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6............................................Definitions 8......................................Project outline


12.........................................Infographic 14..........................Analysis & Overview 18.........................................Fossil Fuels 20..............................Debate & Opinion 22........................................Conclusions


26.............................Extraction Method 28................................Process Elements 30.............................................Resource 32..................................Industry Players 34..........................Authoritative Players 36...........................................UK Policy 37............................................Concerns 38............................Reports & Partiality 40........................................Conclusions


44.............................................The Area 46..........................................Chat Moss 48..........................................Peel Group 50.......................................IGas Energy 52........................................State of Play 54..............................Protest Movement 56........................................Conclusions


60.....Information & Awareness Evening 62.........................Meeting with Council 64.....................................CLG Minutes 66...........................The Impartial Guide 68.....................................CLG Meeting 70..................Meeting with ‘Fracktivists’ 72.....Feedback on ‘The Impartial Guide’ 74........................................Conclusions


78......................................Urban Games 80.............................................Solutions





To begin to define Contested Peripheries, we need to engage with a number of questions. What fuels contestation? The driving force between contestation can be divided into two categories: power and principles. Those seeking power engaging with those with power, those fighting for their beliefs engaging with those who they deem to have acted against these beliefs. If the contestation needs to be addressed, whose role is it to mediate? Is it possible to not take sides? What outcomes need to outlined? All of these questions will be addressed in this thesis. What are the reasons for existing in the periphery? Generally it is due to financial reasons, although other times its historical. Sometimes it’s to be closer to a resource or existing service. If existing in the periphery is for purposes of danger and secrecy, should we take an, ‘ignorance is bliss’ stance, or should we contest it? Then there is the question of scale. In Worldsystems theory, entire countries are designated as ‘periphery countries’ that are exploited for their disempowered labour and natural resources by ‘core countries’.1 Scaled down to a local level and similar occurrence appear. Extractive processes typically take place out of sight from urbanized areas, only for their extracted material to be exploited primarily by the inhabitants of the urbanized areas.

The theme of this year’s unit is ‘affordability’. The term is most typically associated with financial connotations, with architectural use of the term generally restricted to residential projects, ‘affordable housing’. But the term is also defined as, ‘provide or supply (an opportunity of facility)’. The opportunity provided depends on the resource afforded. For example, if the resource is fertile soil, the opportunity is growing crops. But what happens if the resource afforded offers significant financial opportunities, or its use is considered harmful? It becomes contested. The most notable example of this is oil, a resource so valuable and abundant in certain areas, that wars have been fought over its control and distribution. This thesis focuses on the contestations that arise through the exploration and extraction of shale gas (fracking), a topic that combines the themes of affordability, contestation and the notion of the periphery. It is a resource that the UK is potentially afforded in abundance, but one that’s extraction is heavily disputed, with opponents arguing against the ecological implications. The extreme nature of opinion on the subject has made analysis and understanding of the process extremely difficult for people wanting to be appropriately educated. Whilst those in favour fracking typically employ technical terminology in their arguments, those against rely on heavily on emotion language. I believe that the architect can fulfill the role of mediator between the two parties, empowering information through visual, contextual and referenced means.




As an aspiring architect, I approach my projects in a systematic way. Identify a problem. Analyse opportunities. Explore solutions. This portfolio covers the first of these steps and begins to explore the second. The diagram below shows the scaling of step one, from the wider problem of rising energy bills, to the narrowed issue of shale gas exploration in Barton Moss, Salford.





















= 100 TWh 100bil. kWh = 100 TWh 3 MONTH ENERGY USE = 1.16 kWh OF TYPICAL UK HOUSE

See appendix for original data All data collected is for the second quarter of 2013, taken from The Department for Energy & Climate Change. The data primarily used two units of measurement; Thousand Tonnes of Oil Equivalent (KTOE) and Terawatt hour (TWh). KTOE is used as a consolidating unit for fuel used, and TWh for the corresponding electricity generated. 1 KTOE = 0.01163 TWh 1 TWh = 85.9845 KTOE All graphical data is to scale.

Indigenous Production embodies all Primary Energy. Gas includes all Natural gas, in both dry and liquid form. Oil covers crude oil, natural gas liquids and feedstocks, which are all refined for petroleum. Coal includes manufactured solid fuels such as coke oven coke, coke breeze and tars. (Derived gases coke oven gas and blast furnace gas count as ‘Other Fuels’ in the generation of electricity, along with waste products from chemical processes).

The subcategories of Renewable energy cover numerous sources from across the UK. Wind/ Solar includes all Offshore and Onshore Wind, Solar Photovoltaics, Shoreline Wave and Tidal energy. Bioenergy covers Landfill gas, Biodegradable Municipal Solid Waste, Animal Biomass, Anaerobic Digestion and Plant Biomass. Hydro covers all Hydroelectric power, both small scale and large scale.

Final consumption is the total energy consumed by end users. Industry is all manufacturing process, including Iron & Steel. Transport includes all forms of transport including personal and commercial. Domestic is energy consumed at home, whilst Other final user is mostly agriculture, public admin and commerce. Non energy use comes mostly from oil where the raw material isn’t used for energy, eg. plastic production.

UK Stock Reserves is energy that is stored during warmer months (Q2 and Q3) for use during colder months (Q1 and Q4) when demand for energy increases. During these months UK Stock Reserves would become an input from the graph, rather than output. Other losses include energy losses from Energy industry use, transformation processes (coke manufacture, oil refining etc) and general energy loss.


UK ENERGY INDUSTRY ANALYSIS & OVERVIEW1 Looking at the UK energy data in a scaled and graphic view, a number of trends appear that can be explored further using additional data from the government, and more visual representation.

of fossil fuels in the UK have been in sharp decline over the last decade as domestic supplies are exhausted, and carbon emission directives make production in a number of locations economically unviable. The background to this decline is explored further in this chapter. In spite of this, the UK is still the largest producer or oil and second largest producer of natural gas in the EU. Ideally, our shortfall in production can be replaced with renewables, but this is not viable in the short term, and fulfill increasing demand, the UK will be forced to either import more, or explore unconventional fuel resources such as Shale Gas. 14


Since 2004, the UK has imported more energy than it has exported, leading the UK to become a net importer of energy. Long term this leaves the UK vulnerable as energy security cannot be guaranteed. The graphic below shows to scale where our imported is coming from. To gauge scale, Colombia represents 25% of imported coal.


The majority of the UK’s exports are in the form of oil, with half of exported oil going to Netherlands, a fifth going to Germany, and the remaining oil elsewhere. The majority of exported natural gas was sent to Ireland and Belgium. Further detail on the UK’s trade in fossil fuels since 1960 is explored later in this chapter.


The graphs below break down the individual contributions of each fuel to each area of consumption as a percentage of use. Naturally, transport and non energy use (for example, oil used in the manufacture of plastic) are dominated by oil, with transport itself the largest consumer of energy in the UK. Gas prices have been under the spotlight recently, and with gas being the primary energy contribution to the domestic market, it is evident that rising gas prices create the greatest burden on the consumer. Industry consumes a relatively even mix of energy sources, whilst other final user (mostly agriculture, public admin and commerce), is the most reliant on electricity. Unlike oil and gas, electricity can be generated independently from the national supply (with renewable techniques), which means users more reliant electricity have the greatest opportunity reduce their carbon footprint.



Projected capacity of existing and future Nuclear Power stations in the UK


now accounts for 15.5% of electricity generation in the UK, up from 9.7% in 2012 Q2. Whilst this is due in part to the start up of a number of wind farms in 2013, it is also aided by reduced fossil fuel production. The total contribution of Renewable energy infact increased by 41% from the previous year. Whilst this is progress, this graph demonstrates how small the contribution of Renewable energy is to the UK’s total energy consumption.


Central to the UK government’s future plans for electricity generation, the first wave of new plants are planned to start up in after 2018 at Hinkley Point in Somerset and Sizewell in Suffolk. The government recently agreed a deal with French energy company EDF to build the plants, and in doing so guaranteed an energy price at double the existing market rate.2

The transition to a renewable energy based society can’t be achieved in the short term, but it should be target for the next fifty years. During this transition period, the UK will need to continue to use non-renewable sources to bridge the gap between our current energy make-up and renewable-based one in the future.

Due to the scale of infrastructure required to build and operate Nuclear Power Stations, Nuclear power’s contribution to UK energy will not significantly increase over the next twenty years as new plants replace decommissioned plants.




2,000 GWh

4,000 GWh


Despite the rise of Renewables in electrical generation, the market is still dominated by fossil fuels, with coal and natural gas accounting for 63.5% electricity generated. Whilst imports and exports are proportionally low, the UK is a net importer of electricity from France and the Netherlands, but a net exporter to Ireland.


Energy lost during the process of turning ‘fuels used in generation’ into ‘generated electricity’ is vast. For 2013 Q2, electricity generating plants in the UK used on average 41.48% of energy during the generating process, which is typical of generation, and known as the ‘energy efficiency’. The graph shows the energy efficiency of fuels used to generate electricity in the UK. Further losses are accrued over the distribution grid and at the end user. For example, Incandescent light bulbs use less than 5% of electrical energy consumed into visible light.

Energy efficiency of fuels used in electricity generation


UK ENERGY INDUSTRY FOSSIL FUELS Oil. Whilst the UK is still the largest producer of oil in the EU, production has seen a steep decline since the turn of the century. The majority of reserves are located in the central and northern sections of the North Sea. The decline is attributed increased taxes and an aging infrastructure that has led to numerous rig failures in the past decade.4 Whilst new fields are coming online over the next year this will not halt the decline. In March 2013 the UK government announced an action plan reiterating its commitment to the oil and gas industry.5 The plan had three goals: To maximise the economic production of offshore oil and gas resources; to sustain and promote the growth of the UK industry’s supply chain, home and abroad; and to promote links with industry and government.


The graph to the right shows fossil fuel production and trade in the UK since 1960. The data has been colour coded for Indigenous Production, Imports and Exports, and shade coded for Oil, Coal and Gas, so trends should be visible despite the initial complexity of the graph. In short, for the UK to be a net exporter of fuel, we need to see the blue production line above the red import line, and as the graph shows, the last ten years has seen the UK go from being a net exporter to a net importer of all three fossil fuel sources.3 Coal. During the 1940’s 90% of electricity generation was coal, but falling stocks, the cheaper cost of importing coal, and carbon emission laws mean that today the UK produces 10% of what it produced in 1960. The coal production curve takes a dramatic dip in the mid 1980’s after Margaret Thatchers plans to close 20 coal pits lead to the year long miners strike.6 Politics and pit closures are closely linked, and in 2001 the European Union issued a directive to limit emissions of sulpher dioxide and nitrogen oxides at fossil fueled power plants.7 This stated that plants must either comply or opt out. The Large Combustion Plant Directive has hit the UK hardest, with the 13 plants shutting down representing 34.3 thermal gigawatts of capacity, or 15% of coal production.8

Gas. The trend for gas production and imports tends to follow that of oil. This is due to the fact natural gas is mostly methane which commonly comes from oil wells. Natural gas and oil are both hydro-carbons and have a similar chemical composition. During the 2000’s, gas imports overtook production for the first time since production began. In terms of future gas developments, the last few of years have seen the government lift restrictions on the hydraulic fracturing of shale gas9 (fracking) with exploration in progress to uncover the volumes of recoverable shale gas available. Shale gas production in the USA has helped turn the country into a net exporter of oil and gas, and the UK government hope that the same could happen here. Further study into fracking is in the following chapters.


