom / with whom] I have a close relationship mentioned your name to me and strongly suggested I contact you.

365 The Hwang Ho in China has been described as “The sorrow of China” because of the destruction [which / whose] it caused in the past. C 다음 괄호 안의 말을 문장의 알맞은 곳에 넣으시오.

366 Similarly, a cook eats only her own cooking cannot be regarded as a good cook. (who)

367 There are many positive people provide excellent examples for our youth by their achievements. (who)

368 Taking a bath in water temperature ranges between 35°C and 36°C helps calm you down. (whose)

369 The solution is to make life in rural areas more attractive, would encourage people to stay there. (which)

370 This means that a human law is a set of rules is valid only for a certain number of people over a certain period of time. (that)

371 He tried to swim underneath the boat but the life jacket he was wearing prohibited him from submerging under the water. (that)

D 다음 문장에서 어법상 틀린 부분을 찾아 바르게 고치시오.

372 Hard competition, stress, and injuries are the things whose professional players can’t avoid.

373 Dr. Jener had never seen a person at the farm which had had cowpox become infected with smallpox.

374 There are only two countries in Europe which percentage of forest loss is greater than five percent.

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375 Helping a child learn how to make good decisions for herself or himself is one of the most important things

구문 Practice Advanced A 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

376 You might learn a new strategy from your opponents [who / which] will make you a better player even though you lost the game.

377 Patent right supplies its holder with a kind of monopoly over the created material, [that / which] assures him or her of both control over its use and the benefit from it.

378 He began the session by revealing to the patient something personal about himself - secrets [which / with] which the patient might damage the doctor by breaking the confidence between the two. 모의평가

B 다음 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 틀린 것을 찾아 바르게 고치시오.

379 Avoid employees in the office ①who complain too much about working in an unnecessarily angry voice or ②is easily unable to think clearly because of ③ being troubled by many things.

380 That is, we predicted without a doubt that a child ①who was dressed in his best clothes and ②who mother stressed ③that they were ‘best’ would be better behaved for a short period. 모의평가

381 The results of a study ①that excluded birds from white oak seedlings showed that the average height of the trees after two years was about fifteen percent lower because of insect damage, as compared to ②that of trees ③which birds had not been excluded.

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UNIT 16 형용사 역할을 하는 관계부사절과 복합관계형용사

38 선행사를 수식하는 관계부사절 1. Do you remember the day when you first met her? 2. The soldier went back to the village where he was born. 3. Tell me the reason why you didn’t hand in your report. 4. This was (the way) how he solved the dilemma.

39 선행사를 보충 설명하는 관계부사절 1. They found a hotel, where they found a room available. 2. The year 2018 will be the special year, when you will go to college. High

40 명사를 수식하는 복합관계형용사 1. Whatever food(= Any food that) my mom cooked was very delicious. 2. Students should read whichever book(= any book that) the teacher will assign. 3. The baseball game will be exciting, whichever(= no matter which) team wins. High

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구문 Practice Basic A 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

382 How did you forget the day [when / which] we first met each other?

383 The party [where / which] I was a guest was really enjoyable.

384 There was no reason [why / which] the investigator shouldn’t have apologized to the witness.

385 No one wanted to know [the way / the way how] the animation was produced.

386 Whatever job you take [make / makes] everyone in the family happy.

387 Autumn is the season [when / which] Green Park is most beautiful.

B 다음 밑줄 친 부분을 우리말로 바르게 해석하시오.

388 You can buy whichever bike you like more.

389 Whatever excuse he makes will be of no use.

390 Whichever cookies are on the table, you should not take them.

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391 Whichever book you recommend to me, I will happily read it.

392 Whatever questions you ask, Stella, your teacher, will answer them.

C 다음 괄호 안의 말을 문장의 알맞은 곳에 넣으시오.

393 You will get to your destination within 30 minutes, road you take. (whichever)

394 The best time to visit Pokara in Nepal is October the weather is fine without rain. (when)

395 Another reason many people these days prefer wood for heating is that it is much cheaper than oil. (why)

396 He found a small pot there were several old coins while digging a hole at the backyard. (where)

397 This can also create an atmosphere children are better supervised, and buildings better watched. (where)

D 다음 문장에서 어법상 틀린 부분을 찾아 바르게 고치시오.

398 I still remember the awesome feeling I had on that day in May which my little feet carried me up the stairs into the grandstands at the car racing stadium.

399 They often work for advertising agencies, which they create striking pictures and tasteful designs.

400 Nobody wants to live in a society which there is no freedom of speech and religion.

401

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The artist visited Korea in his early 30s, which he was young and open to ideas.

구문 Practice Advanced A 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

402 Whatever stress modern people face today [is / are] much less than our ancestors who had to live in poverty.

403 Flooded by cellphones, the Internet, and television, we incorrectly imagine that our ancestors inhabited an innocent world [where / which] the news did not travel far beyond the village. 수능

404 This may explain the reason [which / why] Australian aboriginal technology, although it developed and elaborated steadily over the ensuing millennia, was lacking in so many features of the Old World ― elastic weapons such as bows and catapults. 수능

B 다음 문장에서 어법상 틀린 부분을 찾아 바르게 고치시오.

405 We need to accept the fact that there has never been a time which knowledge of languages was more important than in this age we now live in.

406 New or remodeled hospitals and nursing homes increasingly come equipped with healing gardens, where patients and staff can get away from barren, indoor surroundings in. 수능

407 A new economic research study reveals that the way how you find the best product is to take all of the different products into account and to carefully analyze the different brands on display.

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ACTUAL TRAINING III

1 다음 글의 주제로 가장 적절한 것은? Shedding your shoes and socks does wonders for rough, dry skin on the soles of your feet. When your feet have repeated, direct contact with the sand, the sand serves as a natural brush that removes the dead cells from its surface. The happy result is softer, more supple, more attractive skin on the heels and soles of your feet. Walking without shoes and socks on sand is also relaxing and energizing. Freeing your feet from restrictive stuff such as shoes or socks allows the sand to massage the bottoms of your feet, which increases blood circulation. The feeling of sand beneath your feet and between your toes also awakens your senses, which can be relaxing and soothing. ① benefits of walking barefoot on sand ② the influence of your feet on general health ③ negative effects of too many foot massages ④ considerations before buying walking shoes ⑤ things that make your body strong and healthy

2 다음 글에서 전체 흐름과 관계 없는 문장은? It is hard to believe now, but the potato was once a highly unpopular food. When first introduced into England by Sir Walter Raleigh, newspapers printed editorials against it. ① In addition, ministers preached sermons that people should not eat it, and the general public wouldn’t touch it. ② It was supposed to sterilize the soil in which it had been planted and cause all manner of strange illnesses . even death. ③ There were, however, a few brave men who did not believe all the propaganda being shouted against it. ④ Whatever crops the brave men willingly ate, they didn’t know how to cultivate any of them. ⑤ It was seen as an answer to famine among the poorer classes and as a healthful and beneficial food by them.

3 주어진 글 다음에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것은? One fellow had an old picture of a Rolls Royce above his desk. The edges were cracked, taped together and cracked again. I asked that man about the picture and he said that it was his goal to own a Rolls Royce. (A) Even though life experience confirmed that the car wasn’t in his garage, he was surprised to hear me say that simply doing what he ordinarily does wouldn’t get him any more than he already had. (B) I asked how long he had been pursuing that goal and he told me that it had been a long time, many years in fact. I next asked the man what he was doing over and above his regular daily activities to get his hands on a Rolls Royce. (C) He was embarrassed. He went on to tell me that all he was told to do was hang the picture up in a place where he could see it every day and then one day he would find it in his garage. ① (A)-(C)-(B) ② (B)-(A)-(C) ③ (B)-(C)-(A)

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④ (C)-(A)-(B) ⑤ (C)-(B)-(A)

4 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? Former president Ronald Reagan had an aunt who took him to a cobbler for a pair of new shoes when he was young. The cobbler asked him,“Do you want square toes or round toes?” Unable to decide, Reagan didn’t answer, so the cobbler gave him a few days. Several days later the cobbler saw Reagan waiting for someone on the street and asked him again. Reagan still couldn’t decide, so the shoemaker replied,“Well, come by in a couple of days.” When the future president did so, he found one square-toed and the other round-toed shoe! “This will teach you to _______________________” the cobbler said to his indecisive customer disappointed by the shoes. “I learned right then and there,” Reagan said later,“if you don’t make your own decisions, someone else will.” ① help people in need around you ② be as honest and modest as possible ③ never let people make decisions for you ④ set not an abstract goal but a concrete one ⑤ never give up your dream under any circumstance

5 글의 흐름으로 보아, 주어진 문장이 들어가기에 가장 적절한 곳은? But just as they get to the edge, ready to plunge in and drink, the trainer blows his whistle. Arabian horses go through rigorous training in deserts. The trainer requires absolute obedience from the horses, and tests them to see if they are completely trained. ( ① ) The final test is almost beyond the endurance of any living thing. ( ② ) After forcing the horses to do without water for many days, the trainer turns them loose and of course they start running toward the water. ( ③ ) The horses which have been completely trained and which have learned perfect obedience, stop. ( ④ ) They turn around and run back to the trainer, and stand there as a sign of perfect obedience even though they desperately want water. ( ⑤ ) When the trainer is sure that he has their obedience, he gives them a signal to go back to drink.

6 밑줄 친 부분이 가리키는 대상이 나머지 넷과 다른 것은? A farmer hired a man to work for him. The farmer told him his first task would be to paint the barn and said it should take ① him about three days to complete. But the hired man finished it in one day. The farmer set him to cut wood, telling ② him it would require about 4 days. The hired man finished it in a day and a half, to the farmer’s amazement. The next task was to sort out a large amount of potatoes. What ③ he had to do was to arrange them into three piles: seed potatoes, food for the pigs, and potatoes that were good enough to sell. The farmer said it was a small job and shouldn’t take long at all, and left the house. At the end of the day, ④ he came back and found the potatoes remained almost as they were without being classified. “What’s the matter here?” the surprised man asked ⑤ him. “I can work hard, but I can’t make decisions!” replied the hired man.

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CHAPTER IV 부사 역할을 하는 필수 구문 UNIT 17 부사(구)의 쓰임

41 동사, 형용사, 다른 부사 수식 1. My father held my hand hard. 2. He suspended judgment long enough for the creative process to run its course. 3. I was almost correct in my guess of the contents of his bag. 4. Some genes in your skin are responsible for producing collagen. 5. Don’t take his words too seriously. 6. If you buy organic cotton clothes on sale, it can bring their prices down to more usual prices.

42 문장 전체 수식 1. Happily, he found a way out of his despair. 2. Importantly, crying is your baby’s essential part of communication. 3. In spite of all his efforts, he failed in the exam to be a government official.

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구문 Practice Basic A 다음 밑줄 친 부분이 수식하는 것을 찾아 쓰시오.

408 The storm hit the region hard.

409 Mom asked me to speak as loudly as possible.

410 Endangered species must be completely protected.

411 His parents filled the house with toys of all kinds.

412 It is useless to worry that you are not beautiful enough.

413 Brian could climb down from the tree with the help of his father.

B 다음 우리말과 의미가 같도록 괄호 안의 말을 바르게 고치시오. 414 하루를 능동적으로 시작하는 것이 체중을 줄이는 데 핵심이다. = Starting the day (active) is the key to losing weight.

415 나는 그녀에 대해서 어떻게 생각하는지를 그녀에게 말할 정도로 충분히 용감 하지 않았다. = I wasn’t (enough brave) to tell her what I thought of her.

416 다행스럽게도, 그녀는 상담을 통해 도움과 희망을 찾았다. = (fortunate), she found help and hope through counseling.

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417 방충제는 어린 아이들에게 조심스럽게 사용되어야 한다. = Insect repellents should be used (careful) on young children.

C 다음 빈칸에 알맞은 말을 <보기>에서 골라 문장을 완성하시오.

<보기>
 f. too g.

luckily

h.

sharply

i.

sadly

j.

in great depth 


418 ___________, he reached the ground without injury.

419 Developing one skill ___________ can show truth in life.

420 ___________,our situation now is far worse than in the past.

421 It’s ___________ expensive, and anyway the color doesn’t suit you.

422 The number of hunting accidents has increased ___________ this year.

B 다음 문장에서 어법상 틀린 부분을 찾아 바르게 고치시오.

423 Ivan sees salmon gradual disappearing from the creeks and rivers of the area.

424 Unfortunate, he had no precise knowledge of what happened to her during the war.

425 Interestingly, art in the tribe was frequent abandoned after it had served its original purpose.

426

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To me disappointment, the Dutchman was not in his usual place when classes resumed in early October.

구문 Practice Advanced A 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

427 Reading classical texts has many benefits, [particular / particularly] in the mind by catching the reader’s attention and triggering moments of self-reflection.

428 Unlike humans, animals do not [arbitrary / arbitrarily] produce different symbols to indicate the same thing because their communication is largely determined by instinct.

429 The best moments [usual / usually] occur when a person’s body or mind is stretched to its limits in a voluntary effort to accomplish something difficult and worthwhile. 수능

430 Some of the early scientists made it easier for merchants and the wealthy elites of Europe to accept new ideas [by / for] showing how the ideas could be applied directly to specific industrial and technological needs.

B 다음 문장에서 어법상 틀린 부분을 찾아 바르게 고치시오.

431 A measurement system is objective by the extent that two observers evaluating the same performance arrive at the same (or very similar) measurements.

432 In many countries, amongst younger people, the habit of reading newspapers has been on the decline and some of the dollars previous spent on newspaper advertising have migrated to the Internet. 수능

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UNIT 18 부사 역할을 하는 TO부정사

43 형용사, 부사 수식 1. Artificial light was hard to get in the past 2. He’s too honest to accept money in this way. 3. John must be foolish to refuse the offer. 4. I was disappointed to hear that he had decided not to play the piano any more. 5. Emily is old enough to decide for herself.

44 동사 수식 1. Reptiles use the environment to control their temperature. 2. He returned home to find his room in disorder. 3. I’m sure you’ll get better to take exercise regularly.

45 문장 전체 수식 1. To tell the truth, I fell asleep in the middle of his talk. 2. Strange to say, the greatest floods occur here in winter.

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구문 Practice Basic A 다음 밑줄 친 부분이 수식하는 것을 찾아 쓰시오.

433 Don’t be afraid to question authority.

434 The obstacles were too great to overcome.

435 You are old enough to go there by yourself.

436 I worked hard only to fail to carry out my plan.

437 We must change ourselves first to change the world.

B 다음 문장의 의미가 통하도록 서로 연결하시오.

438 Mathematics was used •

ⓐ to stand alone as independent states.

439 Early humans evolved •

ⓑ to discover that the picture looked like the old woman.

440 These islands are too small •

ⓒ let’s ask Kevin if he is a good tennis player.

441 I’m sorry •

ⓓ to bother you but it is necessary.

442 I was pleased •

ⓔ to explain the essence of objects.

443 To illustrate, •

ⓕ to survive on the plains of Africa.

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C 다음 문장의 의미가 통하도록 괄호 안에 주어진 말을 바르게 배열하시오.

444 People must learn how to think well (achieve, to, dreams, their).

445 Spider plants love to absorb pollutants and (grow, they’re, to, easy).

446 Changes are happening so fast they are (for humans, to monitor, impossible).

447 When we get what we want, we are (disappointed, always, to find out) we want something else.

448 (tell, to, the truth), I discovered a lot of faults in my work, which neither the public nor critics discovered.

D 다음 문장에서 어법상 틀린 부분을 찾아 바르게 고치시오.

449 Online shoppers went from site to site find better and cheaper products.

450 Even a simple problem becomes very difficult dealt with if we let our personal desires influence it.

451 It’s hard to imagine a country that would use those weapons on its own people, not to speaking of its neighbors.

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구문 Practice Advanced A 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

452 [Proving / To prove] the importance of smell about tasting, you have only to hold your nose or put a clothespin on it while sampling a variety of foodstuffs.

453 Thick seed coats are often essential for seeds [survive / to survive] in a natural environment because the seeds of many wild plants remain dormant for months until winter is over and rain sets in. 수능

454 The passenger was relieved [hearing / to hear] the pilot’s continued announcement: “My kids are at home over on that hill to the left, and they just sent me a Morse code message saying, ‘Good night, Dad.’”

B 다음 문장에서 어법상 틀린 부분을 찾아 바르게 고치시오.

455 In order for a great company to satisfactorily serving the public, it must have a philosophy and a method of doing business which will allow and insure that its people serve the public efficiently and in a pleasing manner.

456 Lack of certainty is precisely what makes conclusions more reliable than the conclusions of those who are certain because the good scientist will be ready moving to a different point of view if better evidence or a novel argument appears.

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UNIT 19 부사 역할을 하는 분사구문

46 부사적 의미를 나타내는 분사구문 1. (Being) Written in plain French, this book is easy to read. 2. Walking along the stream, he met a group of hikers. 3. Turning to the right, you’ll find the restaurant. 4. Having met Mr. Smith, we left the building at 11:00 p.m. 5. (Having been) Born in London, she regards Chicago as her hometown.

47 동시동작과 연속동작을 나타내는 분사구문 1. I got on the plane and flew, loving every minute of it. High 2. The prince came to her, asking her to dance with him. 3. I went for a walk with my dog following me. 4. Listen to this music with your books closed.

48 주어가 다르거나 관용적인 분사구문 1. The boy ran to me, his hair flying in the wind. 2. Judging from my experience, you should not do it. High

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구문 Practice Basic A 다음 문장의 의미가 통하도록 서로 연결하시오.

457 Done regularly, •

ⓐ with her health much improved.

458 Left to herself, •

ⓑ the girl began to cry out.

459 Mary left the hospital •

ⓒ even small amounts of exercise will be helpful.

460 Being poor at fielding the ball, •

ⓓ looking out the window of the train.

461 Having lost all his money •

ⓔ he had to give up his plan.

462 She was in the seat, •

ⓕ I was only a pinch hitter.

B 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

463 [Surprising / Surprised], I decided to cancel the event.

464 [Be / Being] sick, I could not take part in the seminar.

465 The rain [begin / beginning] to fall, we entered the cabin.

466 Delia was sitting on the bench [wait / waiting] for the school bus.

467 The mother was wide awake all night, [worrying / to worry] about her son.

468 [Experienced / Having experienced] a similar accident, he understands Amy’s pain.

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C 다음 괄호 안의 단어를 어법상 바르게 고치시오.

469 Surprisingly, she could walk in a straight line with her eyes (close).

470 (Carry) to the shore in his uncle’s arms, the boy could not even look at him.

471 (Judge) from his appearance, she was afraid that he might not be a very trustworthy person.

472 Parents often entrap their kids, (put) them in positions to lie and testing their honesty unnecessarily.

D 다음 문장에서 어법상 틀린 부분을 찾아 바르게 고치시오.

473 We tried to be loved, never realized that this was conditional, thus false love.

474 Work in Rome and Florence in the early 1500s, he produced both religious and worldly art.

475 Boring with the virtual world, people seem to miss the old days when they played games face to face with friends.

476 Fueling by a lifelong love of literature, Susan has devoted herself to providing people with more access to literature.

477 One of the best ways to write a book is to write it as quickly as possible, gotten your thoughts onto paper without regard to style.

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구문 Practice Advanced A 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

478 Deep into the Amazon Basin, the remote community of Pavacachi can only be reached by airplane, [following / followed] by a trip down the river in a motorized canoe and a half-hour walk down an open jungle path.

479 The peculiar sounds of laughter have a direct effect on the listener, [inducing / induced] positive emotional arousal that mirrors the emotional state of the laugher, perhaps by activating certain specialized brain circuits. 모의평가

B 다음 문장에서 어법상 틀린 부분을 찾아 바르게 고치시오.

480 Parents often believe that they are providing help to their children when they constantly correct and criticize them, being assumed that they will grow from these remarks. 모의평가

481 The research found that reading the more challenging version of poetry increases activity in the right hemisphere of the brain, helped the readers to reflect on and reevaluate their own experiences in light of what they have read. 모의평가

482 Comparing to the control group, those who expressed gratitude not only became more appreciative of life as a whole but also enjoyed higher levels of well-being and positive emotions: they felt happier, more determined, more energetic, and more optimistic.

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UNIT 20 부사 역할을 하는 절I

49 시간을 나타내는 접속사 1. As soon as I have the information, I’ll tell you. 2. I didn’t realize the importance of education until I left college. 3. The world has changed considerably since the smartphone was developed.

50 이유를 나타내는 접속사 1. I can’t hire you since you don’t have adequate qualifications. 2. Now that he has left home, we’ve got much extra space. 3. As it was hidden by trees, the cabin was difficult to find.

51 조건을 나타내는 접속사 1. If others do not accept our values, we become annoyed. 2. I bought two bottles of wine in case one was not enough. 3. A moving object continues to move unless some force is used to stop it. 4. The place does not matter as long as you remove yourself from distractions.

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구문 Practice Basic A 다음 네모 안에서 문맥상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

483 I’ve been so alone [since / unless] you went away.

484 You’d better take your keys [in case / until] I’m out.

485 I didn’t know about it [now that / until] I got a letter from him.

486 [As / If] I turned around, I accidentally hit her in the face.

487 [If / In case] we have been given something, we are hesitant to give it up.

B 다음 빈칸에 알맞은 말을 <보기>에서 골라 문장을 완성하시오.

<보기>
 a. now that

c.

until

b. as long as

d.

as soon as

e.

unless


488 You’ll miss the train ________ you walk more quickly.

489 The student didn’t notice his mistakes ________ he talked with his teacher.

490 I’m going to have a shower ________ I get home.

491 ________ he figured this out, he started to use this information to his advantage.

492 Nothing will change ________ the workers continue to accept these bad conditions.

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C 다음 문장의 의미가 통하도록 서로 연결하시오.

<보기> a.

anything else you’re interested in is not going to happen.

b. Fourier and other scholars accompanied the expedition. c.

I propose that our children focus on areas in which they excel.

493 Since people generally like what they are good at, ________________________________. 494 When Napoleon invaded Egypt in 1798, ________________________________. 495 If you can’t breathe the air and drink the water, ________________________________. D 다음 문장에서 밑줄 친 부분을 문맥상 바르게 고치시오.

496 Unless there is a threat to its supply, water can quickly become the only thing that matters.

497 If it manufactured its first car in 1955, Korea has grown to be the sixth largest automobile producer in the world.

498 In case you know the health and environmental concerns, you can make up your own mind about whether you want to eat farmed salmon or not.

499 Until we know the worst that can happen, we can face the fear directly and work out more sensibly what to do.

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구문 Practice Advanced A 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

500 The knowhow to be empathetic is central to practical wisdom: unless we [can / can’t] understand how others think and feel, it’s difficult to know the right thing to do. 모의평가

501 [Now / Now that] the economy is characterized more by the exchange of information than by hard goods, geographical centrality has been replaced by attempts to create a sense of cultural centrality. 수능

502 The reason that we keep making the same error repeatedly is that associations form between the ideas in the chain of thoughts and become firmer each time they are used, [by / until] finally the connections are so well established that the chain is very difficult to break. 모의평가

B 다음 문장에서 밑줄 친 부분을 어법상 바르게 고치시오. 
 503 Because of African American culture appreciates a greater flexibility of gender roles and accepts a broader range of gender-appropriate behaviors, African American women are not as bound as white women by gender role stereotypes. 모의평가

504 If you consider not only the size of the stage but also the theater’s structure which affects how audiences appreciate the performance, you can’t produce the sound for musicals successfully.

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UNIT 21 부사 역할을 하는 절II

52 양보나 양태를 나타내는 접속사 1. Although〔Though〕they did see someone, they can’t be sure it was her. 2. Happy as she was, there was something missing. 3. Leave the books as they are. 4. He talked to me as if〔though〕nothing had happened. High

53 목적을 나타내는 접속사 1. I purchased a dictionary so that I could learn more. 2. They have to work together in order that agreement may be reached on this issue.

54 결과를 나타내는 접속사 1. Our views varied so greatly that it was impossible to agree. 2. This issue was of such importance that we must not overlook it. High

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구문 Practice Basic A 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오. 505 She acted [while / as if] she had heard nothing.

506 Try [as / so] he might, he couldn’t move the refrigerator.

507 She had changed [so / too] greatly that I could hardly recognize her.

508 [While / That] he is willing to help, he does not have much time available.

509 I have been working hard so [that / what] my family can enjoy an easy life.

B 다음 빈칸에 알맞은 말을 <보기>에서 골라 문장을 완성하시오. <보기> 
 a. so that

c.

although

b. such

d.

as if


510 I can remember our wedding _______ it were yesterday.

511 _______ children appear to be just playing, they truly gain knowledge of the world.

512 I studied biology in university so _______ I could get work that took me outside.

513 The souvenirs are _______ expensive that I can’t afford to buy as many as I want.

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514 Speculation has reached _______ a pitch that a decision will have to be made immediately. C 다음 문장의 의미가 통하도록 서로 연결하시오.

515 We think and talk about time •

ⓐ our eyes wander, seeking the motion.

516 We arrived at the theater early •

ⓑ that it made the men cutting it down look tiny.

517 The tree was so big •

ⓒ so that we could have time to eat before the show.

518 Try as we might to concentrate on the video, •

ⓓ as if it were money.

D 다음 문장에서 어법상 틀린 부분을 찾아 바르게 고치시오.

519 The human emotional system is set up so what it is very hard for a person to be happy while alone in life.

520 The glasses through which you see the world are too familiar that you seldom notice that you are wearing them.

521 In astronomy, a single authority got so a high regard that alternative views could not get a hearing.

522 
 Laughter is such infectious that when we hear someone laughing, it is almost impossible not to feel cheerful and begin laughing too.

A 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

523 If the solar surface, not the center, were as hot as this, the radiation emitted into space would be [so / too] great that the whole Earth would be vaporized within a few minutes.

524 In those days people in France spoke [so / such] a variety of local dialects that it was almost impossible for someone from Paris to understand someone from Marseilles.

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525 [Despite / While] other Latin American nations suffered exploitation from outside the region and developed societies split by class conflict between rich and poor, Costa Rica developed an agricultural economy made up of numerous small farmers. 모의평가

B 다음 문장에서 어법상 틀린 부분을 찾아 바르게 고치시오.

526 The children who watched the television produced more words that repeated the original story although they were allowed to speak freely about what they watched while the children who listened to the radio producing more imaginative responses.

527 Confronted by all the brands of drain cleaner in the store, I can pick the cheapest one, but a clogged drain is so a nuisance that I don’t want to buy a product of bad quality.

528 When we learn to say no to what we don’t feel like doing in order what we may say yes to our true self, we feel empowered, and our relationships with others improve. 수능

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UNIT 22 부사 역할을 하는 복합관계사절

55 양보 의미를 나타내는 복합관계대명사 1. Whichever he chooses, I’m sure that he will do very well. 2. I can’t relate to them, whoever they may be. 3. Whomever she spoke to, she was always polite. 4. Whatever he decided, his family was right behind him. cf. Our parents buy whatever they want regardless of the expense.

56 시간, 장소, 양보의 의미를 나타내는 복합관계부사 1. He sang for Mary whenever she wanted. 2. Whenever my parents go out, they take their pet dog with them. 3. Take information wherever you can get it. 4. Wherever you live, you are part of an ecosystem. 5. However hard I worked, I couldn’t learn it. cf. You’ll be surprised to see how hard I have worked.

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구문 Practice Basic A 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오. 529 [Where / Wherever] you go, you can achieve your goal.

530 I don’t want to meet them, [who / whoever] they are.

531 [What / Whatever] may happen, we should prepare for it.

532 [What / Whatever] she may promise, I don’t trust her at all.

533 [Which / Whichever] they choose, we must accept their decision.

534 [How / However] hard I tried to calm him down, it only got worse.

B 다음 밑줄 친 부분을 우리말로 바르게 해석하시오. 535 However many people come, we’ll be ready to greet them.

536 Whichever the researchers found, it is not important for the present.

537 I will see you whenever you need my advice or help.

538 Whenever someone spoke, it was always dry and meaningless.

539

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If you believe in something strongly, you can make things change whatever your age is.