UK ENERGY INDUSTRY DEBATE & OPINION To get an understanding of popular opinion on the topic of energy in the UK, I monitored social media website ‘Twitter’ during the broadcast of BBC1’s ‘Question Time’ on 24th October. The show sees a panel of politicians and social/political commentators debate topical issues from questions fielded by an audience. As this pool of opinion is centered on people who use Twitter and watch Question Time, it is unrepresentative of overall public opinion. However it is useful in gauging a wider scope of opinion. The first debate on this particular edition responded to the question “Should the government introduce a windfall tax, ditch green levys or should be just wear more jumpers.” The question was in reference to news of further above-inflation price rises by UK energy suppliers,10 and was hotly debated the panelists, with a number of pertinent points raised, and debating techniques used in getting points across. 20

Abandon the ridiculous drive towards green energy which is the main part of this price increase which we can control... Here we are, a country sitting on huge pile of coal which refuses to burn it on the ground that it will create global warming... We now have to go and beg the Chinese and the French to build nuclear power stations for us, who pioneered civil nuclear power... Watching the two political parties handling our energy industry is like watching a drunken man running about with a ming vase, these people have no idea what they’re doing

Climate Change is absolutely happening, it is the single biggest threat this country faces in the decades to come... We have the weakest and most useless of all the regulators looking after our energy sector, Offgem is pathetic in the extreme... There is insufficient supply of energy, it’s not because of green levies, green levies is about making sure we guarantee the future for our children and our children’s children... 95% of the supply chain of tidal and hydro energy is completely and utterly British, that’s the way to create jobs [David Cameron is] using green levies as an excuse for not standing up to these energy companies and the way they operate... John Major took away the restriction on separating on generation from supply which led to the big six we’ve got today... In Germany two thirds of energy generated which is solar and wind is actually coming from individuals and community based organisations and the truth is we’re apparently the windiest country in Europe… we need a mix and I believe nuclear’s part of that Gas price doubled under the previous government because we didn’t see investment in new power sources... Yes coal is important in the short term, we also need to get gas going we need to make sure we’ve got shale gas being exploited in this country which will benefit local communities we also need to look at liquid natural gas... At the moment they [green taxes] are incentivsing particular forms of energy that are extremely expensive, I think it’s wrong that we’re implementing green taxes faster than other countries As far as the British people are concerned, what Ed Miliband proposed was too moderate because nearly 7 out of 10 want our energy supply back under the control of the British people in public ownership... [Energy price rises] will drive 9 million people into fuel poverty... 20,000 elderly people die from in excess winter deaths... According to Age UK you are three times more likely to die a preventable death in a cold home than a warm home... [Green jobs] are the jobs of the future

ANALYSIS Reaction from the audience to the three major parties was partisan, with the most audible booing coming from the mention of Shale Gas exploration, and biggest cheers for the proposal of renationalising the energy sector. All of the panelists drew on emotive language to get their points across, with Farren referencing ‘our children’s children’, Truss opening with a story of pipes freezing in her childhood, and Jones using the undefined phrase ‘fuel poverty’. None of this language factualy contributed to the debate. Another tool used was the selective use of statistics. American author Mark Twain11 once said ‘Facts are stubborn things, but statistics are pliable’, and this was evident during the debate. The two problems are that in a debate format, statistics can’t be directly referenced, and are often provided without context. For example, Farron celebrated the fact that 95% of the supply chain of tidal and hydro energy is British. Firstly ‘supply chain’ isn’t defined, and secondly, the tidal and hydro sector is minute in proportion to other fuels. So in terms of people employed, 50% of the gas sector would be more than 95% of the tidal and hydro sector. Flint also joins in, stating that two thirds of German energy is solar and wind generated from individuals and communities. In terms of inaccuracy, this statement is staggering as solar and wind as a whole infact generated just 6% of Germany’s energy in 2011.12 Like most Question Time debate, Twitter reaction generally favoured the non-politician panelists. There was widespread agreement that there needs to be a shake up of the ‘Big Six’ energy suppliers, whether that be regulatory reform or nationalisation. People were also critical of government policy, questioning green levies introduced during this parliament, and subsidies provided by the government for overseas investment in the UK’s nuclear sector. Twitter users also picked up one of the more ironic points made by Conservative MP Truss, who stated that coal was still important to UK energy, almost thirty years after the Conservative government decimated the coal industry by closing 20 mines and losing 20,000 jobs. This exercise has revealed that there is a need for reference based facts to be accurately presented to the public so that they can be properly informed, and that politicians are not the ones to do it. 21



In terms of affordability, the rising cost of energy bills are currently at the forefront of the political agenda. Higher costs of wholesale energy from abroad have been passed on to the customer with energy prices continually rising ahead of inflation. This has a regressive effect in that rising energy prices impose greater burden on the poor (relative to resources) than on the rich. The short term priority should be to ensure we have energy securely available, and at a domestic cost that doesn’t make its consumption a luxury for consumers. In terms of long term thinking, we do have to be looking at renewable energy sources, not just because of environmental concerns, but because the fossil fuels simply won’t exist once they have been consumed. However, by analysing the infographic it is clear that the gap that renewables must bridge to provide the same about of electricity that fossil fuels provide is substantial, and as whilst the renewable sector gradually expands to fill the fossil fuel void, fossil fuels still have a critical part to play in the UK energy sector. In terms of representing data, this chapter has demonstrated that to begin to comprehend the state of the UK energy industry (or any area with complex data), a visualized assimilation of data makes understanding significantly easier, even revealing correlations in the data that were otherwise unclear.



SHALE GAS EXTRACTION METHOD One of the major problems with the visual representation of the fracking process is that diagrams of drilling depths and equipment are often vastly out of scale, and if produced for anti-fracking purposes, will rarely provide a ‘not to scale’ note. This is demonstrated in the diagram below where the well appears to have been drilled to a depth no more than the height of the drill rig, and the fractures getting to within centimeters of the water table. This page presents

a to-scale image (with the exception of the well width) of the depths of the well, both vertically and horizontally, and aims to contextualise the figures in a relatable way. For example, fracking in the UK will typically take place at a depth of 9,500ft. Using the Beetham Tower in Manchester as a large unit of measurement, this drill depth can be better comprehended at 18 Beetham Towers deep.1 The majority of data here has been sourced from what I deem an ‘impartial source’, ie, detached from vested interest in shale gas exploration, or not skewed to negatively portray fracking. 26



1 Extraction site is identified, prepared and tested

4 Frac fluid is pumped at high pressure into well to shale rock

7 Well is depressurised to allow gas to flow out of fractures

2 Well is drilled to shale formations and encased

5 This creates fractures in rock that are propped open by sand

8 Gas is contained for and transported for treatment

3 Explosive charges are fired through well to perforate holes in ‘production zone’

6 Additional fluid is pumped into well to maintain pressure and create deeper fractures

9 Around 30% of frac fluid returns to surface and is either treated or disposed of


Well sites typically last for 5 - 10 years depending on the amount of recoverable gas. In decomissioning a site, wells are plugged and the site is returned to its previous state


To ensure the wells integrity, a series of wellbores decreasing in diameter are drilled and lined with steel and cement. Conductor casing. Set to around 30 metres, acts as a foundation to the well. Surface casing. Drilled beyond aquifers to prevent leaks into drinking supplies. Intermediate casing. Drilled to any zone deemed to be potentially unstable. Production casing. Drilled through to target zone for shale gas extraction.

SHALE GAS is a natural

gas trapped in shale rock formations underground. It is a hydrocarbon gas consisting primarily of methane which can only be released by stimulating the rock with fractures.


These rock formations are representative of Barton Moss4 (see following chapter) 27







A drill pad can support between 6 - 24 wells depending on production rate. Between 16 - 51 Heavy Goods Vehicles coming and going per day. AREA COVERED 8 If there is no direct water supply, it BY WELL PAD is bought on trucks. When the site is decommissioned, it is returned to it’s 20,000 - 30,000m³ previous state, as per Environment 6 EQUIVALENT TO Agency regulation. The pad FRACKING FLUID 3 - 4 FOOTBALL PITCHES shown is indicative only and is Water 94.6% Vehicle for proppant and additives to highlight the main industrial Sand 5.23% Proppant to ensure fractures stay open components used on a frac site. Additives 0.17% Various tasks to stimulate gas flow Concentrations of additives vary depending on local conditions WATER 9 and stage of development. These are most common additives: USED/WELL Friction reducer Allows fluid to be injected at optimum rate 10,000 - 25,000m³ Surfacant Aids fluid recovery by reducing viscosity of fluid Scale inhibitor Prevents build-up of scale on walls of well EQUIVALENT TO 4 - 10 OLYMPIC SIZED Acid Cleans well to provide accessible path to fractures FRAC FLUID ADDITIVE SWIMMING POOLS Biocide Prevents growth of organisms and bacteria COMPOSITION COMPOSITION 28


In terms of land use footprint, shale gas requires a significantly smaller footprint than alternative methods of energy production. As each well can be drilled horizontally in six directions, the above ground foot print is small compared to the extraction area.10




In comparison to the USA, exploration and understanding of the UK’s shale gas resources is in it’s infancy. The British Geological Survey (BGS) are responsible for estimating the resource of shale gas in the UK. They published the results of their first full localised study in June 2013, assessing the prospectively of the Bowland-Hodder shale formation in northern England.11 They are due to complete a study of the Weald formation in south east England in March 2014, before commencing a study in the Central Lowlands of Scotland between Edinburgh and Glasgow.12



As there is approximately between 3050 years worth of shale gas available, shale gas has been described as a ‘bridge fuel’. An energy source that can fulfill our immediate and increasing energy requirements in the coming decades (shown in the table above), whilst bridging the gap to a renewable energy focused society. In this period, renewable technologies are advanced and adopted for long term reliance. As this projection shows, as fossil fuels diminish over the next forty years, our reliance of renewables should edge towards total.14 31




On the left are fourteen of the oil and gas exploration companies that hold licenses in the UK. All are British based, except for Eden Energy and Dart Energy which are headquartered in Australia. The shale gas industry in the UK is still in it’s infancy, with Cuadrilla Resources the largest and most prominent exploration company.15 However in 2011 their losses of £8m were over three times bigger than their revenues, demonstrating that returns on these companies investments, whilst potentially huge, will not be immediate. The next biggest player is IGas Energy, which raised £23m in January 2013 from a share placing. This was to fund the £15m drilling of two wells to explore it’s shale resources in Cheshire and Salford.


For a gas exploration company to explore for gas or oil, they must apply for a Petroleum Exploration and Development License (PEDL)20. The license confers the right to ‘search for, bore for and get hydrocarbons’, but do not allow exemption for legal requirements such as access rights, health and safety regulations and planning permission from local authorities. There are currently 176 licenses for onshore oil and gas exploration in the UK. As the map shows, these licenses are generally spread around the north of England, the Midlands, south Wales, Somerset and the south of England.


Over the last year several energy utility companies have formed partnerships with shale gas exploration companies in the UK. These multi million pound deals have been hailed by the government as the energy industry showing confidence in the UK shale gas industry. However there is controversy as two of the energy companies entering the UK market, Total and GDF Suez, are from France - where fracking has been banned by the government on health and safety grounds.16

Cuadrilla & Centrica17 The deal was the first of its kind in the UK, with British utility company Centrica (owner of British Gas), paying £40million for a 25% stake in Cuadrilla’s gas field interests in Lancashire

Total & IGas Energy18 The deal coincided with a major government announcement on shale gas policy. Total have paid IGas £12.7million for a 40% stake in their gas field interests in Lincolnshire.

GDF Suez & Dart Energy19 For £24million, GDF Suez acquired 25% of Australian owned Dart Energy’s 13 onshore drilling licenses. The licenses stretch across the Bowland Shale play in north England. 33


Local Councils are responsible for awarding planning permission for drilling operations in their jurisdiction, and have final say on whether fracking takes place. They answer to the Department for Communities and Local Government, headed by the Secretary of State, currently Eric Pickles.