C 다음 문장의 의미가 통하도록 괄호 안에 주어진 말을 바르게 배열하시오.

540 (he, wherever, was), he spent most of his time helping people in need.

541 After that night,I started carrying a pencil with me (wherever, went, I).

542 (identified, whenever, any problems, are), appropriate feedback is provided.

543 (tried to, restrain, myself, I, however hard), my eyes clouded over with warm tears.

544 We should be ready to fight for the right to tell the truth (it, is, whenever, threatened).

D 다음 빈칸에 알맞은 말을 <보기>에서 골라 문장을 완성하시오. <보기>
 a. wherever

c.

whatever

b. however

d.

whenever

e.

whomever


545 ________ their type is, heroes are selfless people who perform extraordinary acts.

546 What we want is to be always in touch with ________ is important to us.

547 I hope you will be able to reach your goal ________ you set it.

548 ________ you may go, you won’t find a better place than your home.

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549 ________ qualified a person may be, he will not be able to make the best use of his qualifications without concentration.

구문 Practice Advanced A 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

550 [Whichever / Wherever] we turn up records and artifacts, we usually discover that in every culture, some people were preoccupied with measuring the passage of time. 모의평가

551 [Whatever / Whenever] an Olympic swimmer sets a new world record, it inspires others to bring out the best within them and go beyond that achievement to set new records of human performance. 수능

552 Apart from minor differences, all top-class athletes, [however / whatever] their sport may be, make use of precise techniques based on the mechanical principles that control human movement.

553 [However / Whatever] desirable it might be in other markets, perfect competition in health and medical care should not be the goal of any health care policy, considering its special characteristics.

B 다음 문장에서 어법상 틀린 부분을 찾아 바르게 고치시오.

554 The authors have tried to eliminate traces of gender-biased attitudes whichever they were detected, and a definite attempt has been made to balance female and male references. 모의평가

555 In a competitive business environment, however the medium used for the marketing message to the consumers may be, nothing is more incorrect and damaging for business than creating a poor impression.

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17 ~ 22ACTUAL TRAINING IV

1 밑줄 친 부분이 가리키는 대상이 나머지 넷과 다른 것은? Let us say that a salesperson named Hamid visits his doctor, complaining of severe splitting headaches. The doctor may try giving medication to help ① him. Hamid might feel better whenever he takes the medicine. However, at other times,② he is plagued by the headaches. The doctor may then want to explore Hamid’s emotional health. Hamid may eventually reveal to ③ him that he feels angry with the way his boss is treating him at the office. Hamid is then encouraged to accept ④ his angry feeling and to find ways in which to discuss his feelings with his boss in a positive way. If he is able to resolve his anger or even accept its presence, it is likely that ⑤ his headaches will also be resolved.

2 다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? Cedar trees haven’t always grown along the coast of British Columbia. Ten thousand years ago most of the coast was covered in glaciers. Nothing grew there then. As the glaciers retreated, plants and animals moved north into this area. The animals just walked. But how did the plants and trees move north? A cedar tree produces cones. Each cone contains many seeds, and each tiny seed has the capability to grow into a large tree. Cedar trees that had survived south of the glaciers moved north as their seeds were blown north by the wind. As the temperatures warmed up and soil formed after the glaciers retreated, cedar seeds started to land in places suitable for growing. Eventually, the conditions were right along the coast of B.C. for these seeds to grow into ancient trees. ① Life Cycle of a Cedar Tree ② Voices from Cedar Trees ③ How Cedar Trees Came North? ④ Why Do Cedar Trees Matter to Us? ⑤ Cedar Trees: An Indicator of Climate Change

3 potlatch 에 관한 다음 글의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은? In 1884,the potlatch was banned by the government of Canada. A potlatch is a sacred cultural feast that can go on for days. Stories are told, ceremonial mask dances are performed and the host family gives gifts to everyone who attends. The wealth and status of the host family is judged not by how much they have but by how much they give away. Potlatches are held to mark major events like births, deaths, the transfer of names and other important community business. These gatherings are so important to First Nations that even after they were banned, people would travel great distances to hold potlatches in secret. Those who got caught were put in jail, and their ceremonial masks were taken away and sold to museums. It wasn’t until 1951 that First Nations were legally able to hold potlatches once again. *First Nations 캐나다 원주민 ① 1884년에 캐나다 정부에 의해 금지되었다. ② 주최한 가족의 부와 지위는 주는 양에 의해 결정된다. ③ 중요한 공동체의 일을 기념하기 위해 개최되기도 한다. ④ 금지된 이후에도 비밀스럽게 지속됐다.

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⑤ 금지 기간 중에 개최한 사람을 실제로 처벌하지는 않았다.

4 다음 글에서 필자가 주장하는 바로 가장 적절한 것은? Trees that are cut down to make paper once provided homes to birds and wildlife. They held water in the soil and put oxygen into the air. All this was lost so that paper could be made. Do we really need to use so much paper? No doubt we will continue to need some paper, but we could learn to make do with less so that more trees can be left standing. Think about all the paper you use. Are there simple ways to use less? For the paper you absolutely need, could you use recycled paper? Could you organize your school to print less? Could you wrap gifts in colorful pieces of newspaper, magazines or recycled fabric instead of buying gift wrap? ① 종이 사용을 줄여야 한다. ② 포장재 사용을 법으로 제한해야 한다. ③ 학교에서 종이 재활용 교육을 강화해야 한다. ④ 불법 벌목 감시를 위한 국제 공조가 필요하다. ⑤ 개인정보 보호를 위해 이면지 활용에 주의해야 한다.

5 글의 흐름으로 보아, 주어진 문장이 들어가기에 가장 적절한 곳은? My experience running in the deep end of a pool confirms the above. For distance runners to increase speed, it is more productive to work on increasing stride length rather than frequency. ( ① ) Increased frequency will result in greater energy usage compared to increased stride length. ( ② ) In pool running, a longer more powerful arm and leg motion is about 6 percent faster than a rapid arm and leg action. ( ③ ) Or alternatively, achieving the same speed of the long powerful arm action with the faster arm action will result in the runner being more tired. ( ④ ) Similarly, in swimming, the stroke length is more important than stroke frequency. ( ⑤ ) A more powerful arm stroke will result in more speed with less energy than an increase in stroke rate.

6 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? Human beings have a natural tendency to __________________. It is part of a larger desire and need to put ourselves in another person’s shoes - to be able to empathize. It is crucial to social interaction and communal living. Psychologists call this theory of mind. A classic 1944 study clearly demonstrated this tendency. The psychologists showed people an animation of a pair of triangles and a circle moving around a square and asked the participants what was happening. The subjects described the scene as if the shapes had intentions and motivations, for example, “The circle is chasing the triangles.” Many studies since then have confirmed the human predilection to make characters and narratives out of whatever we see in the world around us. Some psychologists believe that the imaginary world of a story may serve as a proving ground for vital social skills. *predilection 매우 좋아함 ① help the weak ② cast a critical eye ③ obey the authority ④ make stories out of everything ⑤ overestimate their achievements

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CHAPTER V 의미 파악이 필요한 필수 구문 UNIT 23 동격 구문

57 <(대)명사+(대)명사> 형태의 동격 1. My friend Bill came to see me, a week after I was out of the hospital. 2. The whole world knows that we Koreans are hard worker.

58 전치사 of, 콤마, 대시로 연결된 동격 1. Joe can see that, through comedy, he can now achieve his dream of being famous. 2. Giorgio Vasari, the Italian painter, architect, and writer, was born in Arezzo in 1511. 3. For many decades, quinine - a white powder taken from the bark of a tree . was used in the treatment of malaria.

59 that절로 연결된 동격 1. The idea that all people are selfish is wrong. 2. Eventually we came to the conclusion that we should stick with what we’re good at.

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구문 Practice Basic A 다음 밑줄 친 부분과 동격인 부분에 밑줄을 치시오.

556 Like it or not we humans are animals.

557 Mr. Baker, one of my neighbors, will visit my company tomorrow.

558 The claim that we have a duty to ourselves is conceptually incoherent.

559 I really liked the idea of having two different forms with different play styles.

560 In 1957, the Soviet Union launched Sputnik 2-the second man-made satellite-into orbit.

B 다음 밑줄 친 부분을 우리말로 바르게 해석하시오.

561 Paris, the capital of France, is an attractive city.

562 Have you looked into the possibility of using plastic parts instead of metal?

563 The opinion that art should have nothing to do with politics is itself a political attitude.

564 In 1958, choreographer Alvin Ailey formed the American Dance Theater, a company that brought fame to many dancers.

565

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In Williamsburg, the capital of Virginia until 1780, people conducted themselves much like the gentry in London. C 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

566 We made the claim [that / which] we had found the answer.

567 Cafe Mozart, one of my favorites, [is / are] about 3 blocks away on H Street.

568 George Washington, [the / as the] first president of the United States, was a general in the army.

569 The question [that / whether] or not we care about the environment is no longer a philosophical one.

570 When the mosquitoes became intolerable,we gave up the idea [of / that] sleeping on the boat and went back to our house.

571 Due to the fact [that / which] they didn’t read English, the prisoners were unaware of what they were signing.

D 다음 문장의 의미가 통하도록 괄호 안에 주어진 말을 바르게 배열하시오.

572 The invention of the telephone was the beginning of a few industries (we, that, for granted, modern people, take).

573 The decline in newspaper reading has been (due to, doing, more, the fact, that, we are) of our newspaper reading online.

574 Many writers are paralyzed by the thought (competing, they are, that, with, everybody else) who is trying to write and presumably doing it better.

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구문 Practice Advanced A 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

575 However, people are unaware of this phenomenon and live under the illusion [that / which] when they are experiencing time pressure, they are also more creative. 모의평가

576 Chanho Park, one of the few Korean pitchers in Major League Baseball over the past hundred years, [having made / made] his debut in 1996 as a starting pitcher.

577 Sometimes circles for self-advancement and self-protection show the image of shared fondness, but they are based on the idea [of / that] each of its members is valuable according to what they have achieved.

B 다음 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것을 찾아 바르게 고치시오.

578 The fact ①which information is conveyed in this high-tech manner somehow adds authority to ②what is conveyed,③when in fact the Internet is a global conveyer of unfiltered, unedited, untreated information. 수능

579 ①Though it wasn’t the soundest sleep we’ve ever had, the experience ②that sleeping under the stars in the middle of the desert ③is something everyone should do at least once in their lives.

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UNIT 24 비교 구문

60 최상급 의미를 나타내는 비교 구문 1. Nothing is more precious than liberty. (= Nothing is as〔so〕 precious as liberty.) 2. Novelist David Wray is as qualified as any other man to write about the Lancashire language. (= Novelist David Wray is more qualified than any other man to write about the Lancashire language.) 3. Her suggestion was second to none, and the manager accepted it eagerly.

61 관용적으로 쓰이는 비교 구문 1. The more timely and precise the warnings are, the more lives and property can be saved. 2. We are not perfect, but our culture is superior to others’. 3. Google Chrome was first released in 2008 and has since then become more and more popular. 4. This picture is three times as expensive as that one. (= This picture is three times more expensive than that one.)

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구문 Practice Basic A 다음 문장에서 비교 표현을 찾아 밑줄을 치시오.

580 The older we grow, the weaker our memory becomes.

581 The Internet is providing easier and easier ways of learning English.

582 Nothing in the world is more fulfilling than seeing how happy a client is.

583 His service was second to none. fast, effective and excellent value for the money.

584 For people in their 20s, Narcissistic Personality Disorder is three times higher than the generation that’s 65 or older.

B 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

585 The bar and restaurant are as good [as / than] any other in Argassi.

586 There’s [anything / nothing] more valuable than giving an opportunity to explore yourself.

587 No other animal will show its pleasure [as / more] vocally than a cat that is purring.

588 Internet telephone services are still inferior [than / to] traditional phone connections.

589

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Children like snacking while watching TV and they sometimes prefer watching TV to [go / going] out and having fun. C 다음 문장에서 어법상 틀린 부분을 찾아 바르게 고치시오.

590 James is very bossy and always nags at workers junior than him.

591 People see themselves six times attractive in the mirror than they really are.

592 Nothing could explain the history graphically well than the World War I posters.

593 Nothing in the world gives people much pleasure than having a happy family.

594 According to a study, the more active kids are, the best they do on standardized English and math tests.

595 Despite having the lowest rate of volunteering, seniors aged 75 and older gave more hours on average than any other age groups.

D 다음 문장의 의미가 통하도록 괄호 안에 주어진 말을 바르게 배열하시오.

596 Today, (and, parents, more, more, their shoulders, shrug), saying it may be something special.

597 The greater the need for specialization, (the need, the greater, it, to give, a solid basis) within the general culture.

598 (as, no, other, is, strong, material), as durable, as weather resistant, or as long-lasting with lower maintenance as fiberglass.

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구문 Practice Advanced A 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

599 A positive economic profit means the owners are using their resources in a way [superior / more] superior to any other use of the resources outside the firm.

600 Anxiety also sabotages academic performance of all kinds: 126 different studies of more than 36,000 people found that the more prone to anxieties a person is, the [poor / poorer] his or her academic performance is. 수능

601 The more effectively parents communicate that authority, the more [secure / securely] the child feels, and the better able he is to move away from them toward a life of his own. 수능

602 People who opt in to an app’s push notifications open that app five times more often than [that / those] who don’t receive push notifications, and they are twice as likely to keep that app on their device.

B 다음 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것을 찾아 바르게 고치시오.

603 Consider that making paper ①uses trees that could be absorbing carbon dioxide and the paper bag making process also ②results in three times more water pollutants ③as making plastic bags. 수능

604 We are generally too busy trying to squeeze more and more activities into ①less and less time; therefore, we fail to enjoy potential sources of happiness ②what may be all around us, so ③to enjoy the richness that life has to offer, we need to take our time. 수능

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UNIT 25 도치 구문

62 부사(구), 목적어, 보어가 문두에 위치한 경우 1. In the doorway stood her father. 2. What she said I couldn’t believe at that time. 3. So important was salt that it was often traded for gold.

63 (준)부정어(구)가 문두에 위치한 경우 1. Not a word had she written since the exam had started. 2. Little did I dream that Brian would be famous. 3. Hardly had everybody taken their seats when Dr. Wilson began his lecture.

64 관용적 도치 1. Animal lovers have rights, but so does the rest of society. 2. I’ve never done it, and neither have any of my friends. 3. The council never wanted the new supermarket to be built, nor did the residents.

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구문 Practice Basic A 다음 우리말과 의미가 같도록 빈칸에 알맞은 말을 쓰시오.

605 그가 가자마자 그들은 그를 흉보기 시작했다. = ________ had he gone when they began to speak ill of him.

606 그녀가 사과할 때에만 난 다시 그녀에게 말할 것이다. = ________ when she apologizes to me will I speak to her again.

607 아버지가 나를 사랑하셨던 것처럼, 나도 너를 매우 사랑한다. = As Father loved me, ________ do I love you very much.

608 우주는 적대적이지 않으며, 우호적이지도 않다. = The universe is not hostile, ________ is it friendly.

609 내 남동생을 그녀에게 소개해 줄 때까지 그녀는 한마디도 하지 않았다. = ________ a word did she speak until I introduced my brother to her.

B 다음 문장의 의미가 통하도록 괄호 안의 말을 바르게 배열하시오.

610 Rarely (his wife, he, does, tell) what is on his mind.

611 Between the two wine glasses (empty box, was, a small).

612 For some time after the explosion Jack couldn’t hear, and (could, he, see, neither).

613 So successful (business, was, her, that) she was able to retire at the age of 50.

614 They have never done this, nor (do, they, to do it, seem likely) in the near future.

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C 다음 두 문장의 의미가 같을 때, 빈칸에 알맞은 말을 쓰시오.

615 A girl named Munira and her big brother Amin, the fisherman, lived on the island. = On the island _____________________ and her big brother Amin, the fisherman.

616 She hardly has any customers since no one wears those types of hats anymore. = Hardly _____________________ any customers since no one wears those types of hats anymore.

617 Weather conditions were so dangerous that all mountain roads were closed. = So _____________________ weather conditions that all mountain roads were closed.

618 She was able to complete the report by the deadline only in this way. = Only _____________________ she able to complete the report by the deadline.

D 다음 문장에서 어법상 틀린 부분을 찾아 바르게 고치시오.

619 So popular the play is that the theater is full every night.

620 No longer was the shores densely wooded, nor could I see wildlife anywhere.

621 Little he knew that he was fueling his son with a passion that would last for a lifetime.

622 In the center of the room were a table with two old silver candlesticks and two glasses of red wine on it.

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구문 Practice Advanced A 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

623 On the wall of our dining room [was / did] a framed quotation: “Let me live in a house by the side of the road and be a friend to man.” 수능

624 Rarely [is / does] a computer better than a human at keeping track of the various geographical and environmental factors at work.

625 Nobody can live like Goldmund, wandering aimlessly with no real responsibility, nor [do / can] they live like Narziss, detaching themselves completely from human feelings.

B 다음 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것을 찾아 바르게 고치시오.

626 The lights in the room dimmed twice and then ①went out, and then I had visions of mummies coming toward us with cold, dead hands, and when out of the dark ②a vague voice came, “Who’s there?”, I couldn’t talk and neither ③could my sister talk. 수능

627 His urge for self-preservation will not weaken, nor ①will that of the illiterate peoples of the world, and in that overpowering will to live ②anchored the belief in supernaturalism, which ③is absolutely universal among known peoples. 모의평가

628 So central a part ①has stories played in every society in history ②that we take it for granted ③that the great storytellers, such as Homer or Shakespeare or Dickens, should be among the most famous people who have ever lived.

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UNIT 26 가정을 나타내는 구문

65 가정의 의미를 나타내는 should 1. I insist that the work should be done at once. 2. The doctor suggested that he (should) remain in bed for a week. 3. Her body language suggested that she tried to do something dangerous. 4. It is essential that every child should have the same educational opportunities.

66 if가 없는 가정법 1. Without your help, I would not pass the exam. (= But for your help, I would not pass the exam.) (= If it were not for your help, I would not pass the exam.) 2. I wish I could go fishing with you sometime. 3. Had it not rained last night, the road would not have been so muddy this morning. 4. It was so quiet that he could have heard a waterdrop fall in the lake.

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구문 Practice Basic A 다음 괄호 안에 주어진 동사를 알맞은 형태로 바꿔 쓰시오.

629 Her father insisted that Emily ____________ (go) to college.

630 All the evidence suggested she ____________ (steal) the money.

631 I t is necessary that the problem ____________ (be) solved right away.

632 It is natural that everyone ____________ (succeed) according to his or her talents.

633 John was very upset, so I suggested we ____________ (postpone) the discussion.

B 다음 우리말과 같도록 빈칸에 알맞은 말을 쓰시오. 634 나도 물속에서 여름 내내 보낼 수 있으면 좋겠어. = I ________ I could spend all summer in the water, too.

635 너의 도움이 있다면, 우리는 그 문제를 풀 수 있을 텐데. = ________ your help, we could solve the question.

636 내가 나타나지 않았더라면, 그는 결국 굶주림으로 죽었을 것이다. = ________ I come along, he would have eventually died of starvation.

637 그의 기부가 없다면, Faren 은 평생 병석에 누워 있을 것이다. = ________ it not for donations from him, Faren would be confined to bed for life.

638 James 없이는, 아이들은 이 신나는 스포츠를 즐길 수 없었을 것이다. = ________ James, children would never have enjoyed this exciting sport.

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C 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

639 He insisted that his son [go / went] to a special school for the gifted where he could develop his talent.

640 This suggests that much of the value of art for a child [consist / consists] in making it.

641 This observation suggests that dogs [be / were] used for companionship and protection.

642 
 Were it not for these insects, it would [be / have been] one of the most valuable timber trees.

643 When I heard a cheer from the audience after I sang, I wished Kathy could [hear / have heard] it, too.

D 다음 문장에서 어법상 틀린 부분을 찾아 바르게 고치시오.

644 Did the exhibition taken place a week earlier, all this would have been pleasing to see.

645 He recommended Internet service providers blocked Internet addresses used by the hackers.

646 It’s important that the media provides us with diverse views, so we can choose the best options.

647 The jobs that most companies are doing with information today would be impossible a few years ago.

648 Some Korean artists suggest that the process of making hanji, hand-made Korean paper, reflect human life.

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구문 Practice Advanced A 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

649 [Was / Were] it not for the responsible press and media that monitor the government, investigate social issues and corruption, and discuss the future of our community , democracy couldn’t be maintained.

650 I would remind you that there will come a day when all the misery, fear, injustice, and pain of the present transform themselves into moments of pure bliss, [was / were] you to ask me to offer you a word of comfort.

651 Rational models of decision-making suggest that the most reliable way of finding the best product [is / be] to carefully analyze the different brands on display using the information provided by consumer organization. 수능

B 다음 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것을 찾아 바르게 고치시오.

652 
 The latest findings suggest that maintaining good social relations ①depend on two complementary processes: being aware of the needs of others and ②being willing to make adjustments when their needs are not ③being accommodated. 수능

653 Leaving cookie boxes in the camper over the winter would not have been so bad ①had it not been for the mice, but mice ②were attracted by the food and they shredded all the curtains, screens, and had we let our friend borrow the camper, she ③would discovered the boxes before the mice did. 모의평가

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UNIT 27 등위접속사와 비교 표현에 의한 병렬 구문

67 단어와 단어의 병렬 연결 1. High school students like to play baseball, soccer, and volleyball. 2. The charity tried to help poor people in Africa but sent only some clothes to them. 3. Trying without success is better than not trying at all.

68 구와 구의 병렬 연결 1. Plenty of sleep is as important as regular exercise. 2. He deals with sorrow by accepting it and letting go of it. 3. Driving through the countryside and talking to the people, Susan began to understand their lifestyle. 4. He wants to watch TV or (to) listen to some music.

69 절과 절의 병렬 연결 1. I thought she was so talkative, but it was a great mistake. 2. She said (that) she loved lemon juice and that she drank a lot of it every day.

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구문 Practice Basic A 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

654 Everyone looked happy and [confident / confidently] on hearing the news.

655 This wind may last only a few hours, but it sometimes [last / lasting] a few days.

656 Those who broke the law were punished but not [expel / expelled] from the tribe.

657 Companies know various ways to offer lower prices and to [satisfy / satisfying] customers.

658 Traveling alone during the upcoming vacation will be as meaningful as [read / reading] books for your life.

B 다음 괄호 안의 말을 문장의 알맞은 곳에 넣으시오.

659 We abandoned our relationship with the food we eat we kept it with the people who produce our food. (but)

660 As time passed, I found myself doing better when I concentrated more on improving my language ability, reading books, making friends. (and)

661 Many people rarely behave interpret their experience according to their cultural background. (or)

662 Some students believe that they will be free of their anger if they express it that their tears will release their pain. (and)

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C 등위접속사에 의해 병렬로 연결된 부분에 밑줄을 치시오.

663 You can deny the feelings you are having but cannot stop them from coming.

664 The simplified views compel us to look at them in a new way and to discover their inner essence.

665 One possibility is that drivers adjust to temporal regularities in music and that their speed is influenced accordingly.

666 A sense of self-worth, on the other hand, provides enjoyment when you are dealing with various kinds of individuals and talking with them. D 다음 우리말과 의미가 같도록 어법상 틀린 부분을 찾아 바르게 고치시오.

667 사람들에게 당신이 그들을 믿고 있다는 것을 알려주고 그들이 행동하는 것을 허용해줌으로써 그들에게 권한을 주어 라. = Empower people by letting them know that you believe in them and allows them to take action.

668 대부분의 선생님들은 학교에 대해 약간의 불평이 있었고 그러한 불평은 신입생들로부터 나왔다는 것을 알아차렸다. = Most teachers noticed that there were some complaints about the school that they came from the freshmen.

669 행복한 사람이 되기 위해서, 여러분은 가능한 한 진심으로 다른 사람을 이해하고 최대한 현명해지려고 노력해야 한다. = To be a happy man, you should try to understand others as sincerely as possible and being as wise as you can be.

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구문 Practice Advanced A 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

670 Teach yourself to use your camera in a way that respects your ongoing experiences, by truly looking at things and [noticing / to notice] what is beautiful and meaningful. 수능

671 Although praise may encourage a child to continue an activity while an adult is watching, he is less likely to continue the activity when the adult leaves or [repeats / to repeat] the activity in the future. 수능

672 Even the large, so-called ‘liberal’ American media have admitted that they have not always been watchdogs for the public interest, [and / and that] their own coverage on some major issues “looks strikingly one-sided at times.” 수능

B 다음 괄호 안의 등위접속사를 문장의 알맞은 곳에 넣으시오.

673 Fast muscle fibers are cells that can contract more quickly and powerfully than slow muscle fibers fatigue much more easily; they function best for short bursts of intense activity, like weight lifting or sprinting. (but) 수능

674 When we suddenly turn our belly button toward a door or simply away from someone, we subconsciously send the signal that we want out of the conversation perhaps even out of the interaction. (and)

675 The spread of prosperity, the single-family home, the invention of computers have all made it possible for us to live private lives unimaginable to previous generations. (and) 모의평가

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UNIT 28 상관접속사에 의한 병렬 구문

70 not A but B, not because A but because B 1. The most important thing in the Olympics is not to win but to participate. 2. It was not I but they who were responsible for it. 3. He failed the test not because he was unlucky but because he didn’t study hard.

71 not only A but (also) B, B as well as A 1. He not only told a lie yesterday but (also) put the blame on us. 2. He put the blame on us as well as told a lie yesterday. 3. Not only you, but also he is eagerly waiting for the movie.

72 either〔neither〕 A or〔nor〕 B, both A and B 1. She put it either on the desk or in the drawer. 2. Her hobby is neither taking a photo nor listening to music. 3. Either the CEO or his secretaries are able to attend the meeting. 4. Both the teacher and the student like the festival.

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구문 Practice Basic A 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

676 I think either you or John [were / was] in charge of the sports equipment.

677 It is not the students but the teacher that [are / is] going to visit the museum.

678 Yesterday at the meeting Jennifer seemed both nervous and [impatient / impatiently].

679 My girlfriend as well as I [like / likes] to go camping even during winter.

B 다음 우리말과 의미가 같도록 알맞은 상관접속사를 쓰시오.

680 공원 건립에 대한 그의 새로운 계획은 취소된 것이 아니라 연기되었다는 것이 재확인되었다. = It was reconfirmed that his new plan about building a park was ________ canceled ________ postponed.

681 회의에 참석한 모든 사람들이 채식주의자이기 때문에, 그들은 고기도 생선도 먹지 않는다. = Since all the people attending the meeting are vegetarians, they eat ________ meat ________ fish.

682 그 자문 위원은 회사가 당면한 위협뿐만 아니라 회사의 결점까지도 분석할 것이다. = The consultant will analyze the company’s defects ________ ________ ________ the threats that it faces.

683 우리가 개인적으로나 사회적으로 직면하고 있는 주된 문제 중 하나는 단순화한 사고이다. = One of the major problems we face ________ as individuals ________ as a society is simplistic thinking.

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C 다음 문장에서 어법상 틀린 부분을 찾아 바르게 고치시오.

684 The tests are designed not to show what you have learned at school, but measured your ability to learn.

685 Neither the projector in the conference room nor the wireless mikes at the office was available for the promotion.

686 I always warm up by doing some light stretching before doing exercise,and doing this prepares me mentally as well as physical to perform my workout.

687 The pope is loved by people all around the world not because he is the pope but also he helps the disadvantaged in our society.

688 They also often stored tubers in cold areas and either replanted cuttings immediately or keeping them dry until the next spring.

D 다음 문장의 의미가 통하도록 괄호 안에 주어진 말을 바르게 배열하시오.

689 You should remember that (magical power, nor, legal authority, neither) is stated in these sentences.

690 Climate change may not only force (of oil producing areas, increase, the shutting down, but also) the possibility of exploration in areas of the Arctic through the reduction in the ice cover.

691 The expedition to Everest attempted the mountain from Tibetan side - (but because, it presented the most obvious weakness, not because) the Tibetan government opened its borders to foreigners.