The UK Crown exercises rights of exploration and exploitation of oil and gas in the UK. The Petroleum (Production) Act 1934 gave ownership of oil and gas in Great Britain to the Crown.21

Her Majesty’s Government The Department for Energy and Climate Change (DECC) is responsible for issuing licenses for oil and gas exploration on and offshore in the UK. It also regulates oil and gas field development pipeline activities, and environmental aspects of the industry. The department’s biggest expenditure is through the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority which accounts for 69% of it’s budget.22

Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change Rt Hon Ed Davey, Liberal Democrat

Minister of State for Energy Rt Hon Michael Fallon, Conservative

Minister of State for Climate Change Rt Hon Gregory Barker, Conservative

The Office of Unconventional Gas and Oil (OUGO) is a newly formed government office set up to promote unconventional oil and gas in the UK. This covers the development of shale gas and oil.23 34

The Environment Agency is a nondepartmental public body of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, responsible for the protection and enhancement of the environment in England. They issue permits to operators wishing to drill, with focus on the protection of aquifers. The Health and Safety Executive is a non-departmental public body that deals with for workplace health, safety and welfare. They are sponsored by the Department for Work and Pensions. They are responsible for scrutinising the designs of wells for safety, and monitoring the on-site well operations. The British Geological Survey is a public sector organisation responsible for’ ‘advising the UK government on all aspects of geoscience as well as providing impartial geological advices to industry, academia and the public. They carry out and publish studies on shale gas resources for the DECC. United Kingdom Onshore Operators Group (UKOOG) is the body for the UK onshore oil & gas industry. Their remit is to ensure transparent communications between industry, stakeholders and communities. In 2013 they published guidelines covering best practice for well operations in the UK.24


If a gas and oil exploration company wishes to explore for shale gas onshore in England, there are a number of steps the company must take before exploratory drilling can take place.25 If extraction is deemed geologically and commercially viable, the process is then repeated before fracking can take place.

Obtain PEDL license from DECC granting exclusive rights to ‘search and bore for and get’ the Crown’s mineral resources. Licenses cover specific blocks of land, are offered in rounds, and are conferred by the Minister for Energy Negotiate access with landowners. Whilst the crown owns underground mineral resources, use of the land to drill must be granted by the owner of the land If the proposed well encroaches the coal seams, permission to drill must also be granted by the Coal Authority Planning permission must be granted from the local minerals planning authority (MPA). This is always the County Council, although National Parks are also MPAs Operator must consult with the Environment Agency (EA) who are statutory consultees to the County Council. The EA will give necessary environmental permits. The council will determine if an environmental impact assessment is required The design of the well must be approved by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE), and an independent, competent well examiner The British Geological Survey (BGS) must be notified of the operators intent to drill Once these stages have been met, a company has permission for 96 hours of test drilling to evaluate its potential to produce oil or gas, although this can be extended with permission from DECC. Should the operator wish to commence production from a development site, ie. fracking, they must repeat all of the above steps, gaining new planning permissions, before receiving final approval from the DECC. 35


The UK Government sees the exploitation of Shale Gas as playing a key role in the UK energy industry over the coming decades. In its long-term infrastructure investment plan, published in June 2013,26 various incentives for gas exploration companies were set to make the UK the ‘most generous regime’ for shale gas in the world. They also revealed ‘community benefits’ for locations affected by drilling. We want to create the right conditions for industry to explore and unlock that potential in a way that allows

communities to share in the benefits George Osbourne 29

The term ‘communities’ is one used frequently by politicians, particularly in the discussion of shale gas exploration. However the definition of communities and how the incentives are divided is largely a grey area. In a meeting with a councilor from Salford (see following chapter), I discovered that the distribution of community funds was often as contested as the argument on fracking.

From money off bills, playgrounds, sports halls or regeneration schemes, people will see real and local advantages from shale gas production in their area Michael Fallon 27




I want Britain to be a leader of the shale gas revolution because it has the potential to

create thousands of jobs and keep energy bills low for millions of people George Osbourne 28






The primary concern with fracking is pollution from the frac fluid. Should well casing fail, fractures extend to the water table, or flowback fluid mistreated, there is potential for drinking water and land to be contaminated.

A single drill pad releases millions of m3 of methane in it’s lifetime. The impact of methane is 20 times greater on climate change than carbon dioxide.31 Methane emissions are the primary concern regarding fracking from the European Commission. It is released either by leakages or flaring of the well.


Huge volumes of water are required for each frac job, and questions have been raised over whether existing UK water supplies could support a booming fracking industry. Hosepipe bans during dry summers are common, and with little frac fluid recycled, fracking companies would need to justify water use.

There are concerns that the charges used to create fractures in the shale rock can cause earthquakes. Cuadrilla’s fracking operations in Blackpool were halted after 2.3 and 1.4 magnitude earthquakes were attributed to drilling.30

With drill pads 2 - 3 hectares in size, and hundreds of truck visits required per drill pad, opponents to fracking say that it will industrialise the countryside, destroy numerous natural habitats and put huge strain on the basic transport infrastructure in the country.


The Academy Award nominated 2010 documentary, written and directed by environmental activist Josh Fox, has been instrumental in the negative portrayal of fracking. In the most notorious scene, a local resident lights his tap on fire, apparently due to the contamination of the local water source.32


SHALE GAS REPORTS & PARTIALITY There are numerous reports on the process and impact of hydraulic fracturing in the UK. As fracking is such a contested subject, the reliability of information should always be scrutinised. This involves exploring the background of the report’s authors and determining whether there are any conflicts of interest that would affect the partiality of their judgement. As reports produced by the oil & gas industry and anti-fracking organisations will naturally have a conflict of interest, these pages will explore reports commissioned by the UK government. These reports are regularly cited by the government in support of fracking, but what is the background of these reports, and can their findings be trusted? Having a background in the oil and gas industry doesn’t necessarily mean a vested interest, but if there is evidence of recent commercial interests in shale gas exploration, questions on partiality and integrity of the source must be raised. 38


The Royal Society and the Royal Academy of Engineering Background: Published in June 2012, the report was commissioned by the Government Office for Science, part of the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills.33 Findings: The report was favourable towards fracking, stating that with appropriate regulation and monitoring, ‘the health, safety and environmental risks can be managed effectively’. It rejected the arguments of unsustainable water use and risks of seismic activity, stating that the highest priority should be well integrity. The report has been regularly cited in supporting shale gas exploration by the government. Conflicts of interest: From 2006 to 2011, the President of the RAE was John Browne. A peer and UK government adviser, Browne was of chairman of BP from 1995 to 2007, and has been a Fellow of the Royal Society since 2006.34 Critically, Browne is now chairman and major stakeholder of Cuadrilla Resources, the leading shale gas exploration company in the UK.35 Should the industry boom in coming years, Browne stands to make a significant amount of money. A freedom of information act by Green Party leader and MP, Caroline Lucas in April 2013 revealed Browne to be using his position in government to lobby his commercial interests with Cuadrilla.36 Whilst he isn’t listed as a contributor to the report, his connection and influence to both societies and the government is clear, and this appears to be an obvious conflict of interest.


Background: The report was published in June 2013 having been commissioned by the DECC.37 The aim of the report was to assess the geological composition and potential of the Bowland-Hodder gas shale play (see ‘Resource’ page in this chapter). Findings: The report was most notable for its estimation that there may be double the amount of shale gas present in the north of England than previously thought. It was seen as a landmark moment for the development of the shale gas industry in the UK, and was heavily reported in national and global media. Conflicts of interest: Whilst the BGS has been accused of being part funded by the oil & gas industry,38 the it’s difficult to question in partiality of the organisation with regards to fracking. None of the report authors or senior staff at the BGS appear to have any direct links with the shale gas industry, and the findings of the report are based on geological data which is not subjective.


Background: The DECC commissioned Engineering and Project Management Consultants AMEC to compose a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) on onshore oil and gas exploration. The SEA, a statutory requirement under the EU Directive, was published in December 2013.39 Findings: The report was mixed to negative in it’s findings on the effects of fracking. It found the potential for ‘significant negative effects in relation to climate change and waste’, and that drilling would put significant strain on local infrastructure. It also disputed previous claims that the industry would create up to 74,000 jobs, instead estimating the figure to be a third of that, and that less than a fifth of these jobs would go to local people. Despite these points, the government tried to put a positive spin on the report, describing it as ‘the next step in unlocking the potential of shale gas in our energy mix’. Conflicts of interest: As statutory bodies, the Environmental Agency and Natural England were obliged to be consulted for the report. However, after lobbying from green campaigners, fracking opponents Friends of the Earth, Greenpeace and the World Wide Fund for Nature were also consulted on the scope of the report.40 No shale gas companies or industry bodies had any input. Together, this has made AMEC’s report the most cautious of any government commissioned report on fracking, and whilst not entirely impartial, it may be the most reliable in terms of the potential consequences of fracking.


Background: The IoD, awarded Royal Charter in 1906, are an organisation that promote professionalism in business. They published the report in 2013.41 Findings: The report focuses on the economic impact of fracking, concluding that up to 74,000 jobs could be created, particularly in the North West. It also highlights the positive knock on effect fracking could have on other industries, aswell as increased tax revenues. The conclusions are overwhelmingly positive on fracking. The report is regularly cited by the government, most recently in January 2014 during a major announcement on the economic benefits local councils will receive from fracking. Conflicts of interest: The report was sponsored by Cuadrilla Resources, the biggest shale gas firm in the UK. This immediately discredits the partiality of the report.42


International Energy Agency Background: The IEA is an ‘autonomous organisation’ that acts as policy advisor to its member on energy security, development and protection. The report was published in 2012.43 Findings: The report highlights potentially severe environmental consequences, but builds an economic case for limiting these consequences and gaining public trust through spending more on well design, green fracking fluids and creating drilling transparency. However it also highlighted that focus on unconventional gas could be at the cost of support for renewable technologies. Conflicts of interest: Contributors to the report included oil & gas companies, governments, academic institutions and environmental agencies. Whilst this is a broad field of sources, the IEA have been accused of favouring fossilfuels over renewables in the past. Despite this, the report’s criticism of the industry suggests the report can be trusted. 39



Relating to the topic of affordability, we can link shale gas to it’s definition in both senses of the word. In the monetary definition of the word, there is the possibility that the commercial extraction of the gas may bring energy prices down. In the supply definition, shale gas is a resource that the country has been afforded. However when looked at in terms of components of the fracking process which are not as readily afforded, ie. water, then the affordability of the shale gas comes into question. With offshore fuel reserves dwindling, the sources of our energy will no longer be invisible to our awareness on North Sea drilling rigs, but onshore and within our peripheries. This could create a whole new language of architecture, bringing the previously unseen industry in to our back yards. In terms of the authors personal stance, I feel that if shale gas can provide the UK with energy security during a transition to renewables, it should be considered. This is dependent on: 1. Strict enforcement of regulations and best practice from fracking companies 2. Local communities receive appropriate compensation for disruption 2. A guarantee that there is continued research into sustainable fracking techniques 3. Continued research into renewable technologies that will take over the UK demand It is important to emphasise that this project is NOT about the right and wrongs of the technical aspects of fracking, but making sure people are reliably and appropriately informed on the subject, and that debate is proper and accessible to all.