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구문 PRACTICE ADVANCED

A 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

692 Studies have found that intense programs of strength training can help even weak older people double their strength, as well as [enable / enabled] them to walk faster and climb stairs more easily. 수능

693 One of the reasons I have been able to accomplish much and keep growing personally is that I have not only set aside time to reflect, [also / but] I have separated myself from distractions for short period of time. 모의평가

694 Some historians believe that Rome fell not because Christianity weakened the fighting spirit of the Romans, but [because / because of] high officials including Roman emperors were corrupted and didn’t care about what they should do for the country.

B 다음 문장에서 어법상 틀린 부분을 찾아 바르게 고치시오.

695 In the beginning of telephone conversations, voice as well as verbal clues play important roles in identifying the caller.

696 The governor and many congressmen understood that constructing a new airport was not only important for the people in South Dakota but also imperatively for the local economy.

697 Many species of trees are now endangered, including mahogany and teak, and both a variety of wild animals in tropical rainforest and the quality of their living has been severely influenced as a result of continuous deforestation since 1990.

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UNIT 29 강조 구문과 부정 구문

73 강조 구문 1. Perhaps it is you that〔who〕should be ashamed. 2. It was her voice that〔which〕brought his eyes open. 3. It was in 1699 that〔when〕this country’s capital was moved.

74 전체 부정과 부분 부정 1. We saw several cars but none we really liked. 2. I do not know any of the people present at the event. 3. I do not know all of the people present at the event. 4. Not everything can be recycled.

75 이중 부정과 준부정어 1. You cannot go swimming without getting your feet wet. 2. I never see these photos without recollecting my happy school life. 3. There can be hardly anyone who is not moved by some kind of music.

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구문 Practice Basic A <It is〔was〕~ that > 강조 구문을 이용하여 밑줄 친 부분을 강조한 문장을 만드시오.

698 Sylvia is responsible for this failure. → ________________________________. 699 We found the cave by pure accident. → ________________________________.

700 We need to manage not the wildlife but ourselves. → ________________________________.

701 Time lends a charm that brightens up the past. → ________________________________.

B 다음 밑줄 친 부분에 유의하여 주어진 문장을 해석하시오.

702 No one’s instincts are always correct.

703 Distorting reality is not always bad.

704 No ideal or institution has unchanging eternal value.

705 Decisions are rarely made on the basis of pure reason.

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706 Not all interesting discoveries have an obvious application.

707 These days, we cannot spend a day without using electronic devices.

708 All members of the society are not trained from childhood to follow the rule.

C 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

709 It is those explorers, through their unceasing trial and error, [who / which] have paved the way for us to follow.

710 Famous golfer Jack Nicklaus never takes a golf shot [with / without] first thinking out the shot and practicing it in his imagination.

711 The runner has become so relaxed that he is only [bare / barely] aware of the physical act of running.

712 [It / What] is our parents who have given us our sense of right and wrong, our understanding of love, and our knowledge of who we are.

D 다음 문장에서 밑줄 친 부분을 어법상 바르게 고치시오.

713 The raw data of observation rare exhibits explicit regularities.

714 Humans have long been rearranging the earth’s ecology, but they hard understand any of the side effects and unanticipated consequences.

715 We cannot understand the life of a man with having knowledge of the world in which he lived and the great events of his time.

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716 Bald eagles are graceful birds, and that is not until you see one up close that you realize how huge they are.

717 The true mark of heroes lies not necessary in the result of their actions, but in what they are willing to do for others and for their chosen causes.

구문 Practice Advanced A 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

718 People living in regions whose lands are frozen much of the year can [few / seldom] keep trade or communications with the outside world as well as people in milder climates.

719 In my hometown, nobody would buy a melon without feeling it and smelling it; and [anybody / nobody] would dream of buying a chicken without knowing which farm it came from and what it ate. 수능

720 If we want to explain the ways humans are unique and different from other animals, we must accept that most, if not [all / any], differences are in degree, not in kind.

721 Though some people have felt that only the lonely play with imaginary playmates, our research makes it very evident that it is often the highly superior and imaginative child [who / what] invents these creatures. 수능

B 다음 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것을 찾아 바르게 고치시오.

722 Polluting technology is usually cheaper, but since cleaner cars ①are wanted, ② less polluting cars will be produced before long; cars which ③scarce pollute at all could even be made.

723

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Although it is the performance of the hardware (i.e., the highways, pipes, and transmission lines) ①that is of immediate concern following an earthquake, ②that is the loss of services ③that these systems provide that is the real loss to the public. 모의평가

UNIT 30 생략 구문

76 반복을 피하기 위한 생략 1. He put it in a wooden bottle and (he) tossed it overboard. 2. You might think no plants could grow in Antarctica, but they can (grow in Antarctica). 3. You may stay here if you want to (stay here).

77 비교 구문에서의 생략 1. The situation is not as bad as it seems (bad). 2. Your memory can store more information than all the libraries in the world (store information).

78 종속절의 <주어+be동사> 생략 1. We only think when (we are) confronted with a problem. 2. While (I was) waiting at the bus stop, I saw them quarrelling with each other. 3. When (I was) young, I used to sit in this chair for hours. 4. Once (it is) dried, the pulp can be cut into sheets.

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구문 Practice Basic A 다음 문장에서 생략된 표현을 주어진 괄호 안에 쓰시오. 724 She lost it, just as I said she would ( ).

725 The problem is not as hard as you think it is ( ).

726 I decided to sit here and ( ) watch your book bag.

727 People change only when a crisis compels them to ( ).

728 My grandmother is not as healthy as she used to be ( ).

729 We must make changes ourselves and I believe we can ( ).

B 다음 문장에서 생략이 일어난 부분을 찾아 생략된 표현을 써 넣으시오.

730 Direct lighting helps you stay more focused while reading books.

731 Many people are killed, and more people injured each day in car accidents.

732 According to research, a smoker’s skin is 25% thinner than a nonsmoker’s.

733 Workers who have windows near their desks work harder than those who don’t.

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734 We can derive some information from paintings more effectively than we can from words.

735 Memorizing can assure a more thorough knowledge of and intimate connection with the music.

C 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

736 When you have absolutely no use for something, that’s the time to recycle it if you [are / can].

737 The combustion of oxygen that keeps us alive and [active / actively] sends out byproducts called oxygen free radicals.

738 If [left / leaving] to himself without adults’ suggestions of any kind, he will develop as far as he is capable of developing.

739 People with plenty of money are happier than people who don’t have much money [do / are], but the difference is quite small.

740 People take longer to leave a parking spot when another driver is waiting, even though they think they [are not / do not].

D 다음 문장에서 어법상 틀린 부분을 찾아 바르게 고치시오.

741 Kids who watch a lot of TV are more likely to be overweight than those who are not.

742 Online shoppers now take more time to click the “buy” button than they were two years ago.

743 Sightings of meteors, comets, auroras, and so on gave rise to the most incredible stories in the past, as they still are today.

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744 Players at football positions that require a lot of decision-making tend to show lower levels of anger than players at positions that are not.

구문 Practice Advanced A 다음 네모 안에서 어법상 알맞은 말을 고르시오.

745 Russell was returning to Paris for the new term at Cormon’s, hoping to meet his friends, particularly Van Gogh, and [hearing / hear] what had been achieved over the summer.

746 When [asked / asking], “What does a woman need in order to be able to write?” Virginia Woolf responded with a phrase that became the title of one of her books: “A room of one’s own.”

747 If the negative comment, which others make about what you are doing or talking about, is based on a fact, you should listen; if [any / not], then it is only their opinion.

748 When not [carried / carrying] too far, the view that one’s own country is the center of everything serves a useful purpose in that the very existence of a society depends on a fairly high degree of consensus.

B 다음 문장에서 어법상 틀린 부분을 찾아 바르게 고치시오.

749 The English hoped that the American colonies, once establishing, would be able to supply Mediterranean goods such as olives and fruit and reduce England’s dependence on imports from continental Europe. 모 의평가

750 According to research, we are biased and self-serving in our dream interpretations, accepting those that fit in with our pre-existing beliefs or needs and rejecting those that are not.

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ACTUAL TRAINING V

1 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 문맥상 낱말의 쓰임이 적절하지 않은 것은? Imagine your boss has asked you to work for the third weekend in a row, and you want to say No not only because you have plans for a weekend away with your spouse, but for some unknown reason. Your main interests are to get away, to keep your plans, and not to feel ① overworked. But to understand your deeper needs, you need to keep asking yourself what your real interest is in wanting to say no. Beneath the interest in getting away is an interest in ② strengthening your marriage, and beneath that, if you dig deeper, is a basic need for belonging and love. And beneath the interest in keeping your plans is a basic need for ③ autonomy and control over your fate. It pays to dig deep when it comes to ④ covering your interests. The deeper you go, the more likely you are to get a ⑤ firm grasp of what’s required for you to feel happy and fulfilled.

2 다음 글의 요지로 가장 적절한 것은? According to the study, when in a positive mood, our visual cortex takes in more information, while negative moods result in tunnel vision, which means partial loss of vision. The researchers first showed subjects a series of images designed to generate a good, bad or neutral mood. Subjects were then shown an image, featuring a face in the center, surrounded by houses. All the subjects were asked to identify the gender of the person’s face. Little did subjects in a bad mood process the images of face in the surrounding background. However, subjects in a good mood actually took in more information .they saw the central image of a man’s face as well as the surrounding pictures of houses. *visual cortex 뇌의 시각영역 ① 시각은 심리의 변화를 좌우하는 결정적인 요인이다. ② 심리 상태는 받아들이는 정보의 양에 영향을 미친다. ③ 주변의 시선을 의식하지 않는 사람은 보통 쾌활하다. ④ 얼굴은 심리 상태의 변화를 그대로 알려주는 거울이다. ⑤ 긍정적인 사고는 통합적으로 사물을 관찰할 수 있게 한다.

3 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? This is my lifetime lesson: ________________________________. I learned this lesson early from the wellknown and extraordinary successful investor Warren Buffett. Over breakfast one day, he confided in me that in his ability to say No lay the secret to creating his fortune. “I sit there all day and look at investment proposal. I say No, No, No, No, No, No .until I see one that is exactly what I am looking for. And then I say Yes. All I have to do is say Yes a few times in my life and I’ve made my fortune.”Only by saying continuous Nos to competing demands can you pass a wise judgment on your life, the people and activities that really matter the most to you. ① A great talker is a great liar. ② Every important Yes requires a thousand Nos. ③ You should not say Yes to get temporary peace. ④ We say Yes when we’re actually dying to say No.

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⑤ Sometimes, there is a time when we need to be silent.

4 다음 글의 주제로 가장 적절한 것은? Some people don’t look good in pictures, even if they are beautiful. And some look gorgeous in spite of their average looks. It all depends on how photogenic you are. To be photogenic, you must follow the tips below. Get an idea about how you should carry yourself while posing for a snap. And be very natural when someone takes your photograph. The more conscious you are of yourself, the more nervous and artificial you will look. Wear colorful clothes. They will make the picture much brighter. Imagine delightful things so that a natural smile will come across your face. Thinking about funny things is a natural prescription for bringing a smile to your lips. ① process of taking pictures ② how to be photogenic ③ reasons for being out of focus ④ way to choose a good camera ⑤ history of camera development

5 (A), (B), (C)의 각 네모 안에서 어법에 맞는 표현으로 가장 적절한 것은? Travel is a good type of mental training not only to clear the mind but to keep a sense of humility in the face of Mother Nature. Spontaneous but aimless travel seems to be (A) [particular / particularly] recommended. It provides us with energy to recharge our lives. Those who are either covered all over with wounds by a fierce competitive lifestyle or tired of the daily grind need to go traveling. However, how difficult is it (B) [takes / to take] time off, ignoring the hustle-bustle way of life? Only when we are distant from our accustomed residences and families do we realize some priceless values (C) [which / from which] we have ignored so far. (A) (B) (C) ① particular …… takes …… which ② particular …… to take …… which ③ particular …… takes …… from which ④ particularly …… to take …… which ⑤ particularly …… takes …… from which

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6 다음 글에서 필자가 주장하는 바로 가장 적절한 것은? Two weeks ago, I visited the Arctic. I saw the remains of a glacier that just a few years ago was a majestic mass of ice. It had collapsed. Not slowly melted . collapsed. I traveled nine hours by ship from the world’s northernmost settlement to reach the Polar ice rim. In a couple of decades, the same ship may be able to sail unimpeded all the way to the North Pole. Scientists told me that so quick is the melting progressing that the Arctic could be virtually ice-free by 2030. Worse still, changes in the Arctic are now accelerating global warming. Thawing permafrost is releasing methane, a greenhouse gas 20 times more powerful than any other. Global greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise. Meanwhile, melting ice in Greenland threatens to raise sea levels. I am therefore all the more convinced we must act – now. *permafrost 영구 동토층

① 북극 지역의 무분별한 탐사를 즉각 중단해야 한다. ② 지구 온난화를 막기 위해 지금 당장 조치를 취해야 한다. ③ 남극 지역의 자원을 개발하기 위한 연구가 진행되어야 한다. ④ 녹색 지구를 만들기 위해 전 세계 지도자들이 협력해야 한다. ⑤ 기후 변화를 예상할 수 있는 시스템 개발을 서둘러야 한다.

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기출 어법모의고사
 고1 기출

중3 2010/학업성취도 23 1.

다음 밑줄 친 (A)∼(C)에서 어법상 맞는 것을 골라 바르게 짝지은 것은? [1.5점]

Recently, an interesting machine was invented in Japan. It is a washing machine (A) [who/which] is designed for pets. It may sound too (B) [cruel/cruelly], but it is becoming more and more popular. Using the pet washing machine is much cheaper than going to the pet shops. Many people are starting to use the machine (C) [save/to save] their money. It takes only about 30 minutes to shampoo, rinse and even dry. (A) (B) (C) ① who — cruel — save ② who — cruelly — to save ③ which — cruelly — save ④ which — cruel — to save ⑤ which — cruelly — to save

고1 2011(11월)/20 2.