BARTON MOSS THE AREA Barton Moss is located in the metropolitan borough of Salford. It used to be a civil parish of the former Barton-on-Irwell district, now occupying the land between Barton on-Irwell, Irlam and the Manchester Ship Canal. The land is part of network of mosslands that are collectively referred to as Chat Moss.1 Much of the area that was formerly peat bog has been converted to farmland with the mosses popular with bird watchers,2 despite the M62 that divides the agricultural from the residential. To the south west of the mosses is one of the largest waste water treatment plants in Europe, Davyhulme Sewage Works, whilst further west is one of the largest shopping centers in Europe, the Trafford Centre. The recent history of the area is closely linked with the Manchester Ship Canal. The opening of the canal in 1894 prompted significant industrial development on the banks of the canal, with the Irlam Steelworks, opened in 1910, the focal point of life in Irlam and Cadishead. The steelworks, pictured below in 1960, closed in 1979, leaving an economic hole in the area that is still felt today.3



BARTON MOSS CHAT MOSS Chat, Irlam, Barton, Worsley, Little Woolden and Great Woolden Mosses, collectively known as Chat Moss, are a collection of arable fields and peat workings that make up over 30% of Salford. At 2750 hectares, it is the largest area of Grade 1 and 2 farmland in Greater Manchester, and has been described as the ‘green lung’ of the city.4 The mosses are a source of significant wildlife interest unique to peat environments. Extraction of peat no longer takes place after the last horticultural firm to do so were told to stop by Salford council in 2011, citing carbon emissions continued damage to the moss.5

The Mosslands Vision Project, published in 2007, was a study between Salford, Warrington and Wigan to identify a long term vision for Chat Moss. The report concluded that a balance of agricultural, leisure and biodiversity land uses were needed, but that this was difficult due to the lack of control over the land.6



BARTON MOSS PEEL GROUP Peel Group is the biggest property investment company in the north west, which a huge portfolio of land and property in and around Liverpool and Manchester. The company is owned by John Whittaker, an elusive businessman whose takeover of the Manchester Ship Canal Company triggered the start of number of high profile developments. These include the Trafford Centre and regeneration of Salford Quays. Peel Group are playing a major role in the Atlantic Gateway project, a major redevelopment strategy aimed at accelerating growth in the north west.7 A key component of the project is Port Salford, an inland freight terminal on the banks of the Manchester Ship Canal that will include a 157,936m2 of warehousing. An expansion of the proposals include the building of 1,400 homes on green belt land currently occupied by Boysnope Golf course.8 Another proposed development is the Barton Renewable Energy Plant which is planned to be located next to the M60 at the Barton High Level Bridge. Trafford Council had rejected planning for biomass incinerator due to concerns over public health, but this ruling was overruled by the government.9 The plans include the possibility of CBM extraction underneath the plant, which would be in line with gas exploration at the Barton Moss site. Anti-fracking group ‘Frack-off ’ describe Peel Group as trying to position themselves as the,10

‘Fracking landlords of the north west’ On the ‘Mineral Extraction’ page of the Peel website, they state that they recover more than 120,000 tonnes of sand from the approaches to the Manchester Ship Canal each year.11 Water and sand make up over 99% fracking fluid. The Peel owned ship canal is a source of water and sand. 48



IGas Energy are a British onshore oil and gas exploration and production company. The are aiming to position themselves as at the forefront of the shale gas revolution which is reflected in their aggressive expansion in the last three years. They have acquired Star Energy Group, P.R Singleton and most recently Caithness Oil, and in doing so, have picked up a number of oil and gas exploration licenses in the south of England, Staffordshire, Lincolnshire and the North West. The map below shows the locations of their PEDL licenses in the UK, whilst figures show key information from their 2012/13 annual report.12











Company value IGas have a total of 195,144,927 shares on issue, and are listed on the FTSE Alternative Investment Market (AIM) AllShare Index in Oil & Gas.13 Their share price on November 26 was 110p, valuing the company at ÂŁ214.66m.



Pre-20th century, the site was on nursery land, before being felled for farmland.23 The land was sliced in two by the construction of the M62 motorway in the 1960s, before more recently being sold to Peel Holdings.


PRE 2000s

IGas agree deal with Peel Holdings, giving IGas unlimited access to Peel’s entire land holdings in the North West of England for the purpose of identifying sites suitable for oil and gas extraction.24


Planning permission for the ‘Drilling of two exploratory boreholes for coal bed methane appraisal and production’ on the outlined site was granted by Salford City Council in 2010.25 The application was made by a Nexen Exploration UK, who were bought by IGas in 2011. First Community Liaison Group meeting with IGas held in December.



The baseline monitoring report was completed in 2013, allowing IGas to commence exploratory drilling. Lancashire is known to be sitting on substantial formations of shale rock, and whilst the British Geological Survey suggests that it could be rich in shale gas, IGas must carry out an exploratory drilling operation to understand the exact nature of the formations, specifically in Barton Moss. According to IGas they will be gaining data on:27


Peel Group owns the land on which drilling will take place. Whilst it is difficult to find out the true extent of Peel’s land ownership, council records show that in 2003 the group bought The Chat Moss Estate, 60 acres of land from Moss Lane Farm (pictured) and 432 acres of land from Woolden Moss to the south west of Barton Moss.28 Tunnel Farm, which backs on to the drill site is owned by W Dixon & K Smith, an agricultural firm that produces and supplies crops.29

Thickness of potential ‘energy- bearing’ rock formations (CBM & shale gas) Rock samples to determining potential to hold energy Seismic activity Construction of the site surface finished at the start of 2012. This involved the laying of an impermeable membrane and a leveling of a gravel surface. Commenced baseline monitoring which involved drilling of three shallow wells to monitor a range of ground level parameters.26

IGas started preparing the exploratory drill in November, and expect to finish at the start of 2014. Whilst the process does not involve fracking, anti fracking activists have set up camp on Barton Moss Lane in an attempt to disrupt drilling.

Should the exploration well prove geologically and commercially viable (decision expected Q3 2014), IGas may choose to apply for a license to frack for shale gas on the site. This would require a separate planning application, and have to be approved by Salford City council.

Should exploration prove unsuccessful, the land will be returned to its former condition. If council give permission to extract shale gas, IGas will prepare the site (which may involve expansion) and commence shale gas extraction using fracking (see chapter 3).






BARTON MOSS PROTEST MOVEMENT With social media making the organisation of events as easy as clicking a few buttons, protests movements such as ‘Say No to Fracking on Barton Moss’ can spread a message, provide updates and engage vast number of people in a very short period of time. The group have a highly active facebook group and have played a part in the organisation of awareness meetings in the area.30 Shortly after preparations for exploratory drilling began in November, activists started to form a protest camp along Barton Moss Road (top left image), with the aim of disrupting drilling and raising awareness of the issue at a local and national level. A similar movement was held in Balcombe over the summer to protest exploratory drilling by Cuadrilla, but protest camps in Sussex in the warm summer are a different proposition to protest camps in Salford in cold and wet Salford. Whilst the online movement is led by locals, the protest camp includes a number of activists who have come from across the country to make a stand against fracking, some of whom were also at Balcombe. Whilst the protests have been successful in making national media, IGas confirmed that drilling had started (bottom left image) and will progress as planned.31





“[Fracking] builds on the industrial heritage of the North West, which is the result of extractive industries such as coal mining” This quote is from IGas Chief Executive Andrew Austin defending the prospect of shale gas extraction in Barton Moss.32 It is a play on the fact that the cultural leap required for the north west to accept this new industrial unknown is less compared to an area with little history of industry, ie. the south east. On the ‘Definition’ page (page 4), I raised the question, “If the contestation needs to be addressed, is it possible not to take sides?” According to ‘Say No to Fracking on Barton Moss’, Salford council have refused to provide bins for the protest camp on Barton Moss Road due to not taking sides. By doing so, are they infact implicitly taking a side? The council are stuck between the metaphorical rock and a hard place, not wanting to anger the people it represents (although not all the campsite are from Salford), whilst trying to support a private company that may provide significant economic investment. In terms of my personal stance on shale gas extraction, I am inclined to line my views with the independent and peer-reviewed evidence on the subject, which suggests that the process is safe if firmly regulated. Having analysed the process of fracking, my three primary concerns if I was a local resident would be the increased pressure on local infrastructure, transparency of operations and waste management. Whilst activists have one goal - to prevent what they are protesting against - there often isn’t a plan for if it does go ahead, and how they can get the maximum benefit from the process. This relates to the architecture of contingency, a subject addressed by Jeremy Till in ‘Architecture Depends’.33

In philosophical terms, Till uses German philosopher Georg Hegel’s definition of contingency as a vehicle for an architectural expansion of the idea. Hegel describes contingency as the,

‘Unity of actuality and possibility’ Till emphasizes the need for the architect to have a full and dynamic understanding of a problem before looking to find solutions for it. In relation to this thesis and developing an insight into Barton Moss, this portfolio demonstrates Till’s point.

‘My sympathies lie with those who look first and then think, rather than those who think first and then look for places to impose their thinking.’ With a comprehensive understanding of the ecological, economic, political and community tensions, this thesis has ‘looked first’ before having thinking imposed. With this knowledge gained, a contingency for the event of shale gas extraction taking place can be developed. Till states that contingency must be flexible due to the numerous variables that exist through the tensions at play.

‘Dealing with contingency thus calls for one to have a vision but, at the same time, to be modest and lightfooted enough to allow that vision to be adjusted to the circumstances’ 57





The awareness evening was led by a man and woman in their mid- twenties, and consisted of three short video projections and an hour long open discussion. Two of the three videos were not actually about fracking, instead showing communities in Australia fighting against Coal Bed Methane extraction, which does not involve the process of fracking. The videos relied on emotion over factual analysis, with quotes such as, “coal seam gas refugee”, and “[this is] the biggest threat to Australian communities since World War Two”.


During the discussion residents were given the opportunity to raise their concerns. What became evident was that the really issues that people care about are how they will be directly affected. One woman asked if dangerous chemicals would seep into her garden, whilst a farmer asked whether chemicals would get into the drinking water for his livestock. One local who was passionately against fracking told the discussion that if a well is drilled horizontally below your property, you have the right to sue for trespassing, and that she would be taking photos of her house for in case it was damaged by seismic activity. One attendee who wasn’t local, but described himself as an ‘activist’ said that it wasn’t until 2030 at the earliest that the UK could be a completely renewable society, and that there needs to be a ‘transition period’, hinting at the thought of shale gas being a ‘bridge fuel’. There was also the suggestion of Clean Burnt Coal, an interesting solution that would make use of a local resource embedded in Lancashire history.

Two of the farmers who live on Barton Moss Lane were at the meeting. They said that a number of ‘wagons’ had been down the road in recent days, and that there was a police presence. One resident made a passing comment that the farmers had received compensation from IGas, but they left before I could ask any questions. In referring to the danger associated with fracking, one local told me, “You can’t have any industrial process without danger”, before listing all of the members of his family that had died from industry. From the start of the discussion, the organisers were keen to take a straw poll of locals to see if they were in favour or against fracking, despite the fact that the information provided at the evening clearly was part of a pre-formed agenda.







One of the major tensions that became apparent during the evening was a political one. The local who was most vocal about having an open mind about the prospect of fracking was a resident called Chris Williams, who disputed the accuracy of a number of points raised by the two organisers. After speaking to Chris it turned out that he was an active member of the Labour party in Irlam. Towards the end of the evening the two organisers handed out leaflets which revealed that they were members of the Manchester Socialist Party. After speaking to them, I found out that both lived in Levenshulme, Manchester and were not residents. This immediately raised questions on their credibility to and authority to lead a local fight against fracking in the area. They described themselves as ‘environmental activists’ and that this was their first time organising such an event. I felt that their primary motive for the evening was not to help the local residents, but to make political headway through poorly researched scare tactics.



The meeting was with John Walsh, Labour Councilor for Cadishead ward, and Ursula Sossalla-Iredale, Neighborhood Manager for Salford City Council. It was attended by myself and three colleagues also doing research into the Irlam and Cadishead area, with their work focusing on the divides formed by

the Manchester Ship Canal, and perceptions of industrial landscapes along the canal. When I got the opportunity to raise the issue of shale gas exploration, their responses were the most considered and informed of any I had heard to date. They both

We’ve got community committees here which are public meetings and representatives from community groups sit on that and elected members and the public, anyone can come. So we have got representatives from that committee that are on the IGas steering group, the minutes from the IGas steering meetings go to all the people who are on our community committee circulation list, they get regular updates, Chris is the rep from the community committee who does an update as well. So we have circulated everything from those meetings.