다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은? [2점]

Dogs can tell ① what you like them or not. If you like them, they like you back. In fact, they love you and will do anything that they can ② to please you. People react the same way. If you do not like someone, chances are that they do not like you ③ either. Sometimes we make impulse judgments and dislike people without giving them a chance. What is in our hearts always shows. Keep your heart ④ open to accept the best in everyone. Most people want to be good, fair, and liked. Love others, and you will ⑤ be loved back.

고1 2014(3월)/23 3.

다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은?

It’s important to remember that good decisions can still lead to bad outcomes. Here is an example. Soon after I got out of school, I ① was offered a job. I wasn’t sure that was a great fit for me. After carefully considering the opportunity, I decided to ② turn it down. I thought that I would be able to find another job ③ what was a better match. Unfortunately, the economy soon grew worse quickly and I spent months ④ looking for another job. I kicked myself for ⑤ not taking that position, which started to look more and more appealing. I had made a good decision, based upon all the information I had at the time, but in the short run it didn’t lead to a great outcome.

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고1 2007(11월)/22 4.

(A), (B), (C)의 각 네모 안에서 어법에 맞는 표현을 골라 짝지은 것으로 가장 적절한 것은? [2점]

In most countries (A) [which/where] there are mountains, people enjoy the unique appeal of skiing. In its simplest form, skiing is sliding down a snow-covered slope on a pair of long, slim plates called skis. It is one of the few sports that enable people (B) [to move/move] at high speed without any powerproducing device. In its most advanced form, it is a highly skilled sport in which experts can slide down a mountain trail at more than 60 miles an hour, soar through the air for several hundred feet, or (C) [make/ making] quick turns through an obstacle course. *soar: 급상승하다 (A) (B) (C) ① which — to move — make ② which — move — making ③ where — to move — make ④ where — move — making ⑤ where — to move — making

고1 2011(3월)/20 5.

(A), (B), (C)의 각 네모 안에서 어법에 맞는 표현으로 가장 적절한 것은? [2점]

For thousands of years, people have looked up at the night sky and looked at the moon. They wondered (A) [if/what] the moon was made of. They wanted to know how big it was and how far away it was. One of the most interesting questions was “Where did the moon come from?” No one knew for sure. Scientists developed (B) [many/much] different theories, or guesses, but they could not prove that their ideas were correct. Then, between 1969 and 1972, the United States sent astronauts to the moon for their studying the moon and (C) [returned/returning] to Earth with rock samples.

(A) (B) (C) ① if — many — returning ② if — much — returned ③ what — many — returned ④ what — much — returned ⑤ what — many — returning

고1 2011(9월)/21

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6.

(A), (B), (C)의 각 네모 안에서 어법에 맞는 표현으로 가장 적절한 것은? [2점]

In living birds, feathers have many functions other than flight. They help to keep a bird (A) [warm/ warmly] by trapping heat produced by the body close to the surface of the skin. Feathers may also be used to (B) [attract/attracting] mates. The tail of Caudipteryx carried a large fan of long feathers, a structure that would have made a very impressive display. The rest of the body seems to have been covered in much shorter feathers, (C) [which/that] would have kept out the cold. A few large feathers were present on the arms, and these might have been involved in display. *Caudipteryx: 깃털공룡 (A) (B) (C) ①warm — attract — which ②warm — attracting — which ③warm — attracting — that ④ warmly — attract — that ⑤ warmly — attracting — which

고1 2009(6월)/21 7.

(A), (B), (C) 각 네모 안에서 어법에 맞는 표현으로 가장 적절한 것은? [2점]

Many parents worry about the state of the world today and wonder how they can feel (A) [safe/safely] when raising kids in this scary world. Yet, I found that there’s still hope. When I was a brand-new mom, I was in an elevator with two teenage boys. When the door opened, one boy was about to get off first. The other boy put his arm in front of his friend, (B) [motioned/motioning] for me to go ahead. I was moved by his simple gesture of thoughtfulness and good manners. I thanked him, and also asked him to thank his mother for doing a wonderful job: raising such a polite young man. I promised myself at that moment (C) [when/that] I would raise my children to be like him. (A) (B) (C) ① safe — motioning — that ② safe — motioned — when ③ safe — motioning — when ④ safely — motioned — when ⑤ safely — motioning — that

고1 2015(9월)/29 8.

다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은? [2점]

Though he probably was not the first to do it, Dutch eyeglass maker Hans Lippershey gets credit for putting two lenses on either end of a tube in 1608 and ① creating a “spyglass.” Even then, it was not Lippershey but his children who discovered ② that the double lenses made a nearby weathervane look bigger. These early instruments were not ③ much more than toys because their lenses were not very strong. The first person to turn a spyglass toward the sky was an Italian mathematician and professor named Galileo Galilei. Galileo, who heard about the Dutch spyglass and began making his own, ④ realizing right away how useful the device could be to armies and sailors. As he made better and better spyglasses, which were later named telescopes, Galileo decided ⑤ to point one at the Moon. *weathervane: 풍향계

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고1 2009(9월)/21 9.

(A), (B), (C)의 각 네모 안에서 어법에 맞는 표현으로 가장 적절한 것은? [3점]

We use many natural materials such as cotton, wool, and metal. They come from plants or animals, or they are (A) [dug/digging] from the ground. Plastics can be used in place of natural materials, and they are used to make clothes, parts for cars, and many other products. Plastics are synthetic materials, which means (B) [that/what] they are made from chemicals in factories. The chemicals come mainly from oil, but also from natural gas and coal. An important quality of plastics (C) [is/are] that they are easy to shape. They can be used to make objects of all kinds. *synthetic: 합성의 (A) (B) (C) ① dug — that — is ② dug — what — is ③ dug — that — are ④ digging — what — are ⑤ digging — that — are

고1 2012(3월)/27 10. 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은? [3점] Skateboarding is one of the best ways to replace snowboarding when there is no snow. They are almost the same in that the actions include riding and performing tricks ① using a board. However, the difference is that in skateboarding, the asphalt tends to hurt ② much more than snow when you fall on the ground. Be sure to wear protective equipment such as a helmet, wrist guards, and elbow pads even if your friends point and ③ laugh. Skate parks provide the safe environment without cars ④ keep your board skills improved. Also, a long downward road without cross streets could be the perfect area ⑤ where you practice basic skills.

고1 2014(3월)/24 11. (A), (B), (C)의 각 네모 안에서 어법에 맞는 표현으로 가장 적절한 것은? [3점] Three extremely important inventions came out of Mesopotamia: the wheel, the plow, and the sailboat. The wheel and the plow were possible (A) [because / because of] the availability of animal labor. Wheeled carts pulled by horses could transport more goods to market more quickly. Animals that pulled plows to turn the earth over for planting (B) [was / were] far more efficient than humans. The sail made it possible to trade with countries that could be reached only by sea. All three inventions made the cities of Mesopotamia powerful trading centers with as (C) [much / many] as 30,000 people each. *plow: 쟁기 (A) (B) (C) ① because —was —much ② because —were —many ③ because of —were —many ④ because of —were —much ⑤ because of —was —much

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고1 2012(6월)/24 12. 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은? [3점] Greg felt like a failure if he didn’t receive every single point on every single assignment. A grade of 95 left him ① asking, “How did I fail to achieve 100?” Greg realized that his drive for perfectionism was putting him into a state of constant stress. He decided ② to work on stress management. He came up with the creative idea of ③ posting notes everywhere with the simple message, “92 is still an A.” Gradually, these simple reminder notes allowed Greg to have a different point of view and ④ realized that he didn’t have to be perfect at everything. He still could earn an “A” in class, but with ⑤ much less pressure.

고1 2010(9월)/21 13. (A), (B), (C)의 각 네모 안에서 어법에 맞는 표현으로 가장 적절한 것은? [3점] I stood 3,346 feet above sea level on a steep mountain slope and (A) [found / finding] it was easy to feel a little breathless. As the morning fog lifted, the sharp peaks of the Hohe Tauern mountain range slowly emerged, some of (B) [which / what] were very much alive. The sound of a donkey reminded us of our home as we drank hot coffee on a wooden balcony and watched our visible breath disappear into the cold air. Looking far below, we could see a small river twist like a silk ribbon between the valley’s wooden houses and church roofs the old buildings of a mountainside farm (C) [was / were] surrounding us, with sheep and cows feeding on the mountain pastures. (A) (B) (C) ① found —which —was ② found —which —were ③ found —what —were ④ finding —what —was ⑤ finding —which —were

고1 2012(9월)/34 14. 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은? [3점] Native people create legends to explain unusual events in their environment. A legend from the Hawaiian island of Kauai explains ① how the naupaka flower got its unusual shape. The flower looks like half a small daisy. The legend says that the marriage of two young lovers on the island ② was opposed by both sets of parents. The parents found the couple together on a beach one day, and ③ to prevent them from being together, one of the families moved to the mountains, separating the young couple forever. As a result, the naupaka flower was separated into two halves; one half moved to the mountains, and the other half ④ staying near the beach. This story is a good example of a legend ⑤ which native people invented to make sense of the world around them.

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고1 2009(11월)/22 15. 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은? [3점] Late one Saturday evening, I was ① awakened by the ringing of my phone. In a sleepy voice I said, “Hello.” The party on the other end of the line paused for a moment before ② rushing into a long speech. “Mom, this is Susan and I’m sorry I woke you up, but I had to call because I’m going to be a little ③ lately getting home. The tire of Dad’s car just went flat while we were in the theater.” Since I don’t have any daughters, I knew the person ④ had misdialed. “I’m sorry,” I replied, “but I don’t have a daughter named Susan.” “Oh, Mom!” came the young woman’s voice, “I didn’t think ⑤ that you’d be this angry.”

고1 2012(11월)/27 16. 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은? [3점] Reality TV programs are products, just like T-shirts or coffee, and consumers can’t seem to turn them off. But why do consumers keep ① watching them? This is one type of question consumer behavior researchers are interested in answering. Researchers say ② that reality TV programs offer several benefits to consumers, including satisfying their curiosity. “We all like to watch people in situations ③ which we ourselves might be pressured. We can feel what they are feeling but at a safe distance,” says Professor Kip Williams of Macquaric University. We also role-play with ourselves in the context of the show, ④ imagining how we might react in a similar situation. This, researchers say, can teach us ⑤ to be selfimproving.

고1 2010(6월)/22 17. 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은? [3점] Raised in a poor family, Confucius truly understood the suffering of the people. In his view, the lords of his country, only interested in their own personal gain, ① were responsible for it. Therefore, he gathered a group of intelligent followers ② what he trained in several subjects including ethics. He believed that government leaders must be humane, honest and ③ fair, not experts in administration. He taught his students that it is the role of rulers ④ to secure the happiness of their people. He had considerable success in placing his pupils in positions of power in government. When the men who ⑤ had been trained by him were sent into service, even immoral rulers valued their honesty.

고1 2013(9월)/27 18. 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은? [3점] Grateful people are inclined to make healthy decisions. Life and sports present many situations ① where critical and difficult decisions have to be made. Selfish adults or kids do not make sound decisions as well as ② are grateful people. This includes the decision to be self-motivated. Frustrated parents ask: “How do I motivate my child to do sports or continue in sports? Sometimes my child gets ③ discouraged and does not want to put the required effort into his or her sports? What can I, as a parent, do or say to help?” It is difficult and almost impossible ④ to motivate kids or adults who are centered on their own narrow selfish desires. However, kids and adults who live as grateful people are able to motivate ⑤ themselves. They also welcome suggestions from others, even parents.

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고1 2013(3월)/27 19. 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은? [3점] There is no one right way to draw. Don’t you believe me? Collect 100 amazing artists in a room and have them ① draw the same chair. What do you get? One hundred very different chair drawings. ② Keeping this in mind, you’ll have a lot more fun drawing the unique art that comes from you. You’re the only artist in the world ③ which can draw the way you do. Exploring your personal drawing styles ④ is important. Notice how you have grown or improved as you practice. Pay attention to ⑤ what you like most about your drawings

고1 2011(11월)/21 20. (A)~(C)에서 어법에 맞는 표현을 바르게 짝지은 것은? [3점] The Inchcape Rock is a great rock in the North Sea. Most of the time it is covered with water. That causes many boats and ships (A) [crash / to crash] onto the rock. The rock is so close to the top of the water that all the vessels that try to sail over it (B) [hit / hits] it. More than a hundred years ago, a kind-hearted man lived nearby. He thought that it was tragic for so many sailors to die on that hidden rock. So he fastened a floating mark to the rock with a strong chain, on top of (C) [it / which] a bell was attached. When ships came near, the waves made the mark float back and forth and the bell ring clearly. Now, sailors were no longer afraid to cross the sea there. (A) (B) (C) ① crash — hit — which ② crash — hits — it ③ to crash — hit — it ④ to crash — hits — it ⑤ to crash — hit — which

고1 2014(9월)/27 21. 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은? [3점] Suppose, on your wedding day, your best man delivers a heart-warming, moving toast that makes you ① cry. You later learn he didn’t write it himself but bought it online. Then, would the toast mean less than it ② was at first, before you knew it was written by a paid professional? Most people would agree the bought wedding toast has less value than an authentic ③ one. Although a bought toast might “work” in the sense of achieving its desired effect, that effect might depend on deception. That is, if you ④ purchased a moving masterpiece of a toast online, you would probably cover it up! If a bought toast depends for its effect on concealing its origin, that’s a reason to suspect it’s a corrupt version of the real thing. Wedding toasts are goods ⑤ that can, in a sense, be bought. But buying and selling them diminishes their value.

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고2 기출

고2 2014(3월)/23 1.

다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은? [2점]

Whenever I look into my daughter Emily’s face, I think about the power of fatherhood. Her face reminds me ① that I have given her more than just my name. Like me, she has freckles stretching across the bridge of her nose almost like a Band-Aid. The skin around her eyes ② form small and thin lines, and the lines match mine. “When Emily smiles,” my mother tells me, “she looks just like you.” Other things in her are reflections of me. I see myself most ③ clearly in her eyes, the windows to her soul. Like me, Emily has a drive ④ to succeed and will try anything. “Who needs to wait for instructions?” she used to tell ⑤ herself as she attempted to do the high bar in gymnastics class; more than once, she failed. Also, more than once, she succeeded. *high bar: (체조의) 철봉

고2 2012(6월) A형/24 2.

다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은? [2점]

Some of the things we have to do ① are tiring and annoying. We must do many of these things regardless of ② how we feel about them. Doing the dishes day after day can be a tiring job, but no matter how much we hate it, it must ③ do sooner or later. However, chores like this can actually be enjoyable. Perhaps dish washing is a time for listening to music and ④ singing along. Also, it can be a time for conversation between family members as we help one another. If we try to look for the ⑤ hidden treasures and opportunities in tiring and annoying jobs, they will never fail to reward us.

고2 2011(11월)/20 3.

다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은? [3점]

While we don’t all have the same amount of money, we do have access to the same twenty four hours in every day. Though some people have ① much less free time than others, nearly everyone has some opportunity to give. The gift of time can sometimes be more ② satisfied and more valuable than money. You can see this by watching those who have volunteered at homeless shelters or ③ brought meals on wheels to seniors. If you are willing to volunteer, there are many organizations and projects ④ that will be glad to welcome you. ⑤ Whatever you do, it will almost certainly be educational, enjoyable, and rewarding.

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고2 2014(11월)/27 4.

다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은? [3점]

Debating is as old as language itself and has taken many forms throughout human history. In ancient Rome, debate in the Senate ① was critical to the conduct of civil society and the justice system. In Greece, advocates for policy changes would ② routinely make their cases before citizen juries composed of hundreds of Athenians. In India, debate was used to ③ settle religious controversies and was a very popular form of entertainment. Indian kings sponsored great debating contests, ④ offering prizes for the winners. China has its own ancient and distinguished tradition of debate. Beginning in the 2nd Century A.D., Taoist and Confucian scholars engaged in a practice known as ‘pure talk’ ⑤ which they debated spiritual and philosophical issues before audiences in contests that might last for a day and a night.

고2 2012(3월)/26 5.

다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은? [2점]

In some cases two species are so dependent upon each other ① that if one becomes extinct, the other will as well. This nearly happened with trees that ② relied on the now-extinct Dodo birds. They once roamed Mauritius, a tropical island ③ situating in the Indian Ocean. However, Dodo birds became extinct during the late 19th century. They were over-hunted by humans and other animals. After they ④ disappeared, the Calvaria Tree soon stopped sprouting seeds. Scientists finally concluded that, for the seeds of the Calvaria Tree ⑤ to sprout, they needed to first be digested by the Dodo bird.

고2 2011(6월)/20 6.

다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은? [3점]

Since his early childhood, Alvin was a keen model-maker. He made model cars, model railroad layouts, and model street scenes. When ① asked what he wanted to be, he would say, “I want to be a model-maker or run a store that sells model kits.” Eventually, though, Alvin chose a “real” career: architecture. He was not very good at his work, nor ② did he seem to improve. The only part of his work he enjoyed was ③ made models of buildings to illustrate proposals. When a recession hit, Alvin was the first to be fired. Fortunately, one of his former employers did offer Alvin a contract ④ to take on his firm’s model-making projects on a freelance basis. Now, Alvin makes models for the leading architectural firms in town. He does ⑤ what he loves, and he earns a good living.

고2 2009(6월)/22 7.

다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은? [2점]

Can you imagine ① what life was like 200 years ago? There was no electricity, and oil lamps ② were used at night. In addition, there were no cars or telephones, so travel was mostly on foot and communication was very difficult. These days, our lives are ③ completely different. We have jet planes, cell phones, the Internet, and many more aspects of life that our ancestors couldn’t even dream of. However, have all these improvements had good results? Pollution and fossil fuels have given us global warming, ④ resulted in extreme weathers. Modern medicine lets us live longer, but governments are finding it hard ⑤ to look after the increasing number of old people.

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고2 2012(3월)/25 8.

(A), (B), (C)의 각 네모 안에서 어법에 맞는 표현으로 가장 적절한 것은? [3점]

(A) [Although / Despite] various state-law bans and nationwide campaigns to prevent texting from behind the wheel, the number of people texting while driving is actually on the rise, a new study suggests. According to the Traffic Safety Administration(TSA), the percentage of drivers who send texts and use mobile devices while on the road (B) [have / has] jumped from 0.6% in 2009 to 0.9% in 2010. The news comes as automakers and lawmakers try to bring more awareness to the dangers of distracted driving. In fact, the Safety Board is working to make cellphone use from talking hands-free to texting (C) [illegal / illegally] in all states. The TSA said that drivers using mobile devices in any situation are four times more likely to have an accident and injure themselves or others. (A) (B) (C) ① Although have illegally ② Although has illegal ③ Despite have illegal ④ Despite has illegally ⑤ Despite has illegal

고2 2010(9월)/22 9.

다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은? [2점]

When Daniel Boone, an expert in wilderness exploration, was asked ① whether he was ever lost, his reply was, “Disoriented for a couple of days, maybe. Lost, never.” The major difference between Mr. Boone and the majority of weekend wilderness explorers is skill. Mr. Boone could always hunt, trap, find water, make a boat, and gradually ② find his way out of most wilderness problems. Average people, however, do not have the acquired wilderness skills to survive off the land. So before venturing into the great outdoors, you must realize ③ that anyone can get lost. All it takes to disorient most people outdoors ④ being a dense mist, a few unplanned turns in the woods, or nightfall. The so-called instinctive ‘sense of direction’ is only as good as the information used ⑤ to create that sense.

고2 2011(3월)/20 10. 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은? [2점] The U. S. space agency NASA is currently on the Hundred Years Starship, a project of exploring new habitable planets and ① helping people settle down there. If settlers succeed in making ② another planet their home, it will become one of the most revolutionary events in history. ③ Assumed to have a substantial amount of water, Mars is probably most habitable out of all the planets in our solar system. However, this project would take time since the cost will make a return flight to Earth almost ④ impossible. Although the living supplies for the settlers would ⑤ send from Earth, taking the risk of exchanging life for dreams is tough.

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고2 2014(9월)/27 11. 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은? [3점] Language is one of the primary features that distinguishes humans from other animals. Many animals, including dolphins, whales, and birds, ① do indeed communicate with one another through patterned systems of sounds, scents, and other chemicals, or movements. Furthermore, some nonhuman primates ② have been taught to use sign language to communicate with humans. However, the complexity of human language, its ability to convey nuanced emotions and ideas, and its importance for our existence as social animals ③ setting it apart from the communication systems used by other animals. In many ways, language is the essence of culture. It provides the single most common variable ④ by which different cultural groups are identified. Language not only facilitates the cultural diffusion of innovations, it also helps to shape the way we think about, perceive, and ⑤ name our environment.

고2 2013(3월)/27 12. 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은? [3점] How you address your professors depends on many factors such as age, college culture, and their own preference. Some teachers will ask you ① to call them by their first names, especially if they’re relatively young. They enjoy the informal atmosphere ② generated by having everyone in the class on the same level. Some colleges, in fact, pride themselves on having all their faculty and students on a first-name basis. But beware : one of the surest ways to upset professors ③ is to call them by their first names against their wishes. Most professors see themselves in a position of professional authority over their students ④ whom they earned by many years of study. They no more want to be called John or Maria than ⑤ does your average physician.

고2 2013(9월)/27 13. 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은? [3점] The old-fashioned method which fish samplers use ① is to watch fish near a dam and push a button each time a fish swims up the ladder. They also get to measure a fish occasionally, which involves capturing the fish in a tank that has had the oxygen sucked out of it and holding it ② captive until it stops moving. Once it’s still, they can put a tape measure to it before returning it to a recuperation tank. Finally the fish gets tagged and released back onto the ladder to continue ③ its journey. More and more samplers are using electrofishing, which involves pulling an electric wire ④ attaches to a portable generator through a river. The fish are stunned and almost magically drawn to the wire, at which point samplers catch them in a net and take them to a holding place for measuring and ⑤ weighing before returning them to the stream. * recuperation: 회복

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고2 2012(11월)/27 14. 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은? [3점] The psychologist Gary Klein tells the story of a team of firefighters that entered a house ① where the kitchen was on fire. Soon after they started hosing down the kitchen, the commander heard ② himself shout, “Let’s get out of here!” without realizing why. The floor collapsed almost immediately after the firefighters escaped. Only after the fact ③ did the commander realize that the fire had been unusually quiet and that his ears had been unusually hot. Together, these impressions prompted ④ that he called a “sixth sense of danger.” He had no idea what was wrong, but he knew something was wrong. It turned out that the heart of the fire ⑤ had not been in the kitchen but in the basement below.

고2 2011(9월)/20 15. 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은? [3점] A robot made in Japan can perform a journalist’s tasks on its own by exploring its environment, determining ① what is relevant, and taking pictures with its built-in camera. It can even interview nearby people and perform Internet searches ② to improve its understanding. However, having a robot report news is not a new idea. Another robot called Stats Monkey can automatically use statistics to report sports news that ③ reads like it was written by a journalist. Furthermore, Australian scientist Ross Dawson points to News At Seven, a system ④ is developed by Northwestern University that automatically creates a virtual news show. ⑤ Using the resources available on the web, the system retrieves relevant images and blogs with comments on the topics to develop the text of the news stories.

고2 2014(6월)/21 16. 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은? [3점] Jack Welch is considered to be one of the USA’s top business leaders. In a gesture ① that was at once symbolic and real, Welch directed the ceremonial burning of the old-fashioned GE Blue Books. The Blue Books were a series of management training manuals that told how GE managers were to get tasks ② done in the organization. Despite the fact that these books for training ③ had not been used for some 15 years, they still had great influence over the actions of GE managers. ④ Cited the need for managers to write their own answers to day-to-day management challenges, Welch swept away the old order by removing the Blue Books from the organization’s culture. Now, GE managers are taught to find their own solutions rather than ⑤ look them up in a dusty old book.

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고3 기출

1.

(A), (B), (C)의 각 네모 안에서 어법에 맞는 표현으로 가장 적절한 것은?

In recent years, scientists have said that too many kids in the United States are overweight or obese. A new study (A) [publishing / published] in an international medical journal shows that this is not just an American problem. Kids in other countries are also eating too (B) [many / much] junk food. They have become less physically active and are putting on pounds. (C) [a number / the number] of overweight children throughout the world is expected to increase dramatically by 2010. Researchers say that if nothing is done, an estimated 26 million kids in the European Union will be overweight or obese.

(A) (B) (C) ① publishing ― many ― A number ② published ― much ― The number ③ publishing ― much ― A number ④ published ― much ― A number ⑤ publishing ― many ― The number

2.

(A), (B), (C)의 각 네모 안에서 어법에 맞는 표현으로 가장 적절한 것은?

The trend that I feel interested in is the education gap growing between men and women. I don’t know exactly (A) [that / what] the numbers are, but more girls than boys are graduating from college. Why is this big gap happening? Is it because there’s some innate difference between men and women that (B) [make / makes] women more likely to gravitate toward school or thrive in school environments and not drop out, particularly when they’re 18 or 22 or something like that? Or is it that at some level, society is discriminating against men as far as education is concerned? And what about the trend of women actually (C) [spending / spend] a little more time at home than we thought they were going to?

(A) (B) (C) ① that ― make ― spending ② what ― make ― spending ③ what ― makes ― spending ④ what ― make ― spend ⑤ that ― makes ― spend

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3.

(A), (B), (C)의 각 네모 안에서 어법에 맞는 표현으로 가장 적절한 것은?

In 1951, a woman named Bette Nesmith Graham was working as a typist, but she was not very good at typing. She made a lot of mistakes and needed (A) [finding/ to find] something that would hide her mistakes. This led to her invention of a special white paint. She brushed the white paint on her papers (B) [to hide / hiding] mistakes she made. Her friends and other office workers heard about her white paint and bought it from her. Ms. Graham called her product “Mistake Out.” She tried to sell it to IBM. Unfortunately for IBM, they decided not to buy it. Then, Ms. Graham changed the name to “Liquid Paper” and continued to sell (C) [it on / on it] her own for 17 years. In 1971, the Gillette Company bought Liquid Paper for $47.5 million.

(A) (B) (C) ① finding ― to hide ― it on ② to find ― to hide ― it on ③ to find ― hiding ― it on ④ finding ― hiding ― on it ⑤ finding ― to hide ― on it

4.

(A), (B), (C)의 각 네모 안에서 어법에 맞는 표현으로 가장 적절한 것은?

Although some eating-disorder researchers might think that any attention (A) [paying/ paid] to body weight could be potentially hazardous to children’s psychological well-being in terms of (B) [encouragement / encouraging] a poor body image, we really don’t have much evidence of that. In fact, studies have shown that kids who participate in weight-control programs eat more healthfully than those who don’t. What I’m more concerned about (C) [is / being] a general increase in the acceptance of heavier body weights. Many children don’t know what overweight looks like anymore because it becomes so commonplace. We don’t want to see parents outliving their kids, but that could very well happen.

(A) (B) (C) ① paying ― encouraging ― is ② paying ― encouragement ― is ③ paying ― encouragement ― being ④ paid ― encouraging ― is ⑤ paid ― encouraging ― being

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5.

(A), (B), (C)의 각 네모 안에서 어법에 맞는 표현으로 가장 적절한 것은?

Many people now agree with the idea (A) [that / what] movies with a lot of violence and sex (B) [are caused / have been causing] a lot of problems. Maybe you have noticed that film makers are again making movies that the whole family can enjoy. After several years of too many movies that were not appropriate for younger children and were perhaps offensive to adults, family entertainment is becoming popular again. Movies with lots of sex and violence are being replaced with drama, adventure, and human-interest stories. “A large percentage of the new movies released in the (C) [last / lastly] six months are appropriate for the whole family,” said The Royal Theater owner, Barbara Atkins. “We are seeing a huge increase in the number of families coming to see shows, and I think this is a good thing.”

(A) (B) (C) ① that ― are caused ― last ② that ― are caused ― lastly ③ that ― have been causing ― last ④ what ― are caused ― lastly ⑤ what ― have been causing ― last

6.

(A), (B), (C)의 각 네모 안에서 어법에 맞는 표현으로 가장 적절한 것은?