We’ve hidden nothing

We’ve now been on these steering group meetings, how many meetings have we had, and we’ve had presentations and explanations, and

it’s quite difficult to understand for a start so people are fearful, I mean I was, I thought oh my god you know, when we first heard about it, but once you get more information and people have asked loads of questions, and I think they have never had the opportunity, although there has been an open day at the stadium, but that wasn’t in Irlam and Cadishead and to get there, well you know how far it is to walk from the bus station to the stadium, and we still want local meetings here…

I think they [IGas] need to do more They’re relying on us in a way because most of the information that goes out on a regular basis is through our community committee and that is run by the council with partners involvement, but really at the last meeting, I’ve just read the minutes, and the more I thought about it, they’ve got a big publicity marketing company behind them, and

why should we organize their meetings when we have got cuts and staff loss and I thought why am I even offering [to do this] 62

When people say community, what does that actually mean? Is it the community in the form of members elected, or Greater Manchester, or is it the whole country

recognised the contested nature of the subject, but were conscious of the fact that they represent their communities and have a responsibility to ensure that their best interests are met. Cllr. Walsh denounced the ‘sensationalism’ fed to the public on fracking, saying that there is a lack of impartial and non-technical information available.

They had both praise and criticism for IGas, informed by the meetings they had attended with the company, and by feedback they had had from locals. They both spoke of how their personal opinion on the drilling had shifted once they felt they had been properly informed and could accredit an element of trust to IGas. It appeared

this confidence was only gained after a number of meetings with IGas. Ursula explained to me that the council organised ‘Community Liaison Group’ meetings which IGas, councilors and locals attended every few months. She said that these meetings were open to attend, and that she could send me the minutes from this year’s meetings.

One of the safeguards - if you read the Labour party policy, which I recommend that you do – If all those [safeguards] are in place, then we would be minded that it might be of benefit to us, and

if we can screw IGas for a million pounds for Irlam, and a million pounds for Cadishead, and a million pounds for Lymm, and a million pounds for Barton, why not, because we’re not going to get a million pounds, and currently we’re restricted to £12,000 in grants.

Because people listen to things like ‘if you light a match you can light your tap’, they like things lie that don’t they. Why do they read The Sun and The Star? Why do people do that?

If all safeguards are in place and the scientific people tell me it’s safe, why not. I’m not like our MP who’s anti fracking, but is in favour of it going somewhere else,

Because they like sensationalism ...they need more information

so I said that smacks of nimbyism.

Not in my back yard but someone else’s. If all the safeguards are in place, and if we can benefit as a community, you know, and the scientific evidence suggests that it might very well be safe. I mean the earthquake that was there in Blackpool; you get them all the time… There’s some people who will say don’t get anything out of the ground, there are other people who will say, you know, carbon emissions and all this business,

but listen, we’ve got to live,

and they’re the ones, you know, do we have wind farms or, you know, whatever. There is a balance to be achieved... We’ve got to be pragmatic haven’t we In this country, these sort of things are more regulated than any where else on the planet.

It’s not in their interest to tell lies, it’s in their interest to get people on their side

and to be fair, they’ve been closely questioned and vigorously questioned, I mean I went for the throat early on, because I don’t like people making money, you know, a lot of money… So I really had a go at them, but they answered everything and retained their cool and have been very good at those meetings.

I think they could do a travel workshop


ENGAGING WITH BARTON MOSS CLG MEETING MINUTES The Community Liaison Group have met with IGas representatives since 2010, and is the primary stage for dialogue between members of the community and IGas. The group consists of elected representatives, community representatives, residents, IGas employee, and people representing IGas but not directly employed by them. Attendees of meetings this year Councilor Joe Kean, Salford City Council and Chair of the CLG ( JK) Chris Williams, local resident and Acting Chair of the CLG (CW ) Councillor Christine Hudson, Salford City Council (CH) Councillor Jimmy Hunt, Salford City Council ( JH) Councillor John Walsh, Salford City Council ( JW ) Ursula Sossalla – Iredale, Irlam and Cadishead Neighbourhood Team (US-I) Kelly Wray, Eccles Neighbourhood Team (KW ) Ann Cavanagh, Irlam & Cadishead Community Committee (AC) Thomas Kean, Moss Vale Tenants and Residents’ Association (TK) Erica Woods, local resident (EW ) Sybil Norcott, Irlam Women’s Institute (SN) Julie Larkinson, Salford City Academy ( JL) Gladys Marshall, local resident (GM) Celia Tomlinson, local resident (CL) John Martin, Salford City Council ( JM) Adele Steward, Salford City Council (AS) John Stringer, local farmer ( JS) John Morley, Community Committee ( JM) Julie Larkinson, Salford City Academy ( JL) Paul Traynor, local resident (PT) John Blaymires, IGas Energy Plc ( JB) Dave Kerr, IGas Energy Plc (DK) Kris Bone, IGas Energy Plc (KB) Peter Toon, IGas Energy Plc (PeT) Georgie Gilbert, IGas Energy Plc (GG) David Nowell, IGas Energy Plc (DN) Leah Cope, IGas Energy Plc (LC) Rachel Smith, Paver Smith (RS) Mike Hopkins, Jones Lang LaSalle (MH) Jackie Nally, Lexington Communications ( JN)



The minutes reveal the areas of concern that the elected and community representative had, and that these concerns differed from those at the information & awareness meeting. The technicalities of the process are questioned, as well as the wider issues of distribution and local gas consumption. I also discovered that Chris, the labour member who I had met at the I & A meeting played a prominent role in the meetings, explaining why he was more informed on the subject at the meeting. The running theme in questioning is whether IGas could be doing more in the community to make residents fully aware of what they are doing. In each meeting IGas were asked to place an advert in local magazine M44 explaining the drilling, and it wasn’t until the third time of asking that IGas heeded the request. Below is their text-heavy, diagram-free advert from the November 2013 edition of M44.


JM asked whether IGas could provide gas to Fiddlers Ferry Power Station. DK advised that discussions have been had regarding the potential to supply the power station to meet its needs. SN questioned whether IGas is exploring in the correct location, with JS advising that local people, particularly farmers, are familiar with the area and suggested more coal would be located a mile from the site. JB confirmed that more information is required to understand the properties of the rock and explained that the data obtained from exploration would be used to assess the site’s potential. JK states that the Group considers that the Irlam & Cadishead Community Committee is the most appropriate vehicle to administer the applications JB went onto explain that the perception surrounding shale is that it is harmful but it was necessary to look at the facts rather than perceptions. He referred to the footage from the Gaslands film, whereby tap water is set alight, but explained that this is naturally occurring gas and has nothing to do with shale gas and fraccing, yet it is used to convey misleading messages. Describing the ‘social licence to operate’, JB informed members that whilst shale gas may assist in addressing the UK’s energy needs, this will not happen without stakeholder support given the negative image it has with the general public. US-I noted that the CLG has held a number of meetings, but suggested that local residents are also engaged with. She referred to M44, a magazine distributed to households in Irlam and Cadishead, and suggested this publication could be used to disseminate information locally.

26th June 2013

Referring to the meeting report, CW questioned whether contact had been made with M44, a magazine distributed to households in Irlam and Cadishead, to disseminate information about IGas’ activities to the wider population. JB advised that IGas is committed to engaging with the community, but emphasised the need for this to be at the appropriate juncture. Referring to the collection of data to monitor the operation, JW questioned how local people will know if any changes have occurred. JB explained that monitoring is undertaken before, during and after to ensure transparency of activities. Describing Irlam as a ‘close-knit community’ AC emphasised the importance of keeping local residents and stakeholders informed of IGas’ activities. Referring to the earthquakes in the Fylde, she suggested that IGas should ensure the community is reassured that the drilling programme will not result in seismic activity and provide local people with information about its plans. CW asked how IGas would distribute the gas, if found. JB explained that gas could be distributed directly into the grid; used to generate electricity; or direct to major industrial users.

26th September 2013

Elaborating on the need to engage with local people, JM noted that the community information day was well-attended. JL questioned whether residents of the Brookhouse Estate were aware of the session and emphasised the need to engage with said residents. Referring to discussions at previous CLG meetings regarding disseminating information about IGas’ activities to the wider population, CW suggested liaising with M44, a magazine distributed to households in Irlam and Cadishead, and issuing press releases. DK advised that IGas does issue press releases via new agencies for journalists/newspaper editors to consider. He explained that IGas Energy would consider the M44 to inform local people about its operation. DK explained the process of exploration and production and confirmed that IGas directly manages each stage of the process up to the point of sale. Gas and/or electricity would typically be purchased by one of the UK utility companies including those forming the ‘big six’ energy suppliers, e.g. British Gas, Scottish Power or Scottish and Southern Energy. It is also possible to supply gas and electricity directly to local industrial users, minimizing the costs of transporting the product over long distances via the existing distribution networks. DK offered CLG members the opportunity to visit the site once activity commences. JW asked how much waste is generated by site activity and questioned how it is disposed. DK explained that approximately 250 cubic meters of waste is removed from site and taken to a licensed waste disposal facility. DK advised that approximately 15 – 20 people are employed at a drill site, with fewer during the evening. Members were told that IGas operates a two shift system and that the site will operate 24/7 during the exploratory drilling phase.




The Impartial Guide was my first attempt at positioning myself as an objective provider of information on shale gas exploration. The aim of the leaflet was to provide accurate, contextual and impartial information on the processes and effects of fracking, with information gathered and referenced from trusted sources. The information was Barton Moss specific.

The idea stemmed from council meeting and reading of the minutes from the CLG meetings. Cllr. Walsh referred so the sensationalisation of information being the reason behind people being misinformed on shale gas exploration (both positively and negatively), whilst the CL minutes revealed repeated failed attempts by IGas to inform locals on their work via local magazine M44.

The idea behind the fold design was to stress the scale of the drilling, with the folded leaflet showing the typical representation of the drill depth, and the open leaflet showing the true to-scale representation of the drill depth. Context was also key, the Beetham Tower providing a relatable scale. In terms of units, both metric and imperial have been used to ensure universal understanding.

In terms of Barton Moss-specific information, a labeled map is provided, as well as information on how IGas acquired planning permission to exploratory drill on the site, and how they would have to go about applying to hydraulically fracture in the future. There is also a brief outline of IGas as a company, showing where they are active, and who their major shareholders are.

This version was only a first draft as its content was restricted to research and presentation that I had finished at the time of the CLG meeting (see following page), where I had intended to show it. I was keen to hear thoughts on the content, areas of improvement, and whether it was something the councillors thought would be worth circulating in their wards once complete.



Having been made aware of the Community Liaison Group meetings at the meeting with Councillor Walsh and Ursula Sossalla-Iredale three weeks earlier, I looked forward to attending the fourth meeting of the year. It would be a chance to meet some of the people behind IGas for the first time, and hear first hand the progress they had been making on site, and in the community. However to my frustration, when I arrived at the venue, the doors had been locked and I was informed by a man on the door that the meeting was infact at 5:30pm and that everyone had left, but I knew this was not the case.


Outside a small group of activists had also been told they would not be allowed in, and I can only assume that the person on the door thought that I was with the activists, despite my attempts to show him my University ID. After speaking to the activists for around thirty minutes (see following page), I saw IGas’ Chief Operating Officer and Executive Director John Blaymires arrive, confirming that the CLG meeting was indeed taking place. As none of the activists were local, I could understand why they wouldn’t be let in to a meeting designed for locals and other affected parties, and whilst I am not local either, I had been informed I would be able to attend. The meeting was also on the second day of major protests on Barton Moss Road, protests that had made national and international media. Whilst I understood how I could have been mistaken as being with the activists, I was angry that I was lied to about the meeting time, and that they outright refused to see my ID As I finished speaking to the activists, the police arrived, signaling that it was time to leave.


ENGAGING WITH BARTON MOSS MEETING WITH ‘FRACKTIVISTS’ Whilst the trip to Boysnope Golf Club to attend the CLG meeting was a catastrophe in terms of meeting IGas representatives and other councillors, it proved to be an opportunity to speak to the activists who had gathered outside. A ‘catastrotunity’ one might say.

“We’re from all parts of the country. Fracking doesn’t just have a local effect, it’s a global shape”

None of the activists were locals to Barton Moss, coming from across the country to protest against fracking. They explained to me that they were staying at the protest camp on Barton Moss Road, and would stay “as long as it takes”. They hoped to replicate the protests at Balcombe in the Summer that disrupted the exploratory drilling of Cuadrilla, with one of the activists telling me he was at that camp for three months.

It was clear that they were at the camp not to specifically protect the interests of Barton Moss, but to protest fracking in general. In terms of local knowledge specific to Barton Moss and IGas, they seemed quite passive and were extremely interested to hear about my research, in particular the CLG minutes, my meeting with council and ‘The Impartial Guide’ (see following page). Whilst I admired their will to stand up for what they believed in, I was reminded of the information and awareness evening where I concluded that for protests to have full impact, they should be led by locals as they are the ones directly affected. I asked them what their primary objections to shale gas extraction was and Boris, (far left) told me at length that it was the due to pollution of the water table. When I referred to the depth of drilling being significantly deeper than level of the water table, he said the threat came from cracks in the drillbore, and not chemicals seeping through the fractures and through the shale and coal seams. As I asked about what their alternative energy solutions were, the police arrived, and thus ending the chat. 70


“I think we need you on side, ENGAGING WITH although you might claim you are BARTON MOSS impartial you may soon not be.” FEEDBACK ON THE IMPARTIAL GUIDE “This is potentially Whilst I had intended to show the guide to attendees of the CLG meeting, the activists were keenly interested to see the guide. Boris Roscin (pictured) said the guide answered some of the Barton Mossspecific questions that he had come to the meeting intending to ask, such as who owns the company and the background of IGas getting permission to drill on site. Whilst he contested the information provided on fracking fluid, he said that there was a need for this sort of impartial information to be distributed, even if it’s not entirely on the side of the anti-frackers. In terms of information to add, he said that there needs to be more information on water use, hazards and well integrity. He asked for more copies that could be shared with the camp and to visit the camp when the final draft guide is complete.

“We’ve got an information tent on site so local residents come in and see what information we’ve got”

very powerful”

“They say they’ve been advertising since 1991 and yet all the locals I’ve met don’t know a thing about it [Fracking]… until we go and say do you know what this is” A route that this project could go down is buildings of information. That is buildings that provide and distribute information, or are even arenas of debate. With this in mind, it was interesting to hear that this already exists in the protest camp, in the form of an information tent. The protesters clearly understand the power of information and keeping people informed. Even at a level of community as basic as a campsite along a road, they have provided a structural intervention that serves the function of information hub.




This photo shows a protester holding the same ‘Frack Off ’ poster I had received at the information & awareness evening four weeks before, with another protester covering up the Socialist Party logo with the back of another copy of the poster. What’s on the back of the poster? A Socialist Party manifesto.


The major problem is clear. The dialogue between IGas and the local residents in negligible, with IGas waiting for the public to engage with them, rather than them engaging with the public. Communication needs to be done in a way that is understandable, engaging, and most importantly, accurate. The discoveries and potential developments from meeting the players involved in the contestations relate on two levels to the writing of Ananya Roy. Her essay, ‘Urban Informality’ deals with the planning and development of informal urbanization in developing cities.1 The threat of fracking in Barton Moss has conceived an informal community (protest camp) that has developed its own rules and bureaucratic framework. The camp itself can be likened to a city, with a central core of communal space (information tent, eating space), and residences (tent) spreading along the road, expanding with the introduction of new dwellers (protesters). The tent on the end is in on the periphery of a periphery (camp site) in a periphery, Barton Moss, which is in a peripheral region in nationwide terms (not in London).

‘[Hernando] De Soto’s trope of the Third World poor as “heroic entrepreneurs” can be seen as the mirror image of American discourses about the “dependent” poor. The latter diagnoses poverty as the absence of a work ethic; the former poses the solution of entrepreneurship facilitated through participation in the market.’ Reinterpreting this for application to Barton Moss, the statement can be rewritten:

[Hernando] De Soto’s trope of the Barton Moss activists as “heroic proponents” can be seen as the mirror image of American discourses about the “dependent” protester. The latter diagnoses rebelliousness as the absence of a work ethic; the former poses the solution of bureaucratic engagement facilitated through participation in the policy process Whilst it would be incorrect to label protesters as ‘the poor’, it would be accurate to describe them as ‘dependent’, as they are reliant on outside contributions of food, clothing and camping equipment to sustain the protest. The point about facilitating participation is where the architect comes in to play. Under the paradigm of ‘Sustainable Human Development’ the architect becomes the facilitator, empowering the poor through enablement. Referring to a scheme in Bombay, India, Roy describes how the ‘Alliance’ a group of nongovernmental organizations acted as the facilitator in the poor having input on policy and design process

‘The Alliance encourages the poor to design and conduct their own census. It also holds housing festivals and toilet festivals where the poor design their own model homes and model public toilets and where these designs are then passed on to professionals.’ Relating to Barton Moss, there is the idea that local resident not necessarily have a say on the technical process, but are actively consulted on issue in an arena set up and facilitated by the architect. 75


DIRECTION URBAN GAMES A potential route to go down is the idea ‘Urban Games’, a framework of the ‘Urban Flotsam’ project by Chora, an urban design office.1 Urban Flotsam diagrammatizes the ‘skin’ of the earth as a game board with a ‘dynamic game structure’. It can have multiple interpretations, from geological motion, social behaviour, flow of money with the aim of stimulating interactions. The manifesto contains 58 principles, of which these three stand out:



As author of the scenario, the architect will be facilitating a highly controversial game with ecological, ethical and economic stakes. Using our design skills, we can provoke and facilitate discussion around scenarios. Whilst the framework is designed for ‘proto-urban conditions’ elements could still be the basis for an Urban Game set in Barton Moss. Guided by the architect, players can use the game to develop scenarios, create narratives, and reach points of interaction that would have otherwise been avoided.



AUTHOR Architect


IGas Local residents Activists Salford City Council Energy suppliers





Department of Energy & Climate Change Department for Communities & Local Gov. Environment Agency London Stock Exchange Salford City Council Greater Manchester Police

Local farmers Josh Fox (Director of Gasland) Charities Media organisations/individuals Local wildlife


DIRECTION SOLUTIONS In terms of architectural solutions, this thesis has so far concluded that there is a need for an arena for information updates, discussion and scenario visualisation. Due to the temporary nature of the fracking site (5-10 years), the arena would need to be either dismantable after completion, or be able to be converted for alternative use for the community. Whilst a new building could be an option, the idea of renovating an existing structure in the that is in a state disrepair could help form a narrative of the gas exploration company entering a community and helping is development and regeneration. The possible process is diagrammed below.















Wallerstein, Immanuel Maurice. Centrist Liberalism Triumphant, 1789/1914. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011


All data from Infographic and analysis taken from the Department of Energy & Climate Change’s quarterly reports, 1 Total Energy, 2 Solid Fuels & Derived Gases, 3 Oil and Oil Products, 4 Gas, 5 Electricity, 6 Renewables, all 2013 2. BC News. “BBC News - UK Nuclear Power Plant Gets Go-ahead,” October 21, 2013. business-24604218. 3. All data from Fossil Fuel graph taken from the Department of Energy & Climate Change’s reports, Oil Since 1890 Historical Data, Coal Since 1853 Historical Data and Gas Since 1882 Historical Data, all 2013 4. US Energy Information Administration. EIA Brief on UK, May 14, 2013 5. HM Government. UK Oil and Gas: Business and Government Action, March 2013 6. Hutton, Guthrie, and National Union of Mineworkers. Coal Not Dole: Memories of the 1984/85 Miner’s Strike ; from the National Union of Mineworkers (Scotland Area) Exhibition “Strike: Fighting for Our Communities.” Catrine, Ayreshire: Stenlake Publishing, 2005 7. THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL OF THE, and EUROPEAN UNION. DIRECTIVE 2001/80/ EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 23 October 2001 on the Limitation of Emissions of Certain Pollutants into the Air from Large Combustion Plants, October 23, 2001. 8. National Grid. “Large Combustion Plant Directive,” September 2007. 9. Department of Energy & Climate Change. “Developing Shale Gas and Oil in the UK,” July 30, 2013. government/policies/providing-regulation-and-licensing-of-energy-industries-and-infrastructure/supporting-pages/developing- shale-gas-and-oil-in-the-uk 10. BBC. “BBC New - Energy Chiefs to Come Under Fire from MPs on Prices,” October 29, 2013. business-24716146. 11. The Quotations Page. “Quotation Details.” Accessed October 30, 2013. 12. BDEW. “Erneuerbare Energien Liefern Mehr Als Ein Viertel Des Stroms,” July 26, 2012

CHAPTER 3 SHALE GAS 1. Beetham Tower Manchester. “The Beetham Tower.” Accessed November 10, 2013. http://beethamtowermanchester. com/ 2. The Royal Society and The Royal Academy of Engineering. Shale Gas Extraction in the UK: A Review of Hydraulic Fracturing, June 2012. 84

3. ibid. 4. Ground-Gas Solutions Ltd. Baseline Monitoring Report: Natural Gas Exploration Site at Barton, October 2013. 5. AMEC Environment & Infrastructure UK Limited. Department of Energy and Climate Change: Strategic Environmental Assessment for Further Onshore Oil and Gas Licensing, December 2013 6. ibid. 7. ibid. 8. ibid. 9. ibid. 10. International Gas Union. Shale Gas: The Facts About the Environmental Concerns, June 2012 11. British Geological Survey. The Carboniferous Bowland Shale Gas Study: Geology and Resource Estimation, June 2013 12. BBC. “BBC News - Survey to Estimate Shale Gas Deposits Between Edinburgh and Glasgow,” October 16, 2013. 13. The Global Warming Policy Foundation. “BRITAIN HOLDS BIGGEST SHALE BASIN IN THE WORLD,” June 26, 2013. 14. Singer, Stephan, WWF International (Gland), Ecofys (Utrecht), and OMA (Rotterdam). The Energy Report: 100% Renewable Energy by 2050. Utrecht [etc.]: Ecofys [etc.], 2010 15. Ian Griffiths. “Shale Gas Rush: The Fracking Companies Hoping to Strike It Rich,” March 12, 2013. http://www. 16. BBC News. “BBC News - Fracking Ban Upheld by French Court,” October 11, 2013. business-24489986. 17. Centrica. “Centrica Plc - Investors - Investor News - Centrica Acquires a 25% Interest in UK Shale Exploration Licence,” June 13, 2013. 18. IGas Energy. “IGas - RNS News,” January 13, 2014. aspx?storyid=12656336&ishtml=1. 19. GDF Suez. “GDF SUEZ Enters Onshore Exploration Licences with Shale Gas Potential for the First Time in the UK,” October 22, 2014. VA.pdf. 20. Department of Energy & Climate Change. “Oil and Gas: Petroleum Licensing Guidance,” December 4, 2012. 21. Minerals UK. “Legislation & Policy: Mineral Ownership.” Accessed November 17, 2013. mineralsuk/planning/legislation/mineralOwnership.html. 22. Department of Energy & Climate Change. “Department of Energy & Climate Change.” Accessed November 17, 2013. 23. Department of Energy & Climate Change. “Office of Unconventional Gas and Oil (OUGO).” Accessed November 17, 2013. 24. UK Onshore Operators Group. Onshore Oil and Gas in the UK, October 2013. 25. Department of Energy & Climate Change. Onshore Oil and Gas Exploration in the UK: Regulation and Best Practice, December 2013. 26. Great Britain, Treasury, Great Britain, and Parliament. Investing in Britain’s Future. London: Stationery Office, 2013 27. Department of Energy & Climate Change. “Estimates of Shale Gas Resource in North of England Published, Alongside a Package of Community Benefits,” June 27, 2013. shale-gas-resource-in-north-of-england-published-alongside-a-package-of-community-benefits. 28. Department of Energy & Climate Change. “Shale Gas: Government Unveils Plan to Kick Start Investment with Generous New Tax Breaks,” July 19, 2013. 85