Ours is the first civilization to plant human-made objects far beyond the surface of our home planet. That by itself would mark our time as a revolutionary moment in history. Yet little (A) [is / are] known about the impact of this fact on our daily lives and our economy. Few are aware that every time they use an ATM or a telephone they are relying on technology twelve thousand miles from Earth or that every patient wearing a pacemaker owes some thanks to technologies and, in some cases, people who (B) [are / have] left the surface of the planet we call home. Communication satellites and the Global Positioning System(GPS) are parts of an emerging space infrastructure that will be greatly elaborated over the decades and centuries to come, with increasing (C) [impact / impacting] on how we create economic value.

(A) (B) (C) ① is ― are ― impact ② is ― have ― impacting ③ is ― have ― impact ④ are ― are ― impacting ⑤ are ― have ― impacting

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7.

(A), (B), (C)의 각 네모 안에서 어법에 맞는 표현으로 가장 적절한 것은?

Language is (A) [very / so] much a part of our daily activities that some of us may come to look upon it as a more or less natural act like breathing or winking. Of course, language is not something that is inherited; it is an art (B) [where / that] can be passed on from one generation to the next only by intensive education. It is difficult to realize the enormously important role that language plays in our social behavior. (C) [How / What] would a society without language be like? It would, of course, have no writing or other means of communication by words, for all these are ultimately dependent on spoken speech. Our means of learning would therefore be greatly restricted. We should be obliged, like the animals, to learn by doing or by observing the actions of others.

(A) (B) (C) ① very ― where ― How ② very ― that ― How ③ so ― where ― What ④ so ― that ― What ⑤ so ― where ― How

8.

(A), (B), (C)의 각 네모 안에서 어법에 맞는 표현으로 가장 적절한 것은?

Equally important is the loss of self-esteem that many adults feel when faced with the adolescent challenge to the principle by which their lives have been ruled. (A) [Convincing / Convinced] that success is the measure of value, unwilling to admit to doubting about the path taken or the value of the prizes (B) [secured / to secure], the adult defends equally against the serious probing and the ingenuous disaffection. The youth who searches for and attains what his parents had yearned for (C) [attack / attacks] the most vulnerable spot of the adult personality, the fragile self-esteem. It is no wonder, then, that rather than attempting at loving understanding, the parent responds with bitterness and antagonism.

(A) (B) (C) ① Convincing ― secured ― attack ② Convincing ― secured ― attacks ③ Convinced ― secured ― attacks ④ Convinced ― to secure ― attack ⑤ Convincing ― to secure ― attacks

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9.

(A), (B), (C)의 각 네모 안에서 어법에 맞는 표현으로 가장 적절한 것은?

Human attitudes, values, and behavior are limited not only by our genetic predispositions ― which are difficult to identify ― but by our experiences during enculturation (A) [as much/as well] . Our attributes as adults are determined both by our genes and by our environment during growth and development. Debate about the effects of nature and nurture (B) [proceed / proceeds] today in scientific and public arenas. Naturists assume that some human behavior and social organization is biologically determined. Nurturists, or environmentalists, do not deny that some universal aspects of human behavior may have a genetic base. However, they find most attempts to link behavior to genes (C) [unconvincing / unconvinced]. Because human adaptation relies so strongly on cultural learning, we can change our behavior more readily than members of other species can.

(A) (B) (C) ① as much ― proceed ― unconvincing ② as much ― proceeds ― unconvinced ③ as much ― proceeds ― unconvincing ④ as well ― proceed ― unconvinced ⑤ as well ― proceeds ― unconvincing

10. (A), (B), (C)의 각 네모 안에서 어법에 맞는 표현으로 가장 적절한 것은? More than 300,000 programmers around the world have made (A) [this / them] their indispensable reference book for creating JavaScript applications. JavaScript Bible is one of the most awesome (B) [book / books] I have ever read. I learnt a lot with it. It taught me JavaScript language and programming language in detail. Both are crucial in becoming a good JavaScript programmer. If from the very beginning of the book you find it kind of (C) [difficult / difficulty] to read, don’t give up, proceed; it first does a rough overview, and later it goes into more details. You might even find it helpful as I did. But this book is not for those who are totally new in programming field.

(A) (B) (C) ① this ― book ― difficult ② them ― book ― difficulty ③ them ― books ― difficulty ④ this ― books ― difficult ⑤ this ― books ― difficulty

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11. (A), (B), (C)의 각 네모 안에서 어법에 맞는 표현으로 가장 적절한 것은? (A) [Rather than / Prior to] the development of the Internet, to fulfill these things, you’d have to visit a library and a travel agent. But today, with a personal computer and an Internet connection, you could find all the required information and make all of your arrangements without (B) [steps / stepping] outside your house. There’s only one obstacle: most information you’d encounter on the Internet is written in English. Not only are the computer programs that make the Internet run written in English-based computer languages, but over 90% of the ‘pages’ on the World Wide Web (C) [is / are] written exclusively in English. So, if your English isn’t up to scratch, over nine tenths of the Internet is off-limits to you.

(A) (B) (C) ① Rather than ― steps ― is ② Rather than ― stepping ― is ③ Prior to ― stepping ― are ④ Prior to ― steps ― is ⑤ Prior to ― steps ― are

12. (A), (B), (C)의 각 네모 안에서 어법에 맞는 표현으로 가장 적절한 것은? In his 1993 book Strategies for Effective Risk Communication, Peter Sandman questioned why most people are more scared of flying in an airplane than driving a car. His thinking goes like this: since they can control the car, people think they are the ones keeping (A) [them / themselves] safe; since they have no control of the airplane, they think they are at the mercy of myriad external factors. So which should we actually fear more, flying or driving? It might first help (B) [to ask / asking] a more basic question: what, exactly, are we afraid of? Death, presumably. But the fear of death needs to be narrowed down. Of course we all know that we are bound to die, and we might worry about it casually. But if you hear that you have a 10 percent chance of dying within the next year, you might worry a lot more, perhaps even choosing to live your life differently. And if you (C) [told / are told] that you have 10 percent chance of dying within the next minute, you will panic. So it’s the imminent possibility of death that drives the fear ― which means that the most sensible way to calculate fear of death would be to think about it on a perhour basis.

(A) (B) (C) ① them ― to ask ― told ② them ― asking ― told ③ themselves ― to ask ― told ④ themselves ― asking ― are told ⑤ themselves ― to ask ― are told

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13. (A), (B), (C)의 각 네모 안에서 어법에 맞는 표현으로 가장 적절한 것은? The subjective and emotional aspect of the American self-concept is based on the agreed similarity and equality of everyone. This assumption yields a communication strategy typically employed by senders: in dealing with others, I can assume (A) [that / what] “I feel” will be identical to what the other person feels in the same situation. I can take my own feelings and project them to others as a way of understanding how someone else feels about the same situation. Americans typically believe that everyone is basically (B) [like / alike], and other people have the same basic needs that they have themselves. Since the important differences among people are believed to be individual, not cultural or social, Americans are sensitive to similarities in others rather than to differences. This American belief is similar to the perspective of the biblical rule, ‘Do unto others as you would have them (C) [do / to do] unto you.

(A) (B) (C) ① that ― like ― do ② that ― alike ― to do ③ what ― like ― to do ④ what ― alike ― do ⑤ what ― alike ― to do

14. 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은? There are numerous ① advantages to working for another company, particularly early in your career. One of the advantages ② is that working in someone else’s company ③ provides a situation with security of a regular paycheck and less responsibility than you would have, ④ were you to be the owner of the company. Also not until you start your own business do you need to come up with the finances to back that company. Thus, all of this ⑤ indicate that it is better to work for other people early in your career while you are gaining the knowledge and experience you need to start your own company.

15. 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은? Kennewick Man may help scientists ① solve mysteries about where the earliest Americans came from and when they got here. For decades, they believed that the earliest Americans ② arrived from Asia about 12,000 years ago. According to this theory, ancient people walked across dry land that once connected ③ what is now Russia with Alaska. From there, the theory goes, they made their way south. But discoveries since the 1980s are pushing that idea aside. Recent findings suggest that bands of people ④ move down the Pacific coast of North and South America ⑤ much earlier than 12,000 years ago.

16. 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은? Claude Monet was a famous French painter and a leader in the art movement ① called Impressionism. He and other Impressionist painters wanted to paint outdoors and ② show the effects of sunlight. Since he was fascinated with the changing effects of sunlight, Monet often painted the same subject at different times of the day in different light. For example, he spent several months in 1890 ③ painting a series of pictures of haystacks. He wanted to show how the effects of light on the haystacks ④ changing during the day. After he finished the Haystacks, he did a ⑤ series of paintings of a famous church in France. Between 1892 and 1894, he painted twenty pictures of the church at different times from sunrise to sunset.

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17. 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은? Most linguists do agree with Lenneberg, a renowned linguist from Germany, in terms of how biological factors affect language learning. According to his research, human beings possess an innate capacity ① to learn a language that is specific to this species and no other. He also insisted that a language ② might be from the evolutionary process humans experienced, the basis for a language ③ being transmitted genetically. As part of genetically endowed language abilities, he hypothesized a “critical period” ④ which language learning proceeds with unmatched ease. He argued that the reason why it is especially crucial for language is ⑤ that it is the period before the two hemispheres of the human brain specialize in function.

18. 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은? Organic farmers grow crops that are no less plagued by pests than ① those of conventional farmers. Certainly, they are much more likely than conventional farmers ② to practice environmentally beneficial forms of biological control, and they are also more likely to sensibly opt for those crops that can thwart infestation. However, organic farmers cannot help ③ relying on chemicals to supplement their operations. With pests often ④ consume up to 40 percent of the crops grown in the United States, they are left with no other choice. These substances might ⑤ be referred to as “botanical extracts ” or “biorationals.” But Ned Groth, a senior scientist at Consumers Union, says that these toxins “are not necessarily less worrisome because they are natural.” * infestation 횡행, 만연 ** biorational 생물학적 합리 살충제(식물에는 무해하고 해충만 죽이는 살충제)

19. 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은? Much of the history of the state of Arizona ① has been shaped by its scarce water supply. From A.D. 300 to A.D. 1450, Native Americans ② living there solved the problem of inadequate water supply by building canals to bring water to their fields. Their canal system covered about 500 miles, and may ③ have served as many as 50,000 people at a time. The Native Americans lived there for more than 1,000 years but left the area for unknown reasons. A century ago, when new settlers came to Arizona, they were challenged by the harsh desert environment with its lack of water. Luckily, they discovered the old Native American canals and connected the canals to a river. This way they were able to bring water to their crops. Then, in the early 1900s, engineers built several dams ④ to store water for the crops. The water storage and delivery system brought new life to the land. ⑤ Less than any other single factor, this system influenced the development of the area.

20. 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은? Occasions that celebrate special events or that mark the beginning or end of a process often ① call for an after-dinner speech. Political rallies, award banquets, the kickoff of a fund-raising campaign, or the end of the school year may provide the setting for such a speech. ② In keeping with the nature of the occasion, after-dinner speeches should not be too difficult to digest. Speakers ③ making these presentations usually do not introduce radical ideas that require listeners to rethink their values or that ask for dramatic changes in belief or behavior. ④ None are such occasions the time for anger or negativity. ⑤ They are a time for people to savor who they are, what they have done, or what they wish to do.

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21. 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은? More than one-third of adults older than 65 ① fall each year. Many of them may have balance problems. Balance involves more than just ② planting your feet on the ground and standing straight. In fact, it starts with your head. Your brain oversees your sense of balance. It gets ③ input from your eyes and inner ears and from sensations in your feet and legs. If something goes wrong with any part of the process, you’re likely to feel dizzy or ④ unbalanced. People tend to fall more often as they get older because their sensory systems grow less sensitive. Reaction times become slower. Additionally, their muscles, bones, and joints get weaker, which ⑤ makes easier to get seriously hurt and harder to recover from a fall.

22. 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은? People who have damage in their left hemisphere often cannot create or understand speech because the cells in their language centers ① have been injured. However, they are often genius at being able to determine ② if someone is telling the truth or not, thanks to the cells in their right hemisphere. On the other hand, ③ provided that someone has damage to their right hemisphere, they may not appropriately assess the emotional content of a message. For example, if Judy is playing blackjack at a party and she says “Hit me!,” a person with a damaged right hemisphere may think she is asking him to physically strike her rather than ④ understanding she is simply asking for another card. Without the right hemisphere’s ability to evaluate communication in the context of the bigger picture, the left hemisphere tends ⑤ to interpret everything literally.

23. 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은? Omar’s army had beaten the Persian forces. The ① conquered commander was taken prisoner and condemned to death. As a last boon he asked for a cup of wine. It was brought to him. Seeing that he hesitated to drink it, Omar assured him that neither was the wine poisoned, nor ② there was anyone who would kill him while he drank. Omar added that he gave his word as a prince that his captive’s life was safe until he ③ had drunk the last drop of wine. At these words, he poured the wine upon the ground and demanded that Omar ④ keep his promise. In spite of the angry protests of his followers, Omar allowed his prisoner ⑤ to go free.

24. 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은? Have you ever been to Hong Kong? Hong Kong has some of the world’s tallest skyscrapers and biggest shopping malls. But adjacent to a combination of these man-made wonders ① are narrow alleys and traditional vendors. In addition, nightclubs and factories ② line the financial streets. But nearby, parks and summer resorts radiate the city’s natural beauty. Such incredible contrasts that ③ make Hong Kong a special city ④ creates an exotic atmosphere. If you visit Victoria Peak, you will have an opportunity to take in a breathtaking view of Hong Kong Island, Victoria Harbor and Kowloon. Victoria Peak is also ⑤ where the city’s most expensive real estate is located.

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25. 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은? Charles Frederick Worth is often dubbed as the father of haute couture which ① refers to the creation of exclusive custom-fitted fashions. Although born in Bourne, Lincolnshire, England, Worth became famous and successful in the French fashion industry. After ② having been produced one-of-a-kind designs to please some of his titled or wealthy customers, he is best known for having live models ③ wear the clothes and stand in front of the clients, which can be considered the birth of modern fashion show. Clients selected one model, specified colors and fabrics, and ④ had a duplicate garment tailor-made in Worth’s workshop. Worth also combined individual tailoring with a standardization, ⑤ which is a characteristic of the ready-to-wear clothing industry.

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