plan-to-kick-start-investment-with-generous-new-tax-breaks. 29. ibid. 30. BBC News. “BBC News - Fracking Tests Near Blackpool ‘Likely Cause’ of Tremors,” February 11, 2011. http://www. 31. US EPA. “Methane Emissions | Climate Change | US EPA,” n.d. ch4.html. 32. Josh Fox. Gasland. New Video Group, 2010. 33. The Royal Society and The Royal Academy of Engineering. Shale Gas Extraction in the UK: A Review of Hydraulic Fracturing, June 2012. 34. Clive Cookson. “John Browne: A Man of Science -,” April 26, 2013. ac7b-11e2-9e7f-00144feabdc0.html#axzz2sFylAPQk. 35. Damian Carrington. “Lord Browne: Fracking Will Not Reduce UK Gas Prices | Environment | The Guardian,” November 29, 2013. prices-shale-energy-bills. 36. Julian Wells. “REQUEST FOR INFORMATION UNDER THE ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION REGULATIONS 2004 AND FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT 2000,” April 16, 2013. uk/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/lordbrownemtgs.pdf. 37. British Geological Survey. The Carboniferous Bowland Shale Gas Study: Geology and Resource Estimation, June 2013. 38. fred. “GOVERNMENT ADVISORS SPONSORED BY FRACKING INDUSTRY | FRACK OFF,” March 4, 2012. 39. AMEC Environment & Infrastructure UK Limited. Department of Energy and Climate Change: Strategic Environmental Assessment for Further Onshore Oil and Gas Licensing, December 2013. 40. Emily Gosden. “Fracking Report Changed to Include ‘More Negative Effects’ Following Lobbying from Green Groups - Telegraph,” December 18, 2013. report-changed-to-include-more-negative-effects-following-lobbying-from-green-groups.html. 41. Institue of Directors. Infrastructure for Business: Getting Shale Gas Working, May 22, 2013. 42. ibid. 43. International Energy Agency. Golden Rules for a Golden Age of Gas, November 12, 2012.


Salford City Council. “Mosslands Habitat,” March 14, 2013.

Ian McKerchar. “Chat Moss Site Guide,” March 2010. Salford City Council. “Irlam and Cadishead Local History,” February 23, 2012. htm. 4. Salford City Council. “Chat Moss - Salford City Council,” March 2013. 5. BBC News. “BBC News - Salford Chat Moss Peat Extraction Plans Blocked by Government,” September 11, 2012. http://www. 6. Wigan Council, Warrington Borough Council, and Salford City Council. The Mosslands Project - The Vision, n.d. http://www.


7. 8.

Atlantic Gateway. “Welcome to the Atlantic Gateway.” Accessed November 27, 2013. Ben Turner. “Campaigners Lobby Against Peel Holdings’,” December 5, 2012. greater-manchester-news/campaigners-lobby-against-peel-holdings-697699 9. BBC. “BBC News - Peel Energy Trafford: Council Lodges Incinerator Appeal,” June 21, 2013. england-manchester-23002828 10. radix. “Fracking Manchester: IGas Threatens Barton Moss,” November 6, 2013. threatens-barton-moss/ 11. Peel Holdings. “Mineral Extraction.” Accessed November 27, 2013. 12. IGas Energy. Annual Report and Accounts 2012/13, 2012. 13. London Stock Exchange. “IGas Energy PLC.” Accessed November 26, 2013. prices-and-markets/stocks/summary/company-summary.html?fourWayKey=GB00B29PWM59GBGBXAMSM 14. Cuadrilla Resources. “Cuadrilla Welcomes Centrica,” June 13, 2013. article/cuadrilla-welcomes-centrica-as-new-investment-partner-in-lancashire/. 15. Euan Rocha. “CNOOC Closes $15.1 Billion Acquisition of Canada’s Nexen,” February 25, 2013. article/2013/02/25/us-nexen-cnooc-idUSBRE91O1A420130225 16. IGas. “IGas Board of Directors.” Accessed November 26, 2013. 17. Utility Week. “Interview: Brent Cheshire.” Accessed November 26, 2013. cheshire-uk-country-chairman-dong-energy/933412#.UpzDiGRzfYs 18. IGas. “IGas Board of Directors.” Accessed November 26, 2013. 19. President Energy. “Peter Levine Appointed as Executive Chairman.” Accessed November 26, 2013. http://www. 20. Henderson Global Investors. “Home.” Accessed November 26, 2013. institutional/home.aspx 21. President Energy. “Substantial Shareholders.” Accessed November 26, 2013. information/substantial-shareholders/ 22. SECA. “SECA.” Accessed November 26, 2013. Template-(20)/Corporate-Finance/Hedger-Management-reduces-stake-in-Igas-Energy 23. Ground-Gas Solutions Ltd. Baseline Monitoring Report: Natural Gas Exploration Site at Barton, October 2013 24. IGas. “IGas | Company Heritage.” Accessed November 27, 2013. 25. Salford City Council. “10/58590/FUL.” Accessed November 27, 2013. 26. Ground-Gas Solutions Ltd. Baseline Monitoring Report: Natural Gas Exploration Site at Barton, October 2013 27. IGas. “IGas Panels Irlam,” 2013 28. Salford City Council. “1) Introductions and Apologies - Salford City Council,” December 4, 2003. https://www. =AFQjCNEGouTGKXkiGOTQX3SQf7pxfcbtVg&sig2 =iHHi5EGJOrbQETi8m4sCzA&bvm=bv.57155469,d.ZG4 29. Manchester Directory. “W Dixon & K Smith.” Accessed November 28, 2013. 30. SAY NOT TO FRACKING ON BARTON MOSS. “SAY NOT TO FRACKING ON BARTON MOSS.” Accessed November 27, 2013. 31. Kamal Ahmed. “IGas Starts Drilling for Shale at Protest Site,” November 30, 2013. newsbysector/energy/10485192/IGas-starts-drilling-for-shale-gas-at-protest-site.html 32. Kamal Ahmed. “IGas Starts Drilling for Shale at Protest Site,” November 30, 2013. newsbysector/energy/10485192/IGas-starts-drilling-for-shale-gas-at-protest-site.html 33. Till, Jeremy. Architecture Depends. [S.l.]: Mit Press, 2013



Roy, Ananya. “Urban Informality: Toward an Epistemology of Planning.” Journal of the American Planning Association 71, no. 2 ( June 30, 2005): 147–158. doi:10.1080/01944360508976689


Bunschoten, Raoul, and Kariye Camii (Istanbul, Turkey). Urban Flotsam: Stirring the City: Chora. Rotterdam: 010 Publishers, 2001


Barton Moss protest camp. (Accessed on 20.01.14)

PAGE 4/5

Manchester Ship Canal. Personal image by author. (Taken on 17.10.13)

PAGE 10/11

Gas hob. (Accessed on 06.11.13)


Oil rig. (Accessed on 07.11.13) Miners strike. nurses-miners-num1982-nupe-cohse-unison-coventry.jpg (Accessed on 07.11.13) Fracking protest. (Accessed on 07.11.13)


Question Time. (Accessed on 25.10.13)


Phone box energy advert. Personal image by author. (Taken on 29.11.13)

PAGE 24/25

Fracking drill rig. (Accessed on 06.11.13)


Bad fracking diagram example. CDsnYEo/s1600/Fracking.jpg (Accessed on 10.11.13) Beetham Tower. (Accessed on 10.11.13)


Well casing. (Accessed on 10.11.13) Zoomed in fracture. (Accessed on 10.11.13)


Wind/Solar/Unconventional Gas footprint diagrams. (Accessed on 12.11.13)


Ed Davey. (Accessed on 13.11.13)

Michael Fallon. (Accessed on 13.11.13) Gregory Barker. (Accessed on 13.11.13)


David Cameron. (Accessed on 24.01.14)


Frac fluid flowback pond.

water_121713.jpg (Accessed on 28.01.14) Seismograph. (Accessed on 28.01.14) Flaring. (Accessed on 28.01.14) Countryside. (Accessed on 28.01.14) Resevoir. (Accessed on 28.01.14) Gasland scene. FrackWater.JPG (Accessed on 28.01.14)

PAGE 42/43

Entrance to Barton Moss drill site. Personal image by author. (Taken on 07.11.13)


Black and white aerial shot of steelworks. (Accessed on 22.11.13)

PAGE 46/47

Chat Moss. Personal image by author. (Taken on 16.01.14)


Chat Moss farmland. (Accessed on 24.11.13)

Boysnope Golf Course. (Accessed on 24.11.13)


Salford City Stadium. (Accessed on 24.11.13) Port Salford. (Accessed on 24.11.13) Barton Aerodrome. (Accessed on 24.11.13)

Barton Renewable Energy Plant. extraction_plan__is_not_fracking_/ (Accessed on 24.11.13)


Preparation of drill site. (Accessed on 25.11.13)

Render of drill site. (Accessed on 25.11.13)


Protester images. Images courtesy of Jeff Pitcher.

php?fbid=10151803577971149&set=a.10151803525961149.1073741858.627166148&type=3&theater (Accessed on 30.11.13)


Protester images. Images courtesy of Jeff Pitcher.

php?fbid=10151803577971149&set=a.10151803525961149.1073741858.627166148&type=3&theater (Accessed on 30.11.13) Large photo of female protester. gifs/2013/11/27/1385580514299/Frack-Free-Manchester-Pro-001.jpg (Accessed on 30.11.13)

PAGE 58/59

Barton Moss Lane. Personal image by author. (Taken on 07.11.13)

PAGE 60/61

Information and Awareness evening. Personal image by author. (Taken on 30.10.13)


Ursula Sossalla-Iredale. (Accessed on 29.11.13)


John Walsh. (Accessed on 29.11.13)

PAGE 68/69

CLG meeting. Personal image by author. (Taken on 27.11.13)

PAGE 70/71

Fractivists. Personal image by author. (Taken on 27.11.13)


Information tent.

php?fbid=10151803577971149&set=a.10151803525961149.1073741858.627166148&type=3&theater (Accessed on 1.12.13)


Boris the fracktivist. Personal image by author. (Taken on 27.11.13)


Socialist Party poster.

php?fbid=10151803580391149&set=a.10151803525961149.1073741858.627166148&type=3&theater (Accessed on 1.12.13)

PAGE 76/77

Urban Flotsom. Personal image by author. (Taken on 30.11.13)

PAGE 82/83

Fracking protest. (Accessed on 06.11.13)

APPENDIX INFOGRAPHIC DATA Once the government data for energy in Q2 2013 had been sourced, it was analysed and organised into an excel spreadsheet. In the spreadsheet, a basic level of visualisation was created in arranging the route each energy source takes from input to output. This allowed the scaled infographic to be designed and then executed in Adobe Illustrator.

KTOE 2225 8537 10762

TWh 25.88 99.29 125.16


KTOE 10762 -­‐118 -­‐1819 -­‐1031 -­‐7077

TWh 125.16 -­‐1.37 -­‐21.15 -­‐12 -­‐82.3





11194 24679 35873

130.19 287.02 417.2


35873 -­‐16634 -­‐138 -­‐2007 -­‐125

417.2 -­‐193.45 -­‐1.6 -­‐23.34 -­‐1.45



9634 11256 20890

112.04 130.9 242.95


20890 -­‐3020 -­‐2166 -­‐1708 -­‐4396

242.95 -­‐35.12 -­‐25.19 -­‐19.86 -­‐51.13






80 1550 2200

0.93 18.03 25.59

ELEC GEN TWh 0.419 2.471 3.763 0.972 5.205 12.83





KTOE = 1000  Tonnes  of  Oil  Equivalent TWh  = Terawatt-­‐hours 1  KTOE  = 0.01163  TWh 1  TWh  = 85.9845  KTOE OTHER  LOSSES'  INCLUDE  LOSSES  FROM  ENERGY  INDUSTRY  USE,  TRANFORMATION  PROCESSES  AND  GENERAL  LOSS


FINAL CONSUMPTION  (TWh) Iron  &  Steel Other  Industry Transport Domestic Other  Final  Users Non  energy  use






FUEL USED KTOE TWh TOTAL TOTAL 6880 80.01 150 1.74 4400 51.17 2200 25.59 0 0 3340 38.84 230 2.67 17200 200.04 310




ENERGY EFFICIENCY COAL -­‐1 0.3631 OIL -­‐1 0.3736 GAS -­‐1 0.4618 RENEWABLES -­‐1 0.5014 NUCLEAR -­‐1 0.3983 OTHER  FUELS -­‐1 0.2472 TOTAL -­‐1 0.4148

ELECTRICITY GENERATED TWh TOTAL 29.05 0.65 23.63 12.83 0.69 15.47 0.66 82.98 4.34 -­‐0.777 -­‐6.817 -­‐6.5 73.329

Total TWh

8.35 718

1.9 163

3.92 337

0.035 3

2.45 211

0.047 4


0.012 1

12.53 1077

150.24 12918

5.95 512

3.66 315

24.96 2146

197.35 16969


1.24 107

22.82 1962

0 0

61.67 5303

24.42 2100

1.49 128

111.64 9600


0.91 78

22.58 1941

1.02 88

25.26 2172

23.56 2026








73.33 6305 26.45


Other Final  Users

Agriculture, commerce  etc Non  energy  use

Oil used  in  plastic  etc

63.69% 62.64% 53.82% 49.86% 60.17% 75.28% 58.52%



Notes from Barton Moss Fracking awareness meeting, 30th October. Presentation • Heavy on propaganda. • Used Australia as an example where a community was protesting against the extraction of Coal Seam Gas. This is different to Shale gas and doesn’t involve fracking. Misleading. • Used emotive language such as ‘coal seam gas refugee’ and that it was ‘the biggest threat to Australian communities since WWII.’ Emotional statements, little analysis. • Kids. Lots of kids. • Gas companies manipulate data with techniques such as changing units of measurement. For example dangerous liquids are measured in metres2 rather than litres2. • Misled about site size. For sites over 1 hectare an Environmental Assessment is required. They said site was 0.99 hectares, actually 0.73 according to IGas website. • When km was used, heard two locals trying to convert to miles out loud. ‘Fracktivists’ • Two people in mid-twenties, man and woman. • Not from the area. This immediately raises questions on their credibility and authority on leading a local fight against fracking in the area. Any protest has to be led by locals from the community as they are the ones affected by the consequences and have local knowledge that outsiders simply don’t have. • Members of the Socialist Party. Wasn’t made clear until they handed out leaflets with the headline, ‘No Fracking on Barton Moss or anywhere else!’ However the leaflet was mostly a Socialist Party manifesto criticizing local MP’s and councilors. • Felt like their primary motive was not to help Barton Moss residents, but to make political headway and help wider fight against climate change. • Wanted to organize a ‘street team’ to raise awareness in Irlam. • Said it was difficult to protest on busy places like shopping centres as they’re privately owned. Residents • Hand poll on residents’ opinion on fracking in Barton Moss (excluding us). o 0 - For fracking o 17 - Against fracking o 3 - Required more information • Woman asked if dangerous chemicals would seep into her garden. These are the issues people care about. How they will be directly affected. • Turned out that the farmers who previously owned land had sold it to Peel a few years ago, who have an agreement with IGas to allow them to do exploratory drills on their land. Raises notion that Peel have had fracking planned as part of their business for some time. • One very vocal resident said that as fracking is done through a borehole that is then drilled horizontal, the area of fracking can extend way beyond drill hole underground. o She explained that if the fracking extends to under your property, no matter how deep, you have the right to sue for trespassing on property without permission. o She recommended taking photos of your house now in case it gets damaged. • Man who wasn’t local, but described himself as an activist said that Greenpeace have said that it’s not until 2030 we could be a completely renewable society. Need for transition period. • Local said there had been a gas explosion in Irlam a few years ago. • Same local also complained at the lack of info on public meetings. Refuted by others who said whole area was leafleted. Barton Moss Road residents who live next to site (two men) • Overheard that they had been compensated. Look into if attending next meeting. • Said that 10 ‘wagons’ had been to the site this morning, and the police were there in the afternoon. Also said that a huge truck was there yesterday that was so big, it had to reverse onto the dual carriageway.


Said that site was probably chosen as it was already by motorway so any noise pollution would be drowned out. However looking at the map it appears Barton Moss Road doesn’t directly join onto the M62 anywhere, so trucks still need to use smaller roads. One asked why we couldn’t look into Clean Burnt Coal. Made point that coal is still so abundant in the area. Probably didn’t go down with organizers as one later said that he completely disagreed with all use of fossil fuels. Interesting to hear a local consider an alternative solution that makes use of another local resource and is part of local history. Said that IGas had organized community meetings, but weren’t well attended. Also said that they were the only two people from the meeting who attended the planning meeting where permission was granted to IGas to do exploratory drilling.

Chris, Labour Council secretary • Was good at questioning unsubstantiated facts from two organizers. • When organizers explained that explosions would be happening underground, he made the point that explosives were used in coal mining and were much higher in the ground. • Interesting tensions when him and ourselves found out the two organizers were from the socialist party. Political angle. • “You can’t have any industrial process without danger” • Listed family who died from industry. • Was clearly ‘down with the locals’ as everyone seemed to know him. Trusted figure? • There was a big steel works factory in Irlam that closed in the 70s. • Said he had got an OS Map out earlier in evening and worked out he was 2km from drilling site. Not relevant, but I like the fact he got a map and a ruler out and didn’t use Google maps. Nick and Aida. • Weren’t interested in football scores. Not sure if can be trusted.



Council meeting notes & quotes John Walsh – Labour Councilor for Cadishead ward Ursula Sossalla-Iredale - Neighborhood Manager for Salford City Council • •

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Regards to exploratory drilling. “We have to tell people it’s not fracking” Ordinary planning permission to exploratory drill. To frack they would have to go back to the planning panel and ask permission. John and Ursula say the well would be the same size, but as I understand the drilling would be four times bigger “If all the safeguards are in place and we can be sure that it’s safe, we might consider it.” “One of the safeguards - if you read the Labour party policy, which I recommend that you do – If all those are in place, then we would be minded that it might be of benefit to us. And if we can screw IGas for a million pounds for Irlam, and a million pounds for Cadishead, and a million pounds for Lymm, and a million pounds for Barton, why not, because we’re not going to get a million pounds, and currently we’re restricted to £12,000 in grants.” Have given out £300,000 in grants in total. Community grants for small projects. “If all safeguards are in place and the scientific people tell me it’s safe, why not. I’m not like our MP who’s anti fracking, but is in favour of it going somewhere else, so I said that smacks of nimbyism. Not in my back yard but someone else’s. If all the safeguards are in place, and if we can benefit as a community, you know, and the scientific evidence suggests that it might very well be safe. I mean the earthquake that was there in Blackpool; you get them all the time… There’s some people who will say don’t get anything out of the ground, there are other people who will say, you know, carbon emissions and all this business, but listen, we’ve got to live, and they’re the ones, you know, do we have wind farms or, you know, whatever. There is a balance to be achieved.” “I’m more opposed nuclear power than I am for this [fracking].” “This areas been mined for coal all over the place, there will be subsidence. But what, you know, unless there’s massive investment in alternatives, and even if they started now they still wont have enough.” Why did they choose the site? “I suppose it’s relatively isolated, the housing is not just next door, you’ve got a house at the back of the airport, that’s probably the nearest one.” Extra traffic. “Barton Moss is to do with the Barton Moss Secure Unit extension, that’s why all these vehicles are running up there, it’s a small youth prison.” Consultation with IGas. “We’ve got community committees here which are public meetings and representatives from community groups sit on that and elected members and the public, anyone can come. So we have got representatives from that committee that are on the IGas steering group, the minutes from the IGas steering meetings go to all the people who are on our community committee circulation list, they get regular updates, Chris is the rep from the community committee [we met last Wednesday] who does an update as well. So we have circulated everything from those meetings.” “We’ve hidden nothing.” In America the mineral rights are owned by the people who own the land, here the crown owns the mineral rights, even though you own the land. Next meeting on the 27th November at the golf club. Personal opinion on fracking. “I’m minded to [feel that it should happen]. I’m not saying that I would because I can’t possibly say that as an elected member, because if it went to planning and they said, ‘Oh it’s to difficult for us to make a decision’, it would have to go to full council, and if I’d said one way or t’other, I wouldn’t be able to vote on the issue.” Why are residents against it? “Because people listen to things like ‘if you light a match you can light your tap’, they like things like that don’t they. Why do they read The Sun and The Star? Why do people do that? Because they like sensationalism.” “Is it a case of being presented impartial information from trusted sources?” “Yes, they need more information” “We’ve now been on these steering group meetings, how many meetings have we had, and we’ve had presentations and explanations, and it’s quite difficult to understand for a start so people are fearful, I mean I was, I thought oh my god you know, when we first heard about it, but once you get more information and people have asked loads of questions, and I think they have never had the opportunity, although there has been an open day at the stadium, but that

wasn’t in Irlam and Cadishead and to get there, well you know how far it is to walk from the bus station to the stadium, and we still want local meetings here… I think they need to do more” Could IGas do more, or would they just not be trusted? “You’ve got to understand that in this country, these sort of things are more regulated than any where else on the planet. It’s not in their interest to tell lies, it’s in their interest to get people on their side, and to be fair, they’ve been closely questioned and vigorously questioned, I mean I went for the throat early on, because I don’t like people making money, you know, a lot of money… So I really had a go at them, but they answered everything and retained their cool and have been very good at those meetings. I think they could do a travel workshop.” “They’re relying on us in a way because most of the information that goes out on a regular basis is through our community committee and that is run by the council with partners involvement, but really at the last meeting, I’ve just read the minutes, suggestion, and I don’t know whether I made it myself, you know joint community meeting between Barton, and the more I thought about it, they’ve got a big publicity marketing company behind them, and why should we organize their meetings when we have got cuts, staff loss and I thought why am I even offering [to do this].” George Osborne says communities will get 1%. You get rhetoric from the politicians but it’s difficult to read what does community actually means, and you need context. What does 1% actually mean? “When people say community, what does that actually mean? Is it the community in the form of members elected, or Greater Manchester, or is it the whole country.” “We’ve had to stipulate to IGas because they gave a grant to Hollings Green which is not even in the same county. So we’ve said any grants need to go to those four wards.” “We had a massive run in with them over this money at the beginning because we wanted the money to come into the community committee, part of the council tax in Salford comes down to community committees and gets administered locally and we have got structures in place and we wanted that money to come to that community committee, but they have sub contracted that side out, and before we knew it, we’ve been going to these meetings, next thing we find out that groups in Hollings Green are getting funding, and all hell broke loose.” Funding for community projects from IGas community fund. Not performing drilling in Hollings Green. Said they didn’t understand structures and how they worked. All for PR. Amounts could be substantial. Also have a fund at Carrington Power Station. If it’s beneficial does it matter? “No no no, we’ll take it, we’ve got to be pragmatic haven’t we.” “One of the grants was worth £20,000 and Friends of Princes Park, they wanted a path along the old river, didn’t have enough money, we didn’t have enough money either, so they put an application in and got £20,000, and that path is now going to be done so wheelchair users and buggies can actually go along the old river. So that probably wouldn’t have happened for a long time” Would jobs go to Irlam? “Most will be external, specialist skills. There will be a bit, local infrastructure, hotels… There’s a security guard, I don’t know where he’s from but he’s started… he’s taken photographs of me!” “It’s not labour intensive.” Introduce to IGas contact, person who arranges meeting. They’ll be pleased that I’m interested. Say I’ve met with the councilors.


A Shale of Two Sides  

Facilitating the fracking debate through architectural design

